Science.gov

Sample records for total annual emissions

  1. Estimation of total annual mercury emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Hyun; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2012-12-01

    This study examined mercury (Hg) emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea. Hg concentrations in stack gases from a kiln at the largest cement manufacturing facility (CMF) in Korea were measured using three different methods: a wet-chemical method and on-line measurements with two different types of conversion systems (SnCl2 and thermal) attached in front of each analyzer. The Hg concentrations of the feedstocks and fuels were then analyzed to determine the total amount of Hg input into CMFs and how much each material contributed to the Hg input. The total annual Hg input into all CMFs in Korea was estimated to be 1.71 tons, while the total annual Hg emissions estimated from the stack-gas measurement was 1.17-1.53 tons, indicating that 68-89% of total Hg input is released into the atmosphere. Therefore, more stringent regulation and effective control technologies should be applied to the CMFs to reduce Hg emissions.

  2. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  3. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  4. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  5. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  6. Further Evaluation of an Emperical Equation for Annual Total Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical equation for annual total evaporation based on annual precipitation and net radiation was found to provide evaporation within 10% of the observed values at seven locations within temperate and tropical regions, but it overestimated evaporation by 90% at one location within the tundra region. A synthesis of observations at two other locations within the tundra region gives overestimates of about 65%. A general analysis of observed precipitation, net radiation, and runoff within the tundra region shows that the empirical equation is generally biased to overestimate annual evaporation within the tundra region. A theoretical analysis is being done to understand the reason behind this bias.

  7. Contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles toward total VOC emissions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The features of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles were examined. One potential source of evaporative emissions is mainly the so-called sigh of a fuel tank, which is a function of the daily temperature change and the volume not occupied by fuel. A theoretical equation was proposed for estimating the fuel vapor generation. It reproduced observed features well but underestimated the absolute values obtained in the experimental results. The widely used semi-empirical Reddy equation overestimates the results. The performance of a carbon canister was also evaluated. More than 95% of fuel vapor generation was trapped by the carbon canister. However, the canister worked for only one day because it adsorbed more VOC than that contained in the sigh alone. To estimate the evaporative emissions in the real world, the fuel tank temperature change while a car was parked in an outside car park was monitored and was found to be almost the same as the change in ambient air temperature; no other weather conditions had any effect. According to the findings in this study and data on frequency of car use, the annual amount of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan was estimated to be 4.6% of the total VOC emissions in Japan, making it the 6th-highest source of VOC. PMID:23422493

  8. Seasonal and inter-annual variation in ecosystem scale methane emission from a boreal fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Janne; Li, Xuefei; Raivonen, Maarit; Peltola, Olli; Sallantaus, Tapani; Haapanala, Sami; Smolander, Sampo; Alekseychik, Pavel; Aurela, Mika; Korrensalo, Aino; Mammarella, Ivan; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Northern wetlands are one of the major sources of atmospheric methane. We have measured ecosystem scale methane emissions from a boreal fen continuously since 2005. The site is an oligotrophic fen in boreal vegetation zone situated in Siikaneva wetland complex in Southern Finland. The mean annual temperature in the area is 3.3°C and total annual precipitation 710 mm. We have conducted the methane emission measurements by the eddy covariance method. Additionally we have measured fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sensible heat together with a suite of other environmental parameters. We have analyzed this data alongside with a model run with University of Helsinki methane model. The measured fluxes show generally highest methane emission in late summers coinciding with the highest temperatures in saturated peat zone. During winters the fluxes show small but detectable emission despite the snow and ice cover on the fen. More than 90% of the annual methane emission occurs in snow-free period. The methane emission and peat temperature are connected in exponential manner in seasonal scales, but methane emission does not show the expected behavior with water table. The lack of water table position dependence also contrasts with the spatial variation across microtopography. There is no systematic variation in sub-diurnal time scale. The general seasonal cycle in methane emission is captured well with the methane model. We will show how well the model reproduces the temperature and water table position dependencies observed. The annual methane emission is typically around 10 gC m‑2. This is a significant part of the total carbon exchange between the fen and the atmosphere and about twice the estimated carbon loss by leaching from the fen area. The inter-annual variability in the methane emission is modest. The June-September methane emissions from different years, comprising most of the annual emission, correlates positively with peat temperature, but not with

  9. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of "Total Organics" from stack emissions is much more complicated am might be expected, and more published guidance is needed badly. he best scheme available for analysis of "Total Organics" of stack emissions for material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determ...

  10. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual net sales and total assets. 801.11... sales and total assets. (a) The annual net sales and total assets of a person shall include all net sales and all assets held, whether foreign or domestic, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)...

  11. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2012-07-01

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  12. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must “amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more.”...

  13. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  14. Determination of total organic emissions from hazardous waste combustors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L D

    1996-01-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment guidance currently under development for evaluation of permitting information from hazardous waste combustors requires a quantity referred to as "total organic carbon". The risk guidance does not define this term precisely, nor does it explain how it should be determined. This paper discusses basic principles of sampling and analysis of stack emissions for "total organics", best currently available technology, and the status of two ongoing projects designed to provide guidance and to improve analysis procedures. Determination of total organics from stack emissions is much more complicated than might be expected, and more published guidance is badly needed. The best scheme available for analysis of stack emissions for total organics to be used in material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determination of organics content in three boiling point ranges:  <100 °C, 100 °C-300 °C, and >300 °C. Total organic carbon is not a useful quantity, since it includes soot, polymeric material, and other nonextractable organic materials. Total organics has been found to be an imperfect but less misleading term. Various calculations can be made and conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the contents of the individual boiling point ranges, as determined by the recommended methodology. The analysis strategy is complicated and difficult, and it contains limitations and compromises. It does not, however, require exotic analysis instrumentation, nor is it very expensive. Each of these facets of the methodology is discussed in this paper, and a status report is provided on development of a guidance document and a research project intended to produce improved methods. PMID:21619231

  15. Measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of contaminated mirror surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facey, T. A.; Nonnenmacher, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dust contamination on the total hemispherical emissivity (THE) of a 1.5-inch-diameter Al/MgF2-coated telescope mirror are investigated experimentally. The THE is determined by means of cooling-rate measurements in the temperature range 10-14.5 C in a vacuum of 100 ntorr or better. Photographs and drawings of the experimental setup are provided, and results for 11 dust levels are presented in tables and graphs. It is shown that dust has a significant effect on THE, but the experimental losses are only about half those predicted for perfectly black dust in perfect thermal contact with the mirror surface.

  16. 24 CFR 886.308 - Maximum total annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... developed in accordance with 24 CFR part 290, HUD shall determine the number of units to be assisted up to... assistance payments that may be committed under the contract shall be the total of the gross rents for all... family composition, or decreases in family incomes: (1) A project account shall be established...

  17. 24 CFR 886.308 - Maximum total annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... developed in accordance with 24 CFR part 290, HUD shall determine the number of units to be assisted up to... assistance payments that may be committed under the contract shall be the total of the gross rents for all... family composition, or decreases in family incomes: (1) A project account shall be established...

  18. TRASER - Total Reflection Amplification of Spontaneous Emission of Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Christopher B.; Gustavsson, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Light and lasers in medical therapy have made dramatic strides since their invention five decades ago. However, the manufacture of lasers can be complex and expensive which often makes treatments limited and costly. Further, no single laser will provide the correct parameters to treat all things. Hence, laser specialists often need multiple devices to practice their specialty. A new concept is described herein that has the potential to replace many lasers and light sources with a single ‘tunable’ device. Study Design/Material and Methods This device amplifies spontaneous emission of radiation by capturing and retaining photons through total internal reflection, hence the acronym Total Reflection Amplification of Spontaneous Emission of Radiation, or TRASER. Results Specific peaks of light can be produced in a reproducible manner with high peak powers of variable pulse durations, a large spot size, and high repetition rate. Conclusion Considering the characteristics and parameters of Traser technology, it is possible that this one device would likely be able to replace the pulsed dye laser and many other light based systems. PMID:22558261

  19. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Annual allowances are available to be deducted for...

  20. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Annual allowances are available to be deducted for...

  1. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation. (a) Availability for deduction for compliance. TR NOX Annual allowances are available to be deducted for...

  2. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the sum of uncontrolled process and fugitive emissions, and emissions from any control systems (operating at the efficiency prescribed under § 57.302). These emission rates may be derived from...

  3. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  4. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  5. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  6. Seasonal measurements of total OH reactivity fluxes, total ozone loss rates and missing emissions from Norway spruce in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Bonn, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Williams, J.

    2012-10-01

    Numerous reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Most biogenic VOCs are highly reactive towards the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical. One way to investigate the chemical interplay between biosphere and atmosphere is through the measurement of total OH reactivity, the total loss rate of OH radicals. This study presents the first determination of total OH reactivity emission rates (measurements via the Comparative Reactivity Method) based on a branch cuvette enclosure system mounted on a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. In parallel separate VOC emission rates were monitored by a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and total ozone (O3) loss rates were obtained inside the cuvette. Total OH reactivity emission rates were in general temperature and light dependent, showing strong diel cycles with highest values during daytime. Monoterpene emissions contributed most, accounting for 56-69% of the measured total OH reactivity flux in spring and early summer. However, during late summer and autumn the monoterpene contribution decreased to 11-16%. At this time, a large missing fraction of the total OH reactivity emission rate (70-84%) was found when compared to the VOC budget measured by PTR-MS. Total OH reactivity and missing total OH reactivity emission rates reached maximum values in late summer corresponding to the period of highest temperature. Total O3 loss rates within the closed cuvette showed similar diel profiles and comparable seasonality to the total OH reactivity fluxes. Total OH reactivity fluxes were also compared to emissions from needle storage pools predicted by a temperature-only dependent algorithm. Deviations of total OH reactivity fluxes from the temperature-only dependent emission algorithm were observed for occasions of mechanical and heat stress. While for mechanical stress, induced by strong wind, measured VOCs could

  7. Apparatus for Measuring Total Emissivity of Small, Low-Emissivity Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, James; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for measuring total emissivity of small, lightweight, low-emissivity samples at low temperatures. The entire apparatus fits inside a small laboratory cryostat. Sample installation and removal are relatively quick, allowing for faster testing. The small chamber surrounding the sample is lined with black-painted aluminum honeycomb, which simplifies data analysis. This results in the sample viewing a very high-emissivity surface on all sides, an effect which would normally require a much larger chamber volume. The sample and chamber temperatures are individually controlled using off-the-shelf PID (proportional integral derivative) controllers, allowing flexibility in the test conditions. The chamber can be controlled at a higher temperature than the sample, allowing a direct absorptivity measurement. The lightweight sample is suspended by its heater and thermometer leads from an isothermal bar external to the chamber. The wires run out of the chamber through small holes in its corners, and the wires do not contact the chamber itself. During a steady-state measurement, the thermometer and bar are individually controlled at the same temperature, so there is zero heat flow through the wires. Thus, all of sample-temperature-control heater power is radiated to the chamber. Double-aluminized Kapton (DAK) emissivity was studied down to 10 K, which was about 25 K colder than any previously reported measurements. This verified a minimum in the emissivity at about 35 K and a rise as the temperature dropped to lower values.

  8. Continuously measured annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards varies with season during the year, but studies of continuous measurement of ammonia emissions throughout the year are rare. The quantification of annual ammonia emissions will improve emission factors, provide databases that can be used ...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  13. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... plantwide emission limitation. (a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a... August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as... direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations. (b) Compliance with...

  14. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... plantwide emission limitation. (a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a... August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as... direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations. (b) Compliance with...

  15. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plantwide emission limitation. (a) Calculation of the emission limitation. Each NSO shall contain a... August 7, 1977. This limitation shall be expressed in units of mass per time and shall be calculated as... direct measurements or appropriately documented mass balance calculations. (b) Compliance with...

  16. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  17. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  18. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  19. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.253 What is included...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  2. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  3. Biomass burning in Asia : annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa

    2003-10-15

    Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.

  4. Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of "typical" (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1° × 1° spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999-2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R2 = 0.71-0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO2, 2.8 Tg of NOx, 1100 Tg of CO2, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH4, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH3. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of ±65% for CO2 emissions in Japan to a high of ±700% for BC emissions in India.

  5. Statistic analysis of annual total ozone extremes for the period 1964-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzyscin, Janusz W.

    1994-01-01

    Annual extremes of total column amount of ozone (in the period 1964-1988) from a network of 29 Dobson stations have been examined using the extreme value analysis. The extremes have been calculated as the highest deviation of daily mean total ozone from its long-term monthly mean, normalized by the monthly standard deviations. The extremes have been selected from the direct-Sun total ozone observations only. The extremes resulting from abrupt changes in ozone (day to day changes greater than 20 percent) have not been considered. The ordered extremes (maxima in ascending way, minima in descending way) have been fitted to one of three forms of the Fisher-Tippet extreme value distribution by the nonlinear least square method (Levenberg-Marguard method). We have found that the ordered extremes from a majority of Dobson stations lie close to Fisher-Tippet type III. The extreme value analysis of the composite annual extremes (combined from averages of the annual extremes selected at individual stations) has shown that the composite maxima are fitted by the Fisher-Tippet type III and the composite minima by the Fisher-Tippet type I. The difference between the Fisher-Tippet types of the composite extremes seems to be related to the ozone downward trend. Extreme value prognoses for the period 1964-2014 (derived from the data taken at: all analyzed stations, the North American, and the European stations) have revealed that the prognostic extremes are close to the largest annual extremes in the period 1964-1988 and there are only small regional differences in the prognoses.

  6. Total prompt γ-ray emission in fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henserson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    The total prompt γ-ray energy distributions for the neutron-induced fission of 235U, 239,241Pu at incident neutron energy of 0.025 eV ‒ 100 keV, and the spontaneous fission of 252Cf were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) array in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. DANCE is a highly segmented, highly efficient 4π γ-ray calorimeter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of total γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix. The mean values of the total prompt γ-ray energy, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ~ 20% higher than those derived from measurements using single γ-ray detector for all the fissile nuclei studied. This raises serious concern on the validity of the mean total prompt γ-ray energy obtained from the product of mean values for both prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity.

  7. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF TOTAL HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, the total hydrocarbon (THC) analyzers performed well. The only problems occurred when the flame failed to reignite after an automatic backpurge cycle (nine times), and on one occasion when a sample line plugged. Average THC concentration, normalized to 7% O2, was 108 ...

  8. Seasonal measurements of total OH reactivity emission rates from Norway spruce in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölscher, A. C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Bonn, B.; Kesselmeier, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Williams, J.

    2013-06-01

    Numerous reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted into the atmosphere by vegetation. Most biogenic VOCs are highly reactive towards the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl (OH) radical. One way to investigate the chemical interplay between biosphere and atmosphere is through the measurement of total OH reactivity, the total loss rate of OH radicals. This study presents the first determination of total OH reactivity emission rates (measurements via the comparative reactivity method) based on a branch cuvette enclosure system mounted on a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. In parallel VOC emission rates were monitored by a second proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), and total ozone (O3) loss rates were obtained inside the cuvette. Total OH reactivity emission rates were in general temperature and light dependent, showing strong diel cycles with highest values during daytime. Monoterpene emissions contributed most, accounting for 56-69% of the measured total OH reactivity flux in spring and early summer. However, during late summer and autumn the monoterpene contribution decreased to 11-16%. At this time, a large missing fraction of the total OH reactivity emission rate (70-84%) was found when compared to the VOC budget measured by PTR-MS. Total OH reactivity and missing total OH reactivity emission rates reached maximum values in late summer corresponding to the period of highest temperature. Total O3 loss rates within the closed cuvette showed similar diel profiles and comparable seasonality to the total OH reactivity fluxes. Total OH reactivity fluxes were also compared to emissions from needle storage pools predicted by a temperature-only-dependent algorithm. Deviations of total OH reactivity fluxes from the temperature-only-dependent emission algorithm were observed for occasions of mechanical and heat stress. While for mechanical stress, induced by strong wind, measured VOCs could

  9. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  10. 77 FR 24440 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Annual Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS). See 73 FR 16436. The current action, however, is...; Annual Emissions Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... meet the emissions statements requirement for North Carolina. EPA is proposing to approve the...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  14. 7th Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership' provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processess, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission. The conference was highlighted by the announcement of the first recipients of the George M. Low Trophy: NASA's Quality and Excellence Award. My congratulations go out to all nine finalist organizations and to the two recipients of this prestigious honor: Rockwell Space Systems Division and Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. (the first small business to achieve this honor). These organizations have demonstrated a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed in the aerospace industry. This report summarizes the presentations and is not intended to be a verbatim proceedings document. You are encouraged to contact the speakers with any requests for further information.

  15. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sample form—(1) Model form. Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Loan Terms Age of youngest borrower: Appraised... Age of youngest borrower: 75 Appraised property value: $100,000 Interest rate: 9% Monthly...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sample form—(1) Model form. Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Loan Terms Age of youngest borrower: Appraised... Age of youngest borrower: 75 Appraised property value: $100,000 Interest rate: 9% Monthly...

  17. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  18. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  19. Quantifying the contributions of natural emissions to ozone and total fine PM concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate estimates of emissions from natural sources are needed for reliable predictions of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) using air quality models. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM2.5 for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. In this study, the model has been further developed to include more Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and to implement a scheme for secondary organic aerosols as well as an updated description of sea-salt emissions. Our simulations indicate that in the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone mixing ratios over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, BVOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation in 2006, enhancing the average ozone mixing ratio by about 11% over the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest in the northern part of South America by about 42%. Similarly, the highest contribution of all the natural sources to total fine particles over land is found to be in South America by about 74% and sea-salt aerosols demonstrated to play the most important role. However, over the rest of the regions in the model domain the largest contribution from the natural sources to PM2.5 in the specific year 2006 is due to wildfires. The contribution from natural emissions to the mean PM2.5 concentration over the land areas in the model domain is about 34%.

  20. 500 years of mercury production: global annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Meili, Markus

    2003-03-20

    Since pre-industrial times, anthropogenic emissions of Hg have at least doubled global atmospheric Hg deposition rates. In order to minimize environmental and human health effects, efforts have been made to reduce Hg emissions from industries and power plants, while less attention has been paid to Hg mining. This paper is a compilation of available data on primary Hg production and associated emissions with regional and annual resolution since colonial times. Globally, approximately one million tons of metallic Hg has been extracted from cinnabar and other ores during the past five centuries, half already before 1925. Roughly half has been used for mining of gold and silver, but the annual Hg production peaked during a short period of recent industrial uses. Comparison with total historic Hg deposition from global anthropogenic emissions (0.1-0.2 Mtons) suggests that only a few percent of all mined Hg have escaped to the atmosphere thus far. While production of primary Hg has changed dramatically over time and among mines, the global production has always been dominant in the region of the mercuriferous belt between the western Mediterranean and central Asia, but appears to be shifting to the east. Roughly half of the registered Hg has been extracted in Europe, where Spanish mines alone have contributed one third of the world's mined Hg. Approximately one fourth has been mined in the Americas, and most of the remaining registered Hg in Asia. However, the Asian figures may be largely underestimated. Presently, the dominant Hg mines are in Almadén in Spain (236 t of Hg produced in 2000), Khaydarkan in Kyrgyzstan (550 t), Algeria (estimated 240 t) and China (ca. 200 t). Mercury by-production from mining of other metals (e.g. copper, zinc, gold, silver) in 2000 includes 48 t from Peru, 45 t from Finland and at least 15 t from the USA. Since 1970, the recorded production of primary Hg has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude to approximately 2000 t in the year

  1. Longitudinal dependence of annual cycle of total ozone in the Northern mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Evtushevsky, Oleksandr; Grytsai, Asen

    2015-04-01

    In the Northern mid-latitudes, annual change of the total ozone content (TOC) in terms of zonal means is mainly determined by stratospheric ozone accumulation in winter and spring due to the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and following photochemical relaxation continuing to autumn. It is known from previous studies that annual TOC cycle in some regions could be close to or differ from the zonal mean one. For example, annual TOC minimum over Eastern Asia is observed two months earlier (August) than over Europe (October). In this work, a consecutive analysis of the TOC seasonality along the latitudinal belt 50-55°N in 36 segments (10°-step in longitude) is analyzed. The latitude range includes northern Ukraine and Kyiv-Goloseyev Dobson station. Analysis is based on the Merged Ozone Data Set (MOD) reanalysis 1979-2011 (http://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/). We use also the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/composites/printpage.pl) to estimate seasonal changes in geopotential heights and tropopause heights. It is shown that the seasonal TOC cycle over the cyclonic anomalies (high mean TOC level) is shifted to the beginning of year in comparison with that over the anticyclonic anomalies (low mean TOC level). The largest TOC values over the Aleutian low (around 150°E) are characterized by the earliest seasonal maximum (February-March) and minimum (August). Here, the tropospheric dynamics (winter/summer extremes in the planetary wave activity and stationary pressure anomaly formation/disappearance) and related tropopause effects seem to have dominant influence on the earliest development of the annual TOC cycle. Zonal asymmetry in stratospheric ozone accumulation influences rather the maximum TOC levels in this region than timing of the TOC extremes. In the opposite longitude range (zonal TOC minimum in region of the Azores high influence, 20-30°W), the annual TOC cycle lags by 2-3 months reaching a TOC maximum in May

  2. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  3. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  4. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  5. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates―critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+―are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr−1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr−1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha−1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha−1). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha−1•yr−1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts

  6. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID

  7. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Metals and Some Refractory Oxide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.

    1959-01-01

    A description of the apparatus and methods used for obtaining total hemispherical emissivity is presented, and data for several stably oxidized metals are included. The metals which were tested included type 347 stainless steel, tungsten, and Haynes alloys B, C, X, and 25. No values of emissivity were obtained for tungsten or Haynes alloy B because of the nature of the oxides produced. The refractory oxide coatings tested were flame-sprayed alumina and zirconia. The results of the investigation indicate that strongly adherent, oxidized surfaces of a high stable emissivity can be produced on type 347 stainless steel for which the total hemispherical emissivity varied from 0.87 to 0.91 for temperatures from 600 F to 2,000 F. For this same temperature range, the Haynes alloys tested showed values of total hemispherical emissivity from 0.90 to 0.96 for alloy C, from 0.85 to 0.88 for alloy X, and from 0.85 to 0.89 for alloy 25. Haynes alloy B and tungsten formed nonadherent oxides at elevated temperatures and, therefore, stable emissivities were not obtained. The results obtained for the flame-sprayed ceramics (alumina and zirconia) showed considerably higher values of total emissivity than those measured for coatings applied by other methods. Emissivity values ranging from 0.69 to 0.44 for aluminum oxide and from 0.62 to 0.44 for zirconium oxide were measured for temperatures from 800 F to 2,000 F.

  8. Energy use and emissions from marine vessels: a total fuel life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Meyer, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To address these issues, this paper presents the Total Energy and Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model. TEAMS can be used to analyze total fuel life cycle emissions and energy use from marine vessels. TEAMS captures "well-to-hull" emissions, that is, emissions along the entire fuel pathway, including extraction, processing, distribution, and use in vessels. TEAMS conducts analyses for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to residual oil, (2) petroleum to conventional diesel, (3) petroleum to low-sulfur diesel, (4) natural gas to compressed natural gas, (5) natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and (6) soybeans to biodiesel. TEAMS calculates total fuel-cycle emissions of three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 microm or less, and sulfur oxides). TEAMS also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption associated with each of its six fuel cycles. TEAMS can be used to study emissions from a variety of user-defined vessels. This paper presents TEAMS and provides example modeling results for three case studies using alternative fuels: a passenger ferry, a tanker vessel, and a container ship. PMID:17269235

  9. Acidic and total primary sulfates: development of emission factors for major stationary combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goklany, I.M.; Hoffnagle, G.F.; Brackbill, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    ''Best estimates'' of emission factors for major sources of acidic and total primary sulfates are developed for use in the compilation of emission inventories for the eastern U.S. These may, in turn, be used for modeling of acidic or sulfate deposition. The factors are based upon a critical evaluation of the generic measurement methods used to quantify total and acidic primary sulfate emissions, and an exhaustive review and critique of individual papers and studies available in the open literature which present measurement data on primary sulfate emissions. It develops a qualitative rating scheme which specifies the level of confidence that should be attached to the emission factor determinations. The paper concludes that much of the existing data on primary sulfates from stationary combustion sources are, probably, significantly biased upward and, therefore, inappropriate for the derivation of emission factors. Therefore, existing estimates of primary sulfate emissions for these source categories are, probably, substanitally inflated. It also concludes that, for most source categories, very little confidence can be attached to the best estimates because of the paucity of data obtained from measurement techniques which are likely to be free of systematic bias. 68 references.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... factor plan requirements. 63.1431 Section 63.1431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... group determination procedures in the NESHAP for Group I Polymers and Resins (40 CFR part 63, subpart U... Production § 63.1431 Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements. (a) Applicability...

  11. Unidirectional total variation destriping using difference curvature in MODIS emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mi; Zheng, Xinghui; Pan, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method of unidirectional total variation destriping using difference curvature in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) emissive bands. First, difference curvature is utilized to extract spatial information at each pixel; and the spatially weighted parameters that constructed by extracted spatial information are incorporated into the unidirectional total variation model to adaptively adjust the destriping strength for achieving a better destriping result and preserving the detail information meantime. Second, the split Bregman iteration method is employed to optimize the proposed model. Finally, experimental results from MODIS emissive bands and comparisons with other methods demonstrate the potential of the presented method for MODIS image destriping.

  12. Evaluation of Blackbody Cavity Emissivity in the Infrared Using Total Integrated Scatter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Zeng, J.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2008-02-01

    Deviations from ideal blackbody (BB) behavior can be characterized by a BB’s effective emissivity. The cavity emissivity is most often obtained through a model, given a particular set of input parameters associated with the BB cavity geometry and surface optical properties. It can also be measured directly (radiance) or indirectly (reflectance). A study of BB cavity emissivity using the reflectance method is presented. Several types and designs of blackbody cavities, including those from fixed-point and water bath BBs, using our infrared total integrated scatter (ITIS) instrument for emissivity evaluation are examined. The emissivity is characterized as a function of position on the output aperture, as well as a function of output angle. The measurements have revealed emissivity values, both significantly greater than, and in confirmation of, modeling predictions. For instance, the emissivities of three fixed point BB cavity designs were found to vary significantly despite modeling predictions in the design process of similar behavior. Also, other BB cavities that exhibited poor emissivity performance were re-painted and re-machined, in one case more than once, before the predicted performance was achieved.

  13. Spectral and total temperature-dependent emissivities of few-layer structures on a metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2016-01-25

    We investigate the thermal radiative emission of few-layer structures deposited on a metallic substrate and its dependence on temperature with the Fluctuational Electrodynamics approach. We highlight the impact of the variations of the optical properties of metallic layers on their temperature-dependent emissivity. Fabry-Pérot spectral selection involving at most two transparent layers and one thin reflective layer leads to well-defined peaks and to the amplification of the substrate emission. For a single Fabry-Pérot layer on a reflective substrate, an optimal thickness that maximizes the emissivity of the structure can be determined at each temperature. A thin lossy layer deposited on the previous structure can enhance interference phenomena, and the analysis of the participation of each layer to the emission shows that the thin layer is the main source of emission. Eventually, we investigate a system with two Fabry-Pérot layers and a metallic thin layer, and we show that an optimal architecture can be found. The total hemispherical emissivity can be increased by one order of magnitude compared to the substrate emissivity. PMID:26832589

  14. Summary Report of the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership" provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processes, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drösler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water

  16. The Per Case and Total Annual Costs of Foodborne Illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Minor, Travis; Lasher, Angela; Klontz, Karl; Brown, Bradley; Nardinelli, Clark; Zorn, David

    2015-06-01

    We present an economic welfare-based method to estimate the health costs associated with foodborne illness caused by known viruses, bacteria, parasites, allergens, two marine biotoxins, and unspecified agents. The method generates health costs measured in both quality-adjusted life years and in dollars. We calculate the reduction in quality-adjusted life days caused by the illness and add reductions in quality-adjusted life years from any secondary effects that are estimated to occur. For fatal cases, we calculate the life years lost due to premature death. We add direct medical expenses to the monetary costs as derived from estimates of willingness to pay to reduce health risks. In total, we estimate that foodborne illness represents an annual burden to society of approximately $36 billion, with an average identified illness estimated to reduce quality-adjusted life days by 0.84, which is monetized and included in the average cost burden per illness of $3,630. PMID:25557397

  17. Ecosystem scale methane emission from a boreal wetland: Annual balances and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, J.; Alekseychik, P.; Haapanala, S.; Raivonen, M.; Mammarella, I.; Peltola, O.; Aurela, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Tuittila, E.; Vesala, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have conducted measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and a pristine boreal fen ecosystem, Siikaneva, continuously by eddy covariance technique since 2005. The results show methane emission to be a significant part of the carbon balance of this ecosystem. Methane emission also shows a strong seasonal cycle reflecting the seasonality of the driving variables in boreal regions. Of the environmental parameters, methane emission correlates best with peat temperature, whereas no correlation with water table position is found. The interannual variability of the annual methane emission is relatively low. We will explore the possible drivers of this variability. We also study the contribution of methane to the carbon balance in interannual scale. The effects of methane and carbon dioxide exchange of pristine wetland ecosystems on the radiative forcing will be discussed. Monthly means of ecosystem scale methane emission from Siikaneva fen during 2015-2010, with errorbars indicating standard deviations between years.

  18. METHOD 25 - DETERMINATION OF TOTAL GASEOUS NON-METHANE ORGANIC EMISSIONS AS CARBON FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 3.17 describes the procedures and specifications for determining volatile organic compounds as total gaseous non-methane organics from stationary sources. n emission sample is withdrawn from the stack at a constant rate through a heated filter and a chilled condensate tra...

  19. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  20. AUTOMATIC INTERFACING SYSTEM FOR SAMPLING TOTAL MERCURY IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interfacing system to sample total mercury emissions in source streams and suitably condition, dilute, and transport the sample to a mercury measuring instrument was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system consists of three components: a conditioner, a diluter, and a pump...

  1. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  2. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin unloading system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  3. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin overflow system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  6. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin master trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  10. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  11. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cleaner system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  14. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R.; Piotrowski, J.

    1997-12-31

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  15. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  16. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  17. The Total Hemispheric Emissivity of Painted Aluminum Honeycomb at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators or thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  18. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  19. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... FDIC invited public comment on proposed rules in January of 2012.\\9\\ \\9\\ Annual Stress Test, 77 FR 3408 (Jan. 24, 2012) (OCC); Annual Stress Test, 77 FR 3166 (Jan. 17, 2012) (FDIC). The Board is finalizing... the Board as specified in the Capital Assessments and Stress Testing information collection (FR...

  20. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED...

  1. 76 FR 3142 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  2. 75 FR 9601 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026—Assumed Loan Periods...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026—Assumed Loan Periods...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions...

  6. Evaluation of total volatile organic compound emissions from adhesives based on chamber tests.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Murray, F; Wilkinson, S

    2000-02-01

    In 1997, Homeswest in western Australia and Murdoch University developed a project to construct low-allergen houses (LAHs) in a newly developed suburb. Before the construction of LAHs, all potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emission materials used in LAHs are required to be measured to ensure that they are low total VOC (TVOC) emission materials. This program was developed based on this purpose. In recent times, the number of complaints about indoor air pollution caused by VOCs has increased. A number of surveys of indoor VOCs have indicated that many indoor materials contribute to indoor air pollution. Although some studies have been conducted on the characteristics of VOC emissions from adhesives, most of them were focused on VOC emissions from floor adhesives. Few measurements of VOC emissions from adhesives used for wood, fabrics, and leather are available. Furthermore, most research on VOC emissions from adhesives has been done in countries with cool climates, where ventilation rates in the indoor environment are lower than those in Mediterranean climates, due to energy conservation. VOCs emitted from adhesives have not been sufficiently researched to prepare an emission inventory to predict indoor air quality and to determine both exposure levels for the Australian population and the most appropriate strategies to reduce exposure. An environmental test chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity, and airflow rate was used to evaluate emissions of TVOCs from three adhesives used frequently in Australia. The quantity of TVOC emissions was measured by a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector. The primary VOCs emitted from each adhesive were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The temporal change of TVOC concentrations emitted from each adhesive was tested. A double-exponential equation was then developed to evaluate the characteristics of TVOC emissions from these three adhesives. With this double-exponential model, the

  7. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas

    2015-02-01

    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to

  8. Reduction potentials of total energy consumption and GHG emissions in Xiamen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, C.; Cui, S.

    2009-12-01

    Urban areas contain 40% of the population and contribute 75% of the Chinese national economy. The 35 largest cities in China, which contain 18% of the population, contribute 40% of China’s energy uses and CO2 emissions. Therefore, an insight into energy consumption and quantification of emissions from urban areas are extremely important for identifying effects of energy-saving policies and finding solution to GHG emissions in urban centers. This paper applies the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for modeling the total energy consumption and associated emissions from Xiamen city. Energy consumption under different sets of policy and technology options are analyzed for a time span of 2007-2020 and GHG emissions are estimated. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of Xiamen city. The ‘Business as Usual’ scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. The ‘Integrated’ scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control and new and renewable energy development and utilization are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen up to 2020 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the ‘Integrated’ scenario and the relative contribution rate of reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated.

  9. Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Kort, Eric A; Shepson, Paul B; Brewer, Alan; Cambaliza, Maria; Conley, Stephen A; Davis, Ken; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Mike; Herndon, Scott C; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lavoie, Tegan; Lyon, David; Newberger, Tim; Pétron, Gabrielle; Rella, Chris; Smith, Mackenzie; Wolter, Sonja; Yacovitch, Tara I; Tans, Pieter

    2015-07-01

    We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production. PMID:26148550

  10. Daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Rhoades, Marty B; Parker, David B; Casey, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive N to the environment, contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter, and represents a significant loss of N from beef cattle feedyards. We used open path laser spectroscopy and an inverse dispersion model to quantify daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual NH emissions during 2 yr from two commercial cattle feedyards in the Panhandle High Plains of Texas. Annual patterns of NH fluxes correlated with air temperature, with the greatest fluxes (>100 kg ha d) during the summer and the lowest fluxes (<15 kg ha d) during the winter. Mean monthly per capita emission rate (PCER) of NH-N at one feedyard ranged from 31 g NH-N head d (January) to 207 g NH-N head d (October), when increased dietary crude protein from wet distillers grains elevated emissions. Ammonia N emissions at the other feedyard ranged from 36 g NH-N head d (January) to 121 g NH-N head d (September). Monthly fractional NH-N loss ranged from a low of 19 to 24% to a high of 80 to 85% of fed N at the two feedyards. Seasonal PCER at the two feedyards averaged 60 to 71 g NH-N head d during winter and 103 to 158 g NH-N head d during summer. Annually, PCER was 115 and 80 g NH-N head d at the two feedyards, which represented 59 and 52% of N fed to the cattle. Detailed studies are needed to determine the effect of management and environmental variables such as diet, temperature, precipitation, and manure water content on NH emissions. PMID:21712577

  11. Joint EPA/DOE demonstration program for total mercury continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Rauenzahn, H.S.; Stevens, F.M.

    1997-06-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of mercury from hazardous waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. Continuous real-time monitoring of mercury would permit actual measurement of mercury emissions and permit measurement of real-time (actual) mercury emissions and allow accurate (realistic) human risk assessment from hazardous thermal treatment facility operation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations that require the use of total mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste. These proposed regulations also include draft performance specifications for mercury CEMs. This paper describes an ongoing joint EPA/DOE program to identify and demonstrate commercially available mercury CEMs that can meet the proposed EPA performance specification and includes initial instrument test results obtained. The complete demonstration consists of a six month performance test of several commercially available total mercury CEMs at a commercial cement kiln that co-fires hazardous waste. During the performance test, several indicators of CEM performance will be evaluated (as required in the proposed performance specification), including; zero and calibration drift, relative accuracy through comparison to EPA manual Reference Methods, calibration error through testing with calibration standards, and specific interference tests. The results of this extensive test program will be used to either confirm availability of mercury CEMs that meet the requirements in the proposed EPA performance specification, provide the necessary data for revision of the proposed mercury CEM performance specification, or reveal the need for further instrument development prior to deployment.

  12. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Saldaña, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  13. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  14. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  15. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  17. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  18. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of Environment... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural gas...

  19. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  20. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  1. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection of...—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  2. Implications of dairy systems on enteric methane and postulated effects on total greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Fredeen, A; Juurlink, S; Main, M; Astatkie, T; Martin, R C

    2013-11-01

    The effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) or pasture forage from a perennial sward under a management intensive grazing (MIG) regimen on grain intake and enteric methane (EM) emission were measured using chambers. Chamber measurement of EM was compared with that of SF6 employed both within chamber and when cows grazed in the field. The impacts of the diet on farm gate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission were also postulated using the results of existing life cycle assessments. Emission of EM was measured in gas collection chambers in Spring and Fall. In Spring, pasture forage fiber quality was higher than that of the silage used in the TMR (47.5% v. 56.3% NDF; 24.3% v. 37.9% ADF). Higher forage quality from MIG subsequently resulted in 25% less grain use relative to TMR (0.24 v. 0.32 kg dry matter/kg milk) for MIG compared with TMR. The Fall forage fiber quality was still better, but the higher quality of MIG pasture was not as pronounced as that in Spring. Neither yield of fat-corrected milk (FCM) which averaged 28.3 kg/day, nor EM emission which averaged 18.9 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) were significantly affected by diet in Spring. However, in the Fall, FCM from MIG (21.3 kg/day) was significantly lower than that from TMR (23.4 kg/day). Despite the differences in FCM yield, in terms of EM emission that averaged 21.9 g/kg DMI was not significantly different between the diets. In this study, grain requirement, but not EM, was a distinguishing feature of pasture and confinement systems. Considering the increased predicted GHG emissions arising from the production and use of grain needed to boost milk yield in confinement systems, EM intensity alone is a poor predictor of the potential impact of a dairy system on climate forcing. PMID:23896042

  3. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  4. Recent NASA/GSFC cryogenic measurements of the total hemispheric emissivity of black surface preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.

    2015-12-01

    High-emissivity (black) surfaces are commonly used on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Since 2011 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has measured the total hemispheric emissivity of such surfaces from 20 to 300 K using a test apparatus inside a small laboratory cryostat. We report the latest data from these measurements, including Aeroglaze Z307 paint, Black Kapton, and a configuration of painted aluminum honeycomb that was not previously tested. We also present the results of batch-to- batch reproducibility studies in Ball Infrared BlackTM and painted aluminum honeycomb. Finally, we describe a recently-adopted temperature control method which significantly speeds the data acquisition, and we discuss efforts to reduce the noise in future data.

  5. Scaling non-point-source mercury emissions from two active industrial gold mines: influential variables and annual emission estimates.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Miller, M B; Marsik, F

    2011-01-15

    Open-pit gold mines encompass thousands of hectares of disturbed materials that are often naturally enriched in mercury (Hg). The objective of this study was to estimate annual non-point-source Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Nevada. This was achieved by measuring diel and seasonally representative Hg fluxes from mesocosms of materials collected from each mine. These measurements provided a framework for scaling emissions over space and time at each mine by identifying the important variables correlated with Hg flux. The validity of these correlations was tested by comparisons with measurements conducted in situ at the mines. Of the average diel fluxes obtained in situ (92 daily flux measurements), 81% were within the 95% prediction limits of the regressions developed from the laboratory-derived data. Some surfaces at the mines could not be simulated in the laboratory setting (e.g., material actively leached by cyanide solution and tailings saturated with cyanide solution), and as such in situ data were applied for scaling. Based on the surface areas of the materials and environmental conditions at the mines during the year of study, non-point-source Hg releases were estimated to be 19 and 109 kg·year(-1). These account for 56% and 14%, respectively, of the overall emissions from each mine (point + nonpoint sources). Material being heap-leached and active tailings impoundments were the major contributors to the releases (>60% combined) suggesting that as mining operations cease, releases will decline. PMID:21142061

  6. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  7. Mapping mean total annual precipitation in Belgium, by investigating the scale of topographic control at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meersmans, J.; Van Weverberg, K.; De Baets, S.; De Ridder, F.; Palmer, S. J.; van Wesemael, B.; Quine, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Accurate precipitation maps are essential for ecological, environmental, element cycle and hydrological models that have a spatial output component. It is well known that topography has a major influence on the spatial distribution of precipitation and that increasing topographical complexity is associated with increased spatial heterogeneity in precipitation. This means that when mapping precipitation using classical interpolation techniques (e.g. regression, kriging, spline, inverse distance weighting, etc.), a climate measuring network with higher spatial density is needed in mountainous areas in order to obtain the same level of accuracy as compared to flatter regions. In this study, we present a mean total annual precipitation mapping technique that combines topographical information (i.e. elevation and slope orientation) with average total annual rain gauge data in order to overcome this problem. A unique feature of this paper is the identification of the scale at which topography influences the precipitation pattern as well as the direction of the dominant weather circulation. This method was applied for Belgium and surroundings and shows that the identification of the appropriate scale at which topographical obstacles impact precipitation is crucial in order to obtain reliable mean total annual precipitation maps. The dominant weather circulation is determined at 260°. Hence, this approach allows accurate mapping of mean annual precipitation patterns in regions characterized by rather high topographical complexity using a climate data network with a relatively low density and/or when more advanced precipitation measurement techniques, such as radar, aren't available, for example in the case of historical data.

  8. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  9. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ∼1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  10. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ˜1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  11. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P < 0.001) were measured for the perennial compared to the annual crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions. PMID:26491961

  12. Emission of submicron aerosol particles in cement kilns: Total concentration and size distribution.

    PubMed

    Rotatori, Mauro; Mosca, Silvia; Guerriero, Ettore; Febo, Antonio; Giusto, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Bianchini, Massimo; Ferrero, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Cement plants are responsible for particle and gaseous emissions into the atmosphere. With respect to particle emission, the greater part of is in the range from 0.05 to 5.0 µm in diameter. In the last years attention was paid to submicron particles, but there is a lack of available data on the emission from stationary sources. In this paper, concentration and size distribution of particles emitted from four cement kilns, in relationship to operational conditions (especially the use of alternative fuel to coal) of the clinker process are reported. Experimental campaigns were carried out by measuring particles concentration and size distribution at the stack of four cement plants through condensation particle counter (CPC) and scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS). Average total particle number concentrations were between 2000 and 4000 particles/cm³, about 8-10 times lower that those found in the corresponding surrounding areas. As for size distribution, for all the investigated plants it is stable with a unimodal distribution (120-150 nm), independent from the fuel used. PMID:25946956

  13. Compact non-contact total emission detection for in vivo multiphoton excitation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Combs, C A; Smirnov, A; Glancy, B; Karamzadeh, N S; Gandjbakhche, A H; Redford, G; Kilborn, K; Knutson, J R; Balaban, R S

    2014-02-01

    We describe a compact, non-contact design for a total emission detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multiphoton imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), whereas murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under twofold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a twofold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers, enabled by greater light collection efficiency, yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multiphoton imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  14. COMPACT NON-CONTACT TOTAL EMISSION DETECTION FOR IN-VIVO MULTI-PHOTON EXCITATION MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, Brian; Karamzadeh, Nader S.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Redford, Glen; Kilborn, Karl; Knutson, Jay R.; Balaban, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe a compact, non-contact design for a Total Emission Detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multi-photon imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), while murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under two-fold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a two-fold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers (enabled by greater light collection efficiency) yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multi-photon imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  15. Using Total Quality To Better Manage an Institutional Research Office. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann

    Responding to the call for higher education to adopt a new paradigm in managing its administrative processes, an Institutional Research Office at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Pennsylvania made a two-year effort to use a Total Quality approach in its management. Total Quality Management is a Japanese movement based on the teachings…

  16. How have both cultivation and warming influenced annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions since the preindustrial era?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Saito, K.; Takahashi, H. G.; Watanabe, M.; Yokohata, T.; Kimoto, M.; Takata, K.; Yasunari, T.

    2012-07-01

    To examine the influence of both crop cultivation and surface air temperature (SAT) on annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions, which can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we simulated the annual emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the period 1854-2000. The model estimates were based on historical climate data such as SATs, and downward solar radiation (DSR) reproduced with an atmospheric-ocean circulation model, as well as a time series of the global distribution of cropland (to test the hypothesis that conversion of forests into croplands lowers emissions). The simulations demonstrated that global SAT, DSR, the combination of SAT and DSR, and the expansion of cropland all affected emissions. The effect of cropland expansion (i.e., forest conversion) on annual emissions during this period was larger for isoprene (~7% reduction on a global scale) than for monoterpenes (~2% reduction), mainly because of the reduction in broadleaf evergreen forests (BEFs) in Southeast Asia, which have the highest and most constant emissions of isoprene and where both temperature and radiation are high all year round. The reduction in the Amazon region and in parts of Africa, which are other primary sources of annual global isoprene emissions, but where the conversion of BEF to cropland has been much smaller than in Southeast Asia, was less remarkable, probably because the broadleaf deciduous forests and C4 grasslands in these areas have lower and seasonal emissions; hence, their conversion has less effect. On the other hand, the difference in the emission factors (ɛ) between cropland and the other vegetation types was much lower for monoterpenes than for isoprene, although the ɛ for cropland was generally the lowest for both emissions. Thus, the expansion of cropland also contributed to the reduction in monoterpene emissions to some degree, but had less effect. A ~5% increase in emissions due to rising SAT was more than offset by

  17. How have both cultivation and warming influenced annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions since the preindustrial era?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Saito, K.; Takahashi, H. G.; Watanabe, M.; Yokohata, T.; Kimoto, M.; Takata, K.; Yasunari, T.

    2012-10-01

    To examine the influence of both crop cultivation and surface air temperatures (SATs) on annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions, which can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), we simulated, on a monthly basis, the annual emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the period 1854-2000. The model estimates were based on historical climate data such as SATs, and downward solar radiation (DSR) reproduced with an atmospheric-ocean circulation model, as well as a time series of the global distribution of cropland (to test the hypothesis that conversion of forests into croplands lowers emissions). The simulations demonstrated that global SAT, DSR, the combination of SAT and DSR, and the expansion of cropland all affected emissions. The effect of cropland expansion (i.e., forest conversion) on annual emissions during this period was larger for isoprene (~7% reduction on a global scale) than for monoterpenes (~2% reduction), mainly because of the reduction in broadleaf evergreen forests (BEFs) in Southeast Asia, which have the highest and most constant emissions of isoprene and where both temperature and radiation are high all year round. The reduction in the Amazon region and in parts of Africa, which are other primary sources of annual global isoprene emissions, but where the conversion of BEF to cropland has been much smaller than in Southeast Asia, was less remarkable, probably because the broadleaf deciduous forests and C4 grasslands in these areas have lower and seasonal emissions; hence, their conversion has less effect. On the other hand, the difference in the emission factors (ɛ) between cropland and the other vegetation types was much lower for monoterpenes than for isoprene, although the ɛ for cropland was generally the lowest for both compounds. Thus, the expansion of cropland also contributed to the reduction in monoterpene emissions to some degree, but had less effect. A ~5% increase in emissions due to rising SAT

  18. The Influence of Precipitation-Driven Annual Plant Growth on Dust Emission in the Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, F. E.; Reynolds, R. L.; Fulton, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Sparsely vegetated drylands are an important source for dust emission. However, little detail is known about dust generation in response to timing of precipitation and the consequent effects on soil and vegetation dynamics in these settings. This deficiency is especially acute at intermediate landscape scales, tens of meters to several hundred meters. It is essential to consider dust emission at this scale, because it links dust generation at scales of grains and wind tunnels with regional-scale dust examined using remotely sensed data from satellites. Three sites of slightly different geomorphic settings in the vicinity of Soda (dry) Lake were instrumented (in 1999) with meteorological and sediment transport sensors to measure wind erosion through saltating particle detection during high winds. Changes in vegetation in close proximity to the instrumented sites were bi-annually documented through measurements of plant type, cover, and repeat photographic imagery. Whereas high wind events are the dominant driver of saltation and dust emission, emissive conditions prevail only when annual plants are sparse or absent. Results show that wind erosion and dust emission at two study sites are highly variable and that such variability is dominantly related to vegetation type and cover as influenced by the amount and timing of antecedent precipitation. Secondary controls on dust emission are availability of new sediment related to flood deposits at the sites and seasonally differential wind strength. At sites where annual plants respond quickly and advantageously to precipitation, emissive conditions typically shut down because of vegetation growth within two to three months. This cover of annual plants, even when dead, persists in the desert landscape as a stabilizing agent for varying amounts of time, ten months to three years depending on the amount and vegetation type and subsequent input of precipitation and further annual plant growth. The lasting stabilization effect

  19. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  20. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  1. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  2. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... factory valued at $60 million. A will exchange the factory and $80 million cash for B's assets. To... acquire assets from B and add the remainder to the value of the factory. Thus, A has total assets of $65 million. Even though A will use the factory as part of the consideration for the acquisition, the value...

  3. Total Quality Management on Campus: Pipe Dream or New Paradigm? AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jann E.; And Others

    This study looked at how Total Quality Management (TQM) is being adopted in institutions of higher education. A questionnaire was developed seeking information on: (1) leadership of the TQM movement and timing of events; (2) the training, educating, and informing of employees; (3) specific areas using TQM and the specific statistical tools being…

  4. Constraints on total fire carbon emissions over maritime southeast Asia in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijnen, Vincent; Wooster, Martin; Kaiser, Johannes; Gaveau, David; Flemming, Johannes; Parrington, Mark; Inness, Antje; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Main, Bruce; van Weele, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes in the south of Kalimantan, the southeastern provinces of Sumatra, and West Papua, the extent of the fires was greatly inflated by an extended period of drought associated with a particularly strong El Niño. In this contribution we provide an estimate of the total carbon released in these fires, making use of satellite observations of the fire's radiative power output as processed with GFAS, applied in the modelling and assimilation framework of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS: http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/). The carbon emissions are further constrained with MOPITT atmospheric CO column measurements as well as unique on-site plume measurements on Kalimantan. We estimate the carbon emissions from the 2015 fires to be the largest over the maritime southeast Asian region since those associated with the record breaking El Niño of 1997.

  5. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  6. Measurement of the seasonal and annual variability of total column aerosol in a northeastern U.S. network

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Schlemmer, J.A.; Harrison, L.C.; Berkheiser, W.E. III; Larson, N.R.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1994-09-01

    A network of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers has operated since late 1991 in the northeastern US. The data acquired are simultaneous measurements of total and diffuse horizontal irradiances in six narrowband filtered detectors and one broadband shortwave detector. The direct normal irradiances are calculated from these measurements. These direct data are corrected for cosine response and used to calculate extraterrestrial irradiance (I{sub o}) using the Langley method of regressing the natural logarithm of direct irradiance versus air mass. With frequent determinations of I{sub o}, changes in I{sub o} caused by soiling and filter degradation, for example, can be tracked. Using these I{sub o}`s, total optical depth is calculated for every clear 30-minute period in the record. Consequently, total optical depth may be obtained on a fair number of days throughout the year. Using daily average total optical depth the authors have calculated aerosol optical depths for five wavelengths by subtracting Rayleigh scattering optical depths and Chappuis ozone absorption optical depths at each wavelength. The aerosol pattern at nearly every site is an annual cycle superimposed on a decaying stratospheric loading associated with the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. An attempt is made to remove the volcanic signal using data from another site.

  7. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (<5 pr-micrometer) is observed at middle and high latitudes in the fall and winter of both hemispheres. There are large differences in the hemispheric (north versus south) and seasonal (perihelion versus aphelion) behavior of water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  8. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Rayner, Peter; Baker, David; Liu, Yu-ping

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emission inventories enable sensitivity tests of simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations to sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions and what this implies for the interpretation of observed CO2. Six experiments are conducted to investigate the potential impact of three cycles of FFCO2 emission variability (diurnal, weekly and monthly) using a global tracer transport model. Results show an annual FFCO2 rectification varying from -1.35 to +0.13 ppm from the combination of all three cycles. This rectification is driven by a large negative diurnal FFCO2 rectification due to the covariation of diurnal FFCO2 emissions and diurnal vertical mixing, as well as a smaller positive seasonal FFCO2 rectification driven by the covariation of monthly FFCO2 emissions and monthly atmospheric transport. The diurnal FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a diurnal FFCO2 concentration amplitude of up to 9.12 ppm at the grid cell scale. Similarly, the monthly FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a simulated seasonal CO2 amplitude of up to 6.11 ppm at the grid cell scale. The impact of the diurnal FFCO2 emissions, when only sampled in the local afternoon, is also important, causing an increase of +1.13 ppmv at the grid cell scale. The simulated CO2 concentration impacts from the diurnally and seasonally varying FFCO2 emissions are centered over large source regions in the Northern Hemisphere, extending to downwind regions. This study demonstrates the influence of sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration and suggests that inversion studies must take account of these variations in the affected regions.

  9. N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers and their contribution to the total emissions of the WWTP.

    PubMed

    Mikola, Anna; Heinonen, Mari; Kosonen, Heta; Leppänen, Maarit; Rantanen, Pirjo; Vahala, Riku

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the emissions of nitrous oxide, N2O, constitute a major part of the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Denitrification occurring in the secondary clarifier basins has been observed by many researchers, but until now N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers have not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to measure the N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers and weigh the portion they could represent of the overall emissions at WWTPs. Online measurements over several days were carried out at four different municipal WWTPs in Finland in cold weather conditions (March) and in warm weather conditions (June-July). An attempt was made to define the conditions in which N2O emissions from secondary clarifiers may occur. It was evidenced that large amounts of N2O can be emitted from the secondary clarifiers, and that the emissions have long-term variation. It was assumed that part of the N2O released in secondary clarification was originally formed in the activated sludge basin. The emissions from secondary clarification thus seem to be dependent on conditions of the nitrification and denitrification accomplished in the denitrification-nitrification process and on the amount of sludge stored in the secondary clarifiers. PMID:25116504

  10. Cotton gin total particulate matter emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  11. Annual nitrous oxide emissions from intensively managed soils in Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariassen, J.; Matson, P.A.; Vitousek, P.M. NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1993-06-01

    High inputs of fertilizer N and other intensive cropping practices have become widespread in many agricultural areas of the tropics. In an effort to examine the effects of these practices on trace gas-atmosphere exchange we measured N[sub 2]O, CO[sub 2], and CH[sub 4] flux in a range of heavily fertilized sugar cane systems. Annual N[sub 2]O fluxes during 1992 appeared to be highest on the leeward or dry side of the island ranging from 20-40 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; roughly 50% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. On the windward wet side of the island N[sub 2]O fluxes ranged from about 11-30 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; from 10 to 30% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. Methane was usually taken up by these soils and variability was slightly higher on the wet side vs. the dry side; although the CO[sub 2] data set was small, flux appeared to be higher on the wet side vs. the dry side.

  12. Total hemispherical emissivity of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) candidate materials: Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, and Alloy 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Raymond K.

    An experimental system was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06 to measure the total hemispherical emissivity of structural materials of interest in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) systems. The system was tested with304 stainless steel as well as for oxidized and un-oxidized nickel, and good reproducibility and agreement with the literature data was found. Emissivity of Hastelloy X was measured under different conditions that included: (i) "as received" (original sample) from the supplier; (ii) with increased surface roughness; (iii) oxidized, and; (iv) graphite coated. Measurements were made over a wide range of temperatures. Hastelloy X, as received from the supplier, was cleaned before additional roughening of the surface and coating with graphite. The emissivity of the original samples (cleaned after received) varied from around 0.18 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The apparent emissivity increased only slightly as the roughness of the surface increased (without corrections for the increased surface area due to the increased surface roughness). When Hastelloy X was coated with graphite or oxidized however, its emissivity was observed to increase substantially. With a deposited graphite layer on the Hastelloy, emissivity increased from 0.2 to 0.53 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.6 at 1473 K; a finding that has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident VHTR environments. Although initial oxidation of Hastelloy X increased the emissivity prolonged oxidation did not significantly increase emissivity. However as there is some oxidation of Hastelloy X used in the construction of VHTRs, this represents an essentially neutral finding in terms of the safety implications in post-accident VHTR environments. The total hemispherical emissivity of Haynes 230 alloy, which is regarded as a leading candidate material for heat exchangers in VHTR systems, was measured under various surface

  13. Online-simulation of the WWTP to minimise the total emission of WWTP and sewer system.

    PubMed

    Seggelke, K; Rosenwinkel, K H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the application of a WWTP-Online-Simulation with the objective to reduce the total emission into the receiving waters is explained. Apart from an introduction and a short description of the possible reduction potentials, first results of the current research project (financed by the German ministry BMBF) are presented. Results of the pilot plant with different experiments of increased stormwater inflow than usual and different control strategies showed the possibility to treat stormwater up to the quadruple dry-weather flow while still meeting the effluent values. However, this is not always guaranteed, and thus a monitoring system with integrated control strategies which is adapted to the load case "stormwater" with prognosis load cases becomes necessary. In the presented example, the simulation (Activated Sludge Model 2d) achieved an excellent match with the measured effluent values of the aeration tank (NH4-N, NO3-N) over a period of several months. The most important prerequisites for good (online-) simulation results are the exact knowledge of the plant and the plausibility and alternative concepts for the measured values in case of sensor failure. PMID:11902459

  14. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to

  15. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

  16. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  17. Importance of the autumn overturn and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion for the annual methane emissions from a temperate lake.

    PubMed

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate that anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumn overturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane was emitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ∼80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosphere. After the overturn period, the entire water column was oxic, and only 1% of the original quantity of methane remained in the water column. Current estimates of global methane emissions assume that all of the stored methane is released, whereas several studies of individual lakes have suggested that a major fraction of the stored methane is oxidized during overturns. Our results provide evidence that not all of the stored methane is released to the atmosphere during the overturn period. However, the fraction of stored methane emitted to the atmosphere during overturn may be substantially larger and the fraction of stored methane oxidized may be smaller than in the previous studies suggesting high oxidation losses of methane. The development or change in the vertical extent and duration of the anoxic hypolimnion, which can represent the main source of annual methane emissions from small lakes, may be an important aspect to consider for impact assessments of climate warming on the methane emissions from lakes. PMID:24873684

  18. Role of the biomass burning emission on the total peroxy nitrates measured during the BORTAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Di Carlo, Piero; Busilacchio, Marcella; Verdecchia, Marco; Tomassetti, Barbara; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Hopkins, James; Punjabi, Shalini; Andrews, Stephen; Lewis, Alistair C.; Palmer, Paul P.; Hyer, Edward; Breton, Michael L.; Percival, Carl

    2016-04-01

    During the BORTAS (BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) campaign, carried out in the Eastern Canada during the summer 2011, the total peroxy nitrates (∑PNs) concentrations have been measured using the TD-LIF (Thermal Dissociation - Laser Induced Fluorescence) instrument (Di Carlo et al., 2013) developed at the University of L'Aquila (Italy). In our analysis, we observed a strong correlation between the CO, a well-known BB tracer, and the ∑PNs suggesting the possibility to use also the ∑PNs as BB tracer for the identification of a BB plume. Moreover, Alvarado et al. (2010) demonstrated that, in the first few hours after the emissions by fires, the 40% of the NOx emitted is converted into PAN, confirming that the ∑PNs are strongly produced by BB. We used different methods for the identification of a BB plume using the ∑PNs as a tracer. Moreover, we will show the comparison between our results and the results obtained using other methods available in literature. We will illustrate in detail two case studies in which the ∑PNs and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN) measurements help for a more specific identification of a BB plume. Our results have been confirmed using an artificial neural network model (Biancofiore et al., 2015). References Alvarado, M. J., Logan, J. A., Mao, J., Apel E, Riemer, D., Blake, D., Cohen, R. C., Min, K.-E., Perring, A. E., Browne, E.C., Wooldridge, P. J., Diskin, G. S., Sachse, G.W., Fuelberg, H., Sessions, W. R., Harrigan, D. L., Huey, G., Liao, J., Case-Hanks, A., Jimenez, J. L., Cubison, M. J., Vay, S. A., Weinheimer, A. J., Knapp, D. J., Montzka, D. D., Flocke, F. M., Pollack, I. B., Wennberg, P. O., Kurten, A., Crounse, J., St. Clair, J. M., Wisthaler, A., Mikoviny, T., Yantosca, R. M., Carouge, C. C., and Le Sager, P.: Nitrogen oxides and PAN in plumes from boreal fires during ARCTAS-B and their impact on ozone: an integrated analysis of aircraft and satellite observations

  19. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  20. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile isotopic methane analysis based on Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Winkler, Renato; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Crosson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the isotopic carbon signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of methane using a mobile spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Performance of the CRDS isotope analyzer is presented, including precision, calibration, stability, and the potential for measurement bias due to other atmospheric constituents. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to

  1. Mote cyclone robber system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  2. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A ...

  3. Overflow system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  4. Combined mote system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  5. 2nd stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  8. Master trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  9. Unloading system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  10. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  11. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin third stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  14. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These

  15. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.

    1994-12-15

    SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Limb observations of the 12.32 micron solar emission line during the 1991 July total eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Mccabe, George; Noyes, Robert; Wiedemann, Gunter; Espenak, Fred

    1992-01-01

    The limb profile of the Mg I 12.32-micron emission line is determined by occultation in the July 11, 1991 total solar eclipse over Mauna Kea. It is shown that the emission peaks are very close to the 12-micron continuum limb, as predicted by recent theory for this line as a non-LTE photospheric emission. The increase in optical depth for this extreme limb-viewing situation indicates that most of the observed emission arises from above the chromospheric temperature minimum, and it is found that this emission is extended to heights well in excess of the model predictions. The line emission can be observed as high as 2000 km above the 12-micron continuum limb, whereas theory predicts it to remain observable no higher than about 500 km above the continuum limb. The substantial limb extension observed in this line is quantitatively consistent with limb extensions seen in the far-IR continuum, and it is concluded that it is indicative of departures from gravitational hydrostatic equilibrium, or spatial inhomogeneities, in the upper solar atmosphere.

  17. Effects of organic matter amendments on net primary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's grasslands are managed for livestock production. A critical component of the long-term sustainability and profitability of rangelands (e.g., grazed grassland ecosystems) is the maintenance of plant production. Amending grassland soils with organic waste has been proposed as a means to increase net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) storage, while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. Few studies have evaluated the effects of amendments on the C balance and greenhouse gas dynamics of grasslands. We used field manipulations replicated within and across two rangelands (a valley grassland and a coastal grassland) to determine the effects of a single application of composted green waste amendments on NPP and greenhouse gas emissions over three years. Amendments elevated total soil respiration by 18% +/- 4% at both sites but had no effect on nitrous oxide or methane emissions. Carbon losses were significantly offset by greater and sustained plant production. Amendments stimulated both above- and belowground NPP by 2.1 +/- 0.8 Mg C/ha to 4.7 +/- 0.7 Mg C/ha (mean +/- SE) over the three-year study period. Net ecosystem C storage increased by 25-70% without including the direct addition of compost C. The estimated magnitude of net ecosystem C storage was sensitive to estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration but was greater than controls in five out of six fields that received amendments. The sixth plot was the only one that exhibited lower soil moisture than the control, suggesting an important role of water limitation in these seasonally dry ecosystems. Treatment effects persisted over the course of the study, which were likely derived from increased water-holding capacity in most plots, and slow-release fertilization from compost decomposition. We conclude that a single application of composted organic matter can significantly increase grassland C storage, and that effects of a single application are likely to

  18. Ionospheric total electron content, thermospheric emission and and stratospheric temperature dynamics during the SC23 deep solar minimum: 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Ao, C. O.; Runge, T.

    2011-12-01

    We will study external driving of the ionosphere-thermosphere and stratosphere systems during the deep solar minimum: the WHI 2008 interval as well as 2009. We report evidence of prompt penetrating interplanetary electric fields (PPEFs) into the ionosphere during CIR/HSS intervals for both 2008 and 2009. Daily averages of vertical daytime total electron content (VTEC) derived from GPS measurements from the JPL database are studied. VTEC data show the well-known semi-annual anomalies especially prominent in the low latitude ionosphere. Low- to middle-latitude VTEC variability is shown to coincide with PPEF events. Somewhat decreased variability is found around the solstices. CIR/HSS intervals are typically characterized by high energy deposition into the auroral regions through increased Joule heating and particle precipitation. Elevated nitric oxide densities and temperatures in the thermosphere lead to variations in corresponding infrared emission. We present measurements from SABER/TIMED of NO and CO2 emissions during 2008-2009 to illustrate efficient thermospheric response to moderate external driving and I-T dynamics throughout the time interval. We will discuss solar and geomagnetic activity influences on climate by analyzing lower stratospheric temperatures using GPS radio occultation measurements from CHAMP. Results for the deep solar minimum will be compared with the declining phase and solar maximum conditions.

  19. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Crosson, E.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the δ13CH4 signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of mobile field δ13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to arrive at an overall isotope ratio for the region. (left panel) Distribution of oil and gas well pads (yellow) and landfills (blue) in the Dallas / Ft. Worth area. Mobile nocturnal measurements

  20. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making

  1. Constant-Pressure Specific Heat to Hemispherical Total Emissivity Ratio for Undercooled Liquid Nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c(sub p)(T)epsilon(sub T)(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c(sub p)(T) if epsilon(sub T)(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemi-spherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, epsilon(sub T)(T(sub M)), have been determined using c(sub p)(T(sub m)) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  2. Emissions tradeoffs among alternative marine fuels: total fuel cycle analysis of residual oil, marine gas oil, and marine diesel oil.

    PubMed

    Corbett, James J; Winebrake, James J

    2008-04-01

    Worldwide concerns about sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships are motivating the replacement of marine residual oil (RO) with cleaner, lower-sulfur fuels, such as marine gas oil (MGO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Vessel operators can use MGO and MDO directly or blended with RO to achieve environmental and economic objectives. Although expected to be much cleaner in terms of criteria pollutants, these fuels require additional energy in the upstream stages of the fuel cycle (i.e., fuel processing and refining), and thus raise questions about the net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2]) because of production and use. This paper applies the Total Energy and Environmental Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model to conduct a total fuel cycle analysis of RO, MGO, MDO, and associated blends for a typical container ship. MGO and MDO blends achieve significant (70-85%) SOx emissions reductions compared with RO across a range of fuel quality and refining efficiency assumptions. We estimate CO2 increases of less than 1% using best estimates of fuel quality and refinery efficiency parameters and demonstrate how these results vary based on parameter assumptions. Our analysis suggests that product refining efficiency influences the CO2 tradeoff more than differences in the physical and energy parameters of the alternative fuels, suggesting that modest increases in CO2 could be offset by efficiency improvements at some refineries. Our results help resolve conflicting estimates of greenhouse gas tradeoffs associated with fuel switching and other emissions control policies. PMID:18422040

  3. Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L.; Patterson, P.

    1997-09-17

    Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

  4. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  5. Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis

  6. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia’s harvest, 1965–2065

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). Results The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC’s greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC’s protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. Conclusions This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products. PMID:22828161

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  8. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  9. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  10. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  11. Characterization of odor emission from alternating aerobic and anoxic activated sludge systems using real-time total reduced sulfur analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Lee, Hyunjoo; Choi, Eunsun; Choi, Il; Shin, Taesub; Im, Hyungjoon; Ahn, Soobin

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of sulfur-containing compounds always generates volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). VSC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in odor complaints from people living nearby. To control odor-causing compounds in WWTPs, it is important to know the odor emission quantity particularly with continuous monitoring. Since modified activated sludge processes always include anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions for nutrient removal, odor emission from these different environmental settings is expected. In this study, continuous monitoring of VSCs from the headspace of an alternating aerobic and anoxic (AAA) activated sludge process via total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer was performed. There is clear pattern of the initial TRS peak immediately after the initiation of the aeration in the AAA system and TRS concentration begins to drop through the remaining air-on cycle. On the other hand, during the air-off period, TRS concentrations increase with time. In particular, a clear inflection point in the TRS profile could be observed after complete removal of nitrate during air-off, meaning more VSCs formation. Since the highest odor emission occurs after the initiation of aeration, the future control of exhausted air should only deal with air collected during the initial aeration period (e.g., 30min), a similar concept for the treatment of first flush in combined sewer overflow. In addition, application of a control scheme to initiate aeration immediately after denitrification is completed during air-off should be beneficial in reducing odor emission. PMID:25180483

  12. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  13. Nondestructive Total Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Microscopy Combined with Multi-Way Chemometric Analysis for Visually Indistinguishable Single Fiber Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio; Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Goicoechea, Hector C; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-03-01

    The potential of total excitation-emission fluorescence microscopy combined with multiway chemometric analysis was investigated for the nondestructive forensic analysis of textile fibers. The four pairs of visually indistinguishable fibers consisted of nylon 361 dyed with acid yellow 17 and acid yellow 23, acetate satin 105B dyed with disperse blue 3 and disperse blue 14, polyester 777 dyed with disperse red 1 and disperse red 19, and acrylic 864 dyed with basic green 1 and basic green 4. Excitation emission matrices were recorded with the aid of an inverted microscope and a commercial spectrofluorimeter. The full information content of excitation-emission matrices was processed with the aid of unsupervised parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), PARAFAC supervised by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and discriminant unfolded partial least-squares (DU-PLS). The ability of the latter algorithm to classify the four pairs of fibers demonstrates the advantage of using the multidimensionality of fluorescence data formats for the nondestructive analysis of forensic fiber evidence. PMID:26861578

  14. 77 FR 24382 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Annual Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... emissions of oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds from that source. The first statement shall... stationary sources located in these areas with actual emissions of 25 tons per year or more of volatile... when the pre-existing 1-hour ozone standard was promulgated (62 FR 38855).\\1\\ \\1\\ EPA issued a...

  15. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Readily implementable techniques can cut annual CO2 emissions from the production of concrete by over 20%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Due to its prevalence in modern infrastructure, concrete is experiencing the most rapid increase in consumption among globally common structural materials; however, the production of concrete results in approximately 8.6% of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Many methods have been developed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of concrete. These methods range from the replacement of inefficient manufacturing equipment to alternative binders and the use of breakthrough technologies; nevertheless, many of these methods have barriers to implementation. In this research, we examine the extent to which the increased use of several currently implemented methods can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in concrete material production without requiring new technologies, changes in production, or novel material use. This research shows that, through increased use of common supplementary cementitious materials, appropriate selection of proportions for cement replacement, and increased concrete design age, 24% of greenhouse gas emissions from global concrete production or 650 million tonnes (Mt) CO2-eq can be eliminated annually.

  17. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J. ); Ciriacks, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia.

  18. Denitrification and N2O emissions in annual croplands, perennial grass buffers, and restored perennial grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFS) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease nitrate (NO3) losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFS are similar to riparian buffers, PFS are a relatively new conservation tool and the processes responsible for NO3 removal f...

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  20. Inter-annual variations of methane emission from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: a three-year study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yanfen; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiu'an; Yang, Gang; Gao, Yongheng; Fang, Xiuqin; Wang, Xu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to understand the inter-annual variations of methane (CH(4)) emissions from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) from 2005 to 2007. The weighted mean CH(4) emission rate was 8.37±11.32 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1) during the summers from 2005 to 2007, falling in the range of CH(4) fluxes reported by other studies, with significant inter-annual and spatial variations. The CH(4) emissions of the year of 2006 (2.11±3.48 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1)) were 82% lower than the mean value of the years 2005 and 2007 (13.91±17.80 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1) and 9.44±14.32 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1), respectively), responding to the inter-annual changes of standing water depths during the growing season of the three years. Significant drawdown of standing water depth is believed to cause such significant reduction in CH(4) emissions from wetlands in the year 2006, probably through changing the methanogen composition and decreasing its community size as well as activating methanotrophs to enhance CH(4) oxidation. Our results are helpful to understand the inter-annual variations of CH(4) emission and provide a more reasonable regional budget of CH(4) emission from wetlands on the QTP and even for world-wide natural wetlands under climate change. PMID:23342029

  1. Development of a method for estimating total CH4 emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model.

    PubMed

    Katayanagi, Nobuko; Fumoto, Tamon; Hayano, Michiko; Takata, Yusuke; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Shirato, Yasuhito; Sawano, Shinji; Kajiura, Masako; Sudo, Shigeto; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2016-03-15

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas, and paddy fields are one of its main anthropogenic emission sources. To mitigate this emission based on effective management measures, CH4 emission from paddy fields must be quantified at a national scale. In Japan, country-specific emission factors have been applied since 2003 to estimate national CH4 emission from paddy fields. However, this method cannot account for the effects of weather conditions and temporal variability of nitrogen fertilizer and organic matter application rates; thus, the estimated emission is highly uncertain. To improve the accuracy of national-scale estimates, we calculated country-specific emission factors using the DeNitrification-DeComposition-Rice (DNDC-Rice) model. First, we calculated CH4 emission from 1981 to 2010 using 986 datasets that included soil properties, meteorological data, and field management data. Using the simulated site-specific emission, we calculated annual mean emission for each of Japan's seven administrative regions, two water management regimes (continuous flooding and conventional mid-season drainage), and three soil drainage rates (slow, moderate, and fast). The mean emission was positively correlated with organic carbon input to the field, and we developed linear regressions for the relationships among the regions, water management regimes, and drainage rates. The regression results were within the range of published observation values for site-specific relationships between CH4 emission and organic carbon input rates. This suggests that the regressions provide a simplified method for estimating CH4 emission from Japanese paddy fields, though some modifications can further improve the estimation accuracy. PMID:26802630

  2. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  3. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  4. Indirect Estimates of the Total Gas Content of SDSS-IV/MaNGA Galaxies from Optical Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremonti, Christina A.; Pace, Zachary; Andrews, Brett; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; Martinsson, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Stark, David; Sanchez, Sebastian; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    To understand galaxy evolution it is critical to obtain a census of both the stellar and gaseous contents of galaxies. The SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will deliver exquisite stellar mass maps of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. However, radio surveys capable of providing matched resolution gas data for a large fraction of the MaNGA sample are a decade or more away. We are therefore exploring a new technique for obtaining maps of the total gas content directly from the MaNGA data. Following the method outlined in Brinchmann et al. 2013, we use the dust optical depth and the nebular metallicity measured from optical emission lines to estimate the total gas surface density in individual spaxels. We combine this with estimates of the stellar mass in each spaxel to produce spatially resolved estimates of the gas mass fraction. We compare trends in the global gas mass fraction with stellar mass and NUV-r color to those found in the literature. We explore how the radial gas mass fraction gradients of MaNGA galaxies correlate with other properties such as total stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SFR/M*), concentration, and environment.

  5. Simple approximation of total emissivity of CO2-H2O mixture used in the zonal method of calculation of heat transfer by radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisienko, V. G.; Malikov, G. K.; Titaev, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents a new simple-to-use expression to calculate the total emissivity of a mixture of gases CO2 and H2O used for modeling heat transfer by radiation in industrial furnaces. The accuracy of this expression is evaluated using the exponential wide band model. It is found that the time taken to calculate the total emissivity in this expression is 1.5 times less than in other approximation methods.

  6. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  7. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. PMID:25863508

  8. Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k = 0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k = 0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration

  9. Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea; Donateo, Antonio; Cescon, Paolo; Cesari, Daniela; Merico, Eva; Belosi, Franco; Citron, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas.

  10. Monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive nitrogen to the environment and contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter. Accurate ammonia emissions are required because, beginning in 2009, most feedyards are required by the Emergency Plannin...

  11. Annual emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from natural sources in Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Gustin, M.S.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural source emissions on atmospheric mercury concentrations and the biogeochemical cycle of mercury is not known. To begin to assess this impact, mercury emissions to the atmosphere were scaled up for three areas naturally enriched in mercury: the Steamboat Springs geothermal area, Nevada, the New Idria mercury mining district, California, and the Medicine Lake volcano, California. Data used to scale up area emissions included mercury fluxes, measured in-situ using field flux chambers, from undisturbed and disturbed geologic substrates, and relationships between mercury emissions and geologic rock types, soil mercury concentrations, and surface heat flux. At select locations mercury fluxes were measured for 24 h and the data were used to adjust fluxes measured at different times of the day to give an average daily flux. This adjustment minimized daily temporal variability, which is observed for mercury flux because of light and temperature effects. Area emissions were scaled spatially and temporally with GIS software. Measured fluxes ranged from 0.3 to approximately 50 ng m-2 h-1 at undisturbed sites devoid of mercury mineralization, and to greater than 10,000 ng m-2 h-1 from substrates that were in areas of mercury mining. Area-averaged fluxes calculated for bare soil at Steamboat Springs, New Idria, and Medicine Lake of 181, 9.2, and 2 ng m-2 h-1, respectively, are greater than fluxes previously ascribed to natural non-point sources, indicating that these sources may be more significant contributors of mercury to the atmosphere than previously realized.

  12. Total hydrocarbon emission testing of waste-water sludge incinerators. Volume 1. Final report 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Chehaske, J.T.; DeWees, W.G.; Lewis, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The U.S. EPA is considering continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from all wastewater sludge incincerators. The study was conducted to determine the reliability of total hydrocarbon analyzers (THCAs) in the application. Continuous monitors for oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), THC, and temperature were installed at two municipal wastewater sludge incinerators. The O2 data were used to normalize the measured THC concentrations to 7% O2. CO was measured to determine if it could be used as a surrogate for THC measurements. The two THCAs performed very well, achieving 94 and 90% on-line availability at the two sampling sites, respectively. The O2 and CO analyzers also worked well. There were initial problems with the sample conditioning system that is necessary for the CO and O2 monitors, but successful operation was achieved after it was modified. The report presents graphical and tabular summaries of the results. The report covers a period from February 1991 to September 1991, and work was completed as of May 29, 1992.

  13. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Robert A.

    Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

  14. Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring in Davos, Switzerland, Before, During and After the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Davis, Ken; Richardson, Scott; Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Deng, Aijun; Calonder, Gian-Paul; Ruesch, Marc; Lehning, Michael; Bals, Andre; DeCola, Phil; Rella, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions require validation. Atmospheric measurements capture all emissions, and provide a unique and powerful means of continuous validation and feedback. To demonstrate the utility of real time greenhouse gas measurements, in-situ GHG mixing ratio instruments were deployed in Davos, Switzerland to measure emissions from the city before, during and after the World Economic Forum (WEF). Three Instruments were deployed at two separate locations over 3 months (late December 2011 to February 2012). One site was located in the middle of the Davos urban area and a second site was located out of the valley in the surrounding mountains. Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) were measured continuously by Picarro G2401 instruments at both sites. Additionally, a Picarro flux analyzer was deployed in the city to evaluate the inverse fluxes. The mesoscale atmospheric model, WRF nudged to meteorological observations (WRF-FDDA), was used to simulate the transport of GHG over the valley of Davos at 1.3km resolution. A Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) from Sigma Space was deployed to evaluate the simulated planetary boundary layer depth from the WRF-FDDA model. The initial flux estimates for CO2 were constructed based on inventories reported for 2005. CO2 mixing ratio measurements prior to WEF suggest the difference between modeled (real-time) and inventory (annual) emissions to be on the order of +40%. The enhancement is likely due to the increased use of heating fuel in the winter. We present here the temporal variability in the inverse fluxes, which are correlated with a cold wave severely affecting Western Europe during the past winter, as well as changes in anthropogenic activities during the week of the WEF meeting. Also presented are new analyses of composite diurnal cycles of hourly CO/CO2 ratios, which provide additional information on the contributions of traffic relative to heating

  15. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  16. Quantifying Total and Reactive Gaseous Mercury Emissions from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacht, D. M.; Gustin, M. S.; Engle, M. A.; Zehner, R. E.; Giglini, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is generally assumed that elemental mercury is the dominant form of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, small amounts of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM) have been measured. RGM species are at least 105 times more water soluble, more chemically reactive, and exhibit far greater wet and dry deposition rates than elemental mercury. This study evaluated mercury fluxes to the atmosphere and RGM concentrations at the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site. Mercury emissions were measured from 17 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 6 locations offsite. Measured mercury fluxes ranged from 14 to 6895 ng m-2 hr-1 and were correlated with substrate mercury concentrations. RGM concentrations were measured with annular denuders at 8 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 2 locations offsite. RGM concentrations measured over the background Franciscan Sediments, during the day, ranged from 0.49 to 0.73 ng m-3, while concentrations measured over tailings, during the day, ranged from 1.79 to 75.88 ng m-3. RGM concentrations, measured during three week long sampling trips, ranged from ~ 0.03 to 70.76 % of total Hg concentrations with the highest percentage measured over the waste rock dam and in hydrothermally active areas. In a comparison of the use of annular versus tubular denuders for the measurement of RGM, it was found that they gave similar concentrations however annular denuders yielded less variability. Two Geographic Information System models were used to estimate mercury emissions from the SBMM site. These two models gave a range of 4.2 to 9.4 kg Hg yr-1.

  17. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2009-10-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM). The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM) yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  18. Examination of rotational fixation of the femoral component in total hip arthroplasty. A mechanical study of micromovement and acoustic emission.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, H; Whiteside, L A; Kaiser, A D

    1989-12-01

    Rotational loosening has recently emerged as an important cause of failure of the femoral component of total hip arthroplasties. This study was designed to investigate the role played by torsional loads in loosening of cementless femoral components and to evaluate three cementing techniques involving a combination of canal irrigation, manual insertion, and vacuum mixing combined with pressure injection of the cement for their ability to improve rotational fixation. Rotational micromotion and subsidence were measured in 24 preserved human anatomic specimen femora. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied as a non-destructive method for evaluating material failure during loading. From the micromovement data, torque to 50 mu subsidence and torque to failure were surprisingly low with cementless fixation and with poor cement technique but were markedly improved with pulsed irrigation. Further improvement was achieved by pressure injection and vacuum mixing of the cement. However, AE was detected even in the most carefully performed cement specimens under torsional-loading conditions commonly occurring in daily activities. These signs of microfailure of the cement mantle at relatively low torsional loads suggest that the mode of failure of deeply penetrated cement is by microfracture of the cement mantle. The poor performance suggests that cementless fixation of intramedullary stems provides unsatisfactory fixation against torsional loading. There is need for major improvements in fixation mechanisms and techniques. The signs of failure of the cement mantle at normally occurring torsional loads suggest that even the best cement technique is prone to failure in torsion when exposed to normal daily use. PMID:2582663

  19. Development of a tunable diode laser absorption sensor for online monitoring of industrial gas total emissions based on optical scintillation cross-correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhirong; Pang, Tao; Yang, Yang; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Sun, Pengshuai; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-05-16

    We report the first application of gas total emission using a DFB diode laser for gas concentration measurements combined with two LEDs for gas velocity measurements. In situ gas total emissions and particle density measurements in an industrial pipeline using simultaneous tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical scintillation cross-correlation technique (OSCC) are presented. Velocity mean values obtained are 7.59 m/s (OSCC, standard deviation is 1.37 m/s) and 8.20 m/s (Pitot tube, standard deviation is 1.47 m/s) in a steel plant pipeline for comparison. Our experiments demonstrate that the combined system of TDLAS and OSCC provides a new versatile tool for accurate measurements of total gas emissions. PMID:27409967

  20. Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the total biogenic VOC emissions of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen

    Emission rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant emissions. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The emission rates of the total assigned organic plant emissions ranged from 0.01 μ g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 μg g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our emission rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing emissions of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). Emission rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (emission rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the total assigned emissions of 0.2 μg g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20°C.

  1. The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity: Extending the boundaries of total quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, Geoffrey B. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor); Still, William T. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity provided a forum to exchange knowledge and experiences in these areas of continuous improvement. The more than 1,100 attendees from government, industry, academia, community groups, and the international arena had a chance to learn about methods, tools, and strategies for excellence and to discuss continuous improvement strategies, successes, and failures. This event, linked via satellite to concurrent conferences hosted by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado, also explored extending the boundaries of Total Quality Management to include partnerships for quality within communities and encouraged examination, evaluation, and change to incorporate the principles of continuous improvement.

  2. Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

    1995-02-01

    Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

  3. Source fingerprint monitoring of air pollutants from petrochemical industry and the determination of their annual emission flux using open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yih-Shiaw Huang; Shih-Yi Chang; Tai-Ly Tso

    1996-12-31

    Toxic air pollutants were investigated in several petrochemical industrial park in Taiwan using a movable open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show the qualitative and quantitative analysis of emission gases from plants, and also provide the emission rates of various compounds. More than twenty compounds under usual operation were found from these industrial park. The concentration variation with time could be correlated exactly with the distances from the emission source along the wind direction. This means that by changing the measuring points the source of emission could be unambiguously identified. The point, area and line source (PAL) plume dispersion model has been applied to estimate the emission rate of either a point or an area source. The local atmospheric stability was determined by releasing an SF{sub 6} tracer. The origin of errors came mainly from the uncertainty of the source configuration and the variation of the meteorological condition. Through continuous measurement using a portable open-path Fourier transform infrared (POP-FTIR) spectrometer, the maximum value of the emission rate and the annual amount of emission could be derived. The emission rate of the measured toxic gases was derived by the model technique, and the results show that the emission amount is on the order of ten to hundred tons per year.

  4. Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE ROLE OF TOTAL AND GAS-PHASE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, Gregory A.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Salviander, Sarah E-mail: randi@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have Fe II emission from the broad-line region (BLR) that differs greatly in strength from object to object. We examine the role of the total and gas-phase iron abundance in determining Fe II strength. Using AGN spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.35, we measure the Fe/Ne abundance of the narrow-line region (NLR) using the [Fe VII]/[Ne V] line intensity ratio. We find no significant difference in the abundance of Fe relative to Ne in the NLR as a function of Fe II/H{beta}. However, the [N II]/[S II] ratio increases by a factor of 2 with increasing Fe II strength. This indicates a trend in N/S abundance ratio, and by implication in the overall metallicity of the NLR gas, with increasing Fe II strength. We propose that the wide range of Fe II strength in AGN largely results from the selective depletion of Fe into grains in the low ionization portion of the BLR. Photoionization models show that the strength of the optical Fe II lines varies almost linearly with gas-phase Fe abundance, while the ultraviolet Fe II strength varies more weakly. Interstellar depletions of Fe can be as large as 2 orders of magnitude, sufficient to explain the wide range of optical Fe II strength in AGNs. This picture is consistent with the similarity of the BLR radius to the dust sublimation radius and with indications of Fe II emitting gas flowing inward from the dusty torus.

  5. 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. Emissions and Total Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in emissions and performance. Therefore, engine emissions and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All emission levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.

  7. 40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total raw material weight. M = Number of raw materials. 44/12 = Ratio of molecular weights, CO2 to... as a non-carbonate species. (3) CO 2 emissions from raw materials. Calculate CO2 emissions using.../yr (dry basis). CO2,rm = Annual CO2 emissions from raw materials. TOCrm = Organic carbon content...

  8. 40 CFR 98.93 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing § 98.93 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) You must calculate total annual emissions of each fluorinated GHG emitted by electronics... subpart (metric tons). N = The total number of process sub-types j that depends on the...

  9. OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  11. Annual emissions of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schäfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated annual fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories were covered (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG). The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative as compared to 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4 to 5. At six sites annual emissions of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net emissions of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. The two high-emitting sites were characterized by fluctuating groundwater, low soil pH and elevated groundwater SO42- concentrations. Annual fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from 2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus L. (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. Emission factors for organic soils in rotation and with permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2

  12. Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of total emissions of greenhouse gases from biomass burning

    SciTech Connect

    Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.

    1997-12-31

    One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG emissions.

  13. Title V Semi-Annual Emissions Report for Permit P100R1 July 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Whetham, Walter

    2012-03-15

    Reports of actual emissions from permitted sources in Section 2.0 shall be submitted on a 6 month basis. Reports shall not include emissions from insignificant activities. Emission estimates of criteria pollutants NOx, CO, SO2, PM and VOCs shall not include fugitive emissions. Emission estimates of HAPs shall include fugitive emissions. The reports shall include a comparison of actual emissions that occurred during the reporting period with the facility-wide allowable emission limits specified in Section 2.11 of this permit. The report required by Condition 4.1 shall be submitted within 90 days from the end of the reporting period. The semiannual report required by Condition 4.2 shall be submitted within 45 days from the end of the reporting period. The reporting periods are January 1st to June 30th and July 1st to December 31st. This condition is pursuant to 20.2.70.302.E.1 NMAC.

  14. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  15. Radiative Transfer Models of Tidal Disruption Events: What Sets their Emission Line Strengths and Total Optical Flux?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Given the recent influx of observational data and theoretical investigation into the nature of the tidal disruption of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs), a full radiative transfer calculation applicable to an optically thick, electron scattering-dominated reprocessing region can provide valuable insight. Such a calculation can help address puzzles such as the lack of hydrogen emission lines in the optical spectra some TDEs, the origin of the optical and UV flux, and the simultaneous observation of x-rays along with the optical emission. In this talk I will discuss such a calculation performed with my collaborators as part of my dissertation. We track the reprocessing of accretion luminosity from a supermassive black hole as the light travels through an extended, spherical envelope composed of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen from the disrupted star. The steady-state radiative transfer equation is coupled to a solver for the atomic level populations and ionization states that does not assume local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how the hydrogen optical emission lines can become more effectively optically thick than their helium counterparts, causing them to remain hidden even in the disruption of a hydrogen-rich star. More generally, variations in the structure of the reprocessing material can give rise to a variety of hydrogen-to-helium line ratios, as has been seen in recent observations. We also determine the amount of material necessary to transfer enough radiative energy from x-ray to optical wavelengths to match what is observed, and we demonstrate how the partial absorption of ionizing radiation can give rise to events simultaneously observed in x-rays and in the optical.

  16. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 2.3: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF TOTAL HYDROCARBONS FROM SOURCES BY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a recommended operating procedure (ROP) prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). he described method is applicable to the continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons (THCs), also known as tot...

  17. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  18. Multiple pulse-heating experiments with different current to determine total emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro

    2012-01-01

    A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical total emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at different temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and total emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results. PMID:22299976

  19. Total prompt γ-ray emission in fission of U235, Pu239,241, and Cf252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    The total prompt γ-ray energy distributions for the neutron-induced fission of U235 and Pu239,241 in the neutron energy range of 0.025 eV - 100 keV and the spontaneous fission of Cf252 were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. DANCE is a highly segmented, highly efficient 4π γ-ray calorimeter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of total γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix generated with a geometrical model of the detector arrays and validated with the γ-ray calibration sources. The mean values of the total prompt γ-ray energy, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ˜20% higher than those of early measurements for all the fissile nuclei studied. The implication for the γ heating in nuclear reactors is discussed.

  20. Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emissions from a quarry in complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Broday, David M; Stern, Eli

    2013-08-01

    Concentrations of particulate emissions from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for emissions from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured total suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain. PMID:23673194

  1. Determination of free and total sulfur dioxide in wine samples by vapour-generation inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cmelík, Jirí; Machát, Jirí; Niedobová, Eva; Otruba, Vítezslav; Kanický, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is used as a preservative and stabilizer in wine production to prevent undesired biochemical processes in the must and the final product. The concentration of SO(2) is restricted by national regulations. There are two main forms of SO(2) in wine-free (inorganic forms) and bound (fixed to organic compounds, e.g. aldehydes). Iodometric titration is commonly employed for determination of SO(2) concentration (either by direct titration or after pre-separation by distillation); other techniques are also used. In this work inductively coupled plasma-optical-emission spectrometry with vapour generation was used for determination of free and total SO(2) in wine. Gaseous SO(2) is released from the sample by addition of acid and swept into the ICP by an argon stream. The intensity of the sulfur atomic emission lines is measured in the vacuum UV region. Determination of total SO(2) is performed after hydrolysis of bound forms with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Concentrations of acid for vapour generation and NaOH for hydrolysis were optimised. The method was used for determination of free and total SO(2) in red and white wine samples and results were compared with those from iodometric titration. PMID:16052345

  2. Prescribed-burning vs. wildfire: management implications for annual carbon emissions along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.

    2015-11-01

    A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and annual C losses under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing annual carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C emissions and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for C minimum emission. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.

  3. Anthropogenic chromium emissions in china from 1990 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×10⁵ t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×10⁴ t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of 15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  4. Anthropogenic Chromium Emissions in China from 1990 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  5. US Department of Energy radionuclide air emissions annual report (under Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 61) calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report contains information collected by the Rocky Flats Plant concerning the emission of radionuclides into the air. Topics discussed include: Facility information, source description, air emissions data, dose assessments, point and non-point sources, and supplemental information on decontamination of concrete docks.

  6. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Annual status report No. 2, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  7. The SEPOR-POLEX Campaign: total Water Vapor and Surface Emissivity of Sea Ice at 89,157 and 183 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbach, N.; Heygster, G.; Hewison, T. J.; Taylor, J. P.; McGrath, A. J.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the airborne SEPOR-POLEX (Surface Emissivities in Polar Regions-Polar Experiment) campaign conducted in the Arctic in March 2001 was to improve the retrieval of total water vapor (TWV) from satellite measurements in polar regions. The key instrument operated on the Met Office C-130 aircraft was the microwave radiometer MARSS (Microwave Airborne Radiometer Scanning System) with frequencies close to those of the humidity sounders SSM/T2 and AMSU-B. Five flights were performed in the Arctic in different flight heights over various ice types including new, glacier, first-year and multi-year ice. Recently, an algorithm to retrieve TWV up to 6 kg/m2 using measurements from the SSM/T2 sensor over the Antarctic has been developed by Miao [2001]. The procedure assumes identical surface emissivities at all used channels. The algorithm is adapted to MARSS and Arctic conditions. In order to extend the range of the TWV algorithm, the emissivity of various sea ice types at the involved frequencies is determined.

  8. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Nickel-Titanium Carbide Cemented Hard Metals from 600 F to 1,600 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.; Casey, F. W., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The total hemispherical emissivity of several nickel-titanium carbide cemented hard metals have been measured over a temperature range from 600 F to l,600 F. A variety of cemented hard metals were obtained from the Kennametal Corporation. A brief discussion of the apparatus employed and the procedures used for this investigation is included. The results of the tests of specimens in the as-received and polished states indicate a nearly constant emissivity for each material tested over the temperature range considered and only slight differences in emissivity values for the different materials. Values obtained on the stably oxidized specimens range from 0.90 to 0.94 at 6000 F and o.88 to 0.92 at 1,600 F for the as-received specimens and from 0.82 to 0.89 at 600 F and 0.85 to 0.87 at 1,600 F for the polished specimens. The surface analysis of the oxidized materials as obtained by X-ray diffraction methods and metallographic techniques are presented as an aid to reproducing the surface on which these measurements were made.

  9. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology. PMID:25312472

  10. Effects of total CH 4/Ar gas pressure on the structures and field electron emission properties of carbon nanomaterials grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, J. L.; Wang, X.; Zheng, W. T.; Tian, H. W.; Liu, C.; Lu, Y. L.; Peng, Y. S.; Cheng, G.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of total CH 4/Ar gas pressure on the growth of carbon nanomaterials on Si (1 0 0) substrate covered with CoO nanoparticles, using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), were investigated. The structures of obtained products were correlated with the total gas pressure and changed from pure carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through hybrid CNTs/graphene sheets (GSs), to pure GSs as the total gas pressure changed from 20 to 4 Torr. The total gas pressure influenced the density of hydrogen radicals and Ar ions in chamber, which in turn determined the degree of how CoO nanoparticles were deoxidized and ion bombardment energy that governed the final carbon nanomaterials. Moreover, the obtained hybrid CNTs/GSs exhibited a lower turn-on field (1.4 V/μm) emission, compared to either 2.7 V/μm for pure CNTs or 2.2 V/μm for pure GSs, at current density of 10 μA/cm 2.

  11. The Wildland Fire Emission Inventory: emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.

    2011-08-01

    We present the Wildland Fire Emission Inventory (WFEI), a high resolution model for non-agricultural open biomass burning (hereafter referred to as wildland fires) in the contiguous United States (CONUS). WFEI was used to estimate emissions of CO and PM2.5 for the western United States from 2003-2008. The estimated annual CO emitted ranged from 436 Gg yr-1 in 2004 to 3107 Gg yr-1 in 2007. The extremes in estimated annual PM2.5 emitted were 65 Gg yr-1 in 2004 and 454 Gg yr-1 in 2007. Annual wildland fire emissions were significant compared to other emission sources in the western United States as estimated in a national emission inventory. In the peak fire year of 2007, fire emissions were ~20 % of total CO emissions and ~39 % of total PM2.5 emissions. During the months with the greatest fire activity, wildland fires accounted for the majority of CO and PM2.5 emitted across the study region. The uncertainty in the inventory estimates of CO and PM2.5 emissions (ECO and EPM2.5, respectively) have been quantified across spatial and temporal scales relevant to regional and global modeling applications. The uncertainty in annual, domain wide emissions was 28 % to 51 % for CO and 40 % to 65 % for PM2.5. Sensitivity of the uncertainty in ECO and EPM2.5 to the emission model components depended on scale. At scales relevant to regional modeling applications (Δx = 10 km, Δt = 1 day) WFEI estimates 50 % of total ECO with an uncertainty <133 % and half of total EPM2.5 with an uncertainty <146 %. The uncertainty in ECO and EPM2.5 is significantly reduced at the scale of global modeling applications (Δx = 100 km, Δt = 30 day). Fifty percent of total emissions are estimated with an uncertainty <50 % for CO and <64 % for PM2.5. Uncertainty in the burned area drives the emission uncertainties at regional scales. At global scales the uncertainty in ECO is most sensitive to uncertainties in the fuel load consumed while the uncertainty in the emission factor for PM2.5 drives the

  12. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao

    2006-02-01

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Soil concentration profiles and diffusion and emission of nitrous oxide influenced by the application of biochar in a rice-wheat annual rotation system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziqiang; Xu, Xin; Bi, Zhichao; Li, Lu; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-04-01

    Field experiments were carried out to determine biochar effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration profiles, diffusion, and emissions in paddy soil under rice-wheat annual rotation in southeastern China. An in situ soil gas device was adapted to measure N2O concentrations at depths of 7, 15, 30, and 50 cm. Five treatments were installed as N0B0, N0B1, N1B0, N1B1, and N1B2 (B0, B1, and B2 designated as biochar at 0, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, while N0 and N1 as nitrogen at 0 and 250 kg N ha(-1) crop(-1), respectively). The results showed that N2O concentrations were higher in the 15 and 30 cm depths than other depths. With positive diffusive fluxes, the 7 cm in the rice season and 15 cm in the wheat season were main production sites. The surface N2O emissions and topsoil diffusive fluxes showed good agreement. N application strongly increased soil N2O profiles and surface emissions. Relative to N1B0, N1B1 decreased N2O concentration, surface emissions, and diffusive fluxes by 25.2, 31.8, and 26.5 %, respectively, while N1B2 decreased them averagely by 40.7, 43.2, and 44.2 %, correspondingly. Therefore, the gas gradient method is effective for estimating N2O emissions, and biochar can decrease N2O production when N was applied. PMID:26769480

  14. Springtime carbon emission episodes at the Gosan background site revealed by total carbon, stable carbon isotopic composition, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J.; Kawamura, K.

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate the emission of carbonaceous aerosols at the Gosan background super-site (33.17° N, 126.10° E) in East Asia, total suspended particles (TSP) were collected during spring of 2007 and 2008 and analyzed for particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of TC. The stable carbon isotopic composition of TC (δ13CTC) was found to be lowest during pollen emission episodes (range: -26.2‰ to -23.5‰, avg. -25.2 ± 0.9‰), approaching those of the airborne pollen (-28.0‰) collected at the Gosan site. Based on a carbon isotope mass balance equation, we found that ~42% of TC in the TSP samples during the pollen episodes was attributed to airborne pollen from Japanese cedar trees planted around tangerine farms in Jeju Island. A negative correlation between the citric acid-carbon/TC ratios and δ13CTC was obtained during the pollen episodes. These results suggest that citric acid emitted from tangerine fruit may be adsorbed on the airborne pollen and then transported to the Gosan site. Thermal evolution patterns of organic carbon during the pollen episodes were characterized by high OC evolution in the OC2 temperature step (450 °C). Since thermal evolution patterns of organic aerosols are highly influenced by their molecular weight, they can be used as additional information on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and the effect of aging of organic aerosols during the long-range atmospheric transport and sources of organic aerosols.

  15. A study to estimate and compare the total particulate matter emission indices (EIN) between traditional jet fuel and two blends of Jet A/Camelina biofuel used in a high by-pass turbofan engine: A case study of Honeywell TFE-109 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    The aviation industry is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5% until the year 2031 according to Boeing Outlook Report of 2012. Although the aerospace manufacturers have introduced new aircraft and engines technologies to reduce the emissions generated by aircraft engines, about 15% of all aircraft in 2032 will be using the older technologies. Therefore, agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Astronautics Administration (NASA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among others together with some academic institutions have been working to characterize both physical and chemical characteristics of the aircraft particulate matter emissions to further understand their effects to the environment. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is also working to establish an inventory with Particulate Matter emissions for all the aircraft turbine engines for certification purposes. This steps comes as a result of smoke measurements not being sufficient to provide detailed information on the effects of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as far as the health and environmental concerns. The use of alternative fuels is essential to reduce the impacts of emissions released by Jet engines since alternative aviation fuels have been studied to lower particulate matter emissions in some types of engines families. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the emission indices of the biofuel blended fuels were lower than the emission indices of the traditional jet fuel at selected engine thrust settings. The biofuel blends observed were 75% Jet A-25% Camelina blend biofuel, and 50% Jet A-50% Jet A blend biofuel. The traditional jet fuel in this study was the Jet A fuel. The results of this study may be useful in establishing a baseline for aircraft engines' PM inventory. Currently the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engines emissions database contains only gaseous emissions data for only the TFE 731

  16. Identification of Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variability Across SE Asian Field Observations of key Water Cycle Variables: Rainfall, net Radiation, Total Evaporation and River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solera García, M. A.; Tych, W.; Chappell, N.

    2007-12-01

    The identification of periodic patterns in water cycle variables is critical to the understanding of land-atmosphere interactions, climate change and the evaluation of General Circulation Model (GCM) output. SE Asia in particular plays a very important role on the global climate because it is a large source of energy and water fluxes into the upper atmosphere. Cycle identification is carried out following the Data Based Mechanistic (DBM) philosophy, which focuses on the use of parsimonious, rigorous models which are characterised by lack of a priori assumptions, built in uncertainty analysis and final model acceptance dependent on the physical interpretation of the results. The DBM tool used here is the Unobserved Component - Dynamic Harmonic Regression (UC-DHR) model, which is a statistical method that allows the identification of variability in time series by introducing Time Variable Parameter (TVP) estimation of harmonic components. UC-DHR is not scale dependent and was thus applied to both hourly (to investigate diurnal variation) and fortnightly datasets (for intra- and inter-annual variability). The data used in the analysis has been gathered from existing catchment datasets for three regions of tropical SE Asia, namely Northern Thailand, Central Peninsular Malaysia and Northeast Borneo. These regions were chosen because they represent the hydro-climatic gradient (seasonal to equatorial) present within the tropics and because SE Asia has the most extensive set of catchment/plot studies within the humid tropics. Results show modeling tools were able to quantify the main patterns present in the observations throughout different time scales (diurnal, intra-annual and inter-annual) and the strength of the correlation pattern between the four hydro-climatic variables. The subsequent discussion focuses on the physical processes behind those patterns (e.g. diurnal variability caused by local convection due to solar heating; impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation

  17. On-line determination of Sb(III) and total Sb using baker's yeast immobilized on polyurethane foam and hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegário, Amauri A.; Silva, Ariovaldo José; Pozzi, Eloísa; Durrant, Steven F.; Abreu, Cassio H.

    2006-09-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was immobilized in cubes of polyurethane foam and the ability of this immobilized material to separate Sb(III) and Sb(V) was investigated. A method based on sequential determination of total Sb (after on-line reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) with thiourea) and Sb(III) (after on-line solid-liquid phase extraction) by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry is proposed. A flow system assembled with solenoid valves was used to manage all stages of the process. The effects of pH, sample loading and elution flow rates on solid-liquid phase extraction of Sb(III) were evaluated. Also, the parameters related to on-line pre-reduction (reaction coil and flow rates) were optimized. Detection limits of 0.8 and 0.15 μg L - 1 were obtained for total Sb and Sb(III), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of river water and effluent samples. The results obtained for the determination of total Sb were in agreement with expected values, including the river water Standard Reference Material 1640 certified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Recoveries of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked samples were between 81 ± 19 and 111 ±15% when 120 s of sample loading were used.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW-EMISSION, HIGH-EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS: FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes technical progress during the fourth year of effort on EPA contract 68-02-2667. NOx and SOx emission characteristics of two low-NOx distributed-mixing burners were tested with three coals in a large water-tube simulator furnace (50-70 million Btu/hr firing r...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW EMISSION, HIGH EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS: SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, describing the second year's effort under this contract, concerns the development of criteria for the evaluation and applicability of low-emission, high efficiency coal burners. The report describes progress in three major areas: (1) bench scale studies, (2) distribut...

  20. Estimation of mercury emission from different sources to atmosphere in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingyong; He, Lei; Wei, Shiqiang; Feng, Xinbin

    2006-08-01

    This investigation presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from anthropogenic and natural sources in Chongqing, an important industrial region in southwest China. The emissions of mercury to atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in the region were estimated through indirect approaches, i.e. using commonly acceptable emission factors method, which based on annual process throughputs or consumption for these sources. The natural mercury emissions were estimated from selected natural sources by the dynamic flux chamber technique. The results indicated that the anthropogenic mercury emissions totaled approximately 8.85 tons (t), more than 50% of this total originated in coal combustion and 23.7% of this total emission in the industrial process (include cement production, metal smelting and chemical industry). The natural emissions represented approximately 17% of total emissions (1.78 t yr(-1)). The total mercury emission to atmosphere in Chongqing in 2001 was 10.63 t. PMID:16219340

  1. LLNL NESHAPs 2004 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R; Gallegos, G; Peterson, R; Wilson, K; Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K R

    2005-06-27

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.

  2. Development of advanced electrochemical emission spectroscopy for monitoring corrosion in simulated DOE liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.

    1998-06-01

    'Objective of this project is to develop and use Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy (EES) and other electrochemical techniques as in situ tools for exploring corrosion mechanisms of iron and carbon steel in highly alkaline solutions and for continuously monitoring corrosion on structural materials in DOE liquid waste storage system. In particular, the author will explore the fundamental aspects of the passive behavior of pure iron since breakdown of passivity leads to localized corrosion. This report summarizes work after 1 year of a 3 year project.'

  3. Total sulfur determination in gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after direct sample introduction as detergent emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Oliveira, Eliane Padua; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Bezerra, Marcos Almeida; Freire, Aline Soares

    2008-07-01

    Herein, we present the development of a procedure for the determination of total sulfur in petroleum-derived products (gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel) employing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For this procedure, samples were prepared as emulsions that were made using concentrated nitric acid, Triton X-100, sample, and ultra pure water in proportions of 5/10/7/78% (v/v), respectively. Sample volumes were weighed because of the density differences, and oxygen was added to the sheat gas entrance of the ICP OES in order to decrease carbon deposition in the torch and to minimize background effects. A Doehlert design was applied as an experimental matrix to investigate the flow ratios of argon (sheat and plasma gas) and oxygen in relation to the signal-to-background ratio. A comparative study among the slopes of the analytical curves built in aqueous media, surfactant/HNO 3, and by spike addition for several sample emulsions indicates that a unique solution of surfactant in acidic media can be employed to perform the external calibration for analysis of the emulsions. The developed procedure allows for the determination of the total sulfur content in petroleum derivatives with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.72 and 2.4 μg g - 1 , respectively. Precision values, expressed as the relative standard deviations (% RSD, n = 10) for 12 and 400 μg g - 1 , were 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied toward the determination of total sulfur in samples of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel commercialized in the city of Niterói/RJ, Brazil. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of the total sulfur in three different standard reference materials (SRM): NIST 2723a (sulfur in diesel fuel oil), NIST 1616b (sulfur in kerosene), and NIST 2298 (sulfur in gasoline). The data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to these types of samples

  4. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  5. Contributions of the pollutant emission in South Korea to the aerosol concentrations and depositions in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Choe, Anna; Joo, Seung Jin

    2015-05-01

    The spatial distributions of annual mean concentrations and the annual total depositions of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA) in 2010 are investigated with pollutant emissions over the whole model domain of Asia and without the pollutant emission from South Korea using the Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is modified from the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling System. The annual mean surface aerosol concentrations in Asia are found to affect a wide region as a complex mixture of AA and AD aerosols. However, the contribution of the pollutant emission from South Korea is found to be limited to the neighboring regions. The annual total aerosol deposition in Asia is 485.2 Tg. However, the contribution due to the pollutant emission from South Korea is about 1.9 Tg, suggesting of no significant contribution to the environment.

  6. Prediction of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen Concentrations in a Typical Urban River Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix with PARAFAC and UV Absorption Indices

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Jin; Cho, Jinwoo

    2012-01-01

    The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1), terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2), and protein-like organic substances (C3), and UV absorption indices (UV220 and UV254), and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV220, C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV220 and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN. PMID:22368505

  7. The measurement of the ionospheric total content variations caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility on a network of GNSS-receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasyrov, I. A.; Kogogin, D. A.; Shindin, A. V.; Grach, S. M.; Zagretdinov, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of the perturbations of total electron content (TEC) caused by a powerful radio emission of "Sura" facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod) were carried out during several experimental campaigns from March of 2010 to March 2013. In this paper the data of experimental measurements of TEC-variations conducted on March, 15, 2010 and on March, 12, 2013, are presented. Parameters of TEC-variations were obtained by dual-frequency global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) diagnostics. Registration of signal parameters from GNSS-transmitters was performed at spatially separated sites along the geomagnetic latitude: Vasilsursk (56 °08‧ N, 46 °05‧ E), Zelenodolsk (55 °52‧ N, 48 °33‧ E) and Kazan (55 °48‧ N, 49 °08‧ E). In the experiments radio path from GNSS satellite to Vasilsursk passed over the disturbed region of ionosphere, but radio paths to Zelenodolsk and to Kazan did not. However, TEC-variations correlated with pumping of ionosphere by "Sura" facility were detected for all up to three ground measurements sites. Magnitudes of TEC-variations reached up to ∼ 0.6 - 0.7 TECU. The speculation that a sharp gradient of the electron density formed at the border of the main lobe of "Sura" facility may cause the generation of IGW is presented.

  8. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    PubMed

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  9. Biogenic voc emissions development and its impacts on regional o3 in PRD, china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuemei; Shuping, Situ; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Fei; Wu, Zhiyong

    2010-05-01

    The new Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) has been coupled with WRF-Chem to investigate the influence of biogenic violate organic carbon (BVOC ) emissions on the regional distribution of O3 and SOA concentration in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. MEGAN first estimate an emission factor which represents the net above-canopy emission rate expected at optimal conditions, and use a number of environmental correction factor based on photosynthetically activated radiation (PAR) and leaf temperature to adjust the emission rate due to deviations from optimal conditions. Total emissions are the sum of emissions estimated for each plant functional type (PFT) in a given grid cell. Our model simulations estimated showed: (1) Total annual BVOCs emissions were 339.01× 106 kg, which is 40.68% of annual AVOCs emissions and 28.91% of total VOCs emission in PRD in 2006. Isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and OVOCs contributed about 31.94%, 39.23%, 3.27% and 25.56% of the estimated total annual emissions respectively. α- pinene and β- pinene were the major components in monoterpene, which contributed 28.09% and 26.98% to the total annual monoterpene emissions respectively;β-caryophyllene andα-farnesene were two important sesquiterpene, and they contributed to 22.31% and 18.76% of the annual sesquiterpene emissions.(2) BVOCs emissions have large variations in their spatial distributions, which were mainly resulted from the differences in the geographical distribution of vegetation. Their emission amounts were larger in the places where urbanization were relative lower and plants distributions were higher.(3) Emissions of terpenoids had significant annual and diurnal variations and the largest emission rate occurred at 13:00 local time while the amount of emission in summer is the largest.(4) There were significant terpenoids emission rate (≥1.21.2 kg km-2h-1) in the remote areas in PRD region where the emissions of AVOCs were low, and

  10. Branch-level measurement of total OH reactivity for constraining unknown BVOC emission during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments)-09 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Guenther, A.; Karl, T.; Greenberg, J.

    2011-03-01

    We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple) in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX) field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT), in enclosure air, so that the measurement dataset contains both measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution from unmeasured isoprene (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem) oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism). Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity indicates that the ratio of OH reactivity from unmeasured products over OH reactivity from MVK + MACR is strongly dependent on NO concentrations. The unmeasured oxidation products can contribute ~7.2% (8.8% from LIM and 5.6% by MIM 2 when NO = 100 pptv) of the isoprene contribution towards total ambient OH reactivity. This amount can explain ~8

  11. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  12. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  13. Cover Crop Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emission from a Manure-Treated Mollisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture contributes 40% to 60% of the total annual N2O emissions to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these emissions would have a significant impact on greenhouse gas levels. Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil NO3, thereby reducing l...

  14. The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

  15. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  16. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  17. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  18. 40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... materials using Equation H-5 of this section: ER30OC09.044 Where: rm = The amount of raw material i consumed... = Annual CO2 emissions from raw materials. TOCrm = Organic carbon content of raw material i or organic... factor of 0.2 percent of total raw material weight. M = Number of raw materials or 1 if......

  19. 40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... materials using Equation H-5 of this section: ER30OC09.044 Where: rm = The amount of raw material i consumed... = Annual CO2 emissions from raw materials. TOCrm = Organic carbon content of raw material i or organic... factor of 0.2 percent of total raw material weight. M = Number of raw materials or 1 if......

  20. 40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... materials using Equation H-5 of this section: ER30OC09.044 Where: rm = The amount of raw material i consumed... = Annual CO2 emissions from raw materials. TOCrm = Organic carbon content of raw material i or organic... factor of 0.2 percent of total raw material weight. M = Number of raw materials or 1 if......

  1. 40 CFR 98.183 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... smelting furnace, determine the annual mass of carbon in each carbon-containing material, other than fuel... emissions using Equation R-1 of this section. Carbon-containing materials include carbonaceous reducing agents. If you document that a specific material contributes less than 1 percent of the total carbon...

  2. 40 CFR 98.183 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... smelting furnace, determine the annual mass of carbon in each carbon-containing material, other than fuel... emissions using Equation R-1 of this section. Carbon-containing materials include carbonaceous reducing agents. If you document that a specific material contributes less than 1 percent of the total carbon...

  3. The impact of residential combustion emission on Arctic aerosol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Olivie, Dirk J. L.; Grini, Alf

    2016-04-01

    Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. It has been challenging to reproduced this cylce and concentration levels with atmospheric transport and climate models. However, simulations have been improving recently and it has been shown, that a better scavenging parametrization as well as more realistic emissions are important to obtain better results. In this study we focus on the emission from residential heating, which depend on air temperature, as heating demand is higher on cold days. Varying this emission shows a clear effect on modeled Arctic concentrations. Arctic-mean and annual-mean concentrations of black carbon from Arctic domestic combustion emissions due to heating requirements, are nearly 70% higher when accounting for diurnal emission variability relative to constant emissions (Stohl et al., 2013). Emissions are high when ambient temperatures are low and cold air is transported to the Arctic. In order to capture this systematic effect, we created an interactive emission module for NorESM, a climate model, using the heating degree-day concept. Domestic combustion emissions of BC and other species are scaled interactively with the modeled ambient air temperatures, while securing that levels of annual total emissions from emission scenarios are reproduced. We compare the modeled aerosol concentration in the Arctic to observations and show the level of improvements achieved by using varying emission.

  4. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Wu; Shuxiao Wang; David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Melissa Chan; Jingkun Jiang

    2006-09-01

    We have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China for 1995 through 2003. It is estimated that total Hg emissions from all anthropogenic sources increased at an average annual rate of 2.9% during the period 1995-2003, reaching 696 ({+-}307) t in 2003, with a speciation split of 395 t of Hg{sup 0}, 230 t of Hg{sup 2+}, and 70 t of particulate mercury, Hg{sup p}. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, as nonferrous metals production and coal consumption keep increasing. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion together contributed {approximately}80% of total Hg emissions during the past decade. Hg emissions from coal combustion increased from 202 t in 1995 to 257 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 3.0%. Among all of the coal consumption sectors, the power sector is the leading one in Hg emissions growth, up by 5.9% annually. Hg emissions from nonferrous metals smelting increased from 230 t in 1995 to 321 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 4.2%. Although Hg emissions related to gold smelting decreased since 1996, other nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead, and copper contributed significant Hg growth at annual rates of 8.5%, 13.0%, and 6.9%, respectively. At provincial level, the trends of Hg emissions show significant variation. The uncertainty level decreased from {+-}78% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions in 1995, to {+-}44% in 2003. This is primarily attributed to the decreased emissions from those Hg sources with the largest uncertainty in both activity levels and emission factors, such as artisanal gold smelting, mercury mining, and battery/fluorescent lamp production. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  6. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  7. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  8. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...

  9. Modeling total reduced sulfur and sulfur dioxide emissions from a kraft recovery boiler using an artificial neural network, and, Investigating volatile organic compounds in an urban intermountain valley using a TD/GC/MS methodology and intrinsic tracer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Christopher Louis

    2000-11-01

    Back-propagation neural networks were trained to predict total reduced sulfur (TRS) and SO2 emissions from kraft recovery boiler operational data. A 0.721 coefficient of correlation was achieved between actual and predicted sulfur emissions on test data withheld from network training. The artificial neural network (ANN) models found an inverse, linear relationship between TRS/SO2 emissions and percent opacity. A number of relationships among operating parameters and sulfur emissions were identified by the ANN models. These relationships were used to formulate strategies for reducing sulfur emissions. Disagreement between ANN model predictions on a subsequent data set revealed an additional scenario for sulfur release not present in the training data. ANN modeling was demonstrated to be an effective tool for analyzing process variables when balancing productivity and environmental concerns. Five receptor sites distributed in the Missoula Valley, Montana, were employed to investigate possible VOC (benzene, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, naphthalene, acetone, chloroform, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) sources. The most dominant source of VOCs was found to be vehicle emissions. Furthermore, anthropogenic sources of terpenoids overwhelmed biogenic emissions, on a local scale. Difficulties correlating wind direction and pollutant levels could be explained by wind direction variability, low wind speed and seasonally dependent meteorological factors. Significant evidence was compiled to support the use of p-cymene as a tracer molecule for pulp mill VOC emissions. Apportionment techniques using o-xylene and p-cymene as tracers for automobile and pulp mill emissions, respectively, were employed to estimate each source's VOC contribution. Motor vehicles were estimated to contribute between 56 and 100 percent of the aromatic pollutants in the Missoula Valley airshed, depending upon the sampling location. Pulp mill emissions

  10. Estimation of vegetative mercury emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jiannong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Shim, Shang Gyoo

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative mercury emissions were estimated within the framework of Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS3 V3.11). In this estimation, the 19 categories of U.S. Geological Survey landcover data were incorporated to generate the vegetation-specific mercury emissions in a 81-km Lambert Conformal model grid covering the total Chinese continent. The surface temperature and cloud-corrected solar radiation from a Mesoscale Meteorological model (MM5) were retrieved and used for calculating the diurnal variation. The implemented emission factors were either evaluated from the measured mercury flux data for forest, agriculture and water, or assumed for other land fields without available flux data. Annual simulations using the MM5 data were performed to investigate the seasonal emission variation. From the sensitivity analysis using two sets of emission factors, the vegetative mercury emissions in China domain were estimated to range from a lower limit of 79 x 10(3) kg/year to an upper limit of 177 x 10(3) kg/year. The modeled vegetative emissions were mainly generated from the eastern and southern China. Using the estimated data, it is shown that mercury emissions from vegetation are comparable to that from anthropogenic sources during summer. However, the vegetative emissions decrease greatly during winter, leaving anthropogenic sources as the major sources of emission. PMID:19143313

  11. Estimating CH4 Emissions in California Using Measurements from a Tower Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Hsu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Vaca, P.; Wilczak, J. M.; Fischer, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    We estimate regionally resolved methane (CH4) emissions for California using a Bayesian inverse model driven by CH4 mixing ratios measured at a network of five towers across the Central Valley during 2010 - 2011. The method estimates emissions by comparing measurements with transport model predictions of CH4 signals obtained from two 0.1 degree prior emission maps: 1) seasonally varying "California-specific" emission maps, calibrated to State emission totals, and 2) the EDGAR4.2 static global emission map. Atmospheric transport is calculated from particle trajectories and surface footprints using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Results for the 5-tower CARB-CEC-LBNL-NOAA network show that significant reductions in posterior emissions uncertainty are obtained for regions comprising ~ 90% of California's known CH4 emissions, with annually averaged emissions totaling 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.5+/-0.3 times California's inventory for the California-specific and EDGAR4.2 emissions maps, respectively. Assuming these results apply across California, total CH4 emissions account for approximately 8% - 14% of current state total greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude and uncertainty of emissions from specific regions and source sectors (e.g., crop agriculture, waste management, livestock, and energy activities) are estimated by comparing region and source sector results obtained with the CA-specific and EDGAR4.2 emission maps.

  12. Assessing global radiative forcing due to regional emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors: a step towards climate credit for ozone reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2005-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

  13. Methane emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devol, Allen H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Wayne A.; King, Stagg L.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    1988-01-01

    The magnitudes of CH4 emissions to the troposphere from the Amazon River floodplain and the mechanism of these emissions were investigated using the data of 94 individual flux measurements made along a 1700-km stretch of the river during July/August 1985. The overall average rate of CH4 emission from wetlands was found to be 390 mg CH4/sq m per day, with the highest emissions (590 mg CH4/sq m per day) attributed to the water surfaces covered by aquatic macrophytes. Ebullition was the dominant mechanism of emission, accounting for 85 percent of the total. Surface-water CH4 concentrations were highly supersaturated, averaging 6.4 micromolar. The annual emission of CH4 from the Amazon Basin to the troposphere, estimated from the area and the known emission rate, is about 10 CH4 Tg/yr, indicating the importance of the area in the global atmospheric CH4 cycle.

  14. Uncertainties of modelling emissions from road transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühlwein, J.; Friedrich, R.

    To determine emission data from road transport, complex methods and models are applied. Emission data are characterized by a huge variety of source types as well as a high resolution of the spatial allocation and temporal variation. So far, the uncertainties of such calculated emission data have been largely unknown. As emission data is used to aid policy decisions, the accuracy of the data should be known. So, in the following, the determination of uncertainties of emission data is described. Using the IER emission model for generating regional or national emission data, the uncertainties of model input data and the total errors on different aggregation levels are exemplarily investigated for the pollutants NO x and NMHC in 1994 for the area of West Germany. The results of statistical error analysis carried out for annual emissions on road sections show variation coefficients (68.3% confidence interval) of 15-25%. In addition, systematic errors of common input data sets have been identified especially affecting emissions on motorway sections. The statistical errors of urban emissions with warm engine on town level amount to 35%. Therefore they are considerably higher than the errors outside towns. Error ranges of additional cold start emissions determined so far have been found in the same order. Additional uncertainties of temporally highly resolved (hourly) emission data depend strongly on the daytime, the weekday and the road category. Variation coefficients have been determined in the range between 10 and 70% for light-duty vehicles and between 15 and 100% for heavy-duty vehicles. All total errors determined here have to be regarded as lower limits of the real total errors.

  15. Seasonal variations in N2O emissions from central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Sweeney, Colm; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2012-08-01

    We estimate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Central California for the period of December 2007 through November 2009 by comparing N2O mixing ratios measured at a tall tower (Walnut Grove, WGC) with transport model predictions based on two global a priori N2O emission models (EDGAR32 and EDGAR42). Atmospheric particle trajectories and surface footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Regression analyses show that the slopes of predicted on measured N2O from both emission models are low, suggesting that actual N2O emissions are significantly higher than the EDGAR inventories for all seasons. Bayesian inverse analyses of regional N2O emissions show that posterior annual N2O emissions are larger than both EDGAR inventories by factors of 2.0 ± 0.4 (EDGAR32) and 2.1 ± 0.4 (EDGAR42) with seasonal variation ranging from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 for an influence region of Central California within approximately 150 km of the tower. These results suggest that if the spatial distribution of N2O emissions in California follows the EDGAR emission models, then actual emissions are 2.7 ± 0.5 times greater than the current California emission inventory, and total N2O emissions account for 8.1 ± 1.4% of total greenhouse gas emissions from California.

  16. Impact of Changes in Barometric Pressure on Landfill Methane Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermitt, Dayle; Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla

    2013-04-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska USA. Methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission. Emission rates were systematically higher in December than during the summer period. Higher methane emission rates were associated with changes in barometric pressure that were larger in magnitude and longer in duration in winter than in summer, and with lower mean temperatures, which appeared to reduce methane oxidation rates. Sharp changes in barometric pressure caused up to 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that continuous measurements over a period of at least 10 days were needed in order to capture 90% of total variance in the methane emission time series at our site. Our results suggest that point-in-time methane emission rate measurements taken at monthly or even longer time intervals using techniques such as the tracer plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method may be subject to large variations because of the strong dependence of methane emissions on changes in barometric pressure. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements will inevitably yield large uncertainties. Our results demonstrate the value of continuous measurements for quantifying total annual methane emission from a landfill.

  17. 77 FR 64463 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ..., the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e- commerce sales, year-end..., accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales..., annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total and detailed operating expenses,...

  18. 75 FR 63804 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United States. These data are collected to... classification basis, annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses,...

  19. Decadal change in carbon monoxide to nitrogen oxide ratio in U.S. vehicular emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Hereid, D.; Williams, E. J.; Olszyna, K. J.; Harley, R. A.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    2002-06-01

    Accurate emission inventories and their temporal trends must be incorporated into pollutant inventories to allow for reliable modeling of the country's past, present, and future air quality. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations from two urban areas show that the CO/NOx vehicular emission ratio has decreased at an average rate of 7-9% per year from 1987 to 1999. This amounts to a factor of nearly 3 over the 12 years. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tabulations of estimated pollutant emission trends indicate a rate of decrease smaller by a factor of 2-3. The trend in maximum ambient CO levels in U.S. cities suggests a 5.2 +/- 0.8% per year average annual decrease in CO vehicular emissions, which implies a 2-3% annual increase in NOx emissions from vehicles. Thus over the decade of the 1990s, annual U.S. CO emissions from vehicles have decreased from ~65 to ~38 Tg, representing approximate decreases of 6 and 3% in the annual global fuel-use CO emissions and in total global anthropogenic CO emissions, respectively. It is expected that the volatile organic compound (VOC)/NOx vehicular exhaust emission ratio has decreased similarly, implying that the character of atmospheric photochemistry in U.S. urban areas has changed significantly over the decade.

  20. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  1. A comparison on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their corresponding carcinogenic potencies from a vehicle engine using leaded and lead-free gasoline.

    PubMed Central

    Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Tsai, P J; Chen, C B

    2001-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of using two kinds of lead-free gasoline [including 92-lead-free gasoline (92-LFG) and 95-lead-free gasoline (95-LFG), rated according to their octane levels] to replace the use of premium leaded gasoline (PLG) on the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaP(eq)) amounts from the gasoline-powered engine. The results show that the three gasoline fuels originally contained similar total PAHs and total BaP(eq) contents; however, we found significant differences in the engine exhausts in both contents. The above results suggest that PAHs originally contained in the gasoline fuel did not affect the PAH emissions in the engine exhausts. The emission factors of both total PAHs and total BaP(eq) obtained from the three gasoline fuels shared the same trend: 95-LFG > PLG > 92-LFG. The above result suggests that when PLG was replaced by 95-LFG, the emissions would increase in both total PAHs and total BaP(eq), but when replaced by 92-LFG would lead to the decreased emissions of both contents. By taking emission factors and their corresponding annual gasoline consumption rates into account, we found that both total PAH and total BaP(eq) emissions increased from 1994 to 1999. However, the annual increasing rates in total BaP(eq) emissions were slightly higher than the corresponding increasing rates in total PAHs. PMID:11748037

  2. Estimating methane and nitrous oxide emissions in California using multi-tower observations and hierarchical Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Hsu, Y.; Newman, S.; Zhang, J.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Bagley, J.; Cui, X.; Graven, H. D.; Kim, J.; Salameh, P.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Priest, C.; Campos-Pineda, M.; Novakovskaia, E.; Sloop, C.; Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Weiss, R. F.; Keeling, R. F.; Fischer, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of annual state total methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from California using atmospheric observations from thirteen sites (six sites for N2O) in California during June 2013 - May 2014. A hierarchical Bayesian inversion (HBI) method is used to estimate CH4 and N2O emissions for spatial regions (0.3 degree pixels) by comparing measured mixing ratios with transport model (WRF-STILT) predictions. Using the multi-site measurements across California, the HBI analysis constrains a significant portion of expected emissions for both CH4 and N2O in the Central Valley and southern California. Based on the HBI analysis, we estimate a likely range of the state's annual CH4 emissions is 2.4 - 2.7 Tg CH4/yr (at 68% confidence), which is 1.4 - 1.6 times the total estimated by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Similarly, we estimate the state's annual N2O emissions to be 77 - 95 Gg N2O/yr (at 68% confidence), which are 1.6 - 2.0 times CARB's state total. These results suggest that the combined total of CH4 and N2O emissions from the HBI analysis would comprise 18 - 21% of state total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, higher than 12% estimated in the current state inventory. Additionally, we expand previous evaluations of possible systematic bias in annual emission estimates due to transport model error by comparing measured and predicted carbon monoxide (CO) for four of the sites. These results highlight the need for multiple independent methods to estimate non-CO2 GHG emissions, and offer insight into opportunities for non-CO2 GHG emission mitigation efforts towards achieving California's GHG emission goals.

  3. 40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate annual uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area(s) and from my oven(s) for continuous... uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area(s) and from my oven(s) for continuous... from your wet-out areas and from your ovens, you must develop uncontrolled and controlled wet-out...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate annual uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area(s) and from my oven(s) for continuous... uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP emissions from my wet-out area(s) and from my oven(s) for continuous... from your wet-out areas and from your ovens, you must develop uncontrolled and controlled wet-out...

  5. Contribution of Solar Hydrogen Lyα Line Emission in Total Ionization Rate in Ionospheric D-region During the Maximum of Solar X-flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nina, A.; Čadež, V. M.; Bajčetić, J.

    2015-12-01

    The solar Lyα line emission can be considered as the dominant source of ionization processes in the ionospheric D-region at altitudes above 70 km during unperturbed conditions. However, large sudden impacts of radiation in some other energy domains can also significantly influence the ionization rate and, in this paper, we present a study on the contribution of Lyα radiation to the ionization rate when the ionosphere is disturbed by solar X-flares. We give relevant analytical expressions and make calculations and numerical simulations for the low ionosphere using data collected by the VLF receiver located in Serbia for the VLF radio signal emitted by the DHO transmitter in Germany.

  6. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions

    PubMed Central

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558

  7. Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-03-01

    Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with total fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with total fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with total fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558

  8. Methane and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emission characteristics from automobiles

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Noriyuki; Odaka, Matsuo

    1996-09-01

    Exhaust gases discharged from automobiles are noticed as one of the reasons for recent increase in atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide concentration, which have been considered as greenhouse gases. In order to make an accurate estimation of methane and nitrous oxide discharged from automobiles, measurement methods were experimentally developed and emissions were measured for different kinds of automobiles under various driving conditions. Then, the authors have tried to estimate the annual global emissions from automobiles using these measurement results and statistical data such as the number of automobiles, the total annual mileage, and the total annual fuel consumption, etc. The emissions from passenger vehicles which have been estimated from the global number of automobiles were 477.263 t/year for methane and 313.472 t/year for nitrous oxide. These numbers are higher than what had been estimated.

  9. 2008 annual merit review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  10. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  11. LLNL NESHAP's 1999 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.; Biermann, A.H.; Harrach, R.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Berger, R.L.; Surano,K.A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1999 operations are summarized.

  12. Multiple γ Emission of the 137Xe 2849-2850 keV Levels Studied with the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, B. C.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Goetz, K. C.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gross, C. J.; Miernik, K.; Paulauskas, S. V.

    The Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) was constructed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Lab to measure true β-decay feeding patterns in neutron rich nuclei. The first measurement campaign in early 2012 involved the measurement of over 20 different nuclei, many of which are "priority one" or "priority two" as assessed in the report by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency. We present first results from the measurement of γ-rays from the β decay of 137Xe with the new MTAS. In this contribution, we demonstrate the ability of MTAS to distinguish the γ decay paths from two levels very close in energy, but with very different de-excitation patterns in the daughter nucleus 137Cs.

  13. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  14. Emissions from South Asian brick production.

    PubMed

    Weyant, Cheryl; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Rajarathnam, Uma; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Maithel, Sameer; Baum, Ellen; Bond, Tami C

    2014-06-01

    Thirteen South Asian brick kilns were tested to quantify aerosol and gaseous pollutant emissions. Particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and optical scattering and absorption measurements in the exhaust of six kiln technologies demonstrate differences in overall emission profiles and relative climate warming resulting from kiln design and fuel choice. Emission factors differed between kiln types, in some cases by an order of magnitude. The kilns currently dominating the sector had the highest emission factors of PM2.5 and light absorbing carbon, while improved Vertical Shaft and Tunnel kilns were lower emitters. An improved version of the most common technology in the region, the zig-zag kiln, was among the lowest emitting kilns in PM2.5, CO, and light absorbing carbon. Emission factors measured here are lower than those currently used in emission inventories as inputs to global climate models; 85% lower (PM2.5) and 35% lower for elemental carbon (EC) for the most common kiln in the region, yet the ratio of EC to total carbon was higher than previously estimated (0.96 compared to 0.47). Total annual estimated emissions from the brick industry are 120 Tg CO2, 2.5 Tg CO, 0.19 Tg PM2.5, and 0.12 Tg EC. PMID:24735080

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of historical anthropogenic NMVOCs emission inventories in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Y.; Cai, H.; Xie, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    Multiyear emission inventories of anthropogenic NMVOCs in China for 1980-2005 were established based on time-varying statistical data, literature surveyed and model calculated emission factors, which were further gridded at a high spatial resolution of 40 km×40 km using the GIS methodology. Results show a continuous growth trend of China's historical NMVOCs emissions during the period of 1980-2005, with the emission increasing by 4.2 times at an annual average rate of 10.6% from 3.91 Tg in 1980 to 16.49 Tg in 2005. Vehicles, biomass burning, industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion, solvent utilization, and storage and transport generated 5.50 Tg, 3.84 Tg, 2.76 Tg, 1.98 Tg, 1.87 Tg, and 0.55 Tg of NMVOCs, respectively, in 2005. Motorcycles, biofuel burning, heavy duty vans, synthetic fibre production, biomass open burning, and industrial and commercial consumption were primary emission sources. Besides, source contributions of NMVOCs emissions showed remarkable annual variation. However, emissions of these sources had been continuously increasing, which coincided well with China's economic growth. Spatial distribution of NMVOCs emissions illustrates that high emissions mainly concentrates in developed regions of northern, eastern and southern coastal areas, which produced more emissions than the relatively underdeveloped western and inland regions. Particularly, southeastern, northern, and central China covering 35.2% of China's territory, generated 59.4% of the total emissions, while the populous capital cities covering merely 4.5% of China's territory, accounted for 24.9% of the national emissions. Annual variation of regional emission intensity shows that emissions concentrating in urban areas tended to transfer to rural areas year by year. Moreover, eastern, southern, central, and northeastern China were typical areas of high emission intensity and had a tendency of expanding to the northwestern China, which revealed the transfer of emission

  16. Obtaining Electron Temperatures and Flow Speeds from Thomson Scattered Coronal Emission Observed during the 29 March 2006 Total Solar Eclipse in Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Geginald, Nelson L.; Gashut, Hadi; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Hassler, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment to measure the electron temperature and flow speed in the solar corona by observing the visible K-coronal spectrum was conducted during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Libya. New corona1 models accounting for the effect of electron temperature and flow on the resulting K-corona spectrum were used to interpret the observations. Results show electron temperatures of 1.10 +/- 0.05, 0.98 +/- 0.12, and 0.70 +/- 0.08 MK, at l.l{\\it R)$-{\\odot)$ in the solar north, east and west, respectively, and 0.93 +/- 0.12 MK, at 1.2 R(sub sun) in the solar east. The corresponding outflow speeds obtained from the spectral fit are 103 +/- 92, 0 + 10, 0 + 10, and 0 + 10 km/s. Since the observations are taken only at 1.1 and 1.2 R(sub sun) these velocities , consistent with zero outflow, are in agreement with expectations and provide additional confirmation that the spectral fitting method is working.

  17. β - γ and β-neutron- γ emission in mass A=137 Decay Chain Studied with the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasco, Charles; Fijałkowska, Aleksandra; Karny, Marek; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof; Wolińska-Cichocka, Marzena; Grzywacz, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) is a detector made up of 19 separate hexagon modules of NaI which results in over a ton of NaI in the MTAS detector. MTAS was designed to capture as much of the electromagnetic energy release in β-decays as possible. MTAS was constructed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility and measured over 20 decay products of 238U fission products in its inaugural measurement campaign in January 2012. The measurements were focused on nuclei identified as important for decay heat analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. Silicon detectors placed at the center of MTAS to provide β triggers, make for extremely clean signals in MTAS. Preliminary results on the average electromagnetic energy release in the β decay of 137Xe and 137I isotopes will be presented. These isotopes are among the priority 1 cases listed by the NEA. The 137I also has a beta -neutron decay branch that is detected in MTAS. Neutron detection in a large NaI detector will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US DOE by award no. DE-FG02-96ER40978 and by US DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  18. Evaluation of sample preparation methods for the detection of total metal content using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in wastewater and sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimpe, K. M.; Ngila, J. C.; Mabuba, N.; Nomngongo, P. N.

    Heavy metal contamination exists in aqueous wastes and sludge of many industrial discharges and domestic wastewater, among other sources. Determination of metals in the wastewater and sludge requires sample pre-treatment prior to analysis because of certain challenges such as the complexity of the physical state of the sample, which may lead to wrong readings in the measurement. This is particularly the case with low analyte concentration to be detected by the instrument. The purpose of this work was to assess and validate the different sample preparation methods namely, hot plate and microwave-assisted digestion procedures for extraction of metal ions in wastewater and sludge samples prior to their inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric (ICP-OES) determination. For the extraction of As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, three acid mixtures, that is, HNO3/H2O2, HNO3/HClO4/H2O2 and aqua regia + H2O2, were evaluated. Influent wastewater spiked with the SRM (CWW-TM-B) was used for the optimization of acid mixtures affecting the extraction procedure. After sample digestion, the filtration capabilities of cellulose-acetate filter paper and the acrodisc syringe filter with the pore size of 0.45 μm were compared. In terms of performance, acrodisc syringe filter in terms of the improved recoveries obtained, was found to be the best filtration method compared to the filter paper. Based on the analytical results obtained, microwave-assisted digestion (MAD) using aqua regia + H2O2 mixture was found to be the most suitable method for extraction of heavy metals and major elements in all the sample matrices. Therefore, MAD using aqua regia + H2O2 mixture was used for further investigations. The precision of the developed MAD method expressed in terms of relative standard deviations (% RSD) for different metals was found to be <5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.12% to 2.18 μg L-1 and 0.61% to 3.43 μg L-1

  19. Inter-annual variability of wintertime PM2.5 chemical composition in Xi'an, China: Evidences of changing source emissions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongmei; Cao, Junji; Chow, Judith C; Huang, R-J; Shen, Zhenxing; Chen, L W Antony; Ho, Kin Fai; Watson, John G

    2016-03-01

    Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Xi'an in wintertime of 2006, 2008, and 2010 were investigated. Markers of OC2, EC1, and NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratio were calculated to investigate the changes in PM2.5 emission sources over the 5-year period. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to identify and quantify the main sources of PM2.5 and their contributions. The results showed that coal combustion, motor vehicular emissions, fugitive dust, and secondary inorganic aerosol accounted for more than 80% of PM2.5 mass. The importance of these major sources to the PM2.5 mass varied yearly: coal combustion was the largest contributor (31.2% ± 5.2%), followed by secondary inorganic aerosol (20.9% ± 5.2%) and motor vehicular emissions (19.3% ± 4.8%) in 2006; the order was still coal combustion emissions (27.6% ± 3.4%), secondary inorganic aerosol (23.2% ± 6.9%), and motor vehicular emissions (20.9% ± 4.6%) in 2008; while coal combustion emission further decreased (24.1% ± 3.1%) with fugitive dust (19.4% ± 5.5%) increasing in 2010. The changes in PM2.5 chemical compositions and source contributions can be attributed to the social and economic developments in Xi'an, China, including energy structure adjustment, energy consumption, the expansion of civil vehicles, and the increase of urban construction activities. PMID:26760274

  20. Historical evaluation of vehicle emission control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2013-09-01

    The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle emission control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year emission inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in total vehicle emissions by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average emission factors and annual mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated total vehicle emissions in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle emissions within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for ˜40% of total gaseous pollutants and ˜25% of total PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx emissions were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle emission control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to total vehicle emissions in 2009. Total emission reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated total vehicle emissions in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle emission mitigation in Guangzhou

  1. China's CO2 emissions estimated from the bottom up: Recent trends, spatial distributions, and quantification of uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Nielsen, Chris P.; McElroy, Michael B.

    2012-11-01

    China's emissions of anthropogenic CO2 are estimated using a bottom-up emission inventory framework based on a detailed categorization of economic sectors and provincial economic and energy data. It includes a newly compiled database of CO2 emission factors employing the latest field study results from China. Total annual emissions are estimated to have risen from 7126 to 9370 Mt CO2 from 2005 to 2009. Recent policies to conserve energy and reduce emissions have been effective in limiting CO2 emissions from power and iron & steel plants, but have had little effect on those from cement production. The uncertainties of China's CO2 emissions are quantified for the first time using Monte-Carlo simulation, producing a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -9% to +11% for total emissions in 2005. The largest contributors to sector-level emission uncertainty are emission factors for most industrial sources and activity levels for power plants, transportation, and residential & commercial sources. Application of province-level energy consumption and China-specific emission factors in some sectors results in higher annual emission estimates for 2005-2008 as compared with other studies, although most of those are within the 95% CIs of this study.

  2. Estimation of vehicular emissions using dynamic emission factors: A case study of Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.

    2014-12-01

    The estimation of vehicular emissions depends mainly on the values of emission factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive emission inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of emission factors as well as the emission rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic emission factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated emission limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These emission factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle Emissions (IVE) model is used to estimate the emissions of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular emissions, based on dynamic emission factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the total emissions of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the emissions of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an annual average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.

  3. Catalog of total excitation-emission and total synchronous fluorescence maps with synchronous fluorescence spectra of homologated fluorescent pesticides in large use in Morocco: development of a spectrometric low cost and direct analysis as an alert method in case of massive contamination of soils and waters by fluorescent pesticides.

    PubMed

    Foudeil, S; Hassoun, H; Lamhasni, T; Ait Lyazidi, S; Benyaich, F; Haddad, M; Choukrad, M; Boughdad, A; Bounakhla, M; Bounouira, H; Duarte, R M B O; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a direct spectrometric approach to monitor soils and waters, at a lower cost than the widely used chromatographic techniques; a spectrometric approach that is effective, reliable, fast, easy to implement, and without any use of organic solvents whose utilization is subject to law limitation. It could be suitable at least as an alert method in case of massive contamination. Here, we present for the first time a catalog of excitation-emission and total synchronous fluorescence maps that may be considered as fingerprints of a series of homologated pesticides, in large use in Morocco, aiming at a direct detection of their remains in agricultural soils and neighboring waters. After a large survey among farmers, agricultural workers and product distributors in two important agricultural regions of Morocco (Doukkala-Abda and Sebou basin), 48 commercial pesticides, which are fluorescent, were chosen. A multi-component spectral database of these targeted commercial pesticides was elaborated. For each pesticide, dissolved in water at the lowest concentration giving a no-noise fluorescence spectrum, the total excitation-emission matrix (TEEM), the total synchronous fluorescence matrix (TSFM) in addition to synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) at those offsets giving the highest fluorescence intensity were recorded. To test this preliminary multi-component database, two real soil samples, collected at a wheat field and at a vine field in the region of Doukkala, were analyzed. Remains of the commercial Pirimor (Carbamate) and Atlantis (Sulfonylurea) were identified by comparison of the recorded TEEM, TSFM, and SFS to those of the preliminary catalog at one hand, and on the basis of the results of a field pre-survey. The developed approach seems satisfactory, and the fluorimetric fingerprint database is under extension to a higher number of fluorescent pesticides in common use among the Moroccan agricultural regions. PMID:25424031

  4. Carbon emissions from spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Hao, W.M.; Alvarado, E.; Haggerty, P.K.

    1999-04-01

    The authors used NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery, biomass density maps, fuel consumption estimates, and a carbon emission factor to estimate the total carbon (C) emissions from the Spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico. All eight states in southeast Mexico were affected by the wildfires, although the activity was concentrated near the common border of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Veracruz. The fires burned approximately 482,000 ha and the land use/land cover classes most extensively impacted were the tall/medium selvas (tropical evergreen forests), open/fragmented forests, and perturbed areas. The total prompt emissions were 4.6 TgC during the two-month period of the authors` study, contributing an additional 24% to the region`s average annual net C emissions from forestry and land-use change. Mexico in 1998 experienced its driest Spring since 1941, setting the stage for the widespread burning.

  5. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion in china: from 1990 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Su, Shenshen; Li, Bengang; Cui, Siyu; Tao, Shu

    2011-10-01

    China has become the world's largest emitter of SO(2) since 2005, and aggressive deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at coal-fired power plants appeared in China when facing the formidable pressure of environment pollution. In this work, we estimate the annual emission from combustion sources at provincial levels in China from 1990 to 2007, with updated data investigations. We have implemented the method of transportation matrix to gain a better understanding of sulfur content of coal in consuming provinces, which in turn improved the inventory. The total emissions from combustion in 2007 were 28.3 Tg, half of which was contributed by coal-fired power plants. Meanwhile, the industrial boiler coal combustion and residential coal consumed in centralized heating were responsible for another 32% of the total emissions. From 1990 to 2007, annual SO(2) emission was fluctuated with two peaks (1996 and 2006), and total emission doubled from 15.4 Tg to 30.8 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 4.4% (6.3% since 2000). Due to the extensive application of FGD technology and the phase-out of small, high emitting units, the SO(2) emission began to decrease after 2006. Furthermore, the differences among estimates reported in literatures highlight a great need for further research to reduce the uncertainties with more detailed information on key sources and actual operation of devices. PMID:21851093

  6. 40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each EAF not subject to paragraph (c... also subject to annual process CH4 emissions reporting, you must also calculate and report the annual process CH4 emissions from the EAF using the procedures in paragraph (d) of this section. (a)...

  7. The contribution of soil biogenic NO and HONO emissions from a managed hyperarid ecosystem to the regional NOx emissions during growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X.; Behrendt, Thomas; Badawy, Moawad; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A study was carried out to understand the contributions of soil biogenic NO emissions from managed (fertilized and irrigated) hyperarid ecosystems in NW China to the regional NOx emissions during the growing season. Soil biogenic net potential NO fluxes were quantified by laboratory incubation of soil samples from the three dominating ecosystems (desert, cotton, and grape fields). Regional biogenic NO emissions were calculated bottom-up hourly for the entire growing season (April-September 2010) by considering corresponding land use, hourly data of soil temperature, gravimetric soil moisture, and fertilizer enhancement factors. The regional HONO emissions were estimated using the ratio of the optimum condition ((FN,opt(HONO) to FN,opt (NO)). Regional anthropogenic NOx emissions were calculated bottom-up from annual statistical data provided by regional and local government bureaus which have been downscaled to monthly value. Regional top-down emission estimates of NOx were derived on the monthly basis from satellite observations (OMI) of tropospheric vertical NO2 column densities and prescribed values of the tropospheric NOx lifetime. In order to compare the top-down and bottom-up emission estimates, all emission estimates were expressed in terms of mass of atomic nitrogen. Consequently, monthly top-down NOx emissions (total) were compared with monthly bottom-up NOx emissions (biogenic + anthropogenic) for the time of the satellite overpass (around 13:00 LT) with the consideration of the diurnal cycle of bottom-up estimates. Annual variation in total Tohsun Oasis NOx emissions is characterized by a strong peak in winter (December-February) and a secondary peak in summer (June-August). During summer, soil biogenic emissions were from equal to double that of related anthropogenic emissions, and grape soils were the main contributor to soil biogenic emissions, followed by cotton soils, while emissions from the desert were negligible. The top-down and bottom

  8. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  9. The wildland fire emission inventory: western United States emission estimates and an evaluation of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.

    2011-12-01

    . The estimated annual, domain wide ECO ranged from 436 Gg yr-1 in 2004 to 3107 Gg yr-1 in 2007. The extremes in estimated annual, domain wide EPM2.5 were 65 Gg yr-1 in 2004 and 454 Gg yr-1 in 2007. Annual WF emissions were a significant share of total emissions from non-WF sources (agriculture, dust, non-WF fire, fuel combustion, industrial processes, transportation, solvent, and miscellaneous) in the western United States as estimated in a national emission inventory. In the peak fire year of 2007, WF emissions were ~20% of total (WF + non-WF) CO emissions and ~39% of total PM2.5 emissions. During the months with the greatest fire activity, WF accounted for the majority of total CO and PM2.5 emitted across the study region. Uncertainties in annual, domain wide emissions was 28% to 51% for CO and 40% to 65% for PM2.5. Sensitivity of ũECO and ũEPM2.5 to the emission model components depended on scale. At scales relevant to regional modeling applications (Δx = 10 km, Δt = 1 day) WFEI estimates 50% of total ECO with an uncertainty <133% and half of total EPM2.5 with an uncertainty <146%. ũECO and ũEPM2.5 are reduced by more than half at the scale of global modeling applications (Δ x = 100 km, Δ t = 30 day) where 50% of total emissions are estimated with an uncertainty <50% for CO and <64% for PM2.5. Uncertainties in the estimates of burned area drives the emission uncertainties at regional scales. At global scales ũECO is most sensitive to uncertainties in the fuel load consumed while the uncertainty in the emission factor for PM2.5 plays the dominant role in ũEPM2.5. Our analysis indicates that the large scale aggregate uncertainties (e.g. the uncertainty in annual CO emitted for CONUS) typically reported for biomass burning emission inventories may not be appropriate for evaluating and interpreting results of regional scale modeling applications that employ the emission estimates. When feasible, biomass burning emission inventories should be evaluated and

  10. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxu; Tao, Shu; Cao, Jun; Coveney, Raymond M

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative relationships among social, economic, and climate parameters, and energy consumption for Chinese provinces, provide data for regression models' estimated rates of energy consumption and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by county. A nonlinear model was used for domestic coal combustion with total population and annual mean temperature as independent variables. Linear regression models were utilized for all other types of fuel consumption. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that emission factors, rather than the regression modeling, constitute the main source of uncertainty in prediction. Models were validated using available energy data of several northern and southern counties of China from the literature. The total PAHs produced by each county is approximately equivalent to the sum of the total emission from energy, coke, and aluminum production. PMID:17328170

  11. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county

    SciTech Connect

    Yanxu Zhang; Shu Tao; Jun Cao; Raymond M. Coveney III

    2007-02-15

    Quantitative relationships among social, economic, and climate parameters, and energy consumption for Chinese provinces, provide data for regression models' estimated rates of energy consumption and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by county. A nonlinear model was used for domestic coal combustion with total population and annual mean temperature as independent variables. Linear regression models were utilized for all other types of fuel consumption. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that emission factors, rather than the regression modeling, constitute the main source of uncertainty in prediction. Models were validated using available energy data of several northern and southern counties of China from the literature. The total PAHs produced by each county is approximately equivalent to the sum of the total emission from energy, coke, and aluminum production. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  12. The emission density and trend of ammonia over China

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Xing Wang; Xiao-Feng Lu; Yan-Bo Pang; Tao Wang

    1996-12-31

    Nationwide, province-based and gridded anthropogenic NH{sub 3} emissions in China have been made based on the number of livestock, poultry, fertilizer application, NH{sub 3} production and human beings. The total annual emissions have been calculated to be 89194.4 kt in 1991. In which livestock, fertilizer application, human beings, poultry and NH{sub 3} production account for 56.8%, 17.5%, 16.7% and 0.9% respectively. The gridded emission densities show that the high densities have appeared in the Middle Eastern China and Sichuan Basin. The average emission density over China is 0.9 t/km{sup 2} a in 1991. Which is just less than that of Europe (1.1 t/km{sup 2} a). The emission trends of NH{sub 3} have also been calculated from 1991 to 1992.

  13. The temporal and spatial distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, J; Losey, London M; Andres, Robert Joseph; Blasing, T J; Marland, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Refinements in the spatial and temporal resolution of North American fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions provide additional information about anthropogenic aspects of the carbon cycle. In North America, the seasonal and spatial patterns are a distinctive component to characterizing anthropogenic carbon emissions. The pattern of fossil-fuel-based CO{sub 2} emissions on a monthly scale has greater temporal and spatial variability than the flux aggregated to the national annual level. For some areas, monthly emissions can vary by as much as 85% for some fuels when compared with monthly estimates based on a uniform temporal and spatial distribution. The United States accounts for the majority of North American fossil carbon emissions, and the amplitude of the seasonal flux in emissions in the United States is greater than the total mean monthly emissions in both Canada and Mexico. Nevertheless, Canada and Mexico have distinctive seasonal patterns as well. For the continent, emissions were aggregated on a 5{sup o} x 10{sup o} latitude-longitude grid. The monthly pattern of emissions varies on both a north-south and east-west gradient and evolves through the time period analyzed (1990-2007). For many areas in North America, the magnitude of the month-to-month variation is larger than the total annual emissions from land use change, making the characterization of emissions patterns essential to understanding humanity's influence on the carbon cycle.

  14. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  15. 76 FR 69239 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to..., annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, accounts receivables, and...

  16. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual reports. 219.800 Section 219.800 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Annual Report § 219.800 Annual reports. (a) Each railroad that has a total of 400,000 or...

  17. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual reports. 219.800 Section 219.800 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Annual Report § 219.800 Annual reports. (a) Each railroad that has a total of 400,000 or...

  18. Effect of climate, intra and inter-annual variability, on nutrients emission (C,N, P) in stream water: lessons from an agricultural long term observatory of the temperate zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Remi, Dupas; Patrick, Durand; Ophélie, Fovet; Gerard, Gruau; Anne, Jaffrezic; Guillaume, Humbert; Philippe, Merot; Gu, Sen

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture greatly contributes to modify C, N and P cycles, particularly in animal breeding regions due to high inputs. Climatic conditions, intra and inter-annual variabilities, modify nutrient stream water emissions, acting in time on transfer and transformation, accumulation and mobilization processes, connecting and disconnecting in time different compartments (soil, riparian areas, groundwater). In agricultural catchments, nutrient perturbations are dominated by agricultural land use, and decoupling human activities and climate effects is far from easy. Climate change generally appears as a secondary driver compared to land use. If studied, generally only one nutrient is considered. Only long term, high frequency and multiple element data series can decouple these two drivers. The Kervidy-Naizin watershed belongs to the AgrHyS environmental research observatory (http://www6.inra.fr/ore_agrhys_eng), itself included in RBV (French catchment network of the CZO). On this catchment, 6 years of daily data on DOC, NO3, SRP, TP concentrations allow us to analyze the effect of seasonal and inter-annual climatic variabilities on water quality (C, N, P). Different papers have been published on the effect of climate on nitrate (Molenat et al, 2008), SRP and TP (Dupas et al, 2015) and DOC (Humbert et al, 2015). We will present first results comparing the effect of climate on these three major solute forms of C, N and P. While C and P dynamics are very close and controlled by fluctuation of water table downslope, i.e. in riparian areas, mobilizing C and P in time, nitrate dynamics is controlled by GW dynamics upslope acting as the major N reservoir. As example, the dryness conditions in summer appears a key factor of the C and P emissions in autumn. All the three solute forms interact when anoxic conditions are observed in riparian zones. These basic processes explain how climatic variability can influence and explain interactions between C, N and P emissions in stream

  19. Emissions of Trace Gases and Particles from Two Ships in the Southern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Christian, Ted J.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Bruintjes, Roelof

    2003-01-01

    Measurements were made of the emissions of particles and gases from two diesel-powered ships in the southern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Namibia. The measurements are used to derive emission factors from ships of three species not reported previously, namely, black carbon, accumulation-mode particles, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and condensation nuclei. The effects of fuel grade and engine power on ship emissions are discussed. The emission factors are combined with fuel usage data to obtain estimates of global annual emissions of various particles and gases from ocean-going ships. Global emissions of black carbon, accumulation- mode particles, and CCN from ocean-going ships are estimated to be 19-26 Gg yr(sup -1), (4.4-6.1) x 10(exp 26) particles yr(sup -1), and (1.0-1.5) x l0(exp 26) particles yr(sup -1), respectively. Black carbon emissions from ocean-going ships are approximately 0.2% of total anthropogenic emissions. Emissions of NOx and SO2 from ocean-going ships are approximately 10-14% and approximately 3-4%, respectively, of the total emissions of these species from the burning of fossil fuels, and approximately 40% and approximately 70%, respectively, of the total emissions of these species from the burning of biomass. Global annual emissions of CO and CH4 from ocean-going ships are approximately 2% and approximately 2-5%, respectively, of natural oceanic emissions of these species.

  20. Development of an emission factor for ammonia emissions from US swine farms based on field tests and application of a mass balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorn, M. R. J.; Natschke, D. F.; Thorneloe, S. A.; Southerland, J.

    This paper discusses and summarizes post-1994 US and European information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from swine farms and assesses the applicability for general use in the United States. The emission rates for the houses calculated by various methods show good agreement and suggest that the houses are a more significant source than previously thought. A general emission factor for houses of 3.7±1.0 kg NH 3/ year/ finisher pig or 59±10 g NH 3/kg live weight/year is recommended. For lagoons, it was found that there is good similarity between the field test results and the number calculated by a mass balance method. The suggested annual NH 3 emission factor for lagoons based on field tests at one swine farm lagoon in North Carolina is 2.4 kg/ year/ pig. Emission rates from sprayfields were estimated using a total mass balance approach, while subtracting the house and lagoon emissions. The total emission rates for finishing pigs at the test farm compared well to the total rate established by a mass balance approach based on nitrogen intake and volatilization. Therefore, it was concluded that a mass balance approach can be helpful in estimating NH 3 emissions from swine farms. A general emission factor of 7±2 kg NH 3/pig/year could be developed, which is comparable to general European emission factors, which varied from 4.8 to 6.4 kg NH 3/pig/year.

  1. LLNL NESHAPs 2003 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Bowen, B

    2004-06-23

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2003 are summarized here. Livermore site: 0.044 mrem (0.44 {micro}Sv) (55% from point-source emissions, 45% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. Site 300: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (98% from point-source emissions, 2% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for two diffuse sources that were estimated using measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  2. LLNL NESHAPs 2002 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S-R; Tate, P J; Bertoldo, N A; Wilson, K R; Althouse, P E; Larson, J M

    2003-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2002 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.023 mrem (0.23 {micro}Sv) (43% from point-source emissions, 57% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.021 mrem (0.21 {micro}Sv) (85% from point-source emissions, 15% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  3. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, S. V.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004-2005 period. The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica. Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004-2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  4. An emission inventory of sulfur from anthropogenic sources in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, S. V.; Graf, H. F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents first results of a comprehensive emission inventory of chemical species from anthropogenic activities (power generation, vehicles, ships and aircraft) in Antarctica, covering the 2004-2005 period. The inventory is based on estimated emission rates of fuel consumption provided by some of the Antarctic research stations. Since the emission sources have different modes of operation and use a variety of fuel, the emission flux rate of chemical species is calculated by multiplying the fuel consumption value with the density of fuel and appropriate emission factors. A separate inventory is prepared for each anthropogenic emission source in Antarctica. Depending on the type of operation, emission rates of SO2, and BC (Black Carbon, from shipping only) have been calculated using the above technique. However, only results of SO2 emissions from each source are presented here. Emission inventory maps of SO2 depicting the track/path taken by each mobile source are shown. The total annual SO2 is 158 Mg from power generation and vehicle operations, 3873 Mg from ships and 56 Mg from aircraft for 2004-2005 and these values undergo strong seasonality following the human activity in Antarctica. Though these figures are small when compared to the emissions at most other regions of the world, they are an indication that human presence in Antarctica leads to at least local pollution. The sources are mainly line and point sources and thus the local pollution potentially is relatively strong.

  5. 40 CFR 98.173 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (b)(2) of this section. (1) Carbon mass balance method. Calculate the annual mass emissions of CO2... indurating furnaces, estimate CO2 emissions using Equation Q-1 of this section. ER30OC09.063 Where: CO2... emissions using Equation Q-2 of this section. ER30OC09.064 Where: CO2 = Annual CO2 mass emissions from...

  6. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted. PMID:24798347

  7. The Health Impacts of Energy Policy Pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: A Total Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, L. A.; Damdinsuren, Y.; Olkhanud, P. B.; Smith, K. R.; Turner, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Odsuren, M.; Ochir, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar is home to nearly half of Mongolia's 2.8 million residents. The city's rapid growth, frigid winters, valley topography, and reliance on coal-fired stoves have led to some of the worst winter pollution levels in the world. To better understand this issue, we modeled integrated PM2.5exposures and related health impacts for various city-wide heating policies through 2024. This assessment is one of the first to employ a total exposure approach and results of the 2014 Comparative Risk Assessments of the Global Burden of Disease Project (CRA/GBD) in a policy-relevant energy study. Emissions related to heating, traffic, and power generation were considered under Business as Usual, Moderate Improvement, and Max Improvement scenarios. Calibrated outdoor models were combined with indoor models, local infiltration and time activity estimates, and demographic projections to estimate PM2.5exposures in 2014 and 2024. Indoor exposures were assigned by heating type, home type, and smoking status; outdoor exposures were assigned through geocoding. Population average annual exposures were calculated and applied to local disease rates and integrated exposure-response curves (2014 CRA/GBD) to arrive at annual projections of premature deaths and DALYs. We estimate 2014 annual average exposures at 68 μg/m3, dictated almost exclusively by indoor winter exposures. Under current trends, annual exposures increase 10% to 75 μg/m3 in 2024. This is in stark contrast to the moderate and max improvement scenarios, which lead to 2024 annual exposures that are 31%, and 68% lower, respectively. Under the Moderate scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 26% and 22%, respectively, from 2014 levels. Under the Max scenario, 2024 per capita annual DALY and death burdens drop 71% and 66%, respectively, from 2014. SHS becomes a major contributor as emissions from other sectors decrease. Reductions are dominated by cardiovascular and lower respiratory diseases in children.

  8. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D.

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  9. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  10. The impact of global aviation NOx emissions on tropospheric composition changes from 2005 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Khan, M. A. H.; Shallcross, D. E.; Lowenberg, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of aviation NOx emissions from 2005 to 2011 on the chemical composition of the atmosphere has been investigated on the basis of integrations of the 3-D global chemical and transport model, STOCHEM-CRI with the novel CRIv2-R5 chemistry scheme. A base case simulation without aircraft NOx emissions and integrations with NOx emissions from aircraft are inter-compared. The sensitivity of the global atmosphere to varying the quantity and the geographical distribution of the global annual aviation NOx emissions is assessed by performing, for the first time, a series of integrations based on changing the total mass and distribution of aircraft NOx emissions derived from air traffic movements recorded between 2005 and 2011. The emissions of NOx from the global fleet based on actual records of air traffic movements between 2005 and 2011 increased the global tropospheric annual mean burden of O3 by 1.0 Tg and decreased the global tropospheric annual mean burden of CH4 by 2.5 Tg. The net NOy and O3 production increases by 0.5% and 1%, respectively between 2005 and 2011 in total. At cruise altitude, the absolute increase in the modelled O3 mixing ratios is found to be up to 0.7 ppb between 2005 and 2011 at 25°N-50°N.

  11. Nitric oxide emission from a typical vegetable field in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dejun; Wang, Xinming

    Croplands contribute to atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), but very limited data are available about NO fluxes from intensively managed croplands in China. In this study, NO fluxes were measured in a typical vegetable field planted with flowering Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee), which is the most widely cultivated vegetable in Guangdong province, south China. NO emission drastically increased after nitrogen fertilizer application, and other practices involving loosening the soil also enhanced NO emission. Mean NO emission flux was 47.5 ng N m -2 s -1 over a complete growth cycle. Annual NO emission from the vegetable field was about 10.1 kg N ha -1 yr -1. Fertilizer-induced NO emission factor was estimated to be 2.4%. Total NO emission from vegetable fields in Guangdong province was roughly estimated to be 11.7 Gg N yr -1 based on the vegetable field area and annual NO emission rate, and to be 13.3 Gg N yr -1 based on fertilizer-induced NO emission factor and background NO emission. This means that NO emission from vegetable fields was approximately 6% of NO x from commercial energy consumption in Guangdong province.

  12. Impacts of future climate change and emissions reductions on nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Woo, Jung-Hun; He, Shan; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G.

    2008-04-01

    Potential impacts of global climate change and emissions on the total nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the US are investigated. Three future years' annual average deposition rates (i.e., 2049-2051) are compared with historic ones (i.e., 2000-2002) accounting for existing US and individual State's emission regulations and strategies. Impacts of global climate change alone on regional nitrogen and sulfur deposition are small compared to impacts from emission control-related reductions for the projections used in this study. The combined effect of climate change and emission reductions is a decrease in the annual average nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the US. Reduced nitrogen species dominate oxidized nitrogen deposition in the future. Spatial distribution plots for both components show lower deposition rates in the future mainly in the middle and eastern States where reductions in NOx and SO2 emissions are more pronounced.

  13. Reconciling reported and unreported HFC emissions with atmospheric observations

    PubMed Central

    Lunt, Mark F.; Rigby, Matthew; Ganesan, Anita L.; Manning, Alistair J.; Prinn, Ronald G.; O’Doherty, Simon; Mühle, Jens; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Arnold, Tim; Weiss, Ray F.; Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Krummel, Paul B.; Steele, L. Paul; Fraser, Paul J.; Li, Shanlan; Park, Sunyoung; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Lunder, Chris; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Maione, Michela; Arduini, Jgor; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    We infer global and regional emissions of five of the most abundant hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) using atmospheric measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, networks. We find that the total CO2-equivalent emissions of the five HFCs from countries that are required to provide detailed, annual reports to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) increased from 198 (175–221) Tg-CO2-eq⋅y–1 in 2007 to 275 (246–304) Tg-CO2-eq⋅y–1 in 2012. These global warming potential-weighted aggregated emissions agree well with those reported to the UNFCCC throughout this period and indicate that the gap between reported emissions and global HFC emissions derived from atmospheric trends is almost entirely due to emissions from nonreporting countries. However, our measurement-based estimates of individual HFC species suggest that emissions, from reporting countries, of the most abundant HFC, HFC-134a, were only 79% (63–95%) of the UNFCCC inventory total, while other HFC emissions were significantly greater than the reported values. These results suggest that there are inaccuracies in the reporting methods for individual HFCs, which appear to cancel when aggregated together. PMID:25918401

  14. Reconciling reported and unreported HFC emissions with atmospheric observations.

    PubMed

    Lunt, Mark F; Rigby, Matthew; Ganesan, Anita L; Manning, Alistair J; Prinn, Ronald G; O'Doherty, Simon; Mühle, Jens; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Arnold, Tim; Weiss, Ray F; Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Krummel, Paul B; Steele, L Paul; Fraser, Paul J; Li, Shanlan; Park, Sunyoung; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K; Lunder, Chris; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Maione, Michela; Arduini, Jgor; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G

    2015-05-12

    We infer global and regional emissions of five of the most abundant hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) using atmospheric measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, networks. We find that the total CO2-equivalent emissions of the five HFCs from countries that are required to provide detailed, annual reports to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) increased from 198 (175-221) Tg-CO2-eq ⋅ y(-1) in 2007 to 275 (246-304) Tg-CO2-eq ⋅ y(-1) in 2012. These global warming potential-weighted aggregated emissions agree well with those reported to the UNFCCC throughout this period and indicate that the gap between reported emissions and global HFC emissions derived from atmospheric trends is almost entirely due to emissions from nonreporting countries. However, our measurement-based estimates of individual HFC species suggest that emissions, from reporting countries, of the most abundant HFC, HFC-134a, were only 79% (63-95%) of the UNFCCC inventory total, while other HFC emissions were significantly greater than the reported values. These results suggest that there are inaccuracies in the reporting methods for individual HFCs, which appear to cancel when aggregated together. PMID:25918401

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions for Africa south of the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otter, L.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Fleming, G.; Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.

    2003-07-01

    Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) and were combined with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission measurements to estimate BVOC emissions for the southern African region. The BVOCs are estimated to total 80 Tg C yr-1 for the region, with isoprene and monoterpenes contributing 56 and 7 Tg C yr-1, respectively. The large uncertainties, particularly in terms of basal emission capacity assignment, associated with these outputs are discussed. Woodlands are predicted to be the dominant vegetation type, covering 23% of southern Africa, and are the largest annual source of isoprene (20 Tg C), monoterpenes (3 Tg C), and other VOCs (4 Tg C). Mopane savannas and woodlands are predicted to contribute over 75% of all monoterpenes, primarily from light-dependent emission processes. Rain forests cover only 3.5% of the total area but have high annual emission rates (9.8 g C m-2 yr-1). In the tropical regions with high rainfall, warm temperatures, and high plant productivity throughout the year, the seasonal variation in VOC emissions was small. In subtropical regions, dominated by highly seasonal savannas and grasslands, large variations were predicted, with emissions declining by up to 85% during dry winter periods (June-August) due to low leaf area index after leaf drop.

  16. Proposal of new expanded selection criteria using total tumor size and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emission tomography/computed tomography for living donor liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: The National Cancer Center Korea criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Duk; Lee, Bora; Kim, Seong Hoon; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Kyu; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To expand the living donor liver transplantation (LT) pool of eligible patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using new morphological and biological criteria. METHODS: Patients with HCC who underwent living donor LT (LDLT) from March 2005 to May 2013 at the National Cancer Center Korea (NCCK) were enrolled. We performed the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before LDLT. Overall and disease-free survival analysis was done in patients to evaluate the usefulness of new NCCK criteria using PET/CT and total tumor size (10 cm). RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 280 patients who pathologically confirmed to have HCC and performed the PET/CT before transplantation. Among them, 164 (58.6%) patients fulfilled the NCCK criteria and 132 patients (47.1%) met the Milan criteria. Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients who fulfilled the NCCK criteria showed 85.2% and 84.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those beyond the NCCK criteria (60.2% and 44.4%, respectively; P < 0.001). The correlation analysis between preoperative imaging tests and pathologic reports using Cohen’s Kappa demonstrated the better results in the NCCK criteria than those in the Milan criteria (0.850 vs 0.583). The comparison of disease-free analysis among the NCCK, Milan, and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria using the receiver operating characteristics curves revealed the similar area under the curve value criteria (NCCK vs Milan, P = 0.484; NCCK vs UCSF, P = 0.189 at 5-years). CONCLUSION: The NCCK criteria using hybrid concept of both morphological and biological parameters showed an excellent agreement between preoperative imaging and pathological results, and favorable survival outcomes. These new criteria might select the optimal patients with HCC waiting LDLT and expand the selection pool. PMID:27358787

  17. Rainfall variability drives interannual variation in N₂O emissions from a humid, subtropical pasture.

    PubMed

    Rowlings, D W; Grace, P R; Scheer, C; Liu, S

    2015-04-15

    Variations in interannual rainfall totals can lead to large uncertainties in annual N2O emission budget estimates from short term field studies. The interannual variation in nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a subtropical pasture in Queensland, Australia, was examined using continuous measurements of automated chambers over 2 consecutive years. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest during the summer months and were highly episodic, related more to the size and distribution of rain events than soil water content. Over 48% of the total N2O emitted was lost in just 16% of measurement days. Interannual variation in annual N2O estimates was high, with cumulative emissions increasing with decreasing rainfall. Cumulative emissions averaged 1826.7±199.9 g N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1) over the two year period, though emissions from 2008 (2148±273 g N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1)) were 42% higher than 2007 (1504±126 g N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1)). This increase in annual emissions coincided with almost half of the summer precipitation from 2007 to 2008. Emissions dynamics were chiefly driven by the distribution and size of rain events which varied on a seasonal and annual basis. Sampling frequency effects on cumulative N2O flux estimation were assessed using a jackknife technique to inform future manual sampling campaigns. Test subsets of the daily measured data were generated for the pasture and two adjacent land-uses (rainforest and lychee orchard) by selecting measured flux values at regular time intervals ranging from 1 to 30 days. Errors associated with weekly sampling were up to 34% of the sub-daily mean and were highly biased towards overestimation if strategically sampled following rain events. Sampling time of day also played a critical role. Morning sampling best represented the 24 hour mean in the pasture, whereas sampling at noon proved the most accurate in the shaded rainforest and lychee orchard. PMID:25613765

  18. Temporalization of Electric Generation Emissions for Improved Representation of Peak Air Quality Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, C. M.; Moeller, M.; Carlton, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Photochemical transport models routinely under predict peak air quality events. This deficiency may be due, in part, to inadequate temporalization of emissions from the electric generating sector. The National Emissions Inventory (NEI) reports emissions from Electric Generating Units (EGUs) by either Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) that report hourly values or as an annual total. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions preprocessor (SMOKE), used to prepare emissions data for modeling with the CMAQ air quality model, allocates annual emission totals throughout the year using specific monthly, weekly, and hourly weights according to standard classification code (SCC) and location. This approach represents average diurnal and seasonal patterns of electricity generation but does not capture spikes in emissions due to episodic use as with peaking units or due to extreme weather events. In this project we use a combination of state air quality permits, CEM data, and EPA emission factors to more accurately temporalize emissions of NOx, SO2 and particulate matter (PM) during the extensive heat wave of July and August 2006. Two CMAQ simulations are conducted; the first with the base NEI emissions and the second with improved temporalization, more representative of actual emissions during the heat wave. Predictions from both simulations are evaluated with O3 and PM measurement data from EPA's National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) and State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) during the heat wave, for which ambient concentrations of criteria pollutants were often above NAAQS. During periods of increased photochemistry and high pollutant concentrations, it is critical that emissions are most accurately represented in air quality models.

  19. Particles and gaseous emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellet heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from six residential wood pellet heating systems are determined at a realistic six day operation sequence. The study aims to investigate the total emissions from a realistic operation of the heating systems including start-up and stop phases. Five combined solar and pellet heating systems and one reference boiler without solar system with an integrated DHW preparation was tested in a laboratory at realistic operation conditions. The investigated emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, the emissions are presented as accumulated total emissions from the whole six days period and the emissions from start-up and stop phases are also presented separately to evaluate the influence of the emissions from these phases on the total emissions. Emission factors of the measured systems from the six day period are between 192 and 547 mg MJ-1 for the CO emissions, between 61 and 95 mg MJ-1 for the NO, between 6 and 45 mg MJ-1 for the TOC, between 31 and 116 mg MJ-1 for the particulate matter and between 2.1 × 1013 and 4 × 1013 for the number of particles. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases are significantly high for the CO (63-95 %) and the TOC (48-93 %). NO and particles emissions are shown to dominate during stationary operation. However, 30-40 % of the particle emissions arise from the start and stop periods. It is also shown that the average emissions of CO, TOC and particles under the realistic annual conditions were higher than the limit values of two eco labels.

  20. The use of ion chromatography-dc plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the speciation of trace metals. Annual performance report, February 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Urasa, I.T.

    1991-09-20

    The original objects of this research program were: to interface d.c. plasma atomic emission spectrometer with an ion chromatograph; to characterize and optimize the combined systems for application in the speciation of metals in aqueous solutions; to use this system in the study of the solution chemistry of various metals; and to find ways in which the measurement sensitivity of the method can be enhanced, thereby allowing the detection of metal species at low ppb concentration levels. This approach has been used to study the chemistry of and speciate several elements in solution including: arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel phosphorus, platinum, selenium, and vanadium. During the course of this research, we have found that the solution chemistry of the elements studied and the speciation data obtained can vary considerably depending on the solution, and the chromatographic conditions employed. The speciation of chromium, iron, and vanadium was found to be highly influenced by the acidity of the sample. The element selective nature of the d.c. plasma detector allows these changes to be monitored, thereby providing quantitative information on the new moieties formed. New approaches are being developed including the use of chelating ligands as preconcentration agents for purposes of reducing further the detection limits of the elements of interest and to improve the overall element speciation scheme. New thrusts are being directed towards the employment of post-column derivatization method coupled with colorimetric measurements to detect and quantify metal species eluting from the chromatographic column. The influence of sample acidity on these investigations will be carefully evaluated. These new thrusts are described in the accompanying Project Renewal Proposal.

  1. Impact of changes in barometric pressure on landfill methane emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla; McDermitt, Dayle

    2014-07-01

    Landfill methane emissions were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Our results show that landfill methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission, a phenomenon called barometric pumping. There was up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions due to changes in barometric pressure. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane emission at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the total variance in the methane emission time series at our landfill site. From our results, it is clear that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured emission rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions from landfills based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28.8% underestimation to 32.3% overestimation. Our results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify annual total landfill emissions. This conclusion may apply to the study of methane emissions from wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environmental contexts where emissions are from porous media or ebullition. Other implications from the present study for hazard gas monitoring programs are also discussed.

  2. LLNL NESHAPs 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.; Harrach, R.J.; Biermann, A.H.; Tate, P.J.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem to any member of the public. This document contains the EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1995 operations.

  3. Emission factors for ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions following immediate manure incorporation on two contrasting soil types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J.; Thorman, R. E.; Fernanda-Aller, M.; Jackson, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We carried out four replicated field experiments to measure the impacts of immediate incorporation of solid manures on emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Four manures: cattle farmyard manure (FYM); pig FYM; layer manure and broiler manure were applied to the soil surface or immediately incorporated by mouldboard plough, disc or tine. Two of the experiments were carried out on a clay soil and two on a sandy soil to find out whether soil type interacted with incorporation technique to influence emissions of NH3 or N2O. Ammonia emissions were measured for 1 or 2 weeks while N2O emissions were measured for 60 days in one experiment and for a complete year in the other three experiments. Immediate incorporation by plough reduced NH3 emissions by c. 90% and by c. 60% by disc and tine (P < 0.001). There was no effect of soil type on NH3 abatement efficiency by plough or tine but the disc was less effective on the coarse sandy soil. Cross-site analysis indicated no effect of incorporation by disc or tine on emissions of N2O-N after 60 days but incorporation by plough increased direct emissions of N2O-N compared with surface application of manure (P < 0.001). Direct emissions of N2O-N, at c. 0.67% of total N applied, were substantially greater at the coarse-textured site than at the heavy clay site (0.04% of total N applied; P < 0.001). The impact of incorporation on total annual direct emissions of N2O-N differed in the three experiments where emissions were measured for a full year. There was no effect of incorporation on N2O-N emissions in the first experiment on the clay soil, and in the second experiment at this site incorporation by plough or disc, but not tine, reduced direct emissions of N2O (P = 0.006). However on the sandy soil direct emissions of N2O-N were increased when manures were incorporated by plough (P = 0.002) but not when incorporated by disc or tine. These results confirm that immediate incorporation of solid manures by plough is the

  4. Is it Possible to Use the Green Coronal Line Instead of X rays to Cancel an Effect of the Coronal Emissivity Deficit in Estimation of the Prominence Total Mass from Decrease of the EUV-corona Intensities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, P.; Heinzel, P.; Jejčič, S.; Rybák, J.; Kotrč, P.; Fárník, F.; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; Deluca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Jibben, P. R.; Anzer, U.; Tlatov, A. G..; Guseva, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Total masses of six quiescent prominences observed from April through June 2011 were estimated using multi-spectral observations (in EUV, X-rays, Hα, and Ca II H). The method for the total mass estimation is based on the fact that the intensity of the EUV solar corona at wavelengths below 912 Å is reduced at a prominence by the absorption in resonance continua (photoionisation) of hydrogen and possibly by helium and subsequently an amount of absorbed radiation is proportional to the column density of hydrogen and helium plasma. Moreover, the deficit of the coronal emissivity in volume occupied by the cool prominence plasma also contributes to the intensity decrease. The observations in X-rays which are not absorbed by the prominence plasma, allow us to separate these two mechanisms from each other. The X-ray observations of XRT onboard the Hinode satellite made with the Al-mesh focal filter were used because the X-ray coronal radiation formed in plasma of temperatures of the order of 106 K was registered and EUV spectral lines occurring in the 193, 211 and 335 Å channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite are also formed at such temperatures. Unfortunately, the Al-mesh filter has a secondary peak of the transmittance at around 171 Å which causes a contribution from the EUV corona to the measured data of up to 11 % in the quiet corona. Thus, absorption in prominence plasma influences XRT X-ray data when using the Al-mesh filter. On the other hand, other X-ray XRT filters are more sensitive to plasma of much higher temperatures (log T of the order of 7), thus observations using these filters cannot be used together with the AIA observations in the method for mass estimations. This problem could be solved using observations in the green coronal line instead of X-rays. Absorption of the green coronal line by a prominence plasma is negligible and this line is formed at temperatures of the order of 106 K. We

  5. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  6. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  7. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzene emissions, exhaust toxics emissions, NOX emissions, sulfur, olefins and T90 shall be determined... section. (e) Baseline NO X emissions. The annual average baseline NOX emissions for any facility of a... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  8. LLNL NESHAPs 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Biermann, A H; Gallegos, G; Hall, L C; Harrach, R J; Surano, K A

    1999-06-14

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1998 operations are summarized here. (1) Livermore site: 0.055 mrem (0.55 {micro}Sv) (57% from point-source emissions, 43% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX and is used for compliance purposes. LLNL believes a more realistic dose for the Livermore site is 0.049 mrem (0.49 {micro}Sv) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions). This dose is based on an assessment that represents a more realistic behavior of tritium gas in the environment. (2) Site 300: 0.024 mrem (0.24 {micro}Sv) (78% from point-source emissions, 22% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  9. LLNL NESHAPs 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1997-01-06

    This annual report is prepared pursuant to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (10 microsieverts) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1996 operations were (1) Livermore site: 0. 093 mrem (0.93 microsievert) (52% from point-source emissions, 48% from diffuse-source emissions); (2) Site 300: 0.033 mrem (0.33 microsievert) (99% from point-source, 1% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Methane emissions from northern Amazon savanna wetlands and Balbina Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemenes, A.; Belger, L.; Forsberg, B.; Melack, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    To improve estimates of methane emission for the Amazon basin requires information from aquatic environments not represented in the central basin near the Solimoes River, where most of the current data were obtained. We have combined intensive, year-long measurements of methane emission and water levels made in interfluvial wetlands located in the upper Negro basin with calculations of inundation based on a time series of Radarsat synthetic aperature radar images. These grass-dominated savannas emitted methane at an average rate of 18 mg C per m squared per day, a low rate compared to the habitats with floating grasses the occur in the Solimoes floodplains. Reservoirs constructed in the Amazon typically flood forested landscapes and lead to conditions conducive for methane production. The methane is released to the atmosphere from the reservoir and as the water exits the turbines and from the downstream river. Balbina Reservoir near Manaus covers about 2400 km squared along the Uatuma River. Annual averages of measurements of methane emission from the various habitats in the reservoir range from 23 to 64 mg C per m squared per day. Total annual emission from the reservoir is about 58 Gg C. In addition, about 39 Gg C per year are released below the dam, about 50 percent of which is released as the water passes through the turbines. On an annual areal basis, Balbina Reservoir emits 40 Mg C km squared, in contrast to 30 Mg km squared for the Solimoes mainstem floodplain

  11. Estimating CH4 and N2O Emissions Using Tower Measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Zhao, C.; Hsu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Vaca, P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Wilczak, J. M.; Fischer, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Based on an inverse modeling approach, we report spatio-temporally-resolved emissions for major non-CO2 greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O) in California's Central Valley using measurements from a collaborative tower network. This large dataset, for the first time, allows quantification of the seasonal and inter-annual variations in California emissions, facilitating validation of uncertain state-wide annual emission totals that will be subject to future regulation by AB-32. Seasonally varying regional methane emissions (~100km) are estimated by scaling high-resolution (10-km scale) CH4 emission maps (initially tied to estimated state totals) for major known sources using a Bayesian inversion model to provide optimal agreement with aggregate mixing ratio data measured at the CARB-CEC-LBNL-NOAA 5-tower network. Two years of continuous CH4 measurements from the Walnut Grove (WGC) tall-tower indicate that annual CH4 emissions north of WGC (the southern end of the Sacramento Valley) are 2 - 3 times greater than the un-scaled inventory, with stronger summertime emissions that are likely driven by agriculture. South of WGC (in the Northern San Joaquin Valley) emissions are 0.9 - 1.5 times greater than the un-scaled inventory with small seasonal variation, where dairy emissions are expected to be dominant. Preliminary measurements from the 5-tower network suggest that long term data collected from those sites will greatly increase the ability to quantify and apportion CH4 emissions at 50 - 100 km scales over the entire Valley. Two years of daily N2O flask measurements from WGC indicate that N2O emissions are 2 - 3 times higher than the EDGAR3.2 emission inventory in Central California. Applying these scaling factors to the remainder of the California landscape suggests that total non-CO2 GHG's constitute 15 - 25% of California's total GHG emissions, and hence that mitigation of non-CO2 GHG emissions could meaningfully reduce California's overall GHG burden.

  12. (abstract) Determination of the Specific Heat and Total Hemispherical Total Emissivity of the Highly Undercooled Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, R.; Kim, Y. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rulison, A. J.; Rhim, W. K.

    1995-01-01

    High temperature high vacuum electrostatic levitation was combined with DSC experiments to determine the specific heat C(sub p) of the undercooled Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) liquid as a function of temperature. The containerless approach made it possible to undercool the melt to the glass transition temperature without inducing nucleation. Because the cooling process was purely radiative, noncontact temperature measurement techniques could be used to determine the specific heat to total hemispherical emissivity ratio, C(sub p)/epsilon(sub t), for the undercooled liquid region. Using C(sub p) values which were independently obtained by DSC, epsilon(sub t) could be determined. With knowledge of C(sub p) of the undercooled liquid it was possible to determine other thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy and entropy as a function of undercooling.

  13. The socioeconomic drivers of China’s primary PM2.5 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Peters, Glen P.; Liu, Zhu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin

    2014-01-01

    Primary PM2.5 emissions contributed significantly to poor air quality in China. We present an interdisciplinary study to measure the magnitudes of socioeconomic factors in driving primary PM2.5 emission changes in China between 1997-2010, by using a regional emission inventory as input into an environmentally extended input-output framework and applying structural decomposition analysis. Our results show that China’s significant efficiency gains fully offset emissions growth triggered by economic growth and other drivers. Capital formation is the largest final demand category in contributing annual PM2.5 emissions, but the associated emission level is steadily declining. Exports is the only final demand category that drives emission growth between 1997-2010. The production of exports led to emissions of 638 thousand tonnes of PM2.5, half of the EU27 annual total, and six times that of Germany. Embodied emissions in Chinese exports are largely driven by consumption in OECD countries.

  14. A UK inventory of nitrous oxide emissions from farmed livestock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. R.; Sneath, R. W.; Phillips, V. R.; Pain, B. F.

    A UK inventory of the nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions from farmed livestock was compiled to identify areas where potential abatement practices may be effective. Where possible, emission factors based on direct experimental data gathered under UK conditions were used, but published data were used when this was not feasible, together with statistical information, which included details of numbers of animals within each category of a species, animal liveweights, number of days housed, excretal rates and volumes of manures in stores. Total N 2O emissions were calculated for each component of livestock production systems, i.e. animal houses, manure stores, following application of manures to land and during grazing. Emissions were also estimated from land used for forage conservation and tillage. Total annual N 2O emissions from UK farmed livestock, based mainly on 1996 animal census data, were estimated to be 38.27 kt. The two main terms were 22.66 kt N 2O from mineral fertilisers after application to soils and 5.61 kt N 2O from stored manures (mainly in the form of farmyard manure). Within buildings, poultry were the largest contributors of N 2O, 2.97 kt, followed by cattle, 1.62 kt. Within the total emissions from stored manures, cattle were the largest contributors of N 2O, 3.58 kt, followed by poultry, 1.86 kt. Dietary manipulation and a move from solid manure based systems to slurry based systems appear to be promising abatement practices.

  15. 40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production engines, annual report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, annual report. (a) Upon the...

  16. 40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production engines, annual report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, annual report. (a) Upon the...

  17. 40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production engines, annual report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, annual report. (a) Upon the...

  18. 40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, annual report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Production engines, annual report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, annual report. (a) Upon the...

  19. The contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles to the volatile organic compound inventory in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; González-Macías, C

    2014-06-01

    The strategy for decreasing volatile organic compound emissions in Mexico has been focused much more on tailpipe emissions than on evaporative emissions, so there is very little information on the contribution of evaporative emissions to the total volatile organic compound inventory. We examined the magnitudes of exhaust and evaporative volatile organic compound emissions, and the species emitted, in a representative fleet of light-duty gasoline vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The US "FTP-75" test protocol was used to estimate volatile organic compound emissions associated with diurnal evaporative losses, and when the engine is started and a journey begins. The amount and nature of the volatile organic compounds emitted under these conditions have not previously been accounted in the official inventory of the area. Evaporative emissions from light-duty vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were estimated to be 39 % of the total annual amount of hydrocarbons emitted. Vehicles built before 1992 (16 % of the fleet) were found to be responsible for 43 % of the total hydrocarbon emissions from exhausts and 31 % of the evaporative emissions of organic compounds. The relatively high amounts of volatile organic compounds emitted from older vehicles found in this study show that strong emission controls need to be implemented in order to decrease the contribution of evaporative emissions of this fraction of the fleet. PMID:24526614

  20. Hypergolic oxidizer and fuel scrubber emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Curran, Dan; Hodge, Tim; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    Hypergolic fuels and oxidizer are emitted to the environment during fueling and deservicing shuttle and other spacecraft. Such emissions are difficult to measure due to the intermittent purge flow and to the presence of suspended scrubber liquor. A new method for emissions monitoring was introduced in a previous paper. This paper is a summary of the results of a one-year study of shuttle launch pads and orbiter processing facilities (OPF's) which proved that emissions can be determined from field scrubbers without direct measurement of vent flow rate and hypergol concentration. This new approach is based on the scrubber efficiency, which was measured during normal operations, and on the accumulated weight of hypergol captured in the scrubber liquor, which is part of the routine monitoring data of scrubber liquors. To validate this concept, three qualification tests were performed, logs were prepared for each of 16 hypergol scrubbers at KSC, the efficiencies of KSC scrubbers were measured during normal operations, and an estimate of the annual emissions was made based on the efficiencies and the propellant buildup data. The results have confirmed that the emissions from the KSC scrubbers can be monitored by measuring the buildup of hypergol propellant in the liquor, and then using the appropriate efficiency to calculate the emissions. There was good agreement between the calculated emissions based on outlet concentration and flow rate, and the emissions calculated from the propellant buildup and efficiency. The efficiencies of 12 KSC scrubbers, measured under actual servicing operations and special test conditions, were assumed to be valid for all subsequent operations until a significant change in hardware occurred. An estimate of the total emissions from 16 scrubbers for three years showed that 0.3 kg/yr of fuel and 234 kg/yr of oxidizer were emitted.

  1. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  2. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2

  3. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby

  4. Annual and Semi-Annual Temperature Oscillations in the Upper Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometer observations of the mesosphere have been performed at the University of Michigan (latitude: 42.5 N) on a long term basis. A database of near infrared Meinel hydroxyl spectra has been accumulated from which rotational temperatures have been determined. Harmonic analysis of one-day averaged temperatures for the period 1992.0 to 1994.5 has shown a distinct annual and semi-annual variation. Subsequent fitting of a five term periodic function characterizing the annual and semi-annual temperature oscillations to the daily averaged temperatures was performed. The resultant mean temperature and the amplitudes and phases of the annual and semi-annual variations are shown to coincide with an emission height slightly above 85 km which is consistent with the mean rocket derived altitude for peak nocturnal hydroxyl emission.

  5. Methane emission from natural wetlands: Global distribution, area, and environmental characteristics of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.; Fung, I. )

    1987-03-01

    A global data base of wetlands at 1 degree resolution was developed from the integration of three independent global, digital sources: (1) vegetation, (2) soil properties and (3) fractional inundation in each 1 degree cell. The integration yielded a global distribution of wetland sites identified with in situ ecological and environmental characteristics. The wetland sites were classified into five major groups on the basis of environmental characteristics governing methane emissions. The global wetland area derived in this study is 5.3 trillion sq m, approximately twice the wetland area previously used in methane emission studies. Methane emission was calculated using methane fluxes for the major wetland groups, and simple assumptions about the duration of the methane production season. The annual methane emission from wetlands is about 110 Tg, well within the range of previous estimates. Tropical/subtropical peat-poor swamps from 20 degrees N to 30 degrees S account from 30% of the global wetland area and 25% of the total methane emission. About 60% of the total emission comes from peat-rich bogs concentrated from 50-70 degrees N, suggesting that the highly seasonal emission from these ecosystems is the major contributor to the large annual oscillations observed in atmospheric methane concentrations at these latitudes. 78 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Cold season emissions dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Henderson, John M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D.; Kimball, John S.; Lipson, David A.; Oechel, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra total 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y-1, ∼25% of global emissions from extratropical wetlands, or ∼6% of total global wetland methane emissions. The dominance of late-season emissions, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 emissions will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming.

  7. Cold season emissions dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget.

    PubMed

    Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C; Miller, Charles E; Dinardo, Steven J; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Henderson, John M; Murphy, Patrick C; Goodrich, Jordan P; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D; Kimball, John S; Lipson, David A; Oechel, Walter C

    2016-01-01

    Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥ 50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra total 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y(-1), ∼ 25% of global emissions from extratropical wetlands, or ∼ 6% of total global wetland methane emissions. The dominance of late-season emissions, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 emissions will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming. PMID:26699476

  8. Cold season emissions dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget

    PubMed Central

    Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Henderson, John M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D.; Kimball, John S.; Lipson, David A.; Oechel, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the “zero curtain” period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra total 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y−1, ∼25% of global emissions from extratropical wetlands, or ∼6% of total global wetland methane emissions. The dominance of late-season emissions, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 emissions will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming. PMID:26699476

  9. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  10. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33 = 6.8, P = 0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28 = 2.7, P = 0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r = −0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  11. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  12. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  13. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  14. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions... total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) Total arsenic emissions from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...

  15. The contribution of soil biogenic NO emissions from a managed hyper-arid ecosystem to the regional NO2 emissions during growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, B.; Badawy, M.; Behrendt, T.; Meixner, F. X.; Wagner, T.

    2015-12-01

    A study was carried out to understand the contributions of soil biogenic NO emissions from managed (fertilized and irrigated) hyper-arid ecosystem in NW-China to the regional NO2 emissions during growing season. Soil biogenic NO emissions were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. We have developed the Geoscience General Tool Package (GGTP) to obtain soil temperature, soil moisture and biogenic soil NO emission at oasis scale. Bottom-up anthropogenic NO2 emissions have been scaled down from annual to monthly values to compare mean monthly soil biogenic NO2 emissions. The top-down emission estimates have been derived from satellite observations compared then with the bottom-up emission estimates (anthropogenic and biogenic). The results show that the soil biogenic emissions of NO2 during the growing period are (at least) equal until twofold of the related anthropogenic sources. We found that the grape soils are the main summertime contributor to the biogenic NO emissions of study area, followed by cotton soils. The top-down and bottom-up emission estimates were shown to be useful methods to estimate the monthly/seasonal cycle of the total regional NO2 emissions. The resulting total NO2 emissions show a strong peak in winter and a secondary peak in summer, providing confidence in the method. These findings provide strong evidence that biogenic emissions from soils of managed drylands (irrigated and fertilized) in the growing period can be much more important contributors to the regional NO2 budget (hence to regional photochemistry) of dryland regions than thought before.

  16. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  17. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  18. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  19. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  20. 50 CFR 665.211 - Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665.211... Fisheries § 665.211 Total Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set annually for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the annual TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...

  1. Annual Energy Review 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2008-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  3. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-12-01

    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared

  4. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand. PMID:12775078

  5. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  6. Fallow season straw and water management effects on methane emissions in California rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, G. J.; Scow, K. M.; Hill, J. E.

    2000-09-01

    In response to legislative mandate to reduce postharvest straw burning and environmental concerns to restore wetland habitat for Pacific flyway waterfowl, California rice growers are incorporating straw into soil and flooding rice fields in winter. These changes were hypothesized to alter soil carbon cycling pathways across the region. The principal objective of this study was to determine how various winter fallowed straw and water management changes would affect year-round methane emissions. Main plots were winter flood and nonflood, and subplots had straw treatments: burned, soil incorporated, or rolled (partially soil incorporated). Results showed the principal factor controlling methane emissions was the interaction of flooding and straw amendments. The presence of either water or straw alone led to low emissions. Winter emissions accounted for 50% of annual totals in straw-amended treatments despite lower temperatures and the presence of plants in summer. Summer emissions were significantly influenced by winter straw amendments but not by winter flood. Postdrain peaks after winter drain accounted for 10-13% of annual emissions in treatments with amended straw. Although rolled and incorporated treatments had similar straw inputs, methane fluxes from rolled treatments were higher than from incorporated treatments. Measurements of methane should be conducted year-round to capture fallow and postdrain fluxes and improve global emission estimates. Regional emission estimates showed that 2.6 times more methane was emitted after flooding plus incorporation was implemented than before the legislative mandate was enacted.

  7. Significant fraction of CO2 emissions from boreal lakes derived from hydrologic inorganic carbon inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Kosten, Sarian; Wallin, Marcus B.; Tranvik, Lars J.; Jeppesen, Erik; Roland, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Annual CO2 emissions from lakes and other inland waters into the atmosphere are estimated to almost entirely compensate the total annual carbon uptake by oceans. CO2 supersaturation in lakes, which results in CO2 emissions, is frequently attributed to CO2 produced within the lake. However, lateral inorganic carbon flux through watersheds can also be sizeable. Here we calculated lake surface water CO2 concentrations and emissions using lake pH, alkalinity and temperature from a compilation of data from 5,118 boreal lakes. Autumn surface water CO2 concentrations and CO2 emissions from the 5,118 lakes co-varied with lake internal autumn CO2 production. However, using a mass balance approach we found that CO2 emission in the majority of lakes was sustained by inorganic carbon loading from the catchment rather than by internal CO2 production. Small lakes with high dissolved organic carbon and phosphorus concentrations, shorter retention times and longer ice-free seasons had the highest CO2 concentrations. CO2 emissions from these small lakes was twice that of comparable lakes in colder regions, and similar to emissions from subtropical and tropical lakes. We conclude that changes in land use and climate that increase dissolved inorganic carbon may cause emission levels from boreal lakes to approach those of lakes in warmer regions.

  8. Emissions from Miombo Woodland and Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles over and downwind of two prescribed savanna fires in Zambia are described. The measurements include profiles through the smoke plumes of condensation nucleus concentrations and normalized excess mixing ratios of particles and gases, emission factors for 42 trace gases and seven particulate species, and vertical profiles of ambient conditions. The fires were ignited in plots of miombo woodland savanna, the most prevalent savanna type in southern Africa, and dambo grassland savanna, an important enclave of miombo woodland ecosystems. Emission factors for the two fires are combined with measurements of fuel loading, combustion factors, and burned area (derived from satellite burn scar retrievals) to estimate the emissions of trace gases and particles from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia and southern Africa during the dry season (May-October) of 2000. It is estimated that the emissions of CO2, CO, total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, methyl bromide, total particulate matter, and black carbon from woodland and grassland savanna fires during the dry season of 2000 in southern Africa contributed 12.3%, 12.6%, 5.9%, 10.3%, 7.5%, 24.2%, 2.8%, 17.5%, and 11.1%, respectively, of the average annual emissions from all types of savanna fires worldwide. In 2000 the average annual emissions of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, propene, formaldehyde, methanol, and acetic acid from the use of biofuels in Zambia were comparable to or exceeded dry season emissions of these species from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia.

  9. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.263 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid... the annual CO2 mass emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid process line using the methods...

  10. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.263 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid... the annual CO2 mass emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid process line using the methods...

  11. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.263 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid... the annual CO2 mass emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid process line using the methods...

  12. 40 CFR 98.263 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Phosphoric Acid Production § 98.263 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid... the annual CO2 mass emissions from each wet-process phosphoric acid process line using the methods...

  13. 40 CFR 98.173 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each taconite indurating furnace.... Calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from the coke pushing process according to paragraph (c) of this section. (a) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions...

  14. 40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each EAF using the procedures in either paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions... Combustion Sources). (b) Calculate and report under this subpart the annual process CO2 emissions using...

  15. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from <0.01 to 0.15μgg(-1)h(-1). BER of up to 1.2μgg(-1)h(-1) of the SQT germacrene B were found from Q. gambelii, peaking in late summer. The β-factor, used to define temperature dependence in emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2

  16. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

  17. A multitower measurement network estimate of California's methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Vaca, Patrick; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2013-10-01

    present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from five sites in California's Central Valley across different seasons (September 2010 to June 2011). CH4 emissions for spatial regions and source sectors are estimated by comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) predictions based on two 0.1° CH4 (seasonally varying "California-specific" (California Greenhouse Gas Emission Measurements, CALGEM) and a static global (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 42, EDGAR42)) prior emission models. Region-specific Bayesian analyses indicate that for California's Central Valley, the CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions provide consistent annual total CH4 emissions (32.87 ± 2.09 versus 31.60 ± 2.17 Tg CO2eq yr-1; 68% confidence interval (CI), assuming uncorrelated errors between regions). Summing across all regions of California, optimized CH4 emissions are only marginally consistent between CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions (48.35 ± 6.47 versus 64.97 ± 11.85 Tg CO2eq), because emissions from coastal urban regions (where landfill and natural gas emissions are much higher in EDGAR than CALGEM) are not strongly constrained by the measurements. Combining our results with those from a recent study of the South Coast Air Basin narrows the range of estimates to 43-57 Tg CO2eq yr-1 (1.3-1.8 times higher than the current state inventory). These results suggest that the combination of rural and urban measurements will be necessary to verify future changes in California's total CH4 emissions.

  18. A multitower measurement network estimate of California's methane emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Seongeun; Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Vaca, Patrick; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.

    2013-09-20

    In this paper, we present an analysis of methane (CH4) emissions using atmospheric observations from five sites in California's Central Valley across different seasons (September 2010 to June 2011). CH4 emissions for spatial regions and source sectors are estimated by comparing measured CH4 mixing ratios with transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport) predictions based on two 0.1° CH4 (seasonally varying “California-specific” (California Greenhouse Gas Emission Measurements, CALGEM) and a static global (Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research, release version 42, EDGAR42)) prior emission models. Region-specific Bayesian analyses indicate that for California's Central Valley, the CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions provide consistent annual total CH4 emissions (32.87 ± 2.09 versus 31.60 ± 2.17 Tg CO2eq yr-1; 68% confidence interval (CI), assuming uncorrelated errors between regions). Summing across all regions of California, optimized CH4 emissions are only marginally consistent between CALGEM- and EDGAR42-based inversions (48.35 ± 6.47 versus 64.97 ± 11.85 Tg CO2eq), because emissions from coastal urban regions (where landfill and natural gas emissions are much higher in EDGAR than CALGEM) are not strongly constrained by the measurements. Combining our results with those from a recent study of the South Coast Air Basin narrows the range of estimates to 43–57 Tg CO2eq yr-1 (1.3–1.8 times higher than the current state inventory). Finally, these results suggest that the combination of rural and urban measurements will be necessary to verify future changes in California's total CH4 emissions.

  19. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  20. How do emission patterns in megacities affect regional air pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, A.; Richter, C.; Schroeder, S.; Schultz, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    ) creation potential. Compared to the emissions used in the reference simulation, changing per capita urban emissions in BNL into those of IST or SAP will lead to reduction in total megacity emissions of CO and NOx by between 40 to 80% and of between 5 to 20% for NMVOC. When the per capita emissions for PRD are applied, only NOx decreases (by 50%) while CO and NMVOC increase by between 20 and 40%. Similar changes occur when the emissions are interchanged in the other three regions. Annual mean ambient O_3 concentrations in the entire BNL megacity domain are elevated by 3 to 8 ppb in all sensitivity runs and a significant effect is also found outside the main megacity area. In the IST and PRD megacity areas, O_3 levels increase or decrease by 1 to 5 ppb when the per capita emissions from the other regions are used. For the SAP megacity area, all scenarios lead to a reduction of annual mean O_3 levels by more than 4 ppb in the north-western section of the domain while increases up to 3 ppb are predicted for some southern regions. We will also present an analysis of changes in the photochemical regimes related to altered emission patterns. The study can contribute directly to the development of air pollution abatement strategies.

  1. LLNL NESHAPs 2014 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.; Bertoldo, N.; Gallegos, G.; MacQueen, D.; Wegrecki, A.

    2015-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.

  2. LLNL NESHAPs 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoldo, N; Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A; Wilson, K

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide emissions to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 {mu}Sv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 1.0, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual for the Livermore site and Site 300. The dose for the LLNL site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2008 are summarized here: {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.0013 mrem (0.013 {mu}Sv) (26% from point source emissions, 74% from diffuse source emissions). The point source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.000000044 mrem (0.00000044 {mu}Sv) (100% from point source emissions).

  3. How important are atmospheric depressions and nocturnal low-level jets for North African dust emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Stephanie; Schepanski, Kerstin; Knippertz, Peter; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) and atmospheric depressions are known to generate wind speeds sufficient for dust emission in North Africa, but their relative importance is not well quantified. This work presents the first climatology of dust emission associated with theses phenomenon based on ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Depressions are detected as minima in the geopotential height at 925 hPa with a tracking algorithm. NLLJs are identified with a new automated detection algorithm. The results of the identification are connected with dust emissions from a dust model driven by 10m-winds from ERA-Interim. The findings highlight that atmospheric depressions are associated with 55 % of the dust emission in the annual and spatial mean. Regions south of the Atlas Mountains in spring and wide areas of North Africa during summer have contributions of up to 90 %. Lee cyclogenesis causes favourable conditions predominantly in spring while the heat low over West Africa dominates the climatology in summer. Migrating cyclones that live for more than two days are rare and associated with 4 % of the dust emission annually and spatially averaged. Maximum contributions of cyclones to dust emission are 25 % over eastern North Africa in spring. This result suggests that few depressions forming near the Atlas Mountains undergo the development to a long-lived and moving cyclone. Even though their total contribution to dust emission is small, the emission intensity is large. The climatological mean of the emission flux is exceeded by a factor of four to eight during cyclones. The presence of soil moisture during cyclones suppresses 10 % of the dust emission. The daytime fluxes are three to five times larger than at night. NLLJs are wind speed maxima at night that build at a few 100 m above the surface. Annually and spatially averaged, NLLJs form in 29 % of nights. Single regions and seasons, e.g. the Bodélé Depression in winter and the

  4. 35th Annual Official Education Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Spending on construction by the nation's education institutions increased in 2008, reversing four years of declines in total annual expenditures, according to "American School & University"'s 35th annual Official Education Construction Report. One of the reasons for the increase in spending was the fact that the majority of the construction…

  5. 75 FR 63805 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Census Bureau will collect data on annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses... wholesale distributors, the Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end... manufacturers' sales branches and offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales,...

  6. 76 FR 64894 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, year-end..., e- commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United States, purchases, and... data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the...

  7. 78 FR 68023 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... collect data covering annual sales, e- commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, year-end... Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and... offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, year-end...

  8. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... in the ] proposed rule.\\2\\ Please submit your comments using only one method. \\2\\ See 77 FR 3166... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 RIN 3064-AD91 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation... Corporation with total consolidated assets of more than $10 billion to conduct annual stress tests. \\1\\...

  9. Characterization of gas and particle emissions from laboratory burns of peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Robert R.; Aurell, Johanna; Holder, Amara; George, Ingrid J.; Gullett, Brian K.; Hays, Michael D.; Geron, Chris D.; Tabor, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Peat cores collected from two locations in eastern North Carolina (NC, USA) were burned in a laboratory facility to characterize emissions during simulated field combustion. Particle and gas samples were analyzed to quantify emission factors for particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, light absorbing carbon, absorption Angstrom exponent, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). CO from the smoldering burns, up to 7 h in duration, contributed approximately 16% of the total carbon emitted. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and light absorbing carbon (UVPM) were considerably lower than those found for forest litter burns. Emission factors for PCDDs/PCDFs were near published values for forest fuels, at 1-4 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg carbon burned (Cb). Total PAH concentrations of ≥12 mg/kg were higher than published data from biomass burns, but roughly the same in terms of toxicity. Application of these emission factors to the noteworthy 2008 "Evans Road" fire in NC indicates that PM2.5 and PCDD/PCDF emissions from this fire may have been 4-6% of the annual US inventory and 5% of the annual OC amount.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from shifting cultivation in the tropics, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. M. N.; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Rosa, I.; Pereira, J. M. C.

    2011-10-01

    Annual emissions of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and NOx from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems in tropical Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at national and continental levels as the product of area burned, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factor. The total area of shifting cultivation in each country was derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 map, while the area cleared and burned annually was obtained by multiplying the total area by the rotation cycle of shifting cultivation, calculated using cropping and fallow lengths reported in the literature. Aboveground biomass accumulation was estimated as a function of the duration and mean temperature of the growing season, soil texture type, and length of the fallow period. The uncertainty associated with each model variable was estimated, and an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of greenhouse gas estimates was performed with Monte Carlo and variance decomposition techniques. Our results reveal large uncertainty in emission estimates for all five gases. In the case of CO2, mean (standard deviation) emissions from shifting cultivation in Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at 241 (132), 205 (139), and 295 (197) Tg yr-1, respectively. Combustion completeness and emission factors were the model inputs that contributed the most to the uncertainty of estimates. Our mean estimates are lower than the literature values for atmospheric emission from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems. Only mean values could be compared since other studies do not provide any measure of uncertainty.

  11. Characterization of gas and particle emissions from laboratory burns of peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Robert R.; Aurell, Johanna; Holder, Amara; George, Ingrid J.; Gullett, Brian K.; Hays, Michael D.; Geron, Chris D.; Tabor, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Peat cores collected from two locations in eastern North Carolina (NC, USA) were burned in a laboratory facility to characterize emissions during simulated field combustion. Particle and gas samples were analyzed to quantify emission factors for particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, light absorbing carbon, absorption Angstrom exponent, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). CO from the smoldering burns, up to 7 h in duration, contributed approximately 16% of the total carbon emitted. Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and light absorbing carbon (UVPM) were considerably lower than those found for forest litter burns. Emission factors for PCDDs/PCDFs were near published values for forest fuels, at 1-4 ng toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg carbon burned (Cb). Total PAH concentrations of ≥12 mg/kg were higher than published data from biomass burns, but roughly the same in terms of toxicity. Application of these emission factors to the noteworthy 2008 "Evans Road" fire in NC indicates that PM2.5 and PCDD/PCDF emissions from this fire may have been 4-6% of the annual US inventory and 5% of the annual OC amount.

  12. Aircraft-Based Measurements of Point Source Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale Basin.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Tegan N; Shepson, Paul B; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Stirm, Brian H; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Lan, Xin; Lyon, David

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of methane (CH4) emission rates observed at eight different high-emitting point sources in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using aircraft-based methods performed as part of the Barnett Coordinated Campaign. We quantified CH4 emission rates from four gas processing plants, one compressor station, and three landfills during five flights conducted in October 2013. Results are compared to other aircraft- and surface-based measurements of the same facilities, and to estimates based on a national study of gathering and processing facilities emissions and 2013 annual average emissions reported to the U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). For the eight sources, CH4 emission measurements from the aircraft-based mass balance approach were a factor of 3.2-5.8 greater than the GHGRP-based estimates. Summed emissions totaled 7022 ± 2000 kg hr(-1), roughly 9% of the entire basin-wide CH4 emissions estimated from regional mass balance flights during the campaign. Emission measurements from five natural gas management facilities were 1.2-4.6 times larger than emissions based on the national study. Results from this study were used to represent "super-emitters" in a newly formulated Barnett Shale Inventory, demonstrating the importance of targeted sampling of "super-emitters" that may be missed by random sampling of a subset of the total. PMID:26148549

  13. Spatio-temporal variation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, L Y; Chen, Y; Xie, S D

    2013-11-01

    Aiming to reduce the large uncertainties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions estimation, the emission inventory of BVOCs in China at a high spatial and temporal resolution of 36 km × 36 km and 1 h was established using MEGANv2.1 with MM5 providing high-resolution meteorological data, based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations. BVOC emissions from 82 plant functional types in China were computed firstly. More local species-specific emission rates were developed combining statistical analysis and category classification, and the leaf biomass was estimated based on vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2003 were 42.5 Tg, including isoprene 23.4 Tg, monoterpene 5.6 Tg, sesquiterpene 1.0 Tg, and other VOCs (OVOCs) 12.5 Tg. Subtropical and tropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf shrubs, Quercus, and bamboo contributed more than 45% to the total BVOC emissions. The highest biogenic emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, and southwestern China. Strong seasonal pattern was observed with the highest BVOC emissions in July and the lowest in January and December, with daily emission peaked at approximately 13:00 or 14:00 local time. PMID:23916627

  14. Direct Continuous Measurements of Methane Emissions from a Landfill: Method, Station and Latest Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Xu, L.; Lin, X.; Amen, J.; Welding, K.; McDermitt, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Solar-powered automated flux station was deployed continuously inside the Bluff Road Landfill (Lincoln, NE) for the period of over4 years starting June 2010. Landfill methane emissions were measured using the eddy covariance method, reporting hourly emission rates. The data shown in this presentation are from the period of June to December 2010 when no gas recovery was in operation. The continuous measurements of hourly emission rates allowed a number of important analyses of the key factors affecting landfill methane emissions at different time scales. In particular, the results show that landfill methane emissions strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure. Rising barometric pressure suppressed the emission, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the emission, resulting in up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane emissions. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane emission at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the total variance in the methane emission time series at the site.From these results, it is apparent that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured emission rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane emissions based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28% underestimation to 32% overestimation.The results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify annual total landfill emissions. This conclusion may also apply to the wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environments where emissions are from porous media or ebullition.

  15. Estimation of vehicular emission inventories in China from 1980 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong

    Multi-year inventories of vehicular emissions at a high spatial resolution of 40 km×40 km were established in China using the GIS methodology for the period 1980-2005, based on provincial statistical data from yearbooks regarding vehicles and roads, and on the emission factors for each vehicle category in each province calculated by COPERT III program. Results showed that the emissions of CH 4, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, NO x, PM 10, and SO 2 increased from 5, 1066, 19 893, 169, 174, 26, and 16 thousand tons in 1980 to 377, 36 197, 674 629, 5911, 4539, 983, and 484 thousand tons in 2005 at an annual average rate of 19%, 15%, 15%, 15%, 14%, 16%, and 15%, respectively. Statistical analysis of vehicular emissions and GDP showed that they were well positively correlated, which revealed that increase of pollutant emissions has been accompanying the growth of GDP. Spatial distribution of pollutant emissions was rather unbalanced: over three-quarters of the total emissions concentrated in developed regions of China's southeastern, northern and central areas covering only 35.2% of China's territory, while the remaining emissions were distributed over the southwestern, northwestern and northeastern regions covering as much as 64.8% of the territory. In 2005, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta covering only 2.3%, 2.2%, and 1.9%, respectively, of the territory, generated about 10%, 19%, and 12%, respectively, of the total emissions. Since 1990, motorcycles have been the major contributors to the CH 4, CO, NMVOC, and PM 10 emissions, due to the large population. Heavy-duty vans were the major contributors to the NO x and SO 2 emissions because of high emission factors. Passenger cars contributed about one third of the emissions of each pollutant. Contributions of vehicle categories to emissions varied from province to province, due to the diversity of vehicle compositions among provinces.

  16. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.

  17. Does extreme precipitation intensity depend on the emissions scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Lehner, Flavio; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Xu, Yangyang

    2015-10-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean precipitation per degree global-mean surface temperature increase differs for greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings and across emissions scenarios with differing composition of change in forcing. We investigate whether or not the rate of change of extreme precipitation also varies across the four emissions scenarios that force the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, version 5 multimodel ensemble. In most models, the rate of increase of maximum annual daily precipitation per degree global warming in the multimodel ensemble is statistically indistinguishable across the four scenarios, whether this extreme precipitation is calculated globally, over all land, or over extratropical land. These results indicate that in contrast to mean precipitation, extreme precipitation depends on the total amount of warming and does not depend on emissions scenario in most models.

  18. Modeling Fire Emissions from Multiple Land Use Transitions in Southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    Fires for deforestation and other land cover changes in southern Amazonia are an uncertain but significant source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent expansion of mechanized cropland in the region has increased the rates, clearing sizes, and combustion completeness of forest and Cerrado conversion compared to previous deforestation for cattle ranching. To more accurately quantify the influence of agricultural intensification on carbon emissions, we developed a high-resolution (250 m) model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF). DECAF estimates variations in forest and Cerrado biomass based on time series of MODIS NDVI and explicitly tracks the duration and combustion completeness of new deforestation as a function of post-clearing vegetation phenology and MODIS-based fire frequency. In our model runs for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, we quantified the contribution of fires for deforestation, conversion of pasture and Cerrado to mechanized cropland, and pasture maintenance to total fire emissions under low, middle, and high emissions scenarios. During 2001-2005, carbon losses from all types of deforestation were 48-82 Tg per year (mean = 67 Tg C), representing approximately 74% of annual fire emissions in the study region. Cropland expansion in non-forest areas contributed 19% of estimated fire emissions, while maintenance fires in pasture and Cerrado land cover types averaged 7% of all fire emissions during 2001-2005. Conversion of forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. In total, DECAF-based emissions for Mato Grosso represent 1/3 of estimated fire emissions for all of southern hemisphere South America during this period. Our results demonstrate how DECAF can be used to model

  19. Three-year measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from cotton and wheat-maize rotational cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhisheng; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Xunhua

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable expansion of fertilization and irrigation may stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropping systems in northern China. High-resolution measurements were conducted in irrigated cotton and wheat-maize rotational systems in Shanxi Province, P.R. China, between 2007 and 2010 (three year-round crop cycles, hereinafter referred to as Y1, Y2 and Y3) to investigate the impacts of natural inter-annual variations and agricultural management on annual N2O emissions and direct emission factors (EFs). Overall, N2O emissions fluctuated diurnally, seasonally and inter-annually in the fertilized treatments. The hourly N2O fluxes closely followed the daily air temperature patterns. The daily mean fluxes corresponded to these hourly fluxes, which were observed between 09:00-10:00 and 19:00-20:00. An optimized sampling protocol could improve the reliability of discrete measurements when estimating cumulative emissions. The N2O emissions for the fertilized treatments were 2.7 ± 0.2 (Y1) and 1.6 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2) from the cotton field and 6.2 ± 0.4 (Y1), 4.5 ± 0.3 (Y2) and 4.5 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y3) from the wheat-maize field. Peak N2O emissions after fertilization and irrigation/rainfall lasted one to three weeks and accounted for 16-55% of the annual emissions. Leaching losses were estimated at 10.4 ± 3.0 (Y1) and 12.5 ± 3.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2), which accounted for 16-17% of the fertilizer-N applied to the cotton field. Annual N2O emissions did not increase with increasing fertilization rates or water inputs because significant amounts of fertilizer-N were lost through leaching. Background emissions amounted to one-third to one-half of the total N2O emissions from the fertilized treatments. The direct EFs were 2.2 ± 0.3% (Y1) and 0.9 ± 0.2% (Y2) in the cotton field and 1.3 ± 0.2% (Y1), 0.8 ± 0.1% (Y2) and 0.7 ± 0.1% (Y3) in the wheat-maize field. The large inter-annual variations in N2O emissions and direct EFs emphasize the importance of

  20. The global distribution of ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Seabird colonies represent a significant source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote maritime systems, producing a source of nitrogen that may encourage plant growth, alter terrestrial plant community composition and affect the surrounding marine ecosystem. To investigate seabird NH3 emissions on a global scale, we developed a contemporary seabird database including a total seabird population of 261 million breeding pairs. We used this in conjunction with a bioenergetics model to estimate the mass of nitrogen excreted by all seabirds at each breeding colony. The results combined with the findings of mid-latitude field studies of volatilization rates estimate the global distribution of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies on an annual basis. The largest uncertainty in our emission estimate concerns the potential temperature dependence of NH3 emission. To investigate this we calculated and compared temperature independent emission estimates with a maximum feasible temperature dependent emission, based on the thermodynamic dissociation and solubility equilibria. Using the temperature independent approach, we estimate global NH3 emissions from seabird colonies at 404 Gg NH3 per year. By comparison, since most seabirds are located in relatively cold circumpolar locations, the thermodynamically dependent estimate is 136 Gg NH3 per year. Actual global emissions are expected to be within these bounds, as other factors, such as non-linear interactions with water availability and surface infiltration, moderate the theoretical temperature response. Combining sources of error from temperature (±49%), seabird population estimates (±36%), variation in diet composition (±23%) and non-breeder attendance (±13%), gives a mid estimate with an overall uncertainty range of NH3 emission from seabird colonies of 270 [97-442] Gg NH3 per year. These emissions are environmentally relevant as they primarily occur as "hot-spots" in otherwise pristine environments with low anthropogenic

  1. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Saikku, Laura; Soimakallio, Sampo; Pingoud, Kim

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  2. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051

  3. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2014-05-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

  4. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from three paddy rice based cultivation systems in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changsheng; Wang, Yuesi; Zheng, Xunhua; Zhu, Bo; Huang, Yao; Hao, Qingju

    2006-05-01

    To understand methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from permanently flooded rice paddy fields and to develop mitigation options, a field experiment was conducted in situ for two years (from late 2002 to early 2005) in three rice-based cultivation systems, which are a permanently flooded rice field cultivated with a single time and followed by a non-rice season (PF), a rice-wheat rotation system (RW) and a rice-rapeseed rotation system (RR) in a hilly area in Southwest China. The results showed that the total CH4 emissions from PF were 646.3±52.1 and 215.0±45.4 kg CH4 hm-2 during the rice-growing period and non-rice period, respectively. Both values were much lower than many previous reports from similar regions in Southwest China. The CH4 emissions in the rice-growing season were more intensive in PF, as compared to RW and RR. Only 33% of the total annual CH4 emission in PF occurred in the non-rice season, though the duration of this season is two times longer than the rice season. The annual mean N2O flux in PF was 4.5±0.6 kg N2O hm-2 yr-1. The N2O emission in the rice-growing season was also more intensive than in the non-rice season, with only 16% of the total annual emission occurring in the non-rice season. The amounts of N2O emission in PF were ignorable compared to the CH4 emission in terms of the global warming potential (GWP). Changing PF to RW or RR not only eliminated CH4 emissions in the non-rice season, but also substantially reduced the CH4 emission during the following rice-growing period (ca. 58%, P<0.05). However, this change in cultivation system substantially increased N2O emissions, especially in the non-rice season, by a factor of 3.7 to 4.5. On the 100-year horizon, the integrated GWP of total annual CH4 and N2O emissions satisfies PF≫RR≈RW. The GWP of PF is higher than that of RW and RR by a factor of 2.6 and 2.7, respectively. Of the total GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions, CH4 emission contributed to 93%, 65% and 59% in PF, RW

  5. LLNL NESHAPs 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrach, R.J.; Peterson, S.-R.; Gallegos, G.M.; Tate, P.J.; Bertoldo, N.A.; Althouse, P.E.

    2002-06-18

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2001 are summarized here: (1) Livermore site: 0.017 mrem (0.17 {micro}Sv) (34% from point-source emissions, 66% from diffuse-source emissions), The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes; and (2) Site 300: 0.054 mrem (0.54 {micro}Sv) (93% from point-source emissions, 7% from diffuse-source emissions); The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose assessment model, except for doses for three diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific inputs to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  6. LLNL NESHAPs 2000 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Harrach, R J; Berger, R L; Bertoldo, N A; Tate, P J; Peterson, S R

    2001-06-01

    NESHAPs limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 {micro}Sv) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 2000 operations are summarized here. {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.038 mrem (0.38 {micro}Sv) (45% from point-source emissions, 55% from diffuse-source emissions). The point-source emissions include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX, and the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.019 mrem (0.19 {micro}Sv) (79% from point-source emissions, 21% from diffuse-source emissions). The EDEs were calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air dispersion/dose-assessment model, except for doses for four diffuse sources, which were calculated from measured concentrations and dose coefficients. Site specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide usage inventory data or continuous stack monitoring data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  7. Potential methane emission from north-temperate lakes following ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michmerhuizen, C.M.; Striegl, R.G.; McDonald, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane, a radiatively active 'greenhouse' gas, is emitted from lakes to the atmosphere throughout the open-water season. However, annual lake CH4 emissions calculated solely from open-water measurements that exclude the time of spring ice melt may substantially underestimate the lake CH4 source strength. We estimated potential spring CH4 emission at the time of ice melt for 19 lakes in northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Lakes ranged in area from 2.7 to 57,300 ha and varied in littoral zone sediment type. Regression analyses indicated that lake area explained 38% of the variance in potential CH4 emission for relatively undisturbed lakes; as lake area increases potential CH4 emission per unit area decreases. Inclusion of a second term accounting for the presence or absence of soft organic-rich littoral-zone sediments explained 83% of the variance in potential spring CH4 emission. Total estimated spring CH4 emission for 1993 for all Minnesota lakes north of 45?? with areas ???4 ha was 1.5 x 108 mol CH4 assuming a 1 : 1 ratio of soft littoral sediment to hard littoral sediment lakes. Emission estimates ranged from 5.3 x 107 tool assuming no lakes have soft organic-rich littoral sediments to 4.5 x 108 mol assuming all lakes have soft organic-rich littoral sediments. This spring CH4 pulse may make up as much as 40% of the CH4 annually emitted to the atmosphere by small lakes.

  8. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  9. PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT TOTAL ENCLOSURE COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent total enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture emissions before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture emissions is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...

  10. Evaluation of Mobile Source Emissions and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, Timothy Ryan

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to air pollution problems. Relevant pollutants include numerous gaseous and particle-phase species that can affect human health, ecosystems, and climate. Accurate inventories of emissions from these sources are needed to help understand possible adverse impacts, and to develop effective air quality management strategies. Unfortunately large uncertainties persist in the understanding of mobile source emissions, and how these emissions are changing over time. This dissertation aims to evaluate long-term trends in mobile source emissions in the United States, and to make detailed measurements of emissions from present-day fleets of on-road vehicles operating in California. Long-term trends in mobile source emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States were investigated through development of a fuel-based emission inventory. Annual emissions from on- and off-road gasoline and diesel engines were quantified for the years 1996-2006. Diesel engines were found to be the dominant mobile source of NOx and PM2.5, and on-road diesel vehicles were identified as the single largest anthropogenic source of NOx emissions in the United States as of 2005. The importance of diesel engines as a source of exhaust particulate matter emissions has led to the recent introduction of advanced emission control technologies in the United States, such as diesel particle filters (DPF), which have been required since 2007 for all new on-road heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines. In addition to national requirements for the use of such control devices on new engines, California has mandated accelerated clean-up of statewide emissions from older in-use diesel engines. The plume capture method was further applied to measure emissions from a more diverse population of trucks observed at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 2010. Emissions from hundreds of individual trucks were measured, and emission factor distributions were

  11. Global atmospheric emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Chen, Han; Li, Tongchao; Sun, Kang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimate country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1°× 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). The global total annual atmospheric emission of 16 PAHs in 2007 was 504 Gg (331-818 Gg, as interquartile range), with residential/commercial biomass burning (60.5%), open-field biomass burning (agricultural waste burning, deforestation, and wildfire, 13.6%), and petroleum consumption by on-road motor vehicles (12.8%) as the major sources. South (87 Gg), East (111 Gg), and Southeast Asia (52 Gg) were the regions with the highest PAH emission densities, contributing half of the global total PAH emissions. Among the global total PAH emissions, 6.19% of the emissions were in the form of high molecular weight carcinogenic compounds and the percentage of the carcinogenic PAHs was higher in developing countries (6.22%) than in developed countries (5.73%), due to the differences in energy structures and the disparities of technology. The potential health impact of the PAH emissions was greatest in the parts of the world with high anthropogenic PAH emissions, because of the overlap of the high emissions and high population densities. Global total PAH emissions peaked at 592 Gg in 1995 and declined gradually to 499 Gg in 2008. Total PAH emissions from developed countries peaked at 122 Gg in the early 1970s and decreased to 38 Gg in 2008. Simulation of PAH emissions from 2009 to 2030 revealed that PAH emissions in developed and developing countries would decrease by 46-71% and 48-64%, respectively, based on the six IPCC SRES scenarios. PMID:23659377

  12. Global atmospheric emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Chen, Han; Li, Tongchao; Sun, Kang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

    2013-06-18

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimate country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). The global total annual atmospheric emission of 16 PAHs in 2007 was 504 Gg (331-818 Gg, as interquartile range), with residential/commercial biomass burning (60.5%), open-field biomass burning (agricultural waste burning, deforestation, and wildfire, 13.6%), and petroleum consumption by on-road motor vehicles (12.8%) as the major sources. South (87 Gg), East (111 Gg), and Southeast Asia (52 Gg) were the regions with the highest PAH emission densities, contributing half of the global total PAH emissions. Among the global total PAH emissions, 6.19% of the emissions were in the form of high molecular weight carcinogenic compounds and the percentage of the carcinogenic PAHs was higher in developing countries (6.22%) than in developed countries (5.73%), due to the differences in energy structures and the disparities of technology. The potential health impact of the PAH emissions was greatest in the parts of the world with high anthropogenic PAH emissions, because of the overlap of the high emissions and high population densities. Global total PAH emissions peaked at 592 Gg in 1995 and declined gradually to 499 Gg in 2008. Total PAH emissions from developed countries peaked at 122 Gg in the early 1970s and decreased to 38 Gg in 2008. Simulation of PAH emissions from 2009 to 2030 revealed that PAH emissions in developed and developing countries would decrease by 46-71% and 48-64%, respectively, based on the six IPCC SRES scenarios. PMID:23659377

  13. Historical variations of biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories in China, 1981-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Xie, S. D.

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the variations in temporal and spatial distribution of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in China, historical BVOC emission inventories at a spatial resolution of 36 km × 36 km for the period of 1981-2003 were developed firstly. Based on the time-varying statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000), emissions of isoprene, 37 monoterpenes, 32 sesquiterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated using MEGANv2.1 driven by WRF model. Results show China's BVOC emissions had increased by 28.01% at an annual average rate of 1.27% from 37.89 Tg in 1981 to 48.50 Tg in 2003. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs had increased by 41.60%, 34.78%, 41.05%, and 4.89%, respectively. With fixed meteorological variables, the estimated BVOC emissions would increase by 19.25%, resulting from the increasing of vegetation biomass during the last 23 years. On average, isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs were responsible for 52.40%, 12.73%, 2.58%, and 32.29% of the national BVOC emissions, respectively. β-pinene and α-pinene, farnesene and caryophyllene were the largest contributors to the total monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions, respectively. The highest emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, southwestern China, Qinling Mountain, and Hainan and Taiwan provinces. The regions with high emissions had been expanding over the years, especially in the Changbai Mountain, southern China, and southwestern forest regions. The lowest emissions in southern China occurred in 1984-1988. Almost all the provinces had experienced increasing emissions, but their contributions to the national emissions differed significantly over the past 23 years. Yunnan, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, and Sichuan provinces always dominated the national BVOC emissions, excluding in 1977-1981, when the three northeastern provinces had relatively lower emissions.

  14. An improvement on the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Peng, Y.; Feichter, J.; Tegen, I.

    2007-09-01

    Formulation of the dust emission scheme in the global aerosol-climate modeling system ECHAM5-HAM has been improved. Modifications on the surface aerodynamic roughness length, soil moisture and East-Asian soil properties are included in the parameterization, which result in a large impact on the threshold wind friction velocity for aeolian erosion and thus influence the simulated dust emission amount. The annual global mean of dust emission in the year 2000 is reduced by 76.5% and 2.2%, respectively, due to changes in the aerodynamic roughness length and the soil moisture. An inclusion of detailed East-Asian soil properties leads to an increase of 16.6% in the annual global mean of dust emission, which exhibits mainly in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern China and southern Mongolia. Reasonable values of annual global mean of dust emission, dust burden and total aerosol optical thickness can be obtained in the improved model. In addition, measurements of the surface dust concentrations are collected in dust source regions of East Asia, and verify a more realistic spatial distribution of dust emission in the improved model.

  15. Commercial marine vessel contributions to emission inventories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-07

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct a survey of emissions from combustion engines associates with non-road vehicles and stationary sources. Among the emission source categories under scrutiny of the EPA are commercial marine vessels. This group of sources includes revenue vessels operated on US ports and waterways in such diverse pursuits as international and domestic trade, port and ship service, offshore and coastal industry, and passenger transport. For the purposes of the study, EPA is assessing commercial marine vessel operations at selected ports around the country which are characterized by a high level of commercial marine vessel activity. Booz-Allen has been retained by the EPA to assist in developing emission inventories from marine vessels for up to six ports, based on vessel arrival/departure data, are believed to exhibit high levels of marine generated emissions. Booz-Allen developed a listing of the top 20 major ports in terms of total vessel activity (as measured by annual tonnage of cargo and annual vessel calls).

  16. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2008-07-01

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources—manure and coal combustion—with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  17. Updated emission inventories for speciated atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Wu, Ye; Duan, Lei; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Yang, Mei; Yang, Hai; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    China is the largest contributor to global atmospheric mercury (Hg), and accurate emission inventories in China are needed to reduce large gaps existing in global Hg mass balance estimates and assess Hg effects on various ecosystems. The China Atmospheric Mercury Emission (CAME) model was developed in this study using probabilistic emission factors generated from abundant on-site measurements and literature data. Using this model, total anthropogenic Hg emissions were estimated to be continuously increasing from 356 t in 2000 to 538 t in 2010 with an average annual increase rate of 4.2%. Industrial coal combustion, coal-fired power plants, nonferrous metal smelting, and cement production were identified to be the dominant Hg emission sources in China. The ten largest contributing provinces accounted for nearly 60% of the total Hg emissions in 2010. Speciated Hg emission inventory was developed over China with a grid-resolution of 36 × 36 km, providing needed emission fields for Hg transport models. In this new inventory, the sectoral Hg speciation profiles were significantly improved based on the latest data from field measurements and more detailed technology categorization. The overall uncertainties of the newly developed inventory were estimated to be in the range of -20% to +23%. PMID:25655106

  18. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions estimated for South Africa during 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masekoameng, K. Elizabeth; Leaner, Joy; Dabrowski, J.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies suggest an increase in mercury (Hg) emissions to the global environment, particularly as a result of anthropogenic activities. This has prompted many countries to complete Hg emission inventories, based on country-specific Hg sources. In this study, information on annual coal consumption and Hg-containing commodities produced in South Africa, was used to estimate Hg emissions during 2000-2006. Based on the information, the UNEP toolkit was used to estimate the amount of Hg released to air and general waste from each activity; using South Africa specific and toolkit based emission factors. In both atmospheric and solid waste releases, coal-fired power plants were estimated to be the largest contributors of Hg emissions, viz. 27.1 to 38.9 tonnes y -1 in air, and 5.8 to 7.4 tonnes y -1 in waste. Cement production was estimated to be the second largest atmospheric Hg emission contributor (2.2-3.9 tonnes y -1), while coal gasification was estimated to be the second largest Hg contributor in terms of general waste releases (2.9-4.2 tonnes y -1). Overall, there was an increase in total atmospheric Hg emissions from all activities, estimated at ca. 34 tonnes in 2000, to 50 tonnes in 2006, with some fluctuations between the years. Similarly, the total Hg emissions released to general waste was estimated to be 9 tonnes in 2000, with an increase to 12 tonnes in 2006.

  19. Total hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )

    1991-10-01

    Measuring and controlling organic emissions from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor total hydrocarbon emissions (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic emissions. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator emissions; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC emissions.

  20. Assessing the impacts of tillage and fertilization management on nitrous oxide emissions in a cornfield using the DNDC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Wang, Junming; Yu, Chih-Li; Li, Changsheng; Reddy, K. Chandra; Dennis, Sam

    2016-02-01

    Quantification and prediction of N2O emissions from croplands under different agricultural management practices are vital for sustainable agriculture and climate change mitigation. We simulated N2O emissions under tillage and no-tillage,and different nitrogen (N) fertilizer types and application methods (i.e., nitrification inhibitor, chicken manure, and split applications) in a cornfield using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model. The model was parameterized with field experimental data collected in Nashville, Tennessee, under various agricultural management treatments and run for a short term (3 years) and a long term (100 years). Results showed that the DNDC model could adequately simulate N2O emissions as well as soil properties under different agricultural management practices. The modeled emissions of N2O significantly increased by 35% with tillage, and decreased by 24% with the use of nitrification inhibitor, compared with no-tillage and normal N fertilization. Chicken manure amendment and split applications of N fertilizer had minor impact on N2O emission in a short term, but over a long term (100 years) the treatments significantly altered N2O emission (+35%, -10%, respectively). Sensitivity analysis showed that N2O emission was sensitive to mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, soil organic carbon, and the amount of total N fertilizer application. Our model results provide valuable information for determining agricultural best management practice to maintain highly productive corn yield while reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    PubMed

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources. PMID:26847720

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Septic Systems in New York State.

    PubMed

    Truhlar, Allison M; Rahm, Brian G; Brooks, Rachael A; Nadeau, Sarah A; Makarsky, Erin T; Walter, M Todd

    2016-07-01

    Onsite septic systems use microbial processes to eliminate organic wastes and nutrients such as nitrogen; these processes can contribute to air pollution through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Current USEPA estimates for septic system GHG emissions are based on one study conducted in north-central California and are limited to methane; therefore, the contribution of these systems to the overall GHG emission budget is unclear. This study quantified and compared septic system GHG emissions from the soil over leach fields and the roof vent, which are the most likely locations for gas emissions during normal septic system operation. At each of eight septic systems, we measured fluxes of CH, CO, and NO using a static chamber method. The roof vent released the majority of septic system gas emissions. In addition, the leach field was a significant source of NO fluxes. Comparisons between leach field and vent emissions suggest that biological processes in the leach field soil may influence the type and quantity of gas released. Overall, our results suggest that (i) revisions are needed in USEPA guidance (e.g., septic systems are not currently listed as a source of NO emissions) and (ii) similar studies representing a wider range of climatic and geographic settings are needed. The total vent, sand filter, and leach field GHG emissions were 0.17, 0.045, and 0.050 t CO-equivalents capita yr, respectively. In total, this represents about 1.5% of the annual carbon footprint of an individual living in the United States. PMID:27380062

  3. 40 CFR 61.122 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.122 Emission standard. Emissions of polonium-210 to the... kilns at the plant, and (d) Total emissions of polonium-210 from the plant do not exceed 4.5 curies per... emissions of polonium-210 which is equal to or greater than the efficiency which would be achieved under...

  4. A study on the trends of vehicular emissions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Jianlei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ying; Wei, Xiao; Chen, Dongsheng

    2012-12-01

    This paper aims to study the vehicular emissions trends in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, located in northern China. The multiyear emission inventories of NOX, CO, VOC and PM10 from road vehicles in the period 1999-2010 were developed by the COPERT IV model. Results show that vehicular emissions of CO and VOC have decreased by annual average change rates (AACR) of -3.1% to -5.2% and -4.4% to -6.9% in the study area, respectively. However, due to the rapid development of freight traffic, emissions of NOX and PM10 have kept increasing in Tianjin and Hebei. Based on the vehicular emission inventories, trends of emission levels for vehicles with different standards, as well as the overall effects of implementing vehicular emission mitigation strategies were assessed. It is suggested that passenger cars (PC) with Euro 0 and Euro I standards, which were at higher emission level in the PC fleet, should be gradually eliminated. Although the increasing rates (IR) of emissions from PC were lower than those of the PC population, the sharp growth of PC population in recent years contributed to a remarkable increase of emissions, weakening the overall mitigation effect. Total vehicle population capacity and other mitigation measures should be studied in China in order to develop new and more effective vehicular emission control strategies.

  5. Three-North Shelter Forest Program contribution to long-term increasing trends of biogenic isoprene emissions in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Shen, Yanjie; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Jia, Chenhui; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the long-term trends of isoprene emissions in northern China and the impact of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program (TNRSF) on these trends, a database of historical biogenic isoprene emissions from 1982 to 2010 was developed for this region using a biogenic emission model for gases and aerosols. The total amount of the biogenic isoprene emissions during the 3 decades was 4.4 Tg in northern China and 1.6 Tg in the TNRSF, with annual emissions ranging from 132 000 to 176 000 t yr-1 and from 45 000 to 70 000 t yr-1, respectively, in the two regions. Isoprene emission fluxes have increased substantially in many areas of the TNRSF over the last 3 decades due to the growing trees and vegetation coverage, especially in the central north China region where the highest emission incline reached to 58 % from 1982 to 2010. Biogenic isoprene emissions produced from anthropogenic forests tended to surpass those produced from natural forests, such as boreal forests in northeastern China. The estimated isoprene emissions suggest that the TNRSF has altered the long-term emission trend in north China from a decreasing trend during 1982 to 2010 (slope = -0.533, R2 = 0.05) to an increasing trend for the same period of time (slope = 0.347, R2 = 0.014), providing strong evidence for the change in the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) induced by the human activities on decadal or longer timescales.

  6. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  7. Annual Energy Review 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2000-07-01

    A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, total energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The Annual Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary total consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts total energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn

  8. [Lead emission amount from coal combustion and its environment effect in Xi'an City].

    PubMed

    Luo, Kunli; Wang, Douhu; Tan, Jianan; Wang, Lizheng; Feng, Fujian; Li, Ribang

    2002-01-30

    For study the lead emission amount from coal combustion and its environment effect, the lead content of coal, ash and cinder of power station and coal-fired boiler, the lead content of dusts in the period of heating time and the non-heating time in Xi'an City were studied in this paper. The results show that amount of lead emission from 1 ton coal combustion, which lead content in coal was 30 g, was 20 g in atmosphere. The rate of lead emission of coal combustion was about 66%. About 10 million tons of coal was straight burning every year in Xi'an City and suburb, those coal mainly come from Permo-Carboniferous coal in Weibei coal mine, Shaanxi, their average lead content was 30 mg/kg. So the total lead emission from coal combustion to atmosphere was about 200 t annually in Xi'an City. PMID:11987396

  9. Development of an improved inventory of emissions from pleasure craft in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chinkin, L.

    1995-06-01

    An updated emissions inventory for California pleasure craft covers total organic gases (TOG), Nox, CO, SOx, and particulate matter (PM). A survey of over 10,000 pleasure craft owners from June 1993 to May 1994 ascertained spatial and temporal utilization of pleasure craft and collected updated consumption rates. Annual fuel consumption is estimated for vessels by propulsion/engine combinations by region (Northern, Central, and Southern). From these, regional and county-level emissions are estimated using a model (PCEM) that includes emission estimates from DMV-registered vessels, Coast Guard-documented vessels, and rental vessels. Fuel consumption is multiplied by emission factors for each propulsion/engine type and allocated to counties with spatial allocation factors developed from the survey data. Temporal activity profiles are derived from the survey data.

  10. Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from US grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Mummey, D.L.; Smith, J.L.; Bluhm, G.

    2000-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from temperate grasslands are poorly quantified and may be an important part of the atmospheric N{sub 2}O budget. In this study N{sub 2}O emissions were simulated for 1,052 grassland sites in the US using the NGAS model of Parton and others (1996) coupled with an organic matter decomposition model. N{sub 2}O flux was calculated for each site using soil and land use data obtained from the National Resource Inventory (NRI) database and weather data obtained from NASA. The estimates were regionalized based upon temperature and moisture isotherms. Annual N{sub 2}O emissions for each region were based on the grassland area of each region and the mean estimated annual N{sub 2}O flux from NRI grassland sites in the region. The regional fluxes ranged from 0.18 to 1.02 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr with the mean flux for all regions being 0.29 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Even though fluxes from the western regions were relatively low, these regions made the largest contribution to total emissions due to their large grassland area. Total US grassland N{sub 2}O emissions were estimated to be about 67 Gg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Emissions from the Great Plains states, which contain the largest expanse of natural grassland in the US, were estimated to average 0.24 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Using the annual flux estimate for the temperate Great Plains, the authors estimate that temperate grasslands worldwide may potentially produce 0.27 Tg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Even though the estimate for global temperate grassland N{sub 2}O emissions is less than published estimates for other major temperate grasslands are a significant part of both United States and global atmospheric N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O flux estimation although additional data from carefully designed field studies is needed to further validate model results.

  11. Emissions from International Shipping in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J. J.; Winebrake, J. J.; Gold, M.; Harder, S.

    2008-12-01

    Studies assessing the potential impacts of international shipping on climate and air pollution demonstrate that ships contribute significantly to global climate change and health impacts through emission of GHGs and raised the potential for disproportionate impacts from shipping in the Arctic region. We present an activity- based model inventory of emissions of CO2, BC, NOx, SOx, PM, and CO for shipping in the Arctic. We estimate emissions for a particular "vessel-trip" or "voyage" based on Arctic shipping data collected by the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment for 2004. The detailed voyage data provided for our inventory effort included some 3800 ship trips, represent some 2.6 million km of ship voyages (range 2.0 to 3.9 million km, or 1.1 to 2.1 million nautical miles), and nearly 15,000 voyage days for 2004; this is equivalent to less than 500 transoceanic voyages, compared to many tens of thousands transoceanic voyages per year to major ports around the world. In 2004, the top five vessel types, bulk carrier, general cargo, fishing, government vessels, and containerships, account for nearly 80 percent of total emissions. Preliminary results show CO2 emissions from shipping in the Arctic to be approximately 2.3 Tg CO2 per yr. Given that total CO2 emissions from international shipping globally are about 1000 Tg CO2 per yr, Arctic contributions would amount to less than 0.25 percent of total ship emissions. Relative to total CO2 emissions from all sources, the contributions of Arctic shipping are on the order of one-hundredth of one percent (0.006-0.008 percent). BC emissions from Arctic shipping, on a mass basis alone (estimated here to be ~600 tonnes /year), may have limited independent impact on global climate change compared to other sources, but could have significant regional impacts. More concerning may be micro-scale emissions (e.g., at harbor or in port) which could affect local air pollution or ecosystems, depending on regional conditions. Pollutants

  12. Wastewater treatment process impact on energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Mamais, D; Noutsopoulos, C; Dimopoulou, A; Stasinakis, A; Lekkas, T D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the energy consumption of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), to apply a mathematical model to evaluate their carbon footprint, and to propose energy saving strategies that can be implemented to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Greece. The survey was focused on 10 WWTPs in Greece with a treatment capacity ranging from 10,000 to 4,000,000 population equivalents (PE). Based on the results, annual specific energy consumption ranged from 15 to 86 kWh/PE. The highest energy consumer in all the WWTPs was aeration, accounting for 40-75% of total energy requirements. The annual GHG emissions varied significantly according to the treatment schemes employed and ranged between 61 and 161 kgCO₂e/PE. The highest values of CO₂emissions were obtained in extended aeration systems and the lowest in conventional activated sludge systems. Key strategies that the wastewater industry could adopt to mitigate GHG emissions are identified and discussed. A case study is presented to demonstrate potential strategies for energy savings and GHG emission reduction. Given the results, it is postulated that the reduction of dissolved oxygen (DO) set points and sludge retention time can provide significant energy savings and decrease GHG emissions. PMID:25633956

  13. Variation Trend and Driving Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Chinese Magnesium Production.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Liu, Yu; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Gong, Xianzheng; Wang, Zhihong

    2015-11-01

    As the largest magnesium producer in the world, China is facing a great challenge of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. In this paper, the variation trend and driving factors of GHG emissions from Chinese magnesium production were evaluated and the measures of technology and policy for effectively mitigating GHG emissions were provided. First, the energy-related and process-oriented GHG inventory is compiled for magnesium production in China. Then, the driving forces for the changes of the energy-related emission were analyzed by the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition. Results demonstrated that Chinese magnesium output from 2003 to 2013 increased by 125%, whereas GHG emissions only increased by 16%. The emissions caused by the fuels consumption decline most significantly (from 28.4 to 6.6 t CO2eq/t Mg) among all the emission sources. The energy intensity and the energy structure were the main offsetting factors for the increase of GHG emissions, while the scale of production and the international market demand were the main contributors for the total increase. Considering the improvement of technology application and more stringent policy measures, the annual GHG emissions from Chinese primary magnesium production will be controlled within 22 million tons by 2020. PMID:26458120

  14. LLNL NESHAPs project 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    NESHAP`s limits the emission of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an annual effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (100 ({mu}Sv) to any member of the public The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site- wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1997 operations were Livermore site. 0 097 mrem (0 97 {mu}Sv) (80% from point-source emissions), 20% from diffuse-source emissions), Site 300 0 014 mrem (O 14 {mu}Sv) (38% from point-source emissions, 62% from diffuse-source emissions) The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air- dispersion/dose-assessment model Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and emissions estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source.

  15. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994

  16. TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eblen, William R.

    The Hudson River Museum's Environmental Arts and Science Division has published this booklet describing their model educational program, "TETE: Total Education in the Total Environment," a multidisciplinary approach to environmental education utilizing existing curricula. For conducting the program model communities strategically located along the…

  17. Annual Energy Review 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Fichman, Barbara T.

    2010-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  18. Annual Energy Review 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Fichman, Barbara T.

    2012-09-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.

  19. Annual Energy Review 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  20. Annual Energy Review 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2005-08-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  1. Annual Energy Review 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Seiferlein, Katherine E.

    2007-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on total energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.

  2. [Source emission characteristics of malodorous volatile organic carbonyls from a municipal sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Wang, Bo-Guang; Zhao, De-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Gu, Yin-Gang

    2011-12-01

    A 4-day field observation was conducted at Liede sewage treatment plant in Guangzhou, using PFPH/GC/MS method to analyse the composition and the concentration of volatile carbonyl compounds, and investigate the source emission characteristics of the pollutants. The results were as follows: 18 carbonyl species were detected, which including 15 malodorous volatile carbonyls with a concentration range from 0.39 microg x m(-3) to 19.92 microg x m(-3) at six processing units. Mean value of the total malodorous volatile carbonyls was (68.66 +/- 10.05) microg x m(-3). Normalization data process was used to research the source emission profile for malodorous volatile carbonyls, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, 2-butanone, butyraldehyde and hexaldehyde were found to be molecular markers of the source emission with their percentage of total carbonyls up to 78.91%. Hexaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl species with an average concentration of 11.71 microg x m(-3). Using a calculation model of area source emission, it estimated that the total annual emissions of the municipal sewage treatment plant was 2 302.33 kg(-1), and the contribution ratio of each processing unit was in an order of biochemical reaction basin, concentration basin, grade A aeration, ascending pump room, grit basin, dewatering house. The malodorous emission of sewage treatment plant is affected by many complex factors, so there's some uncertainty on the estimate. PMID:22468520

  3. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  4. Measurement of emission fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eklund, B.

    1995-03-15

    The emission flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air emissions from waste sites for the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The emission fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water emission fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated annual emission rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated total annual release is less than 1% of the total tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average emission flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured emission fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.

  5. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  6. 1992 Carbon emissions data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on the global total of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning and cement manufacture in 1992. The total estimate of 6097 million metric tons of carbon is essentially the same for 1990 and down slightly from 1991, but 7 of 9 geographical regions had increases.

  7. Fertilizer-induced emission factors and background emissions of N 2 O from vegetable fields in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2011-12-01

    The estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions based on specific cropping systems is important for accurate national N 2O budgets. Intensively managed vegetable cultivation is responsible for large N 2O emissions in mainland China. However, little information can be obtained on the nationwide estimation of direct N 2O emissions from vegetable fields. Estimates of fertilizer-induced direct N 2O emissions from vegetable fields in mainland China were thus obtained by compiling and analyzing reported data in peer-reviewed journals and research reports. The results indicated that the seasonal N 2O emissions from vegetable fields significantly increased with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application ( p < 0.0001). According to the ordinary least squares (OLS) model, the fertilizer-induced emission factor (EF) and background emissions of N 2O were estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.05% and 1.067 ± 0.277 kg N ha -1 yr -1, respectively. The EF was reduced and the background emission of N 2O increased when the measurement duration was prolonged from ≤100 d to >100 and ≤200 d. Comparable results were obtained by the maximum likelihood (ML) model, with an EF of 0.49 ± 0.06% and background N 2O emissions of 1.228 ± 0.189 kg N ha -1 yr -1. Based on the OLS-derived parameters, the fertilizer-induced direct emissions and background emissions of N 2O were estimated to be 66.95 Gg N and 19.63 Gg N, respectively, in 2009, and the annual N 2O emissions were much higher in the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Hebei and Sichuan. The estimated N 2O emissions from vegetable fields accounted for 21.4% of the total direct N 2O emissions from Chinese croplands, with large uncertainties. Therefore, the EF and background emissions of N 2O for each cropping system, particularly for intensively managed vegetable fields, should be specifically determined for accurate national N 2O inventories.

  8. 33rd Annual Official Education Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    Construction spending by education institutions topped $36 billion in 2006. While strong by historical standards, it represents the third consecutive year that total spending on construction dropped from the year before. According to the "American School & University" 33rd annual Official Education Construction Report, total spending on new,…

  9. Regional and sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P. R.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    In this paper the authors have estimated for 1990 and 1995 the inventory of greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O for India at a national and sub-regional district level. The district level estimates are important for improving the national inventories as well as for developing sound mitigation strategies at manageable smaller scales. Our estimates indicate that the total CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O emissions from India were 592.5, 17, 0.2 and 778, 18, 0.3 Tg in 1990 and 1995, respectively. The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of these gases over this period were 6.3, 1.2 and 3.3%, respectively. The districts have been ranked according to their order of emissions and the relatively large emitters are termed as hotspots. A direct correlation between coal consumption and districts with high CO 2 emission was observed. CO 2 emission from the largest 10% emitters increased by 8.1% in 1995 with respect to 1990 and emissions from rest of the districts decreased over the same period, thereby indicating a skewed primary energy consumption pattern for the country. Livestock followed by rice cultivation were the dominant CH 4 emitting sources. The waste sector though a large CH 4 emitter in the developed countries, only contributed about 10% the total CH 4 emission from all sources as most of the waste generated in India is allowed to decompose aerobically. N 2O emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer were maximum in both the years (more than 60% of the total N 2O). High emission intensities, in terms of CO 2 equivalent, are in districts of Gangetic plains, delta areas, and the southern part of the country. These overlap with districts with large coal mines, mega power plants, intensive paddy cultivation and high fertilizer use. The study indicates that the 25 highest emitting districts account for more than 37% of all India CO 2 equivalent GHG emissions. Electric power generation has emerged as the dominant source of GHG emissions, followed by emissions from steel and

  10. Top-down analysis of the elemental carbon emissions inventory in the United States by inverse modeling using Community Multiscale Air Quality model with decoupled direct method (CMAQ-DDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongtao; Odman, M. Talat; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model based inverse method is used for calibrating the 2004 elemental carbon (EC) emissions in the continental United States. We convert the Thermal Optical Transmittance (TOT) EC measurements to the Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) equivalents to fully utilize available observational networks. The reestimate of the total emissions is 0.40 Tg yr-1, about 13% higher than the a priori. The posterior CMAQ simulation driven by the adjusted emissions had an ˜10% reduction in annual average fractional error based on 24 h EC observations. Comparison of simulated EC concentrations to hourly aethalometer black carbon (BC) measurements improved as well. Also, using the EC scaling factors to adjust the primary particulate organic matter (OM) emissions improved performance for OM simulation. Results show that splitting sources further spatially and category-wise increases the flexibility of adjusting emissions according to the spatial variability of the emissions strength and hence makes a better reestimate of emissions.

  11. 40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) You must determine annual N2O process emissions from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an annual performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...

  12. 40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) You must determine annual N2O process emissions from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an annual performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...

  13. 40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) You must determine annual N2O process emissions from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an annual performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...

  14. 40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EAFs using the carbon mass balance procedure specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(2)(ii) of this... material for the EAF and estimate annual process CO2 emissions from the EAF using Equation K-1 of this... Equation K-1 of this section. ER30OC09.045 Where: ECO2 = Annual process CO2 emissions from an...

  15. 40 CFR 98.393 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... ER30OC09.152 Where: CO2i = Annual CO2 emissions that would result from the complete combustion or oxidation... oxidation of each petroleum product “i” (metric tons). Producti = Annual mass of product “i” produced... emissions that would result from the complete combustion or oxidation of each non-crude feedstock...

  16. 40 CFR 98.393 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... ER30OC09.152 Where: CO2i = Annual CO2 emissions that would result from the complete combustion or oxidation... oxidation of each petroleum product “i” (metric tons). Producti = Annual mass of product “i” produced... CO2 emissions that would result from the complete combustion or oxidation of each non-crude...

  17. 40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) You must determine annual N2O process emissions from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an annual performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...

  18. Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000-2005 in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Rufino, Mariana C.; Herold, Martin; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rosenstock, Todd S.; Herrero, Mario; Ogle, Stephen; Li, Changsheng; Poulter, Benjamin; Verchot, Louis; Martius, Christopher; Stuiver, John; de Bruin, Sytze

    2016-07-01

    According to the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), emissions must be cut by 41-72 % below 2010 levels by 2050 for a likely chance of containing the global mean temperature increase to 2 °C. The AFOLU sector (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use) contributes roughly a quarter ( ˜ 10-12 Pg CO2e yr-1) of the net anthropogenic GHG emissions mainly from deforestation, fire, wood harvesting, and agricultural emissions including croplands, paddy rice, and livestock. In spite of the importance of this sector, it is unclear where the regions with hotspots of AFOLU emissions are and how uncertain these emissions are. Here we present a novel, spatially comparable dataset containing annual mean estimates of gross AFOLU emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O), associated uncertainties, and leading emission sources, in a spatially disaggregated manner (0.5°) for the tropics for the period 2000-2005. Our data highlight the following: (i) the existence of AFOLU emissions hotspots on all continents, with particular importance of evergreen rainforest deforestation in Central and South America, fire in dry forests in Africa, and both peatland emissions and agriculture in Asia; (ii) a predominant contribution of forests and CO2 to the total AFOLU emissions (69 %) and to their uncertainties (98 %); (iii) higher gross fluxes from forests, which coincide with higher uncertainties, making agricultural hotspots appealing for effective mitigation action; and (iv) a lower contribution of non-CO2 agricultural emissions to the total gross emissions (ca. 25 %), with livestock (15.5 %) and rice (7 %) leading the emissions. Gross AFOLU tropical emissions of 8.0 (5.5-12.2) were in the range of other databases (8.4 and 8.0 Pg CO2e yr-1 in FAOSTAT and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) respectively), but we offer a spatially detailed benchmark for monitoring progress in reducing emissions from the land sector in the tropics. The location of

  19. Volatile compounds emission from canopy fine litterfall in a hemiboreal mixed forest at Järvselja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Noe, Beate; Noe, Steffen M.

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal distribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from canopy fine litterfall was investigated over a period of two years. Three stands of a hemiboreal mixed forest were studied. The stands presented different dominant tree species: (1) Norway spruce, (2) Scots pine, and (3) Silver birch and Downy birch. The litterfall was monthly collected in litter traps. The BVOC emission of litter was sampled by placing the litter into a glass jar equipped with a vent tube and pumping the head space air through a VOC adsorbing tube (carbotrap). Adsorbed BVOCs were analyzed in a GC-MS. Fifteen compounds were quantified. Seasonal differences in the total emission of BVOCs were found, defined by a maximum in summer and a minimum in autumn and winter. During summer months, litter emissions were dominated by limonene, α-pinene, camphene and 3-carene in the three litter types, accounting for 70-75 % of total BVOC emitted in June. 3-Carene, α-pinene and β-pinene were the main compounds emitted during winter time, accounting for 50-60 % of total BVOC emitted in January. Stand to stand differences were assessed. The spruce and birch dominated stands showed more similarities in their BVOC emission pattern if compared to the pine dominated stand. Together with the litterfall data, an estimation of the annual total BVOC emitted by the soil litter layer is presented for each stand type.

  20. Emission measurements of alkenes, alkanes, SO2, and NO2 from stationary sources in Southeast Texas over a 5 year period using SOF and mobile DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, John K. E.; Mellqvist, Johan; Samuelsson, Jerker; Offerle, Brian; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Flynn, James; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-02-01

    A mobile platform for flux measurements of VOCs (alkanes and alkenes), SO2, and NO2 emissions using the Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) method and mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used in four different studies to measure industrial emissions. The studies were carried out in several large conglomerates of oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Southeast and East Texas in 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2012. The measured alkane emissions from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) have been fairly stable between 2006 and 2011, averaging about 11,500 kg/h, while the alkene emissions have shown greater variations. The ethene and propene emissions measured from the HSC were 1511 kg/h and 878 kg/h, respectively, in 2006, while dropping to roughly 600 kg/h for both species in 2009 and 2011. The results were compared to annual inventory emissions, showing that measured VOC emissions were typically 5-15 times higher, while for SO2 and NO2 the ratio was typically 0.5-2. AP-42 emission factors were used to estimate meteorological effects on alkane emissions from tanks, showing that these emissions may have been up to 35-45% higher during the studies than the annual average. A more focused study of alkene emissions from a petrochemical complex in Longview in 2012 identified two upset episodes, and the elevation of the total emissions during the measurement period due to the upsets was estimated to be approximately 20%. Both meteorological and upset effects were small compared to the factor of 5-15, suggesting that VOC emissions are systematically and substantially underestimated in current emission inventories.