Science.gov

Sample records for total annual emissions

  1. Estimation of total annual mercury emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Hyun; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2012-12-01

    This study examined mercury (Hg) emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea. Hg concentrations in stack gases from a kiln at the largest cement manufacturing facility (CMF) in Korea were measured using three different methods: a wet-chemical method and on-line measurements with two different types of conversion systems (SnCl2 and thermal) attached in front of each analyzer. The Hg concentrations of the feedstocks and fuels were then analyzed to determine the total amount of Hg input into CMFs and how much each material contributed to the Hg input. The total annual Hg input into all CMFs in Korea was estimated to be 1.71 tons, while the total annual Hg emissions estimated from the stack-gas measurement was 1.17-1.53 tons, indicating that 68-89% of total Hg input is released into the atmosphere. Therefore, more stringent regulation and effective control technologies should be applied to the CMFs to reduce Hg emissions.

  2. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  3. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  4. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  5. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  6. Further Evaluation of an Emperical Equation for Annual Total Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical equation for annual total evaporation based on annual precipitation and net radiation was found to provide evaporation within 10% of the observed values at seven locations within temperate and tropical regions, but it overestimated evaporation by 90% at one location within the tundra region. A synthesis of observations at two other locations within the tundra region gives overestimates of about 65%. A general analysis of observed precipitation, net radiation, and runoff within the tundra region shows that the empirical equation is generally biased to overestimate annual evaporation within the tundra region. A theoretical analysis is being done to understand the reason behind this bias.

  7. Contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles toward total VOC emissions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The features of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles were examined. One potential source of evaporative emissions is mainly the so-called sigh of a fuel tank, which is a function of the daily temperature change and the volume not occupied by fuel. A theoretical equation was proposed for estimating the fuel vapor generation. It reproduced observed features well but underestimated the absolute values obtained in the experimental results. The widely used semi-empirical Reddy equation overestimates the results. The performance of a carbon canister was also evaluated. More than 95% of fuel vapor generation was trapped by the carbon canister. However, the canister worked for only one day because it adsorbed more VOC than that contained in the sigh alone. To estimate the evaporative emissions in the real world, the fuel tank temperature change while a car was parked in an outside car park was monitored and was found to be almost the same as the change in ambient air temperature; no other weather conditions had any effect. According to the findings in this study and data on frequency of car use, the annual amount of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan was estimated to be 4.6% of the total VOC emissions in Japan, making it the 6th-highest source of VOC. PMID:23422493

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in ecosystem scale methane emission from a boreal fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Janne; Li, Xuefei; Raivonen, Maarit; Peltola, Olli; Sallantaus, Tapani; Haapanala, Sami; Smolander, Sampo; Alekseychik, Pavel; Aurela, Mika; Korrensalo, Aino; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Northern wetlands are one of the major sources of atmospheric methane. We have measured ecosystem scale methane emissions from a boreal fen continuously since 2005. The site is an oligotrophic fen in boreal vegetation zone situated in Siikaneva wetland complex in Southern Finland. The mean annual temperature in the area is 3.3°C and total annual precipitation 710 mm. We have conducted the methane emission measurements by the eddy covariance method. Additionally we have measured fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat together with a suite of other environmental parameters. We have analyzed this data alongside with a model run with University of Helsinki methane model. The measured fluxes show generally highest methane emission in late summers coinciding with the highest temperatures in saturated peat zone. During winters the fluxes show small but detectable emission despite the snow and ice cover on the fen. More than 90% of the annual methane emission occurs in snow-free period. The methane emission and peat temperature are connected in exponential manner in seasonal scales, but methane emission does not show the expected behavior with water table. The lack of water table position dependence also contrasts with the spatial variation across microtopography. There is no systematic variation in sub-diurnal time scale. The general seasonal cycle in methane emission is captured well with the methane model. We will show how well the model reproduces the temperature and water table position dependencies observed. The annual methane emission is typically around 10 gC m‑2. This is a significant part of the total carbon exchange between the fen and the atmosphere and about twice the estimated carbon loss by leaching from the fen area. The inter-annual variability in the methane emission is modest. The June-September methane emissions from different years, comprising most of the annual emission, correlates positively with peat temperature, but not with

  9. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of "Total Organics" from stack emissions is much more complicated am might be expected, and more published guidance is needed badly. he best scheme available for analysis of "Total Organics" of stack emissions for material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determ...

  10. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual net sales and total assets. 801.11... sales and total assets. (a) The annual net sales and total assets of a person shall include all net sales and all assets held, whether foreign or domestic, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)...

  11. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2012-07-01

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  12. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  13. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must “amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more.”...

  14. Determination of total organic emissions from hazardous waste combustors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L D

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance currently under development for evaluation of permitting information from hazardous waste combustors requires a quantity referred to as "total organic carbon". The risk guidance does not define this term precisely, nor does it explain how it should be determined. This paper discusses basic principles of sampling and analysis of stack emissions for "total organics", best currently available technology, and the status of two ongoing projects designed to provide guidance and to improve analysis procedures. Determination of total organics from stack emissions is much more complicated than might be expected, and more published guidance is badly needed. The best scheme available for analysis of stack emissions for total organics to be used in material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determination of organics content in three boiling point ranges:  <100 °C, 100 °C-300 °C, and >300 °C. Total organic carbon is not a useful quantity, since it includes soot, polymeric material, and other nonextractable organic materials. Total organics has been found to be an imperfect but less misleading term. Various calculations can be made and conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the contents of the individual boiling point ranges, as determined by the recommended methodology. The analysis strategy is complicated and difficult, and it contains limitations and compromises. It does not, however, require exotic analysis instrumentation, nor is it very expensive. Each of these facets of the methodology is discussed in this paper, and a status report is provided on development of a guidance document and a research project intended to produce improved methods. PMID:21619231

  15. Measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of contaminated mirror surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facey, T. A.; Nonnenmacher, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dust contamination on the total hemispherical emissivity (THE) of a 1.5-inch-diameter Al/MgF2-coated telescope mirror are investigated experimentally. The THE is determined by means of cooling-rate measurements in the temperature range 10-14.5 C in a vacuum of 100 ntorr or better. Photographs and drawings of the experimental setup are provided, and results for 11 dust levels are presented in tables and graphs. It is shown that dust has a significant effect on THE, but the experimental losses are only about half those predicted for perfectly black dust in perfect thermal contact with the mirror surface.

  16. 24 CFR 886.308 - Maximum total annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... developed in accordance with 24 CFR part 290, HUD shall determine the number of units to be assisted up to... assistance payments that may be committed under the contract shall be the total of the gross rents for all... family composition, or decreases in family incomes: (1) A project account shall be established...

  17. 24 CFR 886.308 - Maximum total annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... developed in accordance with 24 CFR part 290, HUD shall determine the number of units to be assisted up to... assistance payments that may be committed under the contract shall be the total of the gross rents for all... family composition, or decreases in family incomes: (1) A project account shall be established...

  18. TRASER - Total Reflection Amplification of Spontaneous Emission of Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Christopher B.; Gustavsson, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Light and lasers in medical therapy have made dramatic strides since their invention five decades ago. However, the manufacture of lasers can be complex and expensive which often makes treatments limited and costly. Further, no single laser will provide the correct parameters to treat all things. Hence, laser specialists often need multiple devices to practice their specialty. A new concept is described herein that has the potential to replace many lasers and light sources with a single ‘tunable’ device. Study Design/Material and Methods This device amplifies spontaneous emission of radiation by capturing and retaining photons through total internal reflection, hence the acronym Total Reflection Amplification of Spontaneous Emission of Radiation, or TRASER. Results Specific peaks of light can be produced in a reproducible manner with high peak powers of variable pulse durations, a large spot size, and high repetition rate. Conclusion Considering the characteristics and parameters of Traser technology, it is possible that this one device would likely be able to replace the pulsed dye laser and many other light based systems. PMID:22558261

  19. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the sum of uncontrolled process and fugitive emissions, and emissions from any control systems (operating at the efficiency prescribed under § 57.302). These emission rates may be derived from...

  20. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Annual allowances are available to be deducted for...

  1. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Annual allowances are available to be deducted for...

  2. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Annual allowances are available to be deducted for...

  3. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  4. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  5. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  6. Seasonal measurements of total OH reactivity fluxes, total ozone loss rates and missing emissions from Norway spruce in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Bonn, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Williams, J.

    2012-10-01

    Numerous reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Most biogenic VOCs are highly reactive towards the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical. One way to investigate the chemical interplay between biosphere and atmosphere is through the measurement of total OH reactivity, the total loss rate of OH radicals. This study presents the first determination of total OH reactivity emission rates (measurements via the Comparative Reactivity Method) based on a branch cuvette enclosure system mounted on a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. In parallel separate VOC emission rates were monitored by a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and total ozone (O3) loss rates were obtained inside the cuvette. Total OH reactivity emission rates were in general temperature and light dependent, showing strong diel cycles with highest values during daytime. Monoterpene emissions contributed most, accounting for 56-69% of the measured total OH reactivity flux in spring and early summer. However, during late summer and autumn the monoterpene contribution decreased to 11-16%. At this time, a large missing fraction of the total OH reactivity emission rate (70-84%) was found when compared to the VOC budget measured by PTR-MS. Total OH reactivity and missing total OH reactivity emission rates reached maximum values in late summer corresponding to the period of highest temperature. Total O3 loss rates within the closed cuvette showed similar diel profiles and comparable seasonality to the total OH reactivity fluxes. Total OH reactivity fluxes were also compared to emissions from needle storage pools predicted by a temperature-only dependent algorithm. Deviations of total OH reactivity fluxes from the temperature-only dependent emission algorithm were observed for occasions of mechanical and heat stress. While for mechanical stress, induced by strong wind, measured VOCs could

  7. Apparatus for Measuring Total Emissivity of Small, Low-Emissivity Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, James; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for measuring total emissivity of small, lightweight, low-emissivity samples at low temperatures. The entire apparatus fits inside a small laboratory cryostat. Sample installation and removal are relatively quick, allowing for faster testing. The small chamber surrounding the sample is lined with black-painted aluminum honeycomb, which simplifies data analysis. This results in the sample viewing a very high-emissivity surface on all sides, an effect which would normally require a much larger chamber volume. The sample and chamber temperatures are individually controlled using off-the-shelf PID (proportional integral derivative) controllers, allowing flexibility in the test conditions. The chamber can be controlled at a higher temperature than the sample, allowing a direct absorptivity measurement. The lightweight sample is suspended by its heater and thermometer leads from an isothermal bar external to the chamber. The wires run out of the chamber through small holes in its corners, and the wires do not contact the chamber itself. During a steady-state measurement, the thermometer and bar are individually controlled at the same temperature, so there is zero heat flow through the wires. Thus, all of sample-temperature-control heater power is radiated to the chamber. Double-aluminized Kapton (DAK) emissivity was studied down to 10 K, which was about 25 K colder than any previously reported measurements. This verified a minimum in the emissivity at about 35 K and a rise as the temperature dropped to lower values.

  8. Continuously measured annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards varies with season during the year, but studies of continuous measurement of ammonia emissions throughout the year are rare. The quantification of annual ammonia emissions will improve emission factors, provide databases that can be used ...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  13. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plantwide emission limitation. (a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a... August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as... direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations. (b) Compliance with...

  14. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plantwide emission limitation. (a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a... August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as... direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations. (b) Compliance with...

  15. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plantwide emission limitation. (a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a... August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as... direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations. (b) Compliance with...

  16. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  17. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  18. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  19. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  20. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  1. Biomass burning in Asia : annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa

    2003-10-15

    Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.

  2. Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of "typical" (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1° × 1° spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999-2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R2 = 0.71-0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO2, 2.8 Tg of NOx, 1100 Tg of CO2, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH4, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH3. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of ±65% for CO2 emissions in Japan to a high of ±700% for BC emissions in India.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  5. Total prompt γ-ray emission in fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henserson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    The total prompt γ-ray energy distributions for the neutron-induced fission of 235U, 239,241Pu at incident neutron energy of 0.025 eV ‒ 100 keV, and the spontaneous fission of 252Cf were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) array in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. DANCE is a highly segmented, highly efficient 4π γ-ray calorimeter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of total γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix. The mean values of the total prompt γ-ray energy, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ~ 20% higher than those derived from measurements using single γ-ray detector for all the fissile nuclei studied. This raises serious concern on the validity of the mean total prompt γ-ray energy obtained from the product of mean values for both prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity.

  6. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF TOTAL HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, the total hydrocarbon (THC) analyzers performed well. The only problems occurred when the flame failed to reignite after an automatic backpurge cycle (nine times), and on one occasion when a sample line plugged. Average THC concentration, normalized to 7% O2, was 108 ...

  7. Statistic analysis of annual total ozone extremes for the period 1964-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzyscin, Janusz W.

    1994-01-01

    Annual extremes of total column amount of ozone (in the period 1964-1988) from a network of 29 Dobson stations have been examined using the extreme value analysis. The extremes have been calculated as the highest deviation of daily mean total ozone from its long-term monthly mean, normalized by the monthly standard deviations. The extremes have been selected from the direct-Sun total ozone observations only. The extremes resulting from abrupt changes in ozone (day to day changes greater than 20 percent) have not been considered. The ordered extremes (maxima in ascending way, minima in descending way) have been fitted to one of three forms of the Fisher-Tippet extreme value distribution by the nonlinear least square method (Levenberg-Marguard method). We have found that the ordered extremes from a majority of Dobson stations lie close to Fisher-Tippet type III. The extreme value analysis of the composite annual extremes (combined from averages of the annual extremes selected at individual stations) has shown that the composite maxima are fitted by the Fisher-Tippet type III and the composite minima by the Fisher-Tippet type I. The difference between the Fisher-Tippet types of the composite extremes seems to be related to the ozone downward trend. Extreme value prognoses for the period 1964-2014 (derived from the data taken at: all analyzed stations, the North American, and the European stations) have revealed that the prognostic extremes are close to the largest annual extremes in the period 1964-1988 and there are only small regional differences in the prognoses.

  8. Seasonal measurements of total OH reactivity emission rates from Norway spruce in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Bonn, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Williams, J.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Most biogenic VOCs are highly reactive towards the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical. One way to investigate the chemical interplay between biosphere and atmosphere is through the measurement of total OH reactivity, the total loss rate of OH radicals. This study presents the first determination of total OH reactivity emission rates (measurements via the comparative reactivity method) based on a branch cuvette enclosure system mounted on a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. In parallel VOC emission rates were monitored by a second proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), and total ozone (O3) loss rates were obtained inside the cuvette. Total OH reactivity emission rates were in general temperature and light dependent, showing strong diel cycles with highest values during daytime. Monoterpene emissions contributed most, accounting for 56-69% of the measured total OH reactivity flux in spring and early summer. However, during late summer and autumn the monoterpene contribution decreased to 11-16%. At this time, a large missing fraction of the total OH reactivity emission rate (70-84%) was found when compared to the VOC budget measured by PTR-MS. Total OH reactivity and missing total OH reactivity emission rates reached maximum values in late summer corresponding to the period of highest temperature. Total O3 loss rates within the closed cuvette showed similar diel profiles and comparable seasonality to the total OH reactivity fluxes. Total OH reactivity fluxes were also compared to emissions from needle storage pools predicted by a temperature-only-dependent algorithm. Deviations of total OH reactivity fluxes from the temperature-only-dependent emission algorithm were observed for occasions of mechanical and heat stress. While for mechanical stress, induced by strong wind, measured VOCs could

  9. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  10. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Annual Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). See 73 FR 16436. The current action, however, is...; Annual Emissions Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... meet the emissions statements requirement for North Carolina. EPA is proposing to approve the...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  14. 7th Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership' provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processess, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission. The conference was highlighted by the announcement of the first recipients of the George M. Low Trophy: NASA's Quality and Excellence Award. My congratulations go out to all nine finalist organizations and to the two recipients of this prestigious honor: Rockwell Space Systems Division and Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. (the first small business to achieve this honor). These organizations have demonstrated a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed in the aerospace industry. This report summarizes the presentations and is not intended to be a verbatim proceedings document. You are encouraged to contact the speakers with any requests for further information.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sample form—(1) Model form. Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Loan Terms Age of youngest borrower: Appraised... Age of youngest borrower: 75 Appraised property value: $100,000 Interest rate: 9% Monthly...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sample form—(1) Model form. Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Loan Terms Age of youngest borrower: Appraised... Age of youngest borrower: 75 Appraised property value: $100,000 Interest rate: 9% Monthly...

  17. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  18. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  19. Quantifying the contributions of natural emissions to ozone and total fine PM concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate estimates of emissions from natural sources are needed for reliable predictions of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) using air quality models. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM2.5 for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. In this study, the model has been further developed to include more Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and to implement a scheme for secondary organic aerosols as well as an updated description of sea-salt emissions. Our simulations indicate that in the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone mixing ratios over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, BVOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation in 2006, enhancing the average ozone mixing ratio by about 11% over the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest in the northern part of South America by about 42%. Similarly, the highest contribution of all the natural sources to total fine particles over land is found to be in South America by about 74% and sea-salt aerosols demonstrated to play the most important role. However, over the rest of the regions in the model domain the largest contribution from the natural sources to PM2.5 in the specific year 2006 is due to wildfires. The contribution from natural emissions to the mean PM2.5 concentration over the land areas in the model domain is about 34%.

  20. 500 years of mercury production: global annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Meili, Markus

    2003-03-20

    Since pre-industrial times, anthropogenic emissions of Hg have at least doubled global atmospheric Hg deposition rates. In order to minimize environmental and human health effects, efforts have been made to reduce Hg emissions from industries and power plants, while less attention has been paid to Hg mining. This paper is a compilation of available data on primary Hg production and associated emissions with regional and annual resolution since colonial times. Globally, approximately one million tons of metallic Hg has been extracted from cinnabar and other ores during the past five centuries, half already before 1925. Roughly half has been used for mining of gold and silver, but the annual Hg production peaked during a short period of recent industrial uses. Comparison with total historic Hg deposition from global anthropogenic emissions (0.1-0.2 Mtons) suggests that only a few percent of all mined Hg have escaped to the atmosphere thus far. While production of primary Hg has changed dramatically over time and among mines, the global production has always been dominant in the region of the mercuriferous belt between the western Mediterranean and central Asia, but appears to be shifting to the east. Roughly half of the registered Hg has been extracted in Europe, where Spanish mines alone have contributed one third of the world's mined Hg. Approximately one fourth has been mined in the Americas, and most of the remaining registered Hg in Asia. However, the Asian figures may be largely underestimated. Presently, the dominant Hg mines are in Almadén in Spain (236 t of Hg produced in 2000), Khaydarkan in Kyrgyzstan (550 t), Algeria (estimated 240 t) and China (ca. 200 t). Mercury by-production from mining of other metals (e.g. copper, zinc, gold, silver) in 2000 includes 48 t from Peru, 45 t from Finland and at least 15 t from the USA. Since 1970, the recorded production of primary Hg has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude to approximately 2000 t in the year

  1. Longitudinal dependence of annual cycle of total ozone in the Northern mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Evtushevsky, Oleksandr; Grytsai, Asen

    2015-04-01

    In the Northern mid-latitudes, annual change of the total ozone content (TOC) in terms of zonal means is mainly determined by stratospheric ozone accumulation in winter and spring due to the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and following photochemical relaxation continuing to autumn. It is known from previous studies that annual TOC cycle in some regions could be close to or differ from the zonal mean one. For example, annual TOC minimum over Eastern Asia is observed two months earlier (August) than over Europe (October). In this work, a consecutive analysis of the TOC seasonality along the latitudinal belt 50-55°N in 36 segments (10°-step in longitude) is analyzed. The latitude range includes northern Ukraine and Kyiv-Goloseyev Dobson station. Analysis is based on the Merged Ozone Data Set (MOD) reanalysis 1979-2011 (http://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/). We use also the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/composites/printpage.pl) to estimate seasonal changes in geopotential heights and tropopause heights. It is shown that the seasonal TOC cycle over the cyclonic anomalies (high mean TOC level) is shifted to the beginning of year in comparison with that over the anticyclonic anomalies (low mean TOC level). The largest TOC values over the Aleutian low (around 150°E) are characterized by the earliest seasonal maximum (February-March) and minimum (August). Here, the tropospheric dynamics (winter/summer extremes in the planetary wave activity and stationary pressure anomaly formation/disappearance) and related tropopause effects seem to have dominant influence on the earliest development of the annual TOC cycle. Zonal asymmetry in stratospheric ozone accumulation influences rather the maximum TOC levels in this region than timing of the TOC extremes. In the opposite longitude range (zonal TOC minimum in region of the Azores high influence, 20-30°W), the annual TOC cycle lags by 2-3 months reaching a TOC maximum in May

  2. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  3. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  4. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  5. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID

  6. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates―critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+―are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr−1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr−1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha−1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha−1). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha−1•yr−1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts

  7. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Metals and Some Refractory Oxide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.

    1959-01-01

    A description of the apparatus and methods used for obtaining total hemispherical emissivity is presented, and data for several stably oxidized metals are included. The metals which were tested included type 347 stainless steel, tungsten, and Haynes alloys B, C, X, and 25. No values of emissivity were obtained for tungsten or Haynes alloy B because of the nature of the oxides produced. The refractory oxide coatings tested were flame-sprayed alumina and zirconia. The results of the investigation indicate that strongly adherent, oxidized surfaces of a high stable emissivity can be produced on type 347 stainless steel for which the total hemispherical emissivity varied from 0.87 to 0.91 for temperatures from 600 F to 2,000 F. For this same temperature range, the Haynes alloys tested showed values of total hemispherical emissivity from 0.90 to 0.96 for alloy C, from 0.85 to 0.88 for alloy X, and from 0.85 to 0.89 for alloy 25. Haynes alloy B and tungsten formed nonadherent oxides at elevated temperatures and, therefore, stable emissivities were not obtained. The results obtained for the flame-sprayed ceramics (alumina and zirconia) showed considerably higher values of total emissivity than those measured for coatings applied by other methods. Emissivity values ranging from 0.69 to 0.44 for aluminum oxide and from 0.62 to 0.44 for zirconium oxide were measured for temperatures from 800 F to 2,000 F.

  8. Energy use and emissions from marine vessels: a total fuel life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Meyer, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To address these issues, this paper presents the Total Energy and Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model. TEAMS can be used to analyze total fuel life cycle emissions and energy use from marine vessels. TEAMS captures "well-to-hull" emissions, that is, emissions along the entire fuel pathway, including extraction, processing, distribution, and use in vessels. TEAMS conducts analyses for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to residual oil, (2) petroleum to conventional diesel, (3) petroleum to low-sulfur diesel, (4) natural gas to compressed natural gas, (5) natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and (6) soybeans to biodiesel. TEAMS calculates total fuel-cycle emissions of three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 microm or less, and sulfur oxides). TEAMS also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption associated with each of its six fuel cycles. TEAMS can be used to study emissions from a variety of user-defined vessels. This paper presents TEAMS and provides example modeling results for three case studies using alternative fuels: a passenger ferry, a tanker vessel, and a container ship. PMID:17269235

  9. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  10. Unidirectional total variation destriping using difference curvature in MODIS emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mi; Zheng, Xinghui; Pan, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method of unidirectional total variation destriping using difference curvature in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) emissive bands. First, difference curvature is utilized to extract spatial information at each pixel; and the spatially weighted parameters that constructed by extracted spatial information are incorporated into the unidirectional total variation model to adaptively adjust the destriping strength for achieving a better destriping result and preserving the detail information meantime. Second, the split Bregman iteration method is employed to optimize the proposed model. Finally, experimental results from MODIS emissive bands and comparisons with other methods demonstrate the potential of the presented method for MODIS image destriping.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... factor plan requirements. 63.1431 Section 63.1431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... group determination procedures in the NESHAP for Group I Polymers and Resins (40 CFR part 63, subpart U... Production § 63.1431 Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements. (a) Applicability...

  12. Evaluation of Blackbody Cavity Emissivity in the Infrared Using Total Integrated Scatter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Zeng, J.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2008-02-01

    Deviations from ideal blackbody (BB) behavior can be characterized by a BB’s effective emissivity. The cavity emissivity is most often obtained through a model, given a particular set of input parameters associated with the BB cavity geometry and surface optical properties. It can also be measured directly (radiance) or indirectly (reflectance). A study of BB cavity emissivity using the reflectance method is presented. Several types and designs of blackbody cavities, including those from fixed-point and water bath BBs, using our infrared total integrated scatter (ITIS) instrument for emissivity evaluation are examined. The emissivity is characterized as a function of position on the output aperture, as well as a function of output angle. The measurements have revealed emissivity values, both significantly greater than, and in confirmation of, modeling predictions. For instance, the emissivities of three fixed point BB cavity designs were found to vary significantly despite modeling predictions in the design process of similar behavior. Also, other BB cavities that exhibited poor emissivity performance were re-painted and re-machined, in one case more than once, before the predicted performance was achieved.

  13. Spectral and total temperature-dependent emissivities of few-layer structures on a metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2016-01-25

    We investigate the thermal radiative emission of few-layer structures deposited on a metallic substrate and its dependence on temperature with the Fluctuational Electrodynamics approach. We highlight the impact of the variations of the optical properties of metallic layers on their temperature-dependent emissivity. Fabry-Pérot spectral selection involving at most two transparent layers and one thin reflective layer leads to well-defined peaks and to the amplification of the substrate emission. For a single Fabry-Pérot layer on a reflective substrate, an optimal thickness that maximizes the emissivity of the structure can be determined at each temperature. A thin lossy layer deposited on the previous structure can enhance interference phenomena, and the analysis of the participation of each layer to the emission shows that the thin layer is the main source of emission. Eventually, we investigate a system with two Fabry-Pérot layers and a metallic thin layer, and we show that an optimal architecture can be found. The total hemispherical emissivity can be increased by one order of magnitude compared to the substrate emissivity. PMID:26832589

  14. Summary Report of the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership" provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processes, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  16. The Per Case and Total Annual Costs of Foodborne Illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Minor, Travis; Lasher, Angela; Klontz, Karl; Brown, Bradley; Nardinelli, Clark; Zorn, David

    2015-06-01

    We present an economic welfare-based method to estimate the health costs associated with foodborne illness caused by known viruses, bacteria, parasites, allergens, two marine biotoxins, and unspecified agents. The method generates health costs measured in both quality-adjusted life years and in dollars. We calculate the reduction in quality-adjusted life days caused by the illness and add reductions in quality-adjusted life years from any secondary effects that are estimated to occur. For fatal cases, we calculate the life years lost due to premature death. We add direct medical expenses to the monetary costs as derived from estimates of willingness to pay to reduce health risks. In total, we estimate that foodborne illness represents an annual burden to society of approximately $36 billion, with an average identified illness estimated to reduce quality-adjusted life days by 0.84, which is monetized and included in the average cost burden per illness of $3,630. PMID:25557397

  17. Ecosystem scale methane emission from a boreal wetland: Annual balances and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, J.; Alekseychik, P.; Haapanala, S.; Raivonen, M.; Mammarella, I.; Peltola, O.; Aurela, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Tuittila, E.; Vesala, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have conducted measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and a pristine boreal fen ecosystem, Siikaneva, continuously by eddy covariance technique since 2005. The results show methane emission to be a significant part of the carbon balance of this ecosystem. Methane emission also shows a strong seasonal cycle reflecting the seasonality of the driving variables in boreal regions. Of the environmental parameters, methane emission correlates best with peat temperature, whereas no correlation with water table position is found. The interannual variability of the annual methane emission is relatively low. We will explore the possible drivers of this variability. We also study the contribution of methane to the carbon balance in interannual scale. The effects of methane and carbon dioxide exchange of pristine wetland ecosystems on the radiative forcing will be discussed. Monthly means of ecosystem scale methane emission from Siikaneva fen during 2015-2010, with errorbars indicating standard deviations between years.

  18. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  19. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin unloading system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  20. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  1. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  2. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin overflow system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  3. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin master trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  6. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cleaner system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  10. METHOD 25 - DETERMINATION OF TOTAL GASEOUS NON-METHANE ORGANIC EMISSIONS AS CARBON FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 3.17 describes the procedures and specifications for determining volatile organic compounds as total gaseous non-methane organics from stationary sources. n emission sample is withdrawn from the stack at a constant rate through a heated filter and a chilled condensate tra...

  11. AUTOMATIC INTERFACING SYSTEM FOR SAMPLING TOTAL MERCURY IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interfacing system to sample total mercury emissions in source streams and suitably condition, dilute, and transport the sample to a mercury measuring instrument was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system consists of three components: a conditioner, a diluter, and a pump...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  14. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R.; Piotrowski, J.

    1997-12-31

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  15. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  16. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  17. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  18. The Total Hemispheric Emissivity of Painted Aluminum Honeycomb at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators or thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  19. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... FDIC invited public comment on proposed rules in January of 2012.\\9\\ \\9\\ Annual Stress Test, 77 FR 3408 (Jan. 24, 2012) (OCC); Annual Stress Test, 77 FR 3166 (Jan. 17, 2012) (FDIC). The Board is finalizing... the Board as specified in the Capital Assessments and Stress Testing information collection (FR...

  20. Evaluation of total volatile organic compound emissions from adhesives based on chamber tests.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Murray, F; Wilkinson, S

    2000-02-01

    In 1997, Homeswest in western Australia and Murdoch University developed a project to construct low-allergen houses (LAHs) in a newly developed suburb. Before the construction of LAHs, all potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emission materials used in LAHs are required to be measured to ensure that they are low total VOC (TVOC) emission materials. This program was developed based on this purpose. In recent times, the number of complaints about indoor air pollution caused by VOCs has increased. A number of surveys of indoor VOCs have indicated that many indoor materials contribute to indoor air pollution. Although some studies have been conducted on the characteristics of VOC emissions from adhesives, most of them were focused on VOC emissions from floor adhesives. Few measurements of VOC emissions from adhesives used for wood, fabrics, and leather are available. Furthermore, most research on VOC emissions from adhesives has been done in countries with cool climates, where ventilation rates in the indoor environment are lower than those in Mediterranean climates, due to energy conservation. VOCs emitted from adhesives have not been sufficiently researched to prepare an emission inventory to predict indoor air quality and to determine both exposure levels for the Australian population and the most appropriate strategies to reduce exposure. An environmental test chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity, and airflow rate was used to evaluate emissions of TVOCs from three adhesives used frequently in Australia. The quantity of TVOC emissions was measured by a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector. The primary VOCs emitted from each adhesive were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The temporal change of TVOC concentrations emitted from each adhesive was tested. A double-exponential equation was then developed to evaluate the characteristics of TVOC emissions from these three adhesives. With this double-exponential model, the

  1. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions...

  2. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  3. 76 FR 3142 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  4. 75 FR 9601 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026—Assumed Loan Periods...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026—Assumed Loan Periods...

  7. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas

    2015-02-01

    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to

  8. Reduction potentials of total energy consumption and GHG emissions in Xiamen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, C.; Cui, S.

    2009-12-01

    Urban areas contain 40% of the population and contribute 75% of the Chinese national economy. The 35 largest cities in China, which contain 18% of the population, contribute 40% of China’s energy uses and CO2 emissions. Therefore, an insight into energy consumption and quantification of emissions from urban areas are extremely important for identifying effects of energy-saving policies and finding solution to GHG emissions in urban centers. This paper applies the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for modeling the total energy consumption and associated emissions from Xiamen city. Energy consumption under different sets of policy and technology options are analyzed for a time span of 2007-2020 and GHG emissions are estimated. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of Xiamen city. The ‘Business as Usual’ scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. The ‘Integrated’ scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control and new and renewable energy development and utilization are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen up to 2020 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the ‘Integrated’ scenario and the relative contribution rate of reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated.

  9. Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Kort, Eric A; Shepson, Paul B; Brewer, Alan; Cambaliza, Maria; Conley, Stephen A; Davis, Ken; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Mike; Herndon, Scott C; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lavoie, Tegan; Lyon, David; Newberger, Tim; Pétron, Gabrielle; Rella, Chris; Smith, Mackenzie; Wolter, Sonja; Yacovitch, Tara I; Tans, Pieter

    2015-07-01

    We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production. PMID:26148550

  10. Daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Rhoades, Marty B; Parker, David B; Casey, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive N to the environment, contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter, and represents a significant loss of N from beef cattle feedyards. We used open path laser spectroscopy and an inverse dispersion model to quantify daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual NH emissions during 2 yr from two commercial cattle feedyards in the Panhandle High Plains of Texas. Annual patterns of NH fluxes correlated with air temperature, with the greatest fluxes (>100 kg ha d) during the summer and the lowest fluxes (<15 kg ha d) during the winter. Mean monthly per capita emission rate (PCER) of NH-N at one feedyard ranged from 31 g NH-N head d (January) to 207 g NH-N head d (October), when increased dietary crude protein from wet distillers grains elevated emissions. Ammonia N emissions at the other feedyard ranged from 36 g NH-N head d (January) to 121 g NH-N head d (September). Monthly fractional NH-N loss ranged from a low of 19 to 24% to a high of 80 to 85% of fed N at the two feedyards. Seasonal PCER at the two feedyards averaged 60 to 71 g NH-N head d during winter and 103 to 158 g NH-N head d during summer. Annually, PCER was 115 and 80 g NH-N head d at the two feedyards, which represented 59 and 52% of N fed to the cattle. Detailed studies are needed to determine the effect of management and environmental variables such as diet, temperature, precipitation, and manure water content on NH emissions. PMID:21712577

  11. Joint EPA/DOE demonstration program for total mercury continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Rauenzahn, H.S.; Stevens, F.M.

    1997-06-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of mercury from hazardous waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. Continuous real-time monitoring of mercury would permit actual measurement of mercury emissions and permit measurement of real-time (actual) mercury emissions and allow accurate (realistic) human risk assessment from hazardous thermal treatment facility operation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations that require the use of total mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste. These proposed regulations also include draft performance specifications for mercury CEMs. This paper describes an ongoing joint EPA/DOE program to identify and demonstrate commercially available mercury CEMs that can meet the proposed EPA performance specification and includes initial instrument test results obtained. The complete demonstration consists of a six month performance test of several commercially available total mercury CEMs at a commercial cement kiln that co-fires hazardous waste. During the performance test, several indicators of CEM performance will be evaluated (as required in the proposed performance specification), including; zero and calibration drift, relative accuracy through comparison to EPA manual Reference Methods, calibration error through testing with calibration standards, and specific interference tests. The results of this extensive test program will be used to either confirm availability of mercury CEMs that meet the requirements in the proposed EPA performance specification, provide the necessary data for revision of the proposed mercury CEM performance specification, or reveal the need for further instrument development prior to deployment.

  12. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Saldaña, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  13. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  14. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  15. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  18. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural gas...

  19. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection...-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  20. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection...-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection of...—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  2. Implications of dairy systems on enteric methane and postulated effects on total greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Fredeen, A; Juurlink, S; Main, M; Astatkie, T; Martin, R C

    2013-11-01

    The effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) or pasture forage from a perennial sward under a management intensive grazing (MIG) regimen on grain intake and enteric methane (EM) emission were measured using chambers. Chamber measurement of EM was compared with that of SF6 employed both within chamber and when cows grazed in the field. The impacts of the diet on farm gate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission were also postulated using the results of existing life cycle assessments. Emission of EM was measured in gas collection chambers in Spring and Fall. In Spring, pasture forage fiber quality was higher than that of the silage used in the TMR (47.5% v. 56.3% NDF; 24.3% v. 37.9% ADF). Higher forage quality from MIG subsequently resulted in 25% less grain use relative to TMR (0.24 v. 0.32 kg dry matter/kg milk) for MIG compared with TMR. The Fall forage fiber quality was still better, but the higher quality of MIG pasture was not as pronounced as that in Spring. Neither yield of fat-corrected milk (FCM) which averaged 28.3 kg/day, nor EM emission which averaged 18.9 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) were significantly affected by diet in Spring. However, in the Fall, FCM from MIG (21.3 kg/day) was significantly lower than that from TMR (23.4 kg/day). Despite the differences in FCM yield, in terms of EM emission that averaged 21.9 g/kg DMI was not significantly different between the diets. In this study, grain requirement, but not EM, was a distinguishing feature of pasture and confinement systems. Considering the increased predicted GHG emissions arising from the production and use of grain needed to boost milk yield in confinement systems, EM intensity alone is a poor predictor of the potential impact of a dairy system on climate forcing. PMID:23896042

  3. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  4. Recent NASA/GSFC cryogenic measurements of the total hemispheric emissivity of black surface preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.

    2015-12-01

    High-emissivity (black) surfaces are commonly used on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Since 2011 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has measured the total hemispheric emissivity of such surfaces from 20 to 300 K using a test apparatus inside a small laboratory cryostat. We report the latest data from these measurements, including Aeroglaze Z307 paint, Black Kapton, and a configuration of painted aluminum honeycomb that was not previously tested. We also present the results of batch-to- batch reproducibility studies in Ball Infrared BlackTM and painted aluminum honeycomb. Finally, we describe a recently-adopted temperature control method which significantly speeds the data acquisition, and we discuss efforts to reduce the noise in future data.

  5. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  6. Scaling non-point-source mercury emissions from two active industrial gold mines: influential variables and annual emission estimates.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Miller, M B; Marsik, F

    2011-01-15

    Open-pit gold mines encompass thousands of hectares of disturbed materials that are often naturally enriched in mercury (Hg). The objective of this study was to estimate annual non-point-source Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Nevada. This was achieved by measuring diel and seasonally representative Hg fluxes from mesocosms of materials collected from each mine. These measurements provided a framework for scaling emissions over space and time at each mine by identifying the important variables correlated with Hg flux. The validity of these correlations was tested by comparisons with measurements conducted in situ at the mines. Of the average diel fluxes obtained in situ (92 daily flux measurements), 81% were within the 95% prediction limits of the regressions developed from the laboratory-derived data. Some surfaces at the mines could not be simulated in the laboratory setting (e.g., material actively leached by cyanide solution and tailings saturated with cyanide solution), and as such in situ data were applied for scaling. Based on the surface areas of the materials and environmental conditions at the mines during the year of study, non-point-source Hg releases were estimated to be 19 and 109 kg·year(-1). These account for 56% and 14%, respectively, of the overall emissions from each mine (point + nonpoint sources). Material being heap-leached and active tailings impoundments were the major contributors to the releases (>60% combined) suggesting that as mining operations cease, releases will decline. PMID:21142061

  7. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ∼1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  8. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ˜1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  9. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  10. Mapping mean total annual precipitation in Belgium, by investigating the scale of topographic control at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersmans, J.; Van Weverberg, K.; De Baets, S.; De Ridder, F.; Palmer, S. J.; van Wesemael, B.; Quine, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate precipitation maps are essential for ecological, environmental, element cycle and hydrological models that have a spatial output component. It is well known that topography has a major influence on the spatial distribution of precipitation and that increasing topographical complexity is associated with increased spatial heterogeneity in precipitation. This means that when mapping precipitation using classical interpolation techniques (e.g. regression, kriging, spline, inverse distance weighting, etc.), a climate measuring network with higher spatial density is needed in mountainous areas in order to obtain the same level of accuracy as compared to flatter regions. In this study, we present a mean total annual precipitation mapping technique that combines topographical information (i.e. elevation and slope orientation) with average total annual rain gauge data in order to overcome this problem. A unique feature of this paper is the identification of the scale at which topography influences the precipitation pattern as well as the direction of the dominant weather circulation. This method was applied for Belgium and surroundings and shows that the identification of the appropriate scale at which topographical obstacles impact precipitation is crucial in order to obtain reliable mean total annual precipitation maps. The dominant weather circulation is determined at 260°. Hence, this approach allows accurate mapping of mean annual precipitation patterns in regions characterized by rather high topographical complexity using a climate data network with a relatively low density and/or when more advanced precipitation measurement techniques, such as radar, aren't available, for example in the case of historical data.

  11. COMPACT NON-CONTACT TOTAL EMISSION DETECTION FOR IN-VIVO MULTI-PHOTON EXCITATION MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, Brian; Karamzadeh, Nader S.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Redford, Glen; Kilborn, Karl; Knutson, Jay R.; Balaban, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe a compact, non-contact design for a Total Emission Detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multi-photon imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), while murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under two-fold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a two-fold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers (enabled by greater light collection efficiency) yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multi-photon imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  12. Emission of submicron aerosol particles in cement kilns: Total concentration and size distribution.

    PubMed

    Rotatori, Mauro; Mosca, Silvia; Guerriero, Ettore; Febo, Antonio; Giusto, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Bianchini, Massimo; Ferrero, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Cement plants are responsible for particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. With respect to particle emission, the greater part of is in the range from 0.05 to 5.0 µm in diameter. In the last years attention was paid to submicron particles, but there is a lack of available data on the emission from stationary sources. In this paper, concentration and size distribution of particles emitted from four cement kilns, in relationship to operational conditions (especially the use of alternative fuel to coal) of the clinker process are reported. Experimental campaigns were carried out by measuring particles concentration and size distribution at the stack of four cement plants through condensation particle counter (CPC) and scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS). Average total particle number concentrations were between 2000 and 4000 particles/cm³, about 8-10 times lower that those found in the corresponding surrounding areas. As for size distribution, for all the investigated plants it is stable with a unimodal distribution (120-150 nm), independent from the fuel used. PMID:25946956

  13. Compact non-contact total emission detection for in vivo multiphoton excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Combs, C A; Smirnov, A; Glancy, B; Karamzadeh, N S; Gandjbakhche, A H; Redford, G; Kilborn, K; Knutson, J R; Balaban, R S

    2014-02-01

    We describe a compact, non-contact design for a total emission detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multiphoton imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), whereas murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under twofold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a twofold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers, enabled by greater light collection efficiency, yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multiphoton imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  14. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P < 0.001) were measured for the perennial compared to the annual crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions. PMID:26491961

  15. Using Total Quality To Better Manage an Institutional Research Office. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann

    Responding to the call for higher education to adopt a new paradigm in managing its administrative processes, an Institutional Research Office at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Pennsylvania made a two-year effort to use a Total Quality approach in its management. Total Quality Management is a Japanese movement based on the teachings…

  16. How have both cultivation and warming influenced annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions since the preindustrial era?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Saito, K.; Takahashi, H. G.; Watanabe, M.; Yokohata, T.; Kimoto, M.; Takata, K.; Yasunari, T.

    2012-07-01

    To examine the influence of both crop cultivation and surface air temperature (SAT) on annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions, which can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we simulated the annual emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the period 1854-2000. The model estimates were based on historical climate data such as SATs, and downward solar radiation (DSR) reproduced with an atmospheric-ocean circulation model, as well as a time series of the global distribution of cropland (to test the hypothesis that conversion of forests into croplands lowers emissions). The simulations demonstrated that global SAT, DSR, the combination of SAT and DSR, and the expansion of cropland all affected emissions. The effect of cropland expansion (i.e., forest conversion) on annual emissions during this period was larger for isoprene (~7% reduction on a global scale) than for monoterpenes (~2% reduction), mainly because of the reduction in broadleaf evergreen forests (BEFs) in Southeast Asia, which have the highest and most constant emissions of isoprene and where both temperature and radiation are high all year round. The reduction in the Amazon region and in parts of Africa, which are other primary sources of annual global isoprene emissions, but where the conversion of BEF to cropland has been much smaller than in Southeast Asia, was less remarkable, probably because the broadleaf deciduous forests and C4 grasslands in these areas have lower and seasonal emissions; hence, their conversion has less effect. On the other hand, the difference in the emission factors (ɛ) between cropland and the other vegetation types was much lower for monoterpenes than for isoprene, although the ɛ for cropland was generally the lowest for both emissions. Thus, the expansion of cropland also contributed to the reduction in monoterpene emissions to some degree, but had less effect. A ~5% increase in emissions due to rising SAT was more than offset by

  17. How have both cultivation and warming influenced annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions since the preindustrial era?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Saito, K.; Takahashi, H. G.; Watanabe, M.; Yokohata, T.; Kimoto, M.; Takata, K.; Yasunari, T.

    2012-10-01

    To examine the influence of both crop cultivation and surface air temperatures (SATs) on annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions, which can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we simulated, on a monthly basis, the annual emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the period 1854-2000. The model estimates were based on historical climate data such as SATs, and downward solar radiation (DSR) reproduced with an atmospheric-ocean circulation model, as well as a time series of the global distribution of cropland (to test the hypothesis that conversion of forests into croplands lowers emissions). The simulations demonstrated that global SAT, DSR, the combination of SAT and DSR, and the expansion of cropland all affected emissions. The effect of cropland expansion (i.e., forest conversion) on annual emissions during this period was larger for isoprene (~7% reduction on a global scale) than for monoterpenes (~2% reduction), mainly because of the reduction in broadleaf evergreen forests (BEFs) in Southeast Asia, which have the highest and most constant emissions of isoprene and where both temperature and radiation are high all year round. The reduction in the Amazon region and in parts of Africa, which are other primary sources of annual global isoprene emissions, but where the conversion of BEF to cropland has been much smaller than in Southeast Asia, was less remarkable, probably because the broadleaf deciduous forests and C4 grasslands in these areas have lower and seasonal emissions; hence, their conversion has less effect. On the other hand, the difference in the emission factors (ɛ) between cropland and the other vegetation types was much lower for monoterpenes than for isoprene, although the ɛ for cropland was generally the lowest for both compounds. Thus, the expansion of cropland also contributed to the reduction in monoterpene emissions to some degree, but had less effect. A ~5% increase in emissions due to rising SAT

  18. The Influence of Precipitation-Driven Annual Plant Growth on Dust Emission in the Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, F. E.; Reynolds, R. L.; Fulton, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Sparsely vegetated drylands are an important source for dust emission. However, little detail is known about dust generation in response to timing of precipitation and the consequent effects on soil and vegetation dynamics in these settings. This deficiency is especially acute at intermediate landscape scales, tens of meters to several hundred meters. It is essential to consider dust emission at this scale, because it links dust generation at scales of grains and wind tunnels with regional-scale dust examined using remotely sensed data from satellites. Three sites of slightly different geomorphic settings in the vicinity of Soda (dry) Lake were instrumented (in 1999) with meteorological and sediment transport sensors to measure wind erosion through saltating particle detection during high winds. Changes in vegetation in close proximity to the instrumented sites were bi-annually documented through measurements of plant type, cover, and repeat photographic imagery. Whereas high wind events are the dominant driver of saltation and dust emission, emissive conditions prevail only when annual plants are sparse or absent. Results show that wind erosion and dust emission at two study sites are highly variable and that such variability is dominantly related to vegetation type and cover as influenced by the amount and timing of antecedent precipitation. Secondary controls on dust emission are availability of new sediment related to flood deposits at the sites and seasonally differential wind strength. At sites where annual plants respond quickly and advantageously to precipitation, emissive conditions typically shut down because of vegetation growth within two to three months. This cover of annual plants, even when dead, persists in the desert landscape as a stabilizing agent for varying amounts of time, ten months to three years depending on the amount and vegetation type and subsequent input of precipitation and further annual plant growth. The lasting stabilization effect

  19. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  20. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  1. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  2. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  3. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  4. Total Quality Management on Campus: Pipe Dream or New Paradigm? AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jann E.; And Others

    This study looked at how Total Quality Management (TQM) is being adopted in institutions of higher education. A questionnaire was developed seeking information on: (1) leadership of the TQM movement and timing of events; (2) the training, educating, and informing of employees; (3) specific areas using TQM and the specific statistical tools being…

  5. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  6. Measurement of the seasonal and annual variability of total column aerosol in a northeastern U.S. network

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Schlemmer, J.A.; Harrison, L.C.; Berkheiser, W.E. III; Larson, N.R.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1994-09-01

    A network of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers has operated since late 1991 in the northeastern US. The data acquired are simultaneous measurements of total and diffuse horizontal irradiances in six narrowband filtered detectors and one broadband shortwave detector. The direct normal irradiances are calculated from these measurements. These direct data are corrected for cosine response and used to calculate extraterrestrial irradiance (I{sub o}) using the Langley method of regressing the natural logarithm of direct irradiance versus air mass. With frequent determinations of I{sub o}, changes in I{sub o} caused by soiling and filter degradation, for example, can be tracked. Using these I{sub o}`s, total optical depth is calculated for every clear 30-minute period in the record. Consequently, total optical depth may be obtained on a fair number of days throughout the year. Using daily average total optical depth the authors have calculated aerosol optical depths for five wavelengths by subtracting Rayleigh scattering optical depths and Chappuis ozone absorption optical depths at each wavelength. The aerosol pattern at nearly every site is an annual cycle superimposed on a decaying stratospheric loading associated with the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. An attempt is made to remove the volcanic signal using data from another site.

  7. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (<5 pr-micrometer) is observed at middle and high latitudes in the fall and winter of both hemispheres. There are large differences in the hemispheric (north versus south) and seasonal (perihelion versus aphelion) behavior of water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  8. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Rayner, Peter; Baker, David; Liu, Yu-ping

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emission inventories enable sensitivity tests of simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations to sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions and what this implies for the interpretation of observed CO2. Six experiments are conducted to investigate the potential impact of three cycles of FFCO2 emission variability (diurnal, weekly and monthly) using a global tracer transport model. Results show an annual FFCO2 rectification varying from -1.35 to +0.13 ppm from the combination of all three cycles. This rectification is driven by a large negative diurnal FFCO2 rectification due to the covariation of diurnal FFCO2 emissions and diurnal vertical mixing, as well as a smaller positive seasonal FFCO2 rectification driven by the covariation of monthly FFCO2 emissions and monthly atmospheric transport. The diurnal FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a diurnal FFCO2 concentration amplitude of up to 9.12 ppm at the grid cell scale. Similarly, the monthly FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a simulated seasonal CO2 amplitude of up to 6.11 ppm at the grid cell scale. The impact of the diurnal FFCO2 emissions, when only sampled in the local afternoon, is also important, causing an increase of +1.13 ppmv at the grid cell scale. The simulated CO2 concentration impacts from the diurnally and seasonally varying FFCO2 emissions are centered over large source regions in the Northern Hemisphere, extending to downwind regions. This study demonstrates the influence of sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration and suggests that inversion studies must take account of these variations in the affected regions.

  9. N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers and their contribution to the total emissions of the WWTP.

    PubMed

    Mikola, Anna; Heinonen, Mari; Kosonen, Heta; Leppänen, Maarit; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the emissions of nitrous oxide, N2O, constitute a major part of the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Denitrification occurring in the secondary clarifier basins has been observed by many researchers, but until now N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers have not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to measure the N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers and weigh the portion they could represent of the overall emissions at WWTPs. Online measurements over several days were carried out at four different municipal WWTPs in Finland in cold weather conditions (March) and in warm weather conditions (June-July). An attempt was made to define the conditions in which N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers may occur. It was evidenced that large amounts of N2O can be emitted from the secondary clarifiers, and that the emissions have long-term variation. It was assumed that part of the N2O released in secondary clarification was originally formed in the activated sludge basin. The emissions from secondary clarification thus seem to be dependent on conditions of the nitrification and denitrification accomplished in the denitrification-nitrification process and on the amount of sludge stored in the secondary clarifiers. PMID:25116504

  10. Cotton gin total particulate matter emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  11. Total hemispherical emissivity of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) candidate materials: Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, and Alloy 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Raymond K.

    An experimental system was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06 to measure the total hemispherical emissivity of structural materials of interest in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) systems. The system was tested with304 stainless steel as well as for oxidized and un-oxidized nickel, and good reproducibility and agreement with the literature data was found. Emissivity of Hastelloy X was measured under different conditions that included: (i) "as received" (original sample) from the supplier; (ii) with increased surface roughness; (iii) oxidized, and; (iv) graphite coated. Measurements were made over a wide range of temperatures. Hastelloy X, as received from the supplier, was cleaned before additional roughening of the surface and coating with graphite. The emissivity of the original samples (cleaned after received) varied from around 0.18 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The apparent emissivity increased only slightly as the roughness of the surface increased (without corrections for the increased surface area due to the increased surface roughness). When Hastelloy X was coated with graphite or oxidized however, its emissivity was observed to increase substantially. With a deposited graphite layer on the Hastelloy, emissivity increased from 0.2 to 0.53 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.6 at 1473 K; a finding that has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident VHTR environments. Although initial oxidation of Hastelloy X increased the emissivity prolonged oxidation did not significantly increase emissivity. However as there is some oxidation of Hastelloy X used in the construction of VHTRs, this represents an essentially neutral finding in terms of the safety implications in post-accident VHTR environments. The total hemispherical emissivity of Haynes 230 alloy, which is regarded as a leading candidate material for heat exchangers in VHTR systems, was measured under various surface

  12. Online-simulation of the WWTP to minimise the total emission of WWTP and sewer system.

    PubMed

    Seggelke, K; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the application of a WWTP-Online-Simulation with the objective to reduce the total emission into the receiving waters is explained. Apart from an introduction and a short description of the possible reduction potentials, first results of the current research project (financed by the German ministry BMBF) are presented. Results of the pilot plant with different experiments of increased stormwater inflow than usual and different control strategies showed the possibility to treat stormwater up to the quadruple dry-weather flow while still meeting the effluent values. However, this is not always guaranteed, and thus a monitoring system with integrated control strategies which is adapted to the load case "stormwater" with prognosis load cases becomes necessary. In the presented example, the simulation (Activated Sludge Model 2d) achieved an excellent match with the measured effluent values of the aeration tank (NH4-N, NO3-N) over a period of several months. The most important prerequisites for good (online-) simulation results are the exact knowledge of the plant and the plausibility and alternative concepts for the measured values in case of sensor failure. PMID:11902459

  13. Annual nitrous oxide emissions from intensively managed soils in Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariassen, J.; Matson, P.A.; Vitousek, P.M. NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1993-06-01

    High inputs of fertilizer N and other intensive cropping practices have become widespread in many agricultural areas of the tropics. In an effort to examine the effects of these practices on trace gas-atmosphere exchange we measured N[sub 2]O, CO[sub 2], and CH[sub 4] flux in a range of heavily fertilized sugar cane systems. Annual N[sub 2]O fluxes during 1992 appeared to be highest on the leeward or dry side of the island ranging from 20-40 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; roughly 50% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. On the windward wet side of the island N[sub 2]O fluxes ranged from about 11-30 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; from 10 to 30% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. Methane was usually taken up by these soils and variability was slightly higher on the wet side vs. the dry side; although the CO[sub 2] data set was small, flux appeared to be higher on the wet side vs. the dry side.

  14. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

  15. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to

  16. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  17. Importance of the autumn overturn and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion for the annual methane emissions from a temperate lake.

    PubMed

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate that anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumn overturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane was emitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ∼80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosphere. After the overturn period, the entire water column was oxic, and only 1% of the original quantity of methane remained in the water column. Current estimates of global methane emissions assume that all of the stored methane is released, whereas several studies of individual lakes have suggested that a major fraction of the stored methane is oxidized during overturns. Our results provide evidence that not all of the stored methane is released to the atmosphere during the overturn period. However, the fraction of stored methane emitted to the atmosphere during overturn may be substantially larger and the fraction of stored methane oxidized may be smaller than in the previous studies suggesting high oxidation losses of methane. The development or change in the vertical extent and duration of the anoxic hypolimnion, which can represent the main source of annual methane emissions from small lakes, may be an important aspect to consider for impact assessments of climate warming on the methane emissions from lakes. PMID:24873684

  18. Role of the biomass burning emission on the total peroxy nitrates measured during the BORTAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Di Carlo, Piero; Busilacchio, Marcella; Verdecchia, Marco; Tomassetti, Barbara; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Hopkins, James; Punjabi, Shalini; Andrews, Stephen; Lewis, Alistair C.; Palmer, Paul P.; Hyer, Edward; Breton, Michael L.; Percival, Carl

    2016-04-01

    During the BORTAS (BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) campaign, carried out in the Eastern Canada during the summer 2011, the total peroxy nitrates (∑PNs) concentrations have been measured using the TD-LIF (Thermal Dissociation - Laser Induced Fluorescence) instrument (Di Carlo et al., 2013) developed at the University of L'Aquila (Italy). In our analysis, we observed a strong correlation between the CO, a well-known BB tracer, and the ∑PNs suggesting the possibility to use also the ∑PNs as BB tracer for the identification of a BB plume. Moreover, Alvarado et al. (2010) demonstrated that, in the first few hours after the emissions by fires, the 40% of the NOx emitted is converted into PAN, confirming that the ∑PNs are strongly produced by BB. We used different methods for the identification of a BB plume using the ∑PNs as a tracer. Moreover, we will show the comparison between our results and the results obtained using other methods available in literature. We will illustrate in detail two case studies in which the ∑PNs and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) measurements help for a more specific identification of a BB plume. Our results have been confirmed using an artificial neural network model (Biancofiore et al., 2015). References Alvarado, M. J., Logan, J. A., Mao, J., Apel E, Riemer, D., Blake, D., Cohen, R. C., Min, K.-E., Perring, A. E., Browne, E.C., Wooldridge, P. J., Diskin, G. S., Sachse, G.W., Fuelberg, H., Sessions, W. R., Harrigan, D. L., Huey, G., Liao, J., Case-Hanks, A., Jimenez, J. L., Cubison, M. J., Vay, S. A., Weinheimer, A. J., Knapp, D. J., Montzka, D. D., Flocke, F. M., Pollack, I. B., Wennberg, P. O., Kurten, A., Crounse, J., St. Clair, J. M., Wisthaler, A., Mikoviny, T., Yantosca, R. M., Carouge, C. C., and Le Sager, P.: Nitrogen oxides and PAN in plumes from boreal fires during ARCTAS-B and their impact on ozone: an integrated analysis of aircraft and satellite observations

  19. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile isotopic methane analysis based on Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Winkler, Renato; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Crosson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the isotopic carbon signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of methane using a mobile spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Performance of the CRDS isotope analyzer is presented, including precision, calibration, stability, and the potential for measurement bias due to other atmospheric constituents. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to

  20. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  1. Mote cyclone robber system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  2. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A ...

  3. Overflow system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  4. Combined mote system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  5. 2nd stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  8. Master trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  9. Unloading system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  10. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  11. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin third stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  14. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These

  15. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.

    1994-12-15

    SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Limb observations of the 12.32 micron solar emission line during the 1991 July total eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Mccabe, George; Noyes, Robert; Wiedemann, Gunter; Espenak, Fred

    1992-01-01

    The limb profile of the Mg I 12.32-micron emission line is determined by occultation in the July 11, 1991 total solar eclipse over Mauna Kea. It is shown that the emission peaks are very close to the 12-micron continuum limb, as predicted by recent theory for this line as a non-LTE photospheric emission. The increase in optical depth for this extreme limb-viewing situation indicates that most of the observed emission arises from above the chromospheric temperature minimum, and it is found that this emission is extended to heights well in excess of the model predictions. The line emission can be observed as high as 2000 km above the 12-micron continuum limb, whereas theory predicts it to remain observable no higher than about 500 km above the continuum limb. The substantial limb extension observed in this line is quantitatively consistent with limb extensions seen in the far-IR continuum, and it is concluded that it is indicative of departures from gravitational hydrostatic equilibrium, or spatial inhomogeneities, in the upper solar atmosphere.

  17. Effects of organic matter amendments on net primary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's grasslands are managed for livestock production. A critical component of the long-term sustainability and profitability of rangelands (e.g., grazed grassland ecosystems) is the maintenance of plant production. Amending grassland soils with organic waste has been proposed as a means to increase net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) storage, while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. Few studies have evaluated the effects of amendments on the C balance and greenhouse gas dynamics of grasslands. We used field manipulations replicated within and across two rangelands (a valley grassland and a coastal grassland) to determine the effects of a single application of composted green waste amendments on NPP and greenhouse gas emissions over three years. Amendments elevated total soil respiration by 18% +/- 4% at both sites but had no effect on nitrous oxide or methane emissions. Carbon losses were significantly offset by greater and sustained plant production. Amendments stimulated both above- and belowground NPP by 2.1 +/- 0.8 Mg C/ha to 4.7 +/- 0.7 Mg C/ha (mean +/- SE) over the three-year study period. Net ecosystem C storage increased by 25-70% without including the direct addition of compost C. The estimated magnitude of net ecosystem C storage was sensitive to estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration but was greater than controls in five out of six fields that received amendments. The sixth plot was the only one that exhibited lower soil moisture than the control, suggesting an important role of water limitation in these seasonally dry ecosystems. Treatment effects persisted over the course of the study, which were likely derived from increased water-holding capacity in most plots, and slow-release fertilization from compost decomposition. We conclude that a single application of composted organic matter can significantly increase grassland C storage, and that effects of a single application are likely to

  18. Ionospheric total electron content, thermospheric emission and and stratospheric temperature dynamics during the SC23 deep solar minimum: 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Ao, C. O.; Runge, T.

    2011-12-01

    We will study external driving of the ionosphere-thermosphere and stratosphere systems during the deep solar minimum: the WHI 2008 interval as well as 2009. We report evidence of prompt penetrating interplanetary electric fields (PPEFs) into the ionosphere during CIR/HSS intervals for both 2008 and 2009. Daily averages of vertical daytime total electron content (VTEC) derived from GPS measurements from the JPL database are studied. VTEC data show the well-known semi-annual anomalies especially prominent in the low latitude ionosphere. Low- to middle-latitude VTEC variability is shown to coincide with PPEF events. Somewhat decreased variability is found around the solstices. CIR/HSS intervals are typically characterized by high energy deposition into the auroral regions through increased Joule heating and particle precipitation. Elevated nitric oxide densities and temperatures in the thermosphere lead to variations in corresponding infrared emission. We present measurements from SABER/TIMED of NO and CO2 emissions during 2008-2009 to illustrate efficient thermospheric response to moderate external driving and I-T dynamics throughout the time interval. We will discuss solar and geomagnetic activity influences on climate by analyzing lower stratospheric temperatures using GPS radio occultation measurements from CHAMP. Results for the deep solar minimum will be compared with the declining phase and solar maximum conditions.

  19. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Crosson, E.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the δ13CH4 signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of mobile field δ13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to arrive at an overall isotope ratio for the region. (left panel) Distribution of oil and gas well pads (yellow) and landfills (blue) in the Dallas / Ft. Worth area. Mobile nocturnal measurements

  20. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making

  1. Constant-Pressure Specific Heat to Hemispherical Total Emissivity Ratio for Undercooled Liquid Nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c(sub p)(T)epsilon(sub T)(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c(sub p)(T) if epsilon(sub T)(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemi-spherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, epsilon(sub T)(T(sub M)), have been determined using c(sub p)(T(sub m)) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  2. Emissions tradeoffs among alternative marine fuels: total fuel cycle analysis of residual oil, marine gas oil, and marine diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2008-04-01

    Worldwide concerns about sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships are motivating the replacement of marine residual oil (RO) with cleaner, lower-sulfur fuels, such as marine gas oil (MGO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Vessel operators can use MGO and MDO directly or blended with RO to achieve environmental and economic objectives. Although expected to be much cleaner in terms of criteria pollutants, these fuels require additional energy in the upstream stages of the fuel cycle (i.e., fuel processing and refining), and thus raise questions about the net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2]) because of production and use. This paper applies the Total Energy and Environmental Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model to conduct a total fuel cycle analysis of RO, MGO, MDO, and associated blends for a typical container ship. MGO and MDO blends achieve significant (70-85%) SOx emissions reductions compared with RO across a range of fuel quality and refining efficiency assumptions. We estimate CO2 increases of less than 1% using best estimates of fuel quality and refinery efficiency parameters and demonstrate how these results vary based on parameter assumptions. Our analysis suggests that product refining efficiency influences the CO2 tradeoff more than differences in the physical and energy parameters of the alternative fuels, suggesting that modest increases in CO2 could be offset by efficiency improvements at some refineries. Our results help resolve conflicting estimates of greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with fuel switching and other emissions control policies. PMID:18422040

  3. Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L.; Patterson, P.

    1997-09-17

    Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

  4. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  5. Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis

  6. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia’s harvest, 1965–2065

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). Results The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC’s greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC’s protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. Conclusions This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products. PMID:22828161

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  8. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  9. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  10. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  11. Characterization of odor emission from alternating aerobic and anoxic activated sludge systems using real-time total reduced sulfur analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Lee, Hyunjoo; Choi, Eunsun; Choi, Il; Shin, Taesub; Im, Hyungjoon; Ahn, Soobin

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of sulfur-containing compounds always generates volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). VSC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in odor complaints from people living nearby. To control odor-causing compounds in WWTPs, it is important to know the odor emission quantity particularly with continuous monitoring. Since modified activated sludge processes always include anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions for nutrient removal, odor emission from these different environmental settings is expected. In this study, continuous monitoring of VSCs from the headspace of an alternating aerobic and anoxic (AAA) activated sludge process via total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer was performed. There is clear pattern of the initial TRS peak immediately after the initiation of the aeration in the AAA system and TRS concentration begins to drop through the remaining air-on cycle. On the other hand, during the air-off period, TRS concentrations increase with time. In particular, a clear inflection point in the TRS profile could be observed after complete removal of nitrate during air-off, meaning more VSCs formation. Since the highest odor emission occurs after the initiation of aeration, the future control of exhausted air should only deal with air collected during the initial aeration period (e.g., 30min), a similar concept for the treatment of first flush in combined sewer overflow. In addition, application of a control scheme to initiate aeration immediately after denitrification is completed during air-off should be beneficial in reducing odor emission. PMID:25180483

  12. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  13. Nondestructive Total Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Microscopy Combined with Multi-Way Chemometric Analysis for Visually Indistinguishable Single Fiber Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio; Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Goicoechea, Hector C; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-03-01

    The potential of total excitation-emission fluorescence microscopy combined with multiway chemometric analysis was investigated for the nondestructive forensic analysis of textile fibers. The four pairs of visually indistinguishable fibers consisted of nylon 361 dyed with acid yellow 17 and acid yellow 23, acetate satin 105B dyed with disperse blue 3 and disperse blue 14, polyester 777 dyed with disperse red 1 and disperse red 19, and acrylic 864 dyed with basic green 1 and basic green 4. Excitation emission matrices were recorded with the aid of an inverted microscope and a commercial spectrofluorimeter. The full information content of excitation-emission matrices was processed with the aid of unsupervised parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), PARAFAC supervised by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and discriminant unfolded partial least-squares (DU-PLS). The ability of the latter algorithm to classify the four pairs of fibers demonstrates the advantage of using the multidimensionality of fluorescence data formats for the nondestructive analysis of forensic fiber evidence. PMID:26861578

  14. 77 FR 24382 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Annual Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... emissions of oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds from that source. The first statement shall... stationary sources located in these areas with actual emissions of 25 tons per year or more of volatile... when the pre-existing 1-hour ozone standard was promulgated (62 FR 38855).\\1\\ \\1\\ EPA issued a...

  15. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Readily implementable techniques can cut annual CO2 emissions from the production of concrete by over 20%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Due to its prevalence in modern infrastructure, concrete is experiencing the most rapid increase in consumption among globally common structural materials; however, the production of concrete results in approximately 8.6% of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Many methods have been developed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of concrete. These methods range from the replacement of inefficient manufacturing equipment to alternative binders and the use of breakthrough technologies; nevertheless, many of these methods have barriers to implementation. In this research, we examine the extent to which the increased use of several currently implemented methods can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in concrete material production without requiring new technologies, changes in production, or novel material use. This research shows that, through increased use of common supplementary cementitious materials, appropriate selection of proportions for cement replacement, and increased concrete design age, 24% of greenhouse gas emissions from global concrete production or 650 million tonnes (Mt) CO2-eq can be eliminated annually.

  17. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J. ); Ciriacks, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia.

  18. Denitrification and N2O emissions in annual croplands, perennial grass buffers, and restored perennial grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFS) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease nitrate (NO3) losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFS are similar to riparian buffers, PFS are a relatively new conservation tool and the processes responsible for NO3 removal f...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  20. Inter-annual variations of methane emission from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: a three-year study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yanfen; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiu'an; Yang, Gang; Gao, Yongheng; Fang, Xiuqin; Wang, Xu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to understand the inter-annual variations of methane (CH(4)) emissions from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) from 2005 to 2007. The weighted mean CH(4) emission rate was 8.37±11.32 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1) during the summers from 2005 to 2007, falling in the range of CH(4) fluxes reported by other studies, with significant inter-annual and spatial variations. The CH(4) emissions of the year of 2006 (2.11±3.48 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1)) were 82% lower than the mean value of the years 2005 and 2007 (13.91±17.80 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1) and 9.44±14.32 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1), respectively), responding to the inter-annual changes of standing water depths during the growing season of the three years. Significant drawdown of standing water depth is believed to cause such significant reduction in CH(4) emissions from wetlands in the year 2006, probably through changing the methanogen composition and decreasing its community size as well as activating methanotrophs to enhance CH(4) oxidation. Our results are helpful to understand the inter-annual variations of CH(4) emission and provide a more reasonable regional budget of CH(4) emission from wetlands on the QTP and even for world-wide natural wetlands under climate change. PMID:23342029

  1. Development of a method for estimating total CH4 emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model.

    PubMed

    Katayanagi, Nobuko; Fumoto, Tamon; Hayano, Michiko; Takata, Yusuke; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Shirato, Yasuhito; Sawano, Shinji; Kajiura, Masako; Sudo, Shigeto; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2016-03-15

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas, and paddy fields are one of its main anthropogenic emission sources. To mitigate this emission based on effective management measures, CH4 emission from paddy fields must be quantified at a national scale. In Japan, country-specific emission factors have been applied since 2003 to estimate national CH4 emission from paddy fields. However, this method cannot account for the effects of weather conditions and temporal variability of nitrogen fertilizer and organic matter application rates; thus, the estimated emission is highly uncertain. To improve the accuracy of national-scale estimates, we calculated country-specific emission factors using the DeNitrification-DeComposition-Rice (DNDC-Rice) model. First, we calculated CH4 emission from 1981 to 2010 using 986 datasets that included soil properties, meteorological data, and field management data. Using the simulated site-specific emission, we calculated annual mean emission for each of Japan's seven administrative regions, two water management regimes (continuous flooding and conventional mid-season drainage), and three soil drainage rates (slow, moderate, and fast). The mean emission was positively correlated with organic carbon input to the field, and we developed linear regressions for the relationships among the regions, water management regimes, and drainage rates. The regression results were within the range of published observation values for site-specific relationships between CH4 emission and organic carbon input rates. This suggests that the regressions provide a simplified method for estimating CH4 emission from Japanese paddy fields, though some modifications can further improve the estimation accuracy. PMID:26802630

  2. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  3. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  4. Indirect Estimates of the Total Gas Content of SDSS-IV/MaNGA Galaxies from Optical Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremonti, Christina A.; Pace, Zachary; Andrews, Brett; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; Martinsson, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Stark, David; Sanchez, Sebastian; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    To understand galaxy evolution it is critical to obtain a census of both the stellar and gaseous contents of galaxies. The SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will deliver exquisite stellar mass maps of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. However, radio surveys capable of providing matched resolution gas data for a large fraction of the MaNGA sample are a decade or more away. We are therefore exploring a new technique for obtaining maps of the total gas content directly from the MaNGA data. Following the method outlined in Brinchmann et al. 2013, we use the dust optical depth and the nebular metallicity measured from optical emission lines to estimate the total gas surface density in individual spaxels. We combine this with estimates of the stellar mass in each spaxel to produce spatially resolved estimates of the gas mass fraction. We compare trends in the global gas mass fraction with stellar mass and NUV-r color to those found in the literature. We explore how the radial gas mass fraction gradients of MaNGA galaxies correlate with other properties such as total stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SFR/M*), concentration, and environment.

  5. Simple approximation of total emissivity of CO2-H2O mixture used in the zonal method of calculation of heat transfer by radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisienko, V. G.; Malikov, G. K.; Titaev, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents a new simple-to-use expression to calculate the total emissivity of a mixture of gases CO2 and H2O used for modeling heat transfer by radiation in industrial furnaces. The accuracy of this expression is evaluated using the exponential wide band model. It is found that the time taken to calculate the total emissivity in this expression is 1.5 times less than in other approximation methods.

  6. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. PMID:25863508

  7. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  8. Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea; Donateo, Antonio; Cescon, Paolo; Cesari, Daniela; Merico, Eva; Belosi, Franco; Citron, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas.

  9. Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k = 0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k = 0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration

  10. Monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive nitrogen to the environment and contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter. Accurate ammonia emissions are required because, beginning in 2009, most feedyards are required by the Emergency Plannin...

  11. Total hydrocarbon emission testing of waste-water sludge incinerators. Volume 1. Final report 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Chehaske, J.T.; DeWees, W.G.; Lewis, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The U.S. EPA is considering continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from all wastewater sludge incincerators. The study was conducted to determine the reliability of total hydrocarbon analyzers (THCAs) in the application. Continuous monitors for oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), THC, and temperature were installed at two municipal wastewater sludge incinerators. The O2 data were used to normalize the measured THC concentrations to 7% O2. CO was measured to determine if it could be used as a surrogate for THC measurements. The two THCAs performed very well, achieving 94 and 90% on-line availability at the two sampling sites, respectively. The O2 and CO analyzers also worked well. There were initial problems with the sample conditioning system that is necessary for the CO and O2 monitors, but successful operation was achieved after it was modified. The report presents graphical and tabular summaries of the results. The report covers a period from February 1991 to September 1991, and work was completed as of May 29, 1992.

  12. Annual emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from natural sources in Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Gustin, M.S.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural source emissions on atmospheric mercury concentrations and the biogeochemical cycle of mercury is not known. To begin to assess this impact, mercury emissions to the atmosphere were scaled up for three areas naturally enriched in mercury: the Steamboat Springs geothermal area, Nevada, the New Idria mercury mining district, California, and the Medicine Lake volcano, California. Data used to scale up area emissions included mercury fluxes, measured in-situ using field flux chambers, from undisturbed and disturbed geologic substrates, and relationships between mercury emissions and geologic rock types, soil mercury concentrations, and surface heat flux. At select locations mercury fluxes were measured for 24 h and the data were used to adjust fluxes measured at different times of the day to give an average daily flux. This adjustment minimized daily temporal variability, which is observed for mercury flux because of light and temperature effects. Area emissions were scaled spatially and temporally with GIS software. Measured fluxes ranged from 0.3 to approximately 50 ng m-2 h-1 at undisturbed sites devoid of mercury mineralization, and to greater than 10,000 ng m-2 h-1 from substrates that were in areas of mercury mining. Area-averaged fluxes calculated for bare soil at Steamboat Springs, New Idria, and Medicine Lake of 181, 9.2, and 2 ng m-2 h-1, respectively, are greater than fluxes previously ascribed to natural non-point sources, indicating that these sources may be more significant contributors of mercury to the atmosphere than previously realized.

  13. Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring in Davos, Switzerland, Before, During and After the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Davis, Ken; Richardson, Scott; Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Deng, Aijun; Calonder, Gian-Paul; Ruesch, Marc; Lehning, Michael; Bals, Andre; DeCola, Phil; Rella, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions require validation. Atmospheric measurements capture all emissions, and provide a unique and powerful means of continuous validation and feedback. To demonstrate the utility of real time greenhouse gas measurements, in-situ GHG mixing ratio instruments were deployed in Davos, Switzerland to measure emissions from the city before, during and after the World Economic Forum (WEF). Three Instruments were deployed at two separate locations over 3 months (late December 2011 to February 2012). One site was located in the middle of the Davos urban area and a second site was located out of the valley in the surrounding mountains. Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) were measured continuously by Picarro G2401 instruments at both sites. Additionally, a Picarro flux analyzer was deployed in the city to evaluate the inverse fluxes. The mesoscale atmospheric model, WRF nudged to meteorological observations (WRF-FDDA), was used to simulate the transport of GHG over the valley of Davos at 1.3km resolution. A Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) from Sigma Space was deployed to evaluate the simulated planetary boundary layer depth from the WRF-FDDA model. The initial flux estimates for CO2 were constructed based on inventories reported for 2005. CO2 mixing ratio measurements prior to WEF suggest the difference between modeled (real-time) and inventory (annual) emissions to be on the order of +40%. The enhancement is likely due to the increased use of heating fuel in the winter. We present here the temporal variability in the inverse fluxes, which are correlated with a cold wave severely affecting Western Europe during the past winter, as well as changes in anthropogenic activities during the week of the WEF meeting. Also presented are new analyses of composite diurnal cycles of hourly CO/CO2 ratios, which provide additional information on the contributions of traffic relative to heating

  14. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Robert A.

    Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

  15. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  16. Quantifying Total and Reactive Gaseous Mercury Emissions from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacht, D. M.; Gustin, M. S.; Engle, M. A.; Zehner, R. E.; Giglini, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is generally assumed that elemental mercury is the dominant form of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, small amounts of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM) have been measured. RGM species are at least 105 times more water soluble, more chemically reactive, and exhibit far greater wet and dry deposition rates than elemental mercury. This study evaluated mercury fluxes to the atmosphere and RGM concentrations at the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site. Mercury emissions were measured from 17 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 6 locations offsite. Measured mercury fluxes ranged from 14 to 6895 ng m-2 hr-1 and were correlated with substrate mercury concentrations. RGM concentrations were measured with annular denuders at 8 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 2 locations offsite. RGM concentrations measured over the background Franciscan Sediments, during the day, ranged from 0.49 to 0.73 ng m-3, while concentrations measured over tailings, during the day, ranged from 1.79 to 75.88 ng m-3. RGM concentrations, measured during three week long sampling trips, ranged from ~ 0.03 to 70.76 % of total Hg concentrations with the highest percentage measured over the waste rock dam and in hydrothermally active areas. In a comparison of the use of annular versus tubular denuders for the measurement of RGM, it was found that they gave similar concentrations however annular denuders yielded less variability. Two Geographic Information System models were used to estimate mercury emissions from the SBMM site. These two models gave a range of 4.2 to 9.4 kg Hg yr-1.

  17. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2009-10-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM). The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM) yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  18. Examination of rotational fixation of the femoral component in total hip arthroplasty. A mechanical study of micromovement and acoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, H; Whiteside, L A; Kaiser, A D

    1989-12-01

    Rotational loosening has recently emerged as an important cause of failure of the femoral component of total hip arthroplasties. This study was designed to investigate the role played by torsional loads in loosening of cementless femoral components and to evaluate three cementing techniques involving a combination of canal irrigation, manual insertion, and vacuum mixing combined with pressure injection of the cement for their ability to improve rotational fixation. Rotational micromotion and subsidence were measured in 24 preserved human anatomic specimen femora. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied as a non-destructive method for evaluating material failure during loading. From the micromovement data, torque to 50 mu subsidence and torque to failure were surprisingly low with cementless fixation and with poor cement technique but were markedly improved with pulsed irrigation. Further improvement was achieved by pressure injection and vacuum mixing of the cement. However, AE was detected even in the most carefully performed cement specimens under torsional-loading conditions commonly occurring in daily activities. These signs of microfailure of the cement mantle at relatively low torsional loads suggest that the mode of failure of deeply penetrated cement is by microfracture of the cement mantle. The poor performance suggests that cementless fixation of intramedullary stems provides unsatisfactory fixation against torsional loading. There is need for major improvements in fixation mechanisms and techniques. The signs of failure of the cement mantle at normally occurring torsional loads suggest that even the best cement technique is prone to failure in torsion when exposed to normal daily use. PMID:2582663

  19. Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total emissions based on optical scintillation cross-correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhirong; Pang, Tao; Yang, Yang; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Sun, Pengshuai; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-05-16

    We report the first application of gas total emission using a DFB diode laser for gas concentration measurements combined with two LEDs for gas velocity measurements. In situ gas total emissions and particle density measurements in an industrial pipeline using simultaneous tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical scintillation cross-correlation technique (OSCC) are presented. Velocity mean values obtained are 7.59 m/s (OSCC, standard deviation is 1.37 m/s) and 8.20 m/s (Pitot tube, standard deviation is 1.47 m/s) in a steel plant pipeline for comparison. Our experiments demonstrate that the combined system of TDLAS and OSCC provides a new versatile tool for accurate measurements of total gas emissions. PMID:27409967

  20. Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the total biogenic VOC emissions of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen

    Emission rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant emissions. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The emission rates of the total assigned organic plant emissions ranged from 0.01 μ g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 μg g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our emission rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing emissions of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). Emission rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (emission rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the total assigned emissions of 0.2 μg g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20°C.

  1. The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity: Extending the boundaries of total quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, Geoffrey B. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor); Still, William T. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity provided a forum to exchange knowledge and experiences in these areas of continuous improvement. The more than 1,100 attendees from government, industry, academia, community groups, and the international arena had a chance to learn about methods, tools, and strategies for excellence and to discuss continuous improvement strategies, successes, and failures. This event, linked via satellite to concurrent conferences hosted by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado, also explored extending the boundaries of Total Quality Management to include partnerships for quality within communities and encouraged examination, evaluation, and change to incorporate the principles of continuous improvement.

  2. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  3. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  4. Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE ROLE OF TOTAL AND GAS-PHASE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, Gregory A.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Salviander, Sarah E-mail: randi@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have Fe II emission from the broad-line region (BLR) that differs greatly in strength from object to object. We examine the role of the total and gas-phase iron abundance in determining Fe II strength. Using AGN spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.35, we measure the Fe/Ne abundance of the narrow-line region (NLR) using the [Fe VII]/[Ne V] line intensity ratio. We find no significant difference in the abundance of Fe relative to Ne in the NLR as a function of Fe II/H{beta}. However, the [N II]/[S II] ratio increases by a factor of 2 with increasing Fe II strength. This indicates a trend in N/S abundance ratio, and by implication in the overall metallicity of the NLR gas, with increasing Fe II strength. We propose that the wide range of Fe II strength in AGN largely results from the selective depletion of Fe into grains in the low ionization portion of the BLR. Photoionization models show that the strength of the optical Fe II lines varies almost linearly with gas-phase Fe abundance, while the ultraviolet Fe II strength varies more weakly. Interstellar depletions of Fe can be as large as 2 orders of magnitude, sufficient to explain the wide range of optical Fe II strength in AGNs. This picture is consistent with the similarity of the BLR radius to the dust sublimation radius and with indications of Fe II emitting gas flowing inward from the dusty torus.

  5. 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. 40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total raw material weight. M = Number of raw materials. 44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to... as a non-carbonate species. (3) CO 2 emissions from raw materials. Calculate CO2 emissions using.../yr (dry basis). CO2,rm = Annual CO2 emissions from raw materials. TOCrm = Organic carbon content...

  7. Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.

  8. 40 CFR 98.93 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.93 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) You must calculate total annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG emitted by electronics... subpart (metric tons). N = The total number of process sub-types j that depends on the...

  9. OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  11. Annual emissions of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schäfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated annual fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories were covered (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG). The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative as compared to 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4 to 5. At six sites annual emissions of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net emissions of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. The two high-emitting sites were characterized by fluctuating groundwater, low soil pH and elevated groundwater SO42- concentrations. Annual fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from 2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus L. (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. Emission factors for organic soils in rotation and with permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2

  12. Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

    1997-12-31

    One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

  13. Title V Semi-Annual Emissions Report for Permit P100R1 July 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Whetham, Walter

    2012-03-15

    Reports of actual emissions from permitted sources in Section 2.0 shall be submitted on a 6 month basis. Reports shall not include emissions from insignificant activities. Emission estimates of criteria pollutants NOx, CO, SO2, PM and VOCs shall not include fugitive emissions. Emission estimates of HAPs shall include fugitive emissions. The reports shall include a comparison of actual emissions that occurred during the reporting period with the facility-wide allowable emission limits specified in Section 2.11 of this permit. The report required by Condition 4.1 shall be submitted within 90 days from the end of the reporting period. The semiannual report required by Condition 4.2 shall be submitted within 45 days from the end of the reporting period. The reporting periods are January 1st to June 30th and July 1st to December 31st. This condition is pursuant to 20.2.70.302.E.1 NMAC.

  14. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  15. Radiative Transfer Models of Tidal Disruption Events: What Sets their Emission Line Strengths and Total Optical Flux?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Given the recent influx of observational data and theoretical investigation into the nature of the tidal disruption of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs), a full radiative transfer calculation applicable to an optically thick, electron scattering-dominated reprocessing region can provide valuable insight. Such a calculation can help address puzzles such as the lack of hydrogen emission lines in the optical spectra some TDEs, the origin of the optical and UV flux, and the simultaneous observation of x-rays along with the optical emission. In this talk I will discuss such a calculation performed with my collaborators as part of my dissertation. We track the reprocessing of accretion luminosity from a supermassive black hole as the light travels through an extended, spherical envelope composed of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen from the disrupted star. The steady-state radiative transfer equation is coupled to a solver for the atomic level populations and ionization states that does not assume local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how the hydrogen optical emission lines can become more effectively optically thick than their helium counterparts, causing them to remain hidden even in the disruption of a hydrogen-rich star. More generally, variations in the structure of the reprocessing material can give rise to a variety of hydrogen-to-helium line ratios, as has been seen in recent observations. We also determine the amount of material necessary to transfer enough radiative energy from x-ray to optical wavelengths to match what is observed, and we demonstrate how the partial absorption of ionizing radiation can give rise to events simultaneously observed in x-rays and in the optical.

  16. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 2.3: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF TOTAL HYDROCARBONS FROM SOURCES BY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a recommended operating procedure (ROP) prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). he described method is applicable to the continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons (THCs), also known as tot...

  17. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  18. Multiple pulse-heating experiments with different current to determine total emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical total emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at different temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and total emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results. PMID:22299976

  19. Total prompt γ-ray emission in fission of U235, Pu239,241, and Cf252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    The total prompt γ-ray energy distributions for the neutron-induced fission of U235 and Pu239,241 in the neutron energy range of 0.025 eV - 100 keV and the spontaneous fission of Cf252 were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. DANCE is a highly segmented, highly efficient 4π γ-ray calorimeter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of total γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix generated with a geometrical model of the detector arrays and validated with the γ-ray calibration sources. The mean values of the total prompt γ-ray energy, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ˜20% higher than those of early measurements for all the fissile nuclei studied. The implication for the γ heating in nuclear reactors is discussed.

  20. Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emissions from a quarry in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Broday, David M; Stern, Eli

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of particulate emissions from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for emissions from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured total suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain. PMID:23673194

  1. Determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in wine samples by vapour-generation inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cmelík, Jirí; Machát, Jirí; Niedobová, Eva; Otruba, Vítezslav; Kanický, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is used as a preservative and stabilizer in wine production to prevent undesired biochemical processes in the must and the final product. The concentration of SO(2) is restricted by national regulations. There are two main forms of SO(2) in wine-free (inorganic forms) and bound (fixed to organic compounds, e.g. aldehydes). Iodometric titration is commonly employed for determination of SO(2) concentration (either by direct titration or after pre-separation by distillation); other techniques are also used. In this work inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry with vapour generation was used for determination of free and total SO(2) in wine. Gaseous SO(2) is released from the sample by addition of acid and swept into the ICP by an argon stream. The intensity of the sulfur atomic emission lines is measured in the vacuum UV region. Determination of total SO(2) is performed after hydrolysis of bound forms with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Concentrations of acid for vapour generation and NaOH for hydrolysis were optimised. The method was used for determination of free and total SO(2) in red and white wine samples and results were compared with those from iodometric titration. PMID:16052345

  2. Prescribed-burning vs. wildfire: management implications for annual carbon emissions along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.

    2015-11-01

    A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and annual C losses under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for C minimum emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.

  3. Anthropogenic Chromium Emissions in China from 1990 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  4. Anthropogenic chromium emissions in china from 1990 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×10⁵ t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×10⁴ t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of 15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  5. US Department of Energy radionuclide air emissions annual report (under Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61) calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report contains information collected by the Rocky Flats Plant concerning the emission of radionuclides into the air. Topics discussed include: Facility information, source description, air emissions data, dose assessments, point and non-point sources, and supplemental information on decontamination of concrete docks.

  6. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Annual status report No. 2, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  7. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Nickel-Titanium Carbide Cemented Hard Metals from 600 F to 1,600 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.; Casey, F. W., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The total hemispherical emissivity of several nickel-titanium carbide cemented hard metals have been measured over a temperature range from 600 F to l,600 F. A variety of cemented hard metals were obtained from the Kennametal Corporation. A brief discussion of the apparatus employed and the procedures used for this investigation is included. The results of the tests of specimens in the as-received and polished states indicate a nearly constant emissivity for each material tested over the temperature range considered and only slight differences in emissivity values for the different materials. Values obtained on the stably oxidized specimens range from 0.90 to 0.94 at 6000 F and o.88 to 0.92 at 1,600 F for the as-received specimens and from 0.82 to 0.89 at 600 F and 0.85 to 0.87 at 1,600 F for the polished specimens. The surface analysis of the oxidized materials as obtained by X-ray diffraction methods and metallographic techniques are presented as an aid to reproducing the surface on which these measurements were made.

  8. The SEPOR-POLEX Campaign: total Water Vapor and Surface Emissivity of Sea Ice at 89,157 and 183 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbach, N.; Heygster, G.; Hewison, T. J.; Taylor, J. P.; McGrath, A. J.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the airborne SEPOR-POLEX (Surface Emissivities in Polar Regions-Polar Experiment) campaign conducted in the Arctic in March 2001 was to improve the retrieval of total water vapor (TWV) from satellite measurements in polar regions. The key instrument operated on the Met Office C-130 aircraft was the microwave radiometer MARSS (Microwave Airborne Radiometer Scanning System) with frequencies close to those of the humidity sounders SSM/T2 and AMSU-B. Five flights were performed in the Arctic in different flight heights over various ice types including new, glacier, first-year and multi-year ice. Recently, an algorithm to retrieve TWV up to 6 kg/m2 using measurements from the SSM/T2 sensor over the Antarctic has been developed by Miao [2001]. The procedure assumes identical surface emissivities at all used channels. The algorithm is adapted to MARSS and Arctic conditions. In order to extend the range of the TWV algorithm, the emissivity of various sea ice types at the involved frequencies is determined.

  9. Effects of total CH 4/Ar gas pressure on the structures and field electron emission properties of carbon nanomaterials grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, J. L.; Wang, X.; Zheng, W. T.; Tian, H. W.; Liu, C.; Lu, Y. L.; Peng, Y. S.; Cheng, G.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of total CH 4/Ar gas pressure on the growth of carbon nanomaterials on Si (1 0 0) substrate covered with CoO nanoparticles, using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), were investigated. The structures of obtained products were correlated with the total gas pressure and changed from pure carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through hybrid CNTs/graphene sheets (GSs), to pure GSs as the total gas pressure changed from 20 to 4 Torr. The total gas pressure influenced the density of hydrogen radicals and Ar ions in chamber, which in turn determined the degree of how CoO nanoparticles were deoxidized and ion bombardment energy that governed the final carbon nanomaterials. Moreover, the obtained hybrid CNTs/GSs exhibited a lower turn-on field (1.4 V/μm) emission, compared to either 2.7 V/μm for pure CNTs or 2.2 V/μm for pure GSs, at current density of 10 μA/cm 2.

  10. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology. PMID:25312472