Science.gov

Sample records for total annual emissions

  1. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  2. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grnzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  3. EVALUATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS ANALYSIS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rationale and supporting experimental data for revising EPA's 1996 "Guidance for Total Organics" are summarized in this document. It reports the results of reseach and investigation of improvements to the Total Organic Emissions (TOE) guidance used by EPA to measure recovera...

  4. Further Evaluation of an Emperical Equation for Annual Total Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical equation for annual total evaporation based on annual precipitation and net radiation was found to provide evaporation within 10% of the observed values at seven locations within temperate and tropical regions, but it overestimated evaporation by 90% at one location within the tundra region. A synthesis of observations at two other locations within the tundra region gives overestimates of about 65%. A general analysis of observed precipitation, net radiation, and runoff within the tundra region shows that the empirical equation is generally biased to overestimate annual evaporation within the tundra region. A theoretical analysis is being done to understand the reason behind this bias.

  5. 24 CFR 886.308 - Maximum total annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... developed in accordance with 24 CFR part 290, HUD shall determine the number of units to be assisted up to 100 percent of the units in the project. (b) Maximum assistance. The maximum total annual housing... family composition, or decreases in family incomes: (1) A project account shall be established...

  6. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of "Total Organics" from stack emissions is much more complicated am might be expected, and more published guidance is needed badly. he best scheme available for analysis of "Total Organics" of stack emissions for material balance style "bookkeeping" includes determ...

  7. Continuous emission monitoring total mercury analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zepeck, R.; Kasajanow, J.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury and its compounds are emitted from various sources, coal fired power plants and waste incinerators being the prime sources. Various methods for continuous automatic monitoring of Hg or [Hg & its compounds] are being used (optical in-situ, extractive with and without sample preparation). The methods are discussed and compared. The paper also describes an automatic, continuous Total Mercury Analyzer (HM-1400), which has received Equivalency in Germany. Applications (industrial, hospital, urban, hazardous waste incinerators, waste water sludge incineration) are discussed, as well as field experience from over 7 years.

  8. Continuous emission monitoring total mercury analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zepeck, R.; Kasajanow, J.

    1997-12-31

    Mercury and its compounds is emitted from various sources, coal fired power plants and waste incinerators being the prime sources. Various methods for continuous automatic monitoring of Hg{sup 0} or [Hg{sup 0} & its compounds] are being used (optical in-situ, extractive with and without sample preparation). The methods are discussed and compared. The paper also describes an automatic, continuous Total Mercury Analyzer (HM-1400), which has received Equivalency in Germany. Applications industrial hospital, urban, hazardous waste incinerators, waste water sludge incineration are discussed, as well as field experience front over 7 years.

  9. Quantification of annual carbon emissions from deforestation in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Huang, C.; Townshend, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical deforestation is the second largest source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also one of the most uncertain components of the global carbon cycle. Current estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation have errors as much as ×50%. This substantial uncertainty range stems in part from the uncertain estimate of changes in forest area as well as the lack of spatially explicit information on biomass density. Here we use multiple sources satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in South America on a year-to-year basis from 2000 to 2010. We first use time-series multi-spectral images to map the spatial extent of forest loss. We then spatially match the area of deforestation with initial biomass density to quantify the committed carbon emissions from forest loss. Our results reveal that the five countries with the highest deforestation related emissions in South America are Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Argentina, and Chile. Their average annual emission rates are 218 TgC/yr, 23 TgC/yr, 16 TgC/yr, 14 TgC/yr and 11 TgC/yr, respectively. However, there are substantial inter-annual variations. Emissions in both Brazil and Argentina increased initially until 2005, and then declined. But Bolivia had a steady increasing trend in its emission over the 10 years. The coefficient of variation of annual emissions in these five countries ranges from 36% to 45%, indicating considerable inter-annual variations in carbon emissions from deforestation in these countries. These spatially explicit, multi-year emission estimates may be used as a baseline for REDD+ or other related emission mitigation efforts. The trends and large inter-annual variations in deforestation related emissions as revealed in this study should be considered in evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  10. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Constant Controls and Related Requirements § 57.303 Total... requirement limiting the total allowable emissions from the smelter to the level which would have been associated with production at the smelter's maximum production capacity (as defined in § 57.103(r)) as...

  11. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Constant Controls and Related Requirements § 57.303 Total... requirement limiting the total allowable emissions from the smelter to the level which would have been associated with production at the smelter's maximum production capacity (as defined in § 57.103(r)) as...

  12. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Constant Controls and Related Requirements § 57.303 Total... requirement limiting the total allowable emissions from the smelter to the level which would have been associated with production at the smelter's maximum production capacity (as defined in § 57.103(r)) as...

  13. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Constant Controls and Related Requirements § 57.303 Total... requirement limiting the total allowable emissions from the smelter to the level which would have been associated with production at the smelter's maximum production capacity (as defined in § 57.103(r)) as...

  14. 40 CFR 57.303 - Total plantwide emission limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Constant Controls and Related Requirements § 57.303 Total... requirement limiting the total allowable emissions from the smelter to the level which would have been associated with production at the smelter's maximum production capacity (as defined in § 57.103(r)) as...

  15. A steady-state measurement system for total hemispherical emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tairan; Tan, Peng; Pang, Chuanhe

    2012-02-01

    A steady-state calorimetric technique was developed for measuring the total hemispherical emissivity of a conductive material. The system uses a thin strip of the conductive sample electrically heated by alternating current to high temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The emissivity was measured in a central region of the sample with an approximately uniform temperature distribution. Considering the influences of the gray body assumption, wire heat losses, effects of residual gas and conductive heat loss from the region to the rest of the strip, the emissivity was accurately determined by solving the inverse one-dimension steady-state heat transfer problem. The emissivities of various metal samples (nickel and 45# steel) were measured to verify the system accuracy. And the results were then analyzed to estimate the relative errors of emissivity arising from the gray body assumption, wire heat losses, effects of residual gas, non-uniform temperature distribution and the measurement uncertainty of emissivity. In the temperature range from 700 to 1300 K, the accuracy is acceptable for practical applications within the total measurement uncertainties of 1.1%. To increase the system applicability, some issues related to sample specifications, heating power control and temperature uniformity of sample test section were discussed. Thus, this system can provide accurate measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of conductive samples at high temperatures.

  16. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual net sales and total assets. 801.11... sales and total assets. (a) The annual net sales and total assets of a person shall include all net sales and all assets held, whether foreign or domestic, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)...

  17. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual net sales and total assets. 801.11... sales and total assets. (a) The annual net sales and total assets of a person shall include all net sales and all assets held, whether foreign or domestic, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)...

  18. National annual dioxin emissions estimate for hazardous waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.J.; Rigo, H.G.

    1997-12-31

    On April 19, 1996, the EPA proposed Maximum Achievable Control [MACT] Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors. In that preamble, the EPA stated that annual estimated emissions of dioxins from the nation`s hazardous waste incinerators [HWIs] expressed as an equivalent amount of 2,3,7,8 TCDD (international toxic equivalents) are 77 grams. Commentors on EPA dioxin emission estimates from medical waste incinerators and cement kilns found them significantly overestimated. This paper presents an independent dioxin emissions estimate that takes advantage of correcting the errors in EPA`s HWI emissions database, an updated inventory of HWIs in the United States and statistical imputation techniques that maximum the information extractable from the limited dioxin emissions data for HWIs. Actual HWI dioxin emissions are probably between a quarter and half the HWC preamble estimate.

  19. GRIDDED ANNUAL POLLUTANT EMISSIONS EAST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual pollutant emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from point and area sources are apportioned to 80-km grid squares on a 35 by 30 grid network. The grid network is a polar stereographic projection true to 60 degrees N. ...

  20. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2012-07-01

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  1. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more....

  2. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more....

  3. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale..., delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the...

  4. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale..., delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the...

  5. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale..., delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the...

  6. Continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon emissions from sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, H.E.; Crumpler, E.P.; Koch, P.D.; Chehaske, J.T.; Hagele, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water (OW) drafted risk-based sludge regulations (for incineration and a variety of other options) under Section 405d of the Clean Water Act. Under consideration for the final regulation is a provision for continuously monitoring total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions as a method of controlling organic emissions from sludge incineration. The monitoring would have to demonstrate that the THC stack emissions were not exceeding a concentration limit. Continuous analyzers for THC, CO, and oxygen (O2) were installed and operated at two facilities, both of which employed multiple-hearth furnaces (MHFs) to incinerate wastewater sludge. In addition, EPA requested an evaluation of the use of these monitors to assist with incinerator operation.

  7. Global methane emissions from landfills: New methodology and annual estimates 1980-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, J.; Matthews, E.

    2003-06-01

    Significant interannual variations in the growth rate of atmospheric CH4 justify the development of an improved methodology for landfill emissions, the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. A major problem is that reliable solid waste data often do not exist, especially for developing countries where emissions are increasing. Here we develop and apply a new proxy method to reconstruct historical estimates for annual CH4 emissions for the period 1980-1996. Using composited solid waste data from 1975-1995, we developed linear regressions for waste generation per capita based on energy consumption per capita, a surrogate which reflects population and affluence, the major determinants of solid waste generation rates. Using total population (developed countries) or urban population (developing countries), annual landfill CH4 emissions were estimated using a modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology. Methane recovery was modeled by fitting historic data to time-dependent linear relationships. Two scenarios for global emissions using the surrogate were compared to two scenarios using an IPCC standard methodology. Results from all four scenarios range from 16 to 57 Tg CH4 yr-1, a similar range as previous estimates. We support the use of the lower energy surrogate scenario (A) with annual emissions of 16-20 Tg CH4 yr-1, both positive and negative annual variations, and commercial recovery >15% by 1996. The surrogate provides a reasonable methodology for a large number of countries where data do not exist, a consistent methodology for both developed and developing countries, and a procedure which facilitates annual updates using readily available data.

  8. Measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of contaminated mirror surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facey, T. A.; Nonnenmacher, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dust contamination on the total hemispherical emissivity (THE) of a 1.5-inch-diameter Al/MgF2-coated telescope mirror are investigated experimentally. The THE is determined by means of cooling-rate measurements in the temperature range 10-14.5 C in a vacuum of 100 ntorr or better. Photographs and drawings of the experimental setup are provided, and results for 11 dust levels are presented in tables and graphs. It is shown that dust has a significant effect on THE, but the experimental losses are only about half those predicted for perfectly black dust in perfect thermal contact with the mirror surface.

  9. TRASER - Total Reflection Amplification of Spontaneous Emission of Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Christopher B.; Gustavsson, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Light and lasers in medical therapy have made dramatic strides since their invention five decades ago. However, the manufacture of lasers can be complex and expensive which often makes treatments limited and costly. Further, no single laser will provide the correct parameters to treat all things. Hence, laser specialists often need multiple devices to practice their specialty. A new concept is described herein that has the potential to replace many lasers and light sources with a single tunable device. Study Design/Material and Methods This device amplifies spontaneous emission of radiation by capturing and retaining photons through total internal reflection, hence the acronym Total Reflection Amplification of Spontaneous Emission of Radiation, or TRASER. Results Specific peaks of light can be produced in a reproducible manner with high peak powers of variable pulse durations, a large spot size, and high repetition rate. Conclusion Considering the characteristics and parameters of Traser technology, it is possible that this one device would likely be able to replace the pulsed dye laser and many other light based systems. PMID:22558261

  10. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  11. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  12. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  13. Apparatus for Measuring Total Emissivity of Small, Low-Emissivity Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, James; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    An apparatus was developed for measuring total emissivity of small, lightweight, low-emissivity samples at low temperatures. The entire apparatus fits inside a small laboratory cryostat. Sample installation and removal are relatively quick, allowing for faster testing. The small chamber surrounding the sample is lined with black-painted aluminum honeycomb, which simplifies data analysis. This results in the sample viewing a very high-emissivity surface on all sides, an effect which would normally require a much larger chamber volume. The sample and chamber temperatures are individually controlled using off-the-shelf PID (proportional integral derivative) controllers, allowing flexibility in the test conditions. The chamber can be controlled at a higher temperature than the sample, allowing a direct absorptivity measurement. The lightweight sample is suspended by its heater and thermometer leads from an isothermal bar external to the chamber. The wires run out of the chamber through small holes in its corners, and the wires do not contact the chamber itself. During a steady-state measurement, the thermometer and bar are individually controlled at the same temperature, so there is zero heat flow through the wires. Thus, all of sample-temperature-control heater power is radiated to the chamber. Double-aluminized Kapton (DAK) emissivity was studied down to 10 K, which was about 25 K colder than any previously reported measurements. This verified a minimum in the emissivity at about 35 K and a rise as the temperature dropped to lower values.

  14. Continuously measured annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of ammonia emissions from beef cattle feedyards varies with season during the year, but studies of continuous measurement of ammonia emissions throughout the year are rare. The quantification of annual ammonia emissions will improve emission factors, provide databases that can be used ...

  15. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation....

  16. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation....

  17. 40 CFR 97.424 - Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compliance with TR NOX Annual... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Annual Trading Program 97.424 Compliance with TR NOX Annual emissions limitation....

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits For...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (40 CFR part 63, subpart U, 63.488(b)) and shall be based on anticipated production. (ii) A... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process vent annual epoxides emission... Polyether Polyols Production 63.1431 Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements....

  1. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (40 CFR part 63, subpart U, 63.488(b)) and shall be based on anticipated production. (ii) A... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process vent annual epoxides emission... Polyether Polyols Production 63.1431 Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements....

  2. Evaluation of Totally Impermeable Film for Fumigant Emissions Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions from soil fumigation are stringently regulated for environmental safety concerns. Low permeability films can be used to reduce fumigant and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and to allow for smaller buffer zones. A large-scale field trial was conducted in Ventura, CA, to determine ...

  3. Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

  4. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  5. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements. 63.1431 Section 63.1431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  6. TRANSP modelling of total and local neutron emission on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimek, I.; Cecconello, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Keeling, D.; Meakins, A.; Jones, O.; Akers, R.; Lupelli, I.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Ericsson, G.; the MAST Team

    2015-02-01

    The results of TRANSP simulations of neutron count rate profiles measured by a collimated neutron flux monitor-neutron camera (NC)for different plasma scenarios on MAST are reported. In addition, the effect of various plasma parameters on neutron emission is studied by means of TRANSP simulation. The fast ion redistribution and losses due to fishbone modes, which belong to a wider category of energetic particle modes, are observed by the NC and modelled in TRANSP.

  7. Biomass burning in Asia : annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D. G.; Yarber, K. F.; Woo, J.-H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Iowa

    2003-10-15

    Estimates of biomass burning in Asia are developed to facilitate the modeling of Asian and global air quality. A survey of national, regional, and international publications on biomass burning is conducted to yield consensus estimates of 'typical' (i.e., non-year-specific) estimates of open burning (excluding biofuels). We conclude that 730 Tg of biomass are burned in a typical year from both anthropogenic and natural causes. Forest burning comprises 45% of the total, the burning of crop residues in the field comprises 34%, and 20% comes from the burning of grassland and savanna. China contributes 25% of the total, India 18%, Indonesia 13%, and Myanmar 8%. Regionally, forest burning in Southeast Asia dominates. National, annual totals are converted to daily and monthly estimates at 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} spatial resolution using distributions based on AVHRR fire counts for 1999--2000. Several adjustment schemes are applied to correct for the deficiencies of AVHRR data, including the use of moving averages, normalization, TOMS Aerosol Index, and masks for dust, clouds, landcover, and other fire sources. Good agreement between the national estimates of biomass burning and adjusted fire counts is obtained (R{sup 2} = 0.71--0.78). Biomass burning amounts are converted to atmospheric emissions, yielding the following estimates: 0.37 Tg of SO{sub 2}, 2.8 Tg of NO{sub x}, 1100 Tg of CO{sub 2}, 67 Tg of CO, 3.1 Tg of CH{sub 4}, 12 Tg of NMVOC, 0.45 Tg of BC, 3.3 Tg of OC, and 0.92 Tg of NH{sub 3}. Uncertainties in the emission estimates, measured as 95% confidence intervals, range from a low of {+-}65% for CO{sub 2} emissions in Japan to a high of {+-}700% for BC emissions in India.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan...

  9. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  10. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  11. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 1026 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. K Appendix K to Part 1026Total Annual Loan...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 1026 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. K Appendix K to Part 1026Total Annual Loan...

  16. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of total emissions, respectively.). Manure storage (composting and stockpiling) and land spreading contributed 23 and 14% of the total emissions, respectively. Parameters from this TAN-based mass balance model will be incorporated into the HOLOS model - a farm-level greenhouse gas calculator.

  17. Statistic analysis of annual total ozone extremes for the period 1964-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzyscin, Janusz W.

    1994-01-01

    Annual extremes of total column amount of ozone (in the period 1964-1988) from a network of 29 Dobson stations have been examined using the extreme value analysis. The extremes have been calculated as the highest deviation of daily mean total ozone from its long-term monthly mean, normalized by the monthly standard deviations. The extremes have been selected from the direct-Sun total ozone observations only. The extremes resulting from abrupt changes in ozone (day to day changes greater than 20 percent) have not been considered. The ordered extremes (maxima in ascending way, minima in descending way) have been fitted to one of three forms of the Fisher-Tippet extreme value distribution by the nonlinear least square method (Levenberg-Marguard method). We have found that the ordered extremes from a majority of Dobson stations lie close to Fisher-Tippet type III. The extreme value analysis of the composite annual extremes (combined from averages of the annual extremes selected at individual stations) has shown that the composite maxima are fitted by the Fisher-Tippet type III and the composite minima by the Fisher-Tippet type I. The difference between the Fisher-Tippet types of the composite extremes seems to be related to the ozone downward trend. Extreme value prognoses for the period 1964-2014 (derived from the data taken at: all analyzed stations, the North American, and the European stations) have revealed that the prognostic extremes are close to the largest annual extremes in the period 1964-1988 and there are only small regional differences in the prognoses.

  18. CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF TOTAL HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, the total hydrocarbon (THC) analyzers performed well. The only problems occurred when the flame failed to reignite after an automatic backpurge cycle (nine times), and on one occasion when a sample line plugged. Average THC concentration, normalized to 7% O2, was 108 ...

  19. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example, increased from -48~ +73% in 2005 to -50~ +89% in 2012 (expressed as 95% confidence interval). This is attributed mainly to swiftly increased penetration of advanced manufacturing and pollutant control technologies. The unclear operation status or relatively small sample size of field measurements on those technologies results in lower but highly varied emission factors. To further confirm the benefits of pollution control polices with reduced uncertainty, therefore, systematic investigations are recommended specific for Hg pollution sources, and the variability of temporal trends and spatial distributions of Hg emissions need to be better tracked for the country under dramatic changes in economy, energy and air pollution status.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1431 - Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process vent annual epoxides emission factor plan requirements. 63.1431 Section 63.1431 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  2. 7th Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership' provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processess, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission. The conference was highlighted by the announcement of the first recipients of the George M. Low Trophy: NASA's Quality and Excellence Award. My congratulations go out to all nine finalist organizations and to the two recipients of this prestigious honor: Rockwell Space Systems Division and Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. (the first small business to achieve this honor). These organizations have demonstrated a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed in the aerospace industry. This report summarizes the presentations and is not intended to be a verbatim proceedings document. You are encouraged to contact the speakers with any requests for further information.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sample form(1) Model form. Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Loan Terms Age of youngest borrower: Appraised... Age of youngest borrower: 75 Appraised property value: $100,000 Interest rate: 9% Monthly...

  4. EFFECT OF HYDROCARBON COMPOSITION ON OXIDANT-HYDROCARBON RELATIONSHIPS. PHASE II. BLEND OF TOTAL HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the formation of atmospheric oxidants resulting from exhaust emitted by catalyst-equipped vehicles, chamber irradiations were conducted using a hydrocarbon blend representing total hydrocarbon emissions (exhaust, refueling and evaporation). Results were compared with pr...

  5. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  6. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased, particularly for the power sector and particular industrial sources. The uncertainty (expressed as 95% confidence intervals) of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, for example, increased from -48-+73% in 2005 to -50-+89% in 2012. This is attributed mainly to increased penetration of advanced manufacturing and pollutant control technologies; the unclear operational status and relatively small sample sizes of field measurements of those processes have resulted in lower but highly varied emission factors. To reduce uncertainty and further confirm the benefits of pollution control and energy polices, therefore, systematic investigation of specific Hg pollution sources is recommended. The variability of temporal trends and spatial distributions of Hg emissions needs to be better tracked during the ongoing dramatic changes in China's economy, energy use, and air pollution status.

  7. Quantifying the contributions of natural emissions to ozone and total fine PM concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate estimates of emissions from natural sources are needed for reliable predictions of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) using air quality models. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM2.5 for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. In this study, the model has been further developed to include more Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and to implement a scheme for secondary organic aerosols as well as an updated description of sea-salt emissions. Our simulations indicate that in the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone mixing ratios over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, BVOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation in 2006, enhancing the average ozone mixing ratio by about 11% over the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest in the northern part of South America by about 42%. Similarly, the highest contribution of all the natural sources to total fine particles over land is found to be in South America by about 74% and sea-salt aerosols demonstrated to play the most important role. However, over the rest of the regions in the model domain the largest contribution from the natural sources to PM2.5 in the specific year 2006 is due to wildfires. The contribution from natural emissions to the mean PM2.5 concentration over the land areas in the model domain is about 34%.

  8. 500 years of mercury production: global annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Meili, Markus

    2003-03-20

    Since pre-industrial times, anthropogenic emissions of Hg have at least doubled global atmospheric Hg deposition rates. In order to minimize environmental and human health effects, efforts have been made to reduce Hg emissions from industries and power plants, while less attention has been paid to Hg mining. This paper is a compilation of available data on primary Hg production and associated emissions with regional and annual resolution since colonial times. Globally, approximately one million tons of metallic Hg has been extracted from cinnabar and other ores during the past five centuries, half already before 1925. Roughly half has been used for mining of gold and silver, but the annual Hg production peaked during a short period of recent industrial uses. Comparison with total historic Hg deposition from global anthropogenic emissions (0.1-0.2 Mtons) suggests that only a few percent of all mined Hg have escaped to the atmosphere thus far. While production of primary Hg has changed dramatically over time and among mines, the global production has always been dominant in the region of the mercuriferous belt between the western Mediterranean and central Asia, but appears to be shifting to the east. Roughly half of the registered Hg has been extracted in Europe, where Spanish mines alone have contributed one third of the world's mined Hg. Approximately one fourth has been mined in the Americas, and most of the remaining registered Hg in Asia. However, the Asian figures may be largely underestimated. Presently, the dominant Hg mines are in Almadén in Spain (236 t of Hg produced in 2000), Khaydarkan in Kyrgyzstan (550 t), Algeria (estimated 240 t) and China (ca. 200 t). Mercury by-production from mining of other metals (e.g. copper, zinc, gold, silver) in 2000 includes 48 t from Peru, 45 t from Finland and at least 15 t from the USA. Since 1970, the recorded production of primary Hg has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude to approximately 2000 t in the year 2000. Mining is thus still of similar magnitude as all current anthropogenic Hg emissions to the atmosphere, and mined Hg may account for more than one third of these emissions. Also before use, mercury is emitted from Hg mines locally during the mining and refining processes and from mining waste. Global direct emissions to the atmosphere amount to 10-30 t per year currently (up to 10 at Almadén alone), and probably exceed 10000 t historically. Termination of Hg mining will reduce associated local emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere. Since several economically viable Hg-free alternatives exist for practically all applications of Hg, the production and use of Hg can be further reduced and all primary production of Hg other than by-production terminated. PMID:12663168

  9. Radionuclide air emissions annual report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-04

    This report presents the results of the Pinellas Plant air sampling program for the year of 1994. Topics discussed include: site description; source description; air emissions data; dose assessments; description of dose model; summary of input parameters of dose model; unplanned releases; and diffuse emissions. Included in the attachments of this document are: non-radon individual dose assessment; non-radon population dose assessment; summary of stack flow rate measurements; HOTSPOT computer model run; and meteorological data for the Pinellas Plant for 1994.

  10. Longitudinal dependence of annual cycle of total ozone in the Northern mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Evtushevsky, Oleksandr; Grytsai, Asen

    2015-04-01

    In the Northern mid-latitudes, annual change of the total ozone content (TOC) in terms of zonal means is mainly determined by stratospheric ozone accumulation in winter and spring due to the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and following photochemical relaxation continuing to autumn. It is known from previous studies that annual TOC cycle in some regions could be close to or differ from the zonal mean one. For example, annual TOC minimum over Eastern Asia is observed two months earlier (August) than over Europe (October). In this work, a consecutive analysis of the TOC seasonality along the latitudinal belt 50-55°N in 36 segments (10°-step in longitude) is analyzed. The latitude range includes northern Ukraine and Kyiv-Goloseyev Dobson station. Analysis is based on the Merged Ozone Data Set (MOD) reanalysis 1979-2011 (http://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/). We use also the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/composites/printpage.pl) to estimate seasonal changes in geopotential heights and tropopause heights. It is shown that the seasonal TOC cycle over the cyclonic anomalies (high mean TOC level) is shifted to the beginning of year in comparison with that over the anticyclonic anomalies (low mean TOC level). The largest TOC values over the Aleutian low (around 150°E) are characterized by the earliest seasonal maximum (February-March) and minimum (August). Here, the tropospheric dynamics (winter/summer extremes in the planetary wave activity and stationary pressure anomaly formation/disappearance) and related tropopause effects seem to have dominant influence on the earliest development of the annual TOC cycle. Zonal asymmetry in stratospheric ozone accumulation influences rather the maximum TOC levels in this region than timing of the TOC extremes. In the opposite longitude range (zonal TOC minimum in region of the Azores high influence, 20-30°W), the annual TOC cycle lags by 2-3 months reaching a TOC maximum in May and a TOC minimum in November. Seasonal changes in this subtropical anomaly (pressure and tropopause height) are weak. Hence, troposphere influence on the TOC seasonality here is small in comparison with Aleutian low region. Slow accumulation of the stratospheric ozone during winter and spring leads to the latest occurrence of seasonal TOC maximum. Photochemical ozone relaxation lasts also longer up to beginning of the next BDC intensification since December. The results of this analysis could be useful for explanation of the interannual variations in the local annual TOC cycles considering the climatological ones in neighboring segments of the northern midlatitudes. Possible effects of the TOC seasonality in regional climate changes could also be analyzed in future studies. Acknowledgments. This work was partly supported by the Polar FORCeS project no. 4012 of the Australian Antarctic Science Program.

  11. Radionuclide air emissions. Annual report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A description is provided of radioactive effluent releases from the Pinellas Plant. The DOE sold the Pinellas Plant in March 1995. A portion of the plant was backed by DOE until September 1997 to facilitate a safe transition to commercial ventures.The plant`s radiological processing equipment was cleaned from past DOE operations. Emissions from the cleanup activity were monitored.

  12. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Hansen, Matthew C.; Townshend, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates―critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+―are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr−1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr−1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha−1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha−1). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha−1•yr−1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID:25951328

  13. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 0.25 M hayr(-1) and 0.18 0.07 Pg Cyr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg Cha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg Cha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg Cha(-1)yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts. PMID:25951328

  14. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Metals and Some Refractory Oxide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.

    1959-01-01

    A description of the apparatus and methods used for obtaining total hemispherical emissivity is presented, and data for several stably oxidized metals are included. The metals which were tested included type 347 stainless steel, tungsten, and Haynes alloys B, C, X, and 25. No values of emissivity were obtained for tungsten or Haynes alloy B because of the nature of the oxides produced. The refractory oxide coatings tested were flame-sprayed alumina and zirconia. The results of the investigation indicate that strongly adherent, oxidized surfaces of a high stable emissivity can be produced on type 347 stainless steel for which the total hemispherical emissivity varied from 0.87 to 0.91 for temperatures from 600 F to 2,000 F. For this same temperature range, the Haynes alloys tested showed values of total hemispherical emissivity from 0.90 to 0.96 for alloy C, from 0.85 to 0.88 for alloy X, and from 0.85 to 0.89 for alloy 25. Haynes alloy B and tungsten formed nonadherent oxides at elevated temperatures and, therefore, stable emissivities were not obtained. The results obtained for the flame-sprayed ceramics (alumina and zirconia) showed considerably higher values of total emissivity than those measured for coatings applied by other methods. Emissivity values ranging from 0.69 to 0.44 for aluminum oxide and from 0.62 to 0.44 for zirconium oxide were measured for temperatures from 800 F to 2,000 F.

  15. Energy use and emissions from marine vessels: a total fuel life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, James J; Corbett, James J; Meyer, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To address these issues, this paper presents the Total Energy and Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model. TEAMS can be used to analyze total fuel life cycle emissions and energy use from marine vessels. TEAMS captures "well-to-hull" emissions, that is, emissions along the entire fuel pathway, including extraction, processing, distribution, and use in vessels. TEAMS conducts analyses for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to residual oil, (2) petroleum to conventional diesel, (3) petroleum to low-sulfur diesel, (4) natural gas to compressed natural gas, (5) natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and (6) soybeans to biodiesel. TEAMS calculates total fuel-cycle emissions of three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 microm or less, and sulfur oxides). TEAMS also calculates total energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption associated with each of its six fuel cycles. TEAMS can be used to study emissions from a variety of user-defined vessels. This paper presents TEAMS and provides example modeling results for three case studies using alternative fuels: a passenger ferry, a tanker vessel, and a container ship. PMID:17269235

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology...

  17. 77 FR 24382 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Annual Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under Executive Order 12898 (59 FR...; Annual Emissions Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... when the pre-existing 1-hour ozone standard was promulgated (62 FR 38855).\\1\\ \\1\\ EPA issued a...

  18. Unidirectional total variation destriping using difference curvature in MODIS emissive bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mi; Zheng, Xinghui; Pan, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method of unidirectional total variation destriping using difference curvature in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) emissive bands. First, difference curvature is utilized to extract spatial information at each pixel; and the spatially weighted parameters that constructed by extracted spatial information are incorporated into the unidirectional total variation model to adaptively adjust the destriping strength for achieving a better destriping result and preserving the detail information meantime. Second, the split Bregman iteration method is employed to optimize the proposed model. Finally, experimental results from MODIS emissive bands and comparisons with other methods demonstrate the potential of the presented method for MODIS image destriping.

  19. Spectral and total temperature-dependent emissivities of few-layer structures on a metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2016-01-25

    We investigate the thermal radiative emission of few-layer structures deposited on a metallic substrate and its dependence on temperature with the Fluctuational Electrodynamics approach. We highlight the impact of the variations of the optical properties of metallic layers on their temperature-dependent emissivity. Fabry-Pérot spectral selection involving at most two transparent layers and one thin reflective layer leads to well-defined peaks and to the amplification of the substrate emission. For a single Fabry-Pérot layer on a reflective substrate, an optimal thickness that maximizes the emissivity of the structure can be determined at each temperature. A thin lossy layer deposited on the previous structure can enhance interference phenomena, and the analysis of the participation of each layer to the emission shows that the thin layer is the main source of emission. Eventually, we investigate a system with two Fabry-Pérot layers and a metallic thin layer, and we show that an optimal architecture can be found. The total hemispherical emissivity can be increased by one order of magnitude compared to the substrate emissivity. PMID:26832589

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions of drained fen peatlands in Belarus are controlled by water table, land use, and annual weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlo, Andrei; Minke, Merten; Chuvashova, Hanna; Augustin, Jrgen; Hoffmann, Mathias; Narkevitch, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Drainage of peatlands causes strong emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2 and N2O, sometimes combined with a weak CH4 uptake. In Belarus drained peatlands occupy about 1505000 ha or more than 7.2 % of the country area. Joosten (2009) estimates CO2 emission from degraded peatlands in Belarus as 41.3 Mt yr-1 what equals to 47 % of total anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of country in 2011. However, it could not be checked if these numbers are correct since there are no GHG measurements on these sites up to now. Therefore we studied the GHG emissions with the closed chamber approach in four peatlands situated in central and southern Belarus over a period from August 2010 to August 2012. The measurements comprised eight site types representing different water level conditions, and ranging from grassland and arable land over abandoned fields and peat cuts to near-natural sedge fens. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were determined using the close-chamber approach every second week in snow free periods and every fourth week during winter time. The annual emissions were calculated based on linear interpolation. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured with transparent and opaque chambers every 3-4 weeks and the annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was modeled according to Drsler (2005). Most of the drained sites were sources of CO2 in both years. NEE increased with lower mean annual water table level. The highest NEE value (1263.5 g CO2-C m-1yr-1) was observed at the driest site of the study; an abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture. In contrast, a former peat extraction site with moist peat and small Pinus sylvestris tress were sinks of CO2 with uptake to 389.6 g CO2-C m-1yr-1. The highest N2O emissions were recorded at a drained agricultural fen with mean annual rates of up to 2347 mg N2O-N m-2 yr-1. Significant fluxes of CH4 (15 g CH4C m-2 h-1) were observed only at the near-natural site in the first year of investigation when precipitation and the mean water level were high. At the drained sites fluxes of CH4 were mainly close to null and sometimes a weak uptake of CH4 (-0.06 mg CH4-C m-2 h-1) was observed. In general the results show an increase of global warming potential of site with decreasing mean annual water level from 5.5 t CO2 equivalents ha-1yr-1 at near-natural site with annual mean water level -8 cm to 51 t CO2 equivalents ha-1yr-1 at abandoned fen formerly used for agriculture with mean annual water level near -90 cm. This study was conducted in the framework of the BMU financed project 'Restoring Peatlands and applying Concepts for Sustainable Management in Belarus - Climate Change Mitigation with Economic and Biodiversity Benefits'. Joosten H. The Global Peatland CO2 Picture: peatland status and drainage related emissions in all countries of the world - 2009.

  1. Summary Report of the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership" provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processes, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission.

  2. Ecosystem scale methane emission from a boreal wetland: Annual balances and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, J.; Alekseychik, P.; Haapanala, S.; Raivonen, M.; Mammarella, I.; Peltola, O.; Aurela, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Tuittila, E.; Vesala, T.

    2013-12-01

    We have conducted measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and a pristine boreal fen ecosystem, Siikaneva, continuously by eddy covariance technique since 2005. The results show methane emission to be a significant part of the carbon balance of this ecosystem. Methane emission also shows a strong seasonal cycle reflecting the seasonality of the driving variables in boreal regions. Of the environmental parameters, methane emission correlates best with peat temperature, whereas no correlation with water table position is found. The interannual variability of the annual methane emission is relatively low. We will explore the possible drivers of this variability. We also study the contribution of methane to the carbon balance in interannual scale. The effects of methane and carbon dioxide exchange of pristine wetland ecosystems on the radiative forcing will be discussed. Monthly means of ecosystem scale methane emission from Siikaneva fen during 2015-2010, with errorbars indicating standard deviations between years.

  3. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses chamber studies of four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. he heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. erosene space heaters are a potential source of fine...

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. AUTOMATIC INTERFACING SYSTEM FOR SAMPLING TOTAL MERCURY IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interfacing system to sample total mercury emissions in source streams and suitably condition, dilute, and transport the sample to a mercury measuring instrument was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system consists of three components: a conditioner, a diluter, and a pump...

  6. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  7. METHOD 25 - DETERMINATION OF TOTAL GASEOUS NON-METHANE ORGANIC EMISSIONS AS CARBON FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 3.17 describes the procedures and specifications for determining volatile organic compounds as total gaseous non-methane organics from stationary sources. n emission sample is withdrawn from the stack at a constant rate through a heated filter and a chilled condensate tra...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  10. TOTAL PARTICLE, SULFATE, AND ACIDIC AEROSOL EMISSIONS FROM KEROSENE SPACE HEATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chamber studies were conducted on four unvented kerosene space heaters to assess emissions of total particle, sulfate, and acidic aerosol. The heaters tested represented four burner designs currently in use by the public. Kerosene space heaters are a potential source of fine part...

  11. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m (PM2.5). This created a...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  14. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R.; Piotrowski, J.

    1997-12-31

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  15. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X.; Knollenberg, P.

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  16. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Wunch, D.

    2013-04-01

    We assess the large-scale, top-down constraints on regional fossil fuel emissions provided by observations of atmospheric total column CO2, XCO2. Using an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with underlying fossil emissions, we determine the influence of regional fossil fuel emissions on global XCO2 fields. We quantify the regional contrasts between source and upwind regions and probe the sensitivity of atmospheric XCO2 to changes in fossil fuel emissions. Regional fossil fuel XCO2 contrasts can exceed 0.7 ppm based on 2007 emission estimates, but have large seasonal variations due to biospheric fluxes. Contamination by clouds reduces the discernible fossil signatures. Nevertheless, our simulations show that atmospheric fossil XCO2 can be tied to its source region and that changes in the regional XCO2 contrasts scale linearly with emissions. We test the GCM results against XCO2 data from the GOSAT satellite. Regional XCO2 contrasts in GOSAT data generally scale with the predictions from the GCM, but the comparison is limited by the moderate precision of and relatively few observations from the satellite. We discuss how this approach may be useful as a policy tool to verify national fossil emissions, as it provides an independent, observational constraint.

  17. Effects of water regime during rice-growing season on annual direct N(2)O emission in a paddy rice-winter wheat rotation system in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Qin, Yanmei; Zou, Jianwen; Liu, Qiaohui

    2010-01-15

    Annual paddy rice-winter wheat rotation constitutes one of the typical cropping systems in southeast China, in which various water regimes are currently practiced during the rice-growing season, including continuous flooding (F), flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding (F-D-F), and flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding and moisture but without waterlogging (F-D-F-M). We conducted a field experiment in a rice-winter wheat rotation system to gain an insight into the water regime-specific emission factors and background emissions of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) over the whole annual cycle. While flooding led to an unpronounced N(2)O emission during the rice-growing season, it incurred substantial N(2)O emission during the following non-rice season. During the non-rice season, N(2)O fluxes were, on average, 2.61 and 2.48 mg N(2)O-Nm(-)(2) day(-1) for the 250 kg N ha(-1) applied plots preceded by the F and F-D-F water regimes, which are 56% and 49% higher than those by the F-D-F-M water regime, respectively. For the annual rotation system experienced by continuous flooding during the rice-growing season, the relationship between N(2)O emission and nitrogen input predicted the emission factor and background emission of N(2)O to be 0.87% and 1.77 kg N(2)O-Nha(-1), respectively. For the plots experienced by the water regimes of F-D-F and F-D-F-M, the emission factors of N(2)O averaged 0.97% and 0.85%, with background N(2)O emissions of 2.00 kg N(2)O-Nha(-1) and 1.61 kg N(2)O-Nha(-1) for the annual rotation system, respectively. Annual direct N(2)O-N emission was estimated to be 98.1 Gg yr(-1) in Chinese rice-based cropping systems in the 1990s, consisting of 32.3 Gg during the rice-growing season and 65.8 Gg during the non-rice season, which accounts for 25-35% of the annual total emission from croplands in China. PMID:19926115

  18. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026Assumed Loan Periods...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026Assumed Loan Periods...

  20. 78 FR 19262 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  1. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas

    2015-02-01

    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to 0.97 and 0.82 respectively, and RMSE of correction and verification are only 0.0106 and 0.015 7 respectively, RPD is 2.62. Research results provide optimized models for remotely sensed analysis on deserts soil total phosphorus content and could realize timeliness and effective monitoring on the space-time dynamic of deserts soil total phosphorus content for future regional ecological restoration. PMID:25970891

  2. Reduction potentials of total energy consumption and GHG emissions in Xiamen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, C.; Cui, S.

    2009-12-01

    Urban areas contain 40% of the population and contribute 75% of the Chinese national economy. The 35 largest cities in China, which contain 18% of the population, contribute 40% of Chinas energy uses and CO2 emissions. Therefore, an insight into energy consumption and quantification of emissions from urban areas are extremely important for identifying effects of energy-saving policies and finding solution to GHG emissions in urban centers. This paper applies the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for modeling the total energy consumption and associated emissions from Xiamen city. Energy consumption under different sets of policy and technology options are analyzed for a time span of 2007-2020 and GHG emissions are estimated. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of Xiamen city. The Business as Usual scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. The Integrated scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control and new and renewable energy development and utilization are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen up to 2020 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the Integrated scenario and the relative contribution rate of reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated.

  3. Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Kort, Eric A; Shepson, Paul B; Brewer, Alan; Cambaliza, Maria; Conley, Stephen A; Davis, Ken; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Mike; Herndon, Scott C; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lavoie, Tegan; Lyon, David; Newberger, Tim; Pétron, Gabrielle; Rella, Chris; Smith, Mackenzie; Wolter, Sonja; Yacovitch, Tara I; Tans, Pieter

    2015-07-01

    We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production. PMID:26148550

  4. Broadband spectrum of the total X-ray emission from the galaxy M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M. G.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Krivonos, R. A.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Molkov, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of measurements of the total X-ray flux from the Andromeda galaxy (M31) in the 3-100 keV band based on data from the RXTE/PCA, INTEGRAL/ISGRI, and SWIFT/BAT space experiments. We show that the total emission from the galaxy has a multicomponent spectrum whose main characteristics are specified by binaries emitting in the optically thick and optically thin regimes. The galaxy's luminosity at energies 20-100 keV gives about 6% of its total luminosity in the 3-100 keV band. The emissivity of the stellar population in M31 is L 2-20 keV 1.1 1029 erg s-1 M {?/-1} in the 2-20 keV band and L 20-100 keV 8 1027 erg s-1 M {?/-1} in the 20-100 keV band. Since low-mass X-ray binaries at high luminosities pass into a soft state with a small fraction of hard X-ray emission, the detection of individual hard X-ray sources in M31 requires a sensitivity that is tens of times better (up to 10-13 erg s-1 cm-2) than is needed to detect the total hard X-ray emission from the entire galaxy. Allowance for the contribution from the hard spectral component of the galaxy changes the galaxy's effective Compton temperature approximately by a factor of 2, from 1.1 to 2.1 keV.

  5. Daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards.

    PubMed

    Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy; Rhoades, Marty B; Parker, David B; Casey, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive N to the environment, contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter, and represents a significant loss of N from beef cattle feedyards. We used open path laser spectroscopy and an inverse dispersion model to quantify daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual NH emissions during 2 yr from two commercial cattle feedyards in the Panhandle High Plains of Texas. Annual patterns of NH fluxes correlated with air temperature, with the greatest fluxes (>100 kg ha d) during the summer and the lowest fluxes (<15 kg ha d) during the winter. Mean monthly per capita emission rate (PCER) of NH-N at one feedyard ranged from 31 g NH-N head d (January) to 207 g NH-N head d (October), when increased dietary crude protein from wet distillers grains elevated emissions. Ammonia N emissions at the other feedyard ranged from 36 g NH-N head d (January) to 121 g NH-N head d (September). Monthly fractional NH-N loss ranged from a low of 19 to 24% to a high of 80 to 85% of fed N at the two feedyards. Seasonal PCER at the two feedyards averaged 60 to 71 g NH-N head d during winter and 103 to 158 g NH-N head d during summer. Annually, PCER was 115 and 80 g NH-N head d at the two feedyards, which represented 59 and 52% of N fed to the cattle. Detailed studies are needed to determine the effect of management and environmental variables such as diet, temperature, precipitation, and manure water content on NH emissions. PMID:21712577

  6. Annual land cover change mapping using MODIS time series to improve emissions inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez Saldaa, G.; Quaife, T. L.; Clifford, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding and quantifying land surface changes is necessary for estimating greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions, and for meeting air quality limits and targets. More sophisticated inventories methodologies for at least key emission source are needed due to policy-driven air quality directives. Quantifying land cover changes on an annual basis requires greater spatial and temporal disaggregation of input data. The main aim of this study is to develop a methodology for using Earth Observations (EO) to identify annual land surface changes that will improve emissions inventories from agriculture and land use/land use change and forestry (LULUCF) in the UK. First goal is to find the best sets of input features that describe accurately the surface dynamics. In order to identify annual and inter-annual land surface changes, a times series of surface reflectance was used to capture seasonal variability. Daily surface reflectance images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 500m resolution were used to invert a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model to create the seamless time series. Given the limited number of cloud-free observations, a BRDF climatology was used to constrain the model inversion and where no high-scientific quality observations were available at all, as a gap filler. The Land Cover Map 2007 (LC2007) produced by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH) was used for training and testing purposes. A prototype land cover product was created for 2006 to 2008. Several machine learning classifiers were tested as well as different sets of input features going from the BRDF parameters to spectral Albedo. We will present the results of the time series development and the first exercises when creating the prototype land cover product.

  7. Joint EPA/DOE demonstration program for total mercury continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Rauenzahn, H.S.; Stevens, F.M.

    1997-06-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of mercury from hazardous waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. Continuous real-time monitoring of mercury would permit actual measurement of mercury emissions and permit measurement of real-time (actual) mercury emissions and allow accurate (realistic) human risk assessment from hazardous thermal treatment facility operation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations that require the use of total mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste. These proposed regulations also include draft performance specifications for mercury CEMs. This paper describes an ongoing joint EPA/DOE program to identify and demonstrate commercially available mercury CEMs that can meet the proposed EPA performance specification and includes initial instrument test results obtained. The complete demonstration consists of a six month performance test of several commercially available total mercury CEMs at a commercial cement kiln that co-fires hazardous waste. During the performance test, several indicators of CEM performance will be evaluated (as required in the proposed performance specification), including; zero and calibration drift, relative accuracy through comparison to EPA manual Reference Methods, calibration error through testing with calibration standards, and specific interference tests. The results of this extensive test program will be used to either confirm availability of mercury CEMs that meet the requirements in the proposed EPA performance specification, provide the necessary data for revision of the proposed mercury CEM performance specification, or reveal the need for further instrument development prior to deployment.

  8. Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.

  9. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-2 Table W-2 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W--3 Table W-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  11. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-4 Table W-4 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  12. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-4 Table W-4 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  13. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-2 Table W-2 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  14. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W--3 Table W-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods...

  16. Annual cycle and long-term trend of the methane total column in the atmosphere over the St. Petersburg region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, M. V.; Kirner, O.; Timofeev, Yu. M.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Imkhasin, Kh. Kh.; Osipov, S. I.; Makarov, B. K.

    2015-07-01

    The annual cycle and long-term trend of the methane total column in the atmosphere over the Petergof station (St. Petersburg State University) are analyzed on the basis of data obtained from Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and EMAC-model calculations. The amplitude of the annual cycle of the total column of CH4 amounts to 2.1 and 1.5% according to experimental and model data, respectively. For the atmospheric column-averaged mole fraction of CH4, the amplitude of its annual cycle is smaller than that for its total column and amounts to 1.1 and 0.6% according to experimental and model data, respectively. The results of local continuous measurements of surface CH4 concentrations showed that, in 2013, the atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions of CH4 and the amplitudes of diurnal variations in its local concentration were characterized by the same dynamics of seasonal variations. An analysis made on the basis of simulation results showed that atmospheric conditions (under which Fourier-transform IR measurements were performed) could increase the amplitude of the annual cycle of the total column of CH4 2.5 times when compared to the true one. The results of Fourier-transform IR measurements and EMAC-model calculations showed that, during 2009-2012, the atmospheric concentration of CH4 increased at a rate of ~0.2% per year. If measurement data obtained in 2013 are added, this rate decreases to ~0.13% per year.

  17. 24 CFR 884.104 - Maximum total annual contract commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum total annual contract commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects). 884.104 Section 884.104 Housing and... commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects). (a) Maximum total annual...

  18. Laboratory measurements of carbonyl sulfide and total sulfur emissions from open burning of forest biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.E.; Adams, D.F.; McMahon, C.K.

    1982-06-01

    The information presented is directed to environmental scientists and resource managers concerned with sulfur emissions from combustion processes. Atmospheric chemists believe these emissions accumulate in the stratosphere and affect the earth's radiation balance. Some of these emissions result from the practice of burning forest biomass, which can release a high percentage of the sulfur nutrient reserve. This loss of sulfur may be damaging to site productivity. This paper reports on a series of controlled-environment combustion laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that 50% to 75% of the total fuel sulfur was released from the samples of biomass burned. Of this, less than 0.2% was in the form of carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide, dimethylsulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyldisulfide. Emission factors for COS ranged from 0.18 to 2.36 mg of sulfur per kg of biomass consumed, well below previous estimates. Our work indicated that production of COS was strongly dependent on fuel and combustion variables. As the production of COS increased from the burning of forest fuels, carbon monoxide production also increased; and both were inversely related to fire intensity.

  19. Scaling non-point-source mercury emissions from two active industrial gold mines: influential variables and annual emission estimates.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Miller, M B; Marsik, F

    2011-01-15

    Open-pit gold mines encompass thousands of hectares of disturbed materials that are often naturally enriched in mercury (Hg). The objective of this study was to estimate annual non-point-source Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Nevada. This was achieved by measuring diel and seasonally representative Hg fluxes from mesocosms of materials collected from each mine. These measurements provided a framework for scaling emissions over space and time at each mine by identifying the important variables correlated with Hg flux. The validity of these correlations was tested by comparisons with measurements conducted in situ at the mines. Of the average diel fluxes obtained in situ (92 daily flux measurements), 81% were within the 95% prediction limits of the regressions developed from the laboratory-derived data. Some surfaces at the mines could not be simulated in the laboratory setting (e.g., material actively leached by cyanide solution and tailings saturated with cyanide solution), and as such in situ data were applied for scaling. Based on the surface areas of the materials and environmental conditions at the mines during the year of study, non-point-source Hg releases were estimated to be 19 and 109 kg·year(-1). These account for 56% and 14%, respectively, of the overall emissions from each mine (point + nonpoint sources). Material being heap-leached and active tailings impoundments were the major contributors to the releases (>60% combined) suggesting that as mining operations cease, releases will decline. PMID:21142061

  20. Recent NASA/GSFC cryogenic measurements of the total hemispheric emissivity of black surface preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.

    2015-12-01

    High-emissivity (black) surfaces are commonly used on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Since 2011 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has measured the total hemispheric emissivity of such surfaces from 20 to 300 K using a test apparatus inside a small laboratory cryostat. We report the latest data from these measurements, including Aeroglaze Z307 paint, Black Kapton, and a configuration of painted aluminum honeycomb that was not previously tested. We also present the results of batch-to- batch reproducibility studies in Ball Infrared BlackTM and painted aluminum honeycomb. Finally, we describe a recently-adopted temperature control method which significantly speeds the data acquisition, and we discuss efforts to reduce the noise in future data.

  1. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  2. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  3. Total versus urban: Well-to-wheels assessment of criteria pollutant emissions from various vehicle/fuel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Hong; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    The potential impact on the environment of alternative vehicle/fuel systems needs to be evaluated, especially with respect to human health effects resulting from air pollution. We used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to examine the well-to-wheels (WTW) emissions of five criteria pollutants (VOCs, NO x, PM 10, PM 2.5, and CO) for nine vehicle/fuel systems: (1) conventional gasoline vehicles; (2) conventional diesel vehicles; (3) ethanol (E85) flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) fueled with corn-based ethanol; (4) E85 FFVs fueled with switchgrass-based ethanol; (5) gasoline hybrid vehicles (HEVs); (6) diesel HEVs; (7) electric vehicles (EVs) charged using the average U.S. generation mix; (8) EVs charged using the California generation mix; and (9) hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). Pollutant emissions were separated into total and urban emissions to differentiate the locations of emissions, and emissions were presented by sources. The results show that WTW emissions of the vehicle/fuel systems differ significantly, in terms of not only the amounts but also with respect to locations and sources, both of which are important in evaluating alternative vehicle/fuel systems. E85 FFVs increase total emissions but reduce urban emissions by up to 30% because the majority of emissions are released from farming equipment, fertilizer manufacture, and ethanol plants, all of which are located in rural areas. HEVs reduce both total and urban emissions because of the improved fuel economy and lower emissions. While EVs significantly reduce total emissions of VOCs and CO by more than 90%, they increase total emissions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 by 35-325%. However, EVs can reduce urban PM emissions by more than 40%. FCVs reduce VOCs, CO, and NO x emissions, but they increase both total and urban PM emissions because of the high process emissions that occur during hydrogen production. This study emphasizes the importance of specifying a thorough life-cycle emissions inventory that can account for both the locations and sources of the emissions to assist in achieving a fair comparison of alternative vehicle/fuel options in terms of their environmental impacts.

  4. Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Jian, Yating; Cao, Changsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Cooking processes highly contribute to indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. High molecular weight and potentially carcinogenic PAHs are generally found attached to small particles, i.e., particulate phase PAHs (PPAHs). Due to the fact that indoor particle dynamics have been clear, describing the indoor dynamics of cooking-generated PPAHs within a specific time span is possible. This paper attempted to quantify the dynamic emission rate, simultaneous spatial dispersion and individual exposure of PPAHs using a cooking source. Experiments were conducted in a real-scale kitchen chamber to elucidate the time-resolved emission and effect of edible oil temperature and mass. Numerical simulations based on indoor particle dynamics were performed to obtain the spatial dispersion and individual inhalation intake of PPAHs under different emission and ventilation conditions. The present work examined the preheating cooking stage, at which edible oil is heated up to beyond its smoke point. The dynamic emission rate peak point occurred much earlier than the oil heating temperature. The total PPAH emission ranged from 2258 to 6578 ng upon heating 40-85 g of edible oil. The overall intake fraction by an individual within a period of 10 min, including 3 min for heating and 7 min for natural cooling, was generally ∼1/10,000. An important outcome of this work was that the overall intake fraction could be represented by multiplying the range hood escape efficiency by the inhalation-to-ventilation rate ratio, which would be no greater than the same ratio. The methodology and results of this work were extendible for the number-based assessment of PPAHs. This work is expected to help us understand the health risks due to inhalation exposure to cooking-generated PPAHs in the kitchen.

  5. [Determination of total sulfur in coal by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-yan; Zhang, Yuan-li

    2002-02-01

    A direct method was reported for the determination of total sulfur in coal by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The dissolution conditions of coal samples as well as interference conditions of hydrochloric acid and matrix were studied. The recommended method not only proved to be simple and rapid than traditional gravimetric method but show satisfying precision and accuracy as well. The results of samples are as same as gravimetry. The recoveries are more than 96%, and the relative standard deviation of six samples are less than 3%. PMID:12940037

  6. Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2 O emissions between annual and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Abalos, Diego; Brown, Shannon E; Vanderzaag, Andrew C; Gordon, Robert J; Dunfield, Kari E; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Perennial crops can deliver a wide range of ecosystem services compared to annual crops. Some of these benefits are achieved by lengthening the growing season, which increases the period of crop water and nutrient uptake, pointing to a potential role for perennial systems to mitigate soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. Employing a micrometeorological method, we tested this hypothesis in a 3-year field experiment with a perennial grass-legume mixture and an annual corn monoculture. Given that N2 O emissions are strongly dependent on the method of fertilizer application, two manure application options commonly used by farmers for each crop were studied: injection vs. broadcast application for the perennial; fall vs. spring application for the annual. Across the 3 years, lower N2 O emissions (P < 0.001) were measured for the perennial compared to the annual crop, even though annual N2 O emissions increased tenfold for the perennial after ploughing. The percentage of N2 O lost per unit of fertilizer applied was 3.7, 3.1 and 1.3 times higher for the annual for each consecutive year. Differences in soil organic matter due to the contrasting root systems of these crops are probably a major factor behind the N2 O reduction. We found that a specific manure management practice can lead to increases or reductions in annual N2 O emissions depending on environmental variables. The number of freeze-thaw cycles during winter and the amount of rainfall after fertilization in spring were key factors. Therefore, general manure management recommendations should be avoided because interannual weather variability has the potential to determine if a specific practice is beneficial or detrimental. The lower N2 O emissions of perennial crops deserve further research attention and must be considered in future land-use decisions. Increasing the proportion of perennial crops in agricultural landscapes may provide an overlooked opportunity to regulate N2 O emissions. PMID:26491961

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) than annually. Because of the variability of sulfur in coal and, in some cases, scrubber performance... Periods and Annualization Factors Definition Annualization factor Scrubbed Unscrubbed Unit Unit...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) than annually. Because of the variability of sulfur in coal and, in some cases, scrubber performance... Periods and Annualization Factors Definition Annualization factor Scrubbed Unscrubbed Unit Unit...

  9. COMPACT NON-CONTACT TOTAL EMISSION DETECTION FOR IN-VIVO MULTI-PHOTON EXCITATION MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Glancy, Brian; Karamzadeh, Nader S.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Redford, Glen; Kilborn, Karl; Knutson, Jay R.; Balaban, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe a compact, non-contact design for a Total Emission Detection (c-TED) system for intra-vital multi-photon imaging. To conform to a standard upright two-photon microscope design, this system uses a parabolic mirror surrounding a standard microscope objective in concert with an optical path that does not interfere with normal microscope operation. The non-contact design of this device allows for maximal light collection without disrupting the physiology of the specimen being examined. Tests were conducted on exposed tissues in live animals to examine the emission collection enhancement of the c-TED device compared to heavily optimized objective-based emission collection. The best light collection enhancement was seen from murine fat (5×-2× gains as a function of depth), while murine skeletal muscle and rat kidney showed gains of over two and just under two-fold near the surface, respectively. Gains decreased with imaging depth (particularly in the kidney). Zebrafish imaging on a reflective substrate showed close to a two-fold gain throughout the entire volume of an intact embryo (approximately 150 μm deep). Direct measurement of bleaching rates confirmed that the lower laser powers (enabled by greater light collection efficiency) yielded reduced photobleaching in vivo. The potential benefits of increased light collection in terms of speed of imaging and reduced photo-damage, as well as the applicability of this device to other multi-photon imaging methods is discussed. PMID:24251437

  10. Using Total Quality To Better Manage an Institutional Research Office. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann

    Responding to the call for higher education to adopt a new paradigm in managing its administrative processes, an Institutional Research Office at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Pennsylvania made a two-year effort to use a Total Quality approach in its management. Total Quality Management is a Japanese movement based on the teachings…

  11. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  12. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  13. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  14. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  15. The Influence of Precipitation-Driven Annual Plant Growth on Dust Emission in the Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, F. E.; Reynolds, R. L.; Fulton, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Sparsely vegetated drylands are an important source for dust emission. However, little detail is known about dust generation in response to timing of precipitation and the consequent effects on soil and vegetation dynamics in these settings. This deficiency is especially acute at intermediate landscape scales, tens of meters to several hundred meters. It is essential to consider dust emission at this scale, because it links dust generation at scales of grains and wind tunnels with regional-scale dust examined using remotely sensed data from satellites. Three sites of slightly different geomorphic settings in the vicinity of Soda (dry) Lake were instrumented (in 1999) with meteorological and sediment transport sensors to measure wind erosion through saltating particle detection during high winds. Changes in vegetation in close proximity to the instrumented sites were bi-annually documented through measurements of plant type, cover, and repeat photographic imagery. Whereas high wind events are the dominant driver of saltation and dust emission, emissive conditions prevail only when annual plants are sparse or absent. Results show that wind erosion and dust emission at two study sites are highly variable and that such variability is dominantly related to vegetation type and cover as influenced by the amount and timing of antecedent precipitation. Secondary controls on dust emission are availability of new sediment related to flood deposits at the sites and seasonally differential wind strength. At sites where annual plants respond quickly and advantageously to precipitation, emissive conditions typically shut down because of vegetation growth within two to three months. This cover of annual plants, even when dead, persists in the desert landscape as a stabilizing agent for varying amounts of time, ten months to three years depending on the amount and vegetation type and subsequent input of precipitation and further annual plant growth. The lasting stabilization effect seems to be especially strong for grasses, although exceptionally vigorous growth of forbs can produce similar results. Periods of sparse rainfall and low soil-moisture conditions at the study sites led to strong saltation activity and vulnerability to dust emission. Wet periods (relative to our period of record) stimulated annual plant growth, including in one case, excessive localized plant growth and extraordinary bloom of an invasive mustard species at one site and mediterranean grass at another. This bloom dramatically suppressed particle saltation and associated local dust emission for several years. The decade-long record at these sites documents an inter-annual succession of wet and dry conditions, thus allowing a detailed analysis of the lags and mediating influence that precipitation driven annual plant growth and subsequent decay exerts on dust emission in sparsely vegetated drylands.

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-2 Table W-2 of Subpart W—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing Onshore natural gas...

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-- Table W-3 of Subpart W—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression...

  18. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-4 Table W-4 of Subpart W—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage Underground natural gas...

  19. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and... organization's operations throughout periods of stress.\\4\\ The Board and the other federal banking agencies... total consolidated assets of more than $10 billion and for which the Board is the primary...

  20. Total Quality Management on Campus: Pipe Dream or New Paradigm? AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jann E.; And Others

    This study looked at how Total Quality Management (TQM) is being adopted in institutions of higher education. A questionnaire was developed seeking information on: (1) leadership of the TQM movement and timing of events; (2) the training, educating, and informing of employees; (3) specific areas using TQM and the specific statistical tools being

  1. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics II-Control Charts. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherland, Ryan M.

    An examination was conducted of the control chart as a quality improvement statistical method often used by Total Quality Management (TQM) practitioners in higher education. The examination used an example based on actual requests for information gathered for the Director of Human Resources at a medical center at a midwestern university. The

  2. Parasitic Oscillations And Amplified Spontaneous Emission In Face-Pumped Total Internal Reflection Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. C.; Benfey, D. P.; Gehm, W. J.; Holmes, D. H.; Lee, K. K.

    1987-04-01

    Parasitic oscillations and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) can often strongly influence the operation and efficiency of laser devices, as has been shown previously for disk and active-mirror amplifiers. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of those phenomena in total internal reflection (TIR) face-pumped lasers. The results to be presented here were made possible by the development of two three-dimensional computer codes. The first (PARA) systematically searches for parasitic oscillations in slab lasers and determines the gain required to reach threshold. Our second code (AMSPE) is a three dimensional raytrace model which includes temporal gain and allows for non-uniform gain profiles. AMSPE calculates the gain depletion as well as changes in spatial gain profile and thus the decrease in amplifier efficiency as a function of a number of critical parameters such as slab aspect ratio, spontaneous emission spectral profile, and slab face angle. In this paper we first review the classes of parasitics in slab lasers and show how symmetry breaking can significantly increase the energy storage capability of such deyices. We then review the construction of the AMSPE code and show how it may be used to identify maximum efficiency slab laser configurations.

  3. High methane emissions dominated annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus potentially implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration are scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated sites of a bog ecosystem 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of CO2, CH4 and N2O, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22-51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), with highest rates found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in the water table, we assume that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of purple moor grass and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, mixed soil material due to peat extraction and refilling can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not inevitably limited to a short-term period.

  4. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, A.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Jessopp, M. J.; Loeb, V.

    2009-05-01

    Despite much research on Euphausia superba, estimates of their total biomass and production are still very uncertain. Recently, circumpolar krill databases, combined with growth models and revisions in acoustics have made it possible to refine previous estimates. Net-based databases of density and length frequency (KRILLBASE) yield a summer distributional range of ˜19×10 6 km 2 and a mean total abundance of 8×10 14 post-larvae with biomass of 379 million tonnes (Mt). These values are based on a standardised net sampling method but they average over the period 1926-2004, during which krill abundance has fluctuated. To estimate krill biomass at the end of last century we combined the KRILLBASE map of relative krill density around Antarctica with an acoustics-derived biomass estimate of 37.3 Mt derived for the Scotia Sea area in 2000 by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). Thus the CCAMLR 2000 survey area contains 28% of the total stock, with total biomass of ˜133 Mt in January-February 2000. Gross postlarval production is estimated conservatively at 342-536 Mt yr -1, based on three independent methods. These are high values, within the upper range of recent estimates, but consistent with the concept of high energy throughput for a species of this size. The similarity between the three production estimates reflects a broad agreement between the three growth models used, plus the fact that, for a given population size, production is relatively insensitive to the size distribution of krill at the start of the growth season. These production values lie within the envelope of what can be supported from the Southern Ocean primary production system and what is required to support an estimated predator consumption of 128-470 Mt yr -1. Given the range of recent acoustics estimates, plus the need for precautionary management of the developing krill fishery, our net-based data provide an alternative estimate of total krill biomass.

  5. Measurement of the seasonal and annual variability of total column aerosol in a northeastern U.S. network

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Schlemmer, J.A.; Harrison, L.C.; Berkheiser, W.E. III; Larson, N.R.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1994-09-01

    A network of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers has operated since late 1991 in the northeastern US. The data acquired are simultaneous measurements of total and diffuse horizontal irradiances in six narrowband filtered detectors and one broadband shortwave detector. The direct normal irradiances are calculated from these measurements. These direct data are corrected for cosine response and used to calculate extraterrestrial irradiance (I{sub o}) using the Langley method of regressing the natural logarithm of direct irradiance versus air mass. With frequent determinations of I{sub o}, changes in I{sub o} caused by soiling and filter degradation, for example, can be tracked. Using these I{sub o}`s, total optical depth is calculated for every clear 30-minute period in the record. Consequently, total optical depth may be obtained on a fair number of days throughout the year. Using daily average total optical depth the authors have calculated aerosol optical depths for five wavelengths by subtracting Rayleigh scattering optical depths and Chappuis ozone absorption optical depths at each wavelength. The aerosol pattern at nearly every site is an annual cycle superimposed on a decaying stratospheric loading associated with the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. An attempt is made to remove the volcanic signal using data from another site.

  6. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (<5 pr-micrometer) is observed at middle and high latitudes in the fall and winter of both hemispheres. There are large differences in the hemispheric (north versus south) and seasonal (perihelion versus aphelion) behavior of water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  7. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Rayner, Peter; Baker, David; Liu, Yu-ping

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emission inventories enable sensitivity tests of simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations to sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions and what this implies for the interpretation of observed CO2. Six experiments are conducted to investigate the potential impact of three cycles of FFCO2 emission variability (diurnal, weekly and monthly) using a global tracer transport model. Results show an annual FFCO2 rectification varying from -1.35 to +0.13 ppm from the combination of all three cycles. This rectification is driven by a large negative diurnal FFCO2 rectification due to the covariation of diurnal FFCO2 emissions and diurnal vertical mixing, as well as a smaller positive seasonal FFCO2 rectification driven by the covariation of monthly FFCO2 emissions and monthly atmospheric transport. The diurnal FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a diurnal FFCO2 concentration amplitude of up to 9.12 ppm at the grid cell scale. Similarly, the monthly FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a simulated seasonal CO2 amplitude of up to 6.11 ppm at the grid cell scale. The impact of the diurnal FFCO2 emissions, when only sampled in the local afternoon, is also important, causing an increase of +1.13 ppmv at the grid cell scale. The simulated CO2 concentration impacts from the diurnally and seasonally varying FFCO2 emissions are centered over large source regions in the Northern Hemisphere, extending to downwind regions. This study demonstrates the influence of sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration and suggests that inversion studies must take account of these variations in the affected regions.

  8. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P.; Baker, D.; Liu, Y.-P.

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emission inventories enable sensitivity tests of simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations to sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions and what this implies for the interpretation of observed CO2. Six experiments are conducted to investigate the potential impact of three cycles of FFCO2 emission variability (diurnal, weekly and monthly) using a global tracer transport model. Results show an annual FFCO2 rectification varying from -1.35 to +0.13 ppm from the combination of all three cycles. This rectification is driven by a large negative diurnal FFCO2 rectification due to the covariation of diurnal FFCO2 emissions and diurnal vertical mixing, and a smaller positive seasonal FFCO2 rectification driven by the covariation of monthly FFCO2 emissions and monthly atmospheric transport. The diurnal FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a diurnal FFCO2 concentration amplitude of up to 9.12 ppm at the grid cell scale. Similarly, the monthly FFCO2 emissions are responsible for a simulated seasonal CO2 amplitude of up to 6.11 ppm at the grid cell scale. The impact of the diurnal FFCO2 emissions, when only sampled in the local afternoon is also important, causing an increase of +1.13 ppmv at the grid cell scale. The simulated CO2 concentration impacts from the diurnally and seasonally-varying FFCO2 emissions are centered over large source regions in the Northern Hemisphere, extending to downwind regions. This study demonstrates the influence of sub-annual variations in FFCO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration and suggests that inversion studies must take account of these variations in the affected regions.

  9. Annual nitrous oxide emissions from intensively managed soils in Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariassen, J.; Matson, P.A.; Vitousek, P.M. NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1993-06-01

    High inputs of fertilizer N and other intensive cropping practices have become widespread in many agricultural areas of the tropics. In an effort to examine the effects of these practices on trace gas-atmosphere exchange we measured N[sub 2]O, CO[sub 2], and CH[sub 4] flux in a range of heavily fertilized sugar cane systems. Annual N[sub 2]O fluxes during 1992 appeared to be highest on the leeward or dry side of the island ranging from 20-40 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; roughly 50% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. On the windward wet side of the island N[sub 2]O fluxes ranged from about 11-30 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; from 10 to 30% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. Methane was usually taken up by these soils and variability was slightly higher on the wet side vs. the dry side; although the CO[sub 2] data set was small, flux appeared to be higher on the wet side vs. the dry side.

  10. Characterization of cotton gin total particulate matter emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  11. Solar Total Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, July 1979-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar total energy system for a Georgia knitwear plant. In conjunction with Sandia and others, a pier test of the design for the parabolic dishes was carried out at the solar field site. The access road to the site and the new Construction Monitoring and Visitor's Center facility have been provided. Operation of the Meteorology Station proceeded throughout the entire reporting period without significant perturbation. The major event occurred near the end of the period when the station was moved to the southeast corner of the solar field, adjacent to and just south of the trailer facilities. Efforts are described for bringing the entire data collection and energy system in the Bleyle Plant into fine tuned order. Problems with the flow channels, humidity channels and the Bleyle economizer system were traced to basic design and installation deficiencies. All associated vendors were contacted on at least one occasion throughout the period. Reasonable confidence is reported that all systems were performing to the best of their design ability, and the data system was removed in preparation for the facility move to the southeast corner of the solar site. Nominal data collection by monthly reading of the watt-hour meters in the Bleyle boiler room is reported. The Site Team continued to interface with the design teams and updated the interface drawings.The major effort involved the finalization of the power systems interface sizing design and location. Effort was also exerted in the following: support to pier testing; interconnection piping design; new trailer design and location. A large number of requests were answered in providing presentations, design data, public information and technical magazines. It is expected that when construction commences early next period, the activity will become even more intense.

  12. Total hemispherical emissivity of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) candidate materials: Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, and Alloy 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Raymond K.

    An experimental system was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06 to measure the total hemispherical emissivity of structural materials of interest in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) systems. The system was tested with304 stainless steel as well as for oxidized and un-oxidized nickel, and good reproducibility and agreement with the literature data was found. Emissivity of Hastelloy X was measured under different conditions that included: (i) "as received" (original sample) from the supplier; (ii) with increased surface roughness; (iii) oxidized, and; (iv) graphite coated. Measurements were made over a wide range of temperatures. Hastelloy X, as received from the supplier, was cleaned before additional roughening of the surface and coating with graphite. The emissivity of the original samples (cleaned after received) varied from around 0.18 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The apparent emissivity increased only slightly as the roughness of the surface increased (without corrections for the increased surface area due to the increased surface roughness). When Hastelloy X was coated with graphite or oxidized however, its emissivity was observed to increase substantially. With a deposited graphite layer on the Hastelloy, emissivity increased from 0.2 to 0.53 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.6 at 1473 K; a finding that has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident VHTR environments. Although initial oxidation of Hastelloy X increased the emissivity prolonged oxidation did not significantly increase emissivity. However as there is some oxidation of Hastelloy X used in the construction of VHTRs, this represents an essentially neutral finding in terms of the safety implications in post-accident VHTR environments. The total hemispherical emissivity of Haynes 230 alloy, which is regarded as a leading candidate material for heat exchangers in VHTR systems, was measured under various surface conditions. The emissivity increased from 0.178 at 600 K to 0.235 at 1375 K for Haynes 230 as received sample. The emissivity increased significantly when its surface roughness was increased, or was oxidized in air, or coated with graphite dust, as compared to the as received material. The total hemispherical emissivity of Alloy 617 was measured as a function of temperature. The total emissivity increased from about 0.2 at 600 K to about 0.35 at 1275 K.

  13. Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, (E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from (E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine (E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to (E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining (E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively. PMID:22355697

  14. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to outpatient providers and physicians in both years. Conclusions The HbA1c diagnostic factor did not yield any association with diabetes healthcare expenditures. Although the total healthcare expenditures were reduced in 2011 compared with 2009, it cannot be established that the reduction in costs is solely attributed to the implementation of the HbA1c diagnostic criteria. Further research on healthcare expenditures for diabetic patients diagnosed with and without the use of HbA1c testing is warranted to establish any possible association. PMID:26557226

  15. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Importance of the autumn overturn and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion for the annual methane emissions from a temperate lake.

    PubMed

    Encinas Fernndez, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2014-07-01

    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate that anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumn overturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane was emitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ?80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosphere. After the overturn period, the entire water column was oxic, and only 1% of the original quantity of methane remained in the water column. Current estimates of global methane emissions assume that all of the stored methane is released, whereas several studies of individual lakes have suggested that a major fraction of the stored methane is oxidized during overturns. Our results provide evidence that not all of the stored methane is released to the atmosphere during the overturn period. However, the fraction of stored methane emitted to the atmosphere during overturn may be substantially larger and the fraction of stored methane oxidized may be smaller than in the previous studies suggesting high oxidation losses of methane. The development or change in the vertical extent and duration of the anoxic hypolimnion, which can represent the main source of annual methane emissions from small lakes, may be an important aspect to consider for impact assessments of climate warming on the methane emissions from lakes. PMID:24873684

  17. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  18. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile isotopic methane analysis based on Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Winkler, Renato; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Crosson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the isotopic carbon signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of methane using a mobile spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Performance of the CRDS isotope analyzer is presented, including precision, calibration, stability, and the potential for measurement bias due to other atmospheric constituents. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to arrive at an overall isotope ratio for the region.

  19. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  20. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  1. First stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  2. Second stage mote system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  3. 2nd stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  4. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A ...

  5. Overflow system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. Mote cleaner system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. 1st stage mote system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  8. Second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  9. Mote trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  10. Combined lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  11. Combined lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  12. Mote trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  13. 1st stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  14. Combined mote system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  15. Master trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  16. Mote cyclone robber system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  17. Real-world vehicle emissions: A summary of the third annual CRC-APRAC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Cadle, S.H. ); Gorse, R.A. ); Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-08-01

    The CRC-APRAC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop provided an informal atmosphere for the exchange of information on real-world vehicle emissions issues. Topics addressed included: emissions inventories; mobile source emission factor models; evaporative emissions; dynamometer studies of exhaust emissions; remote sensing studies; and tunnel studies of vehicle emissions. It is now widely accepted that emissions inventories have significantly underestimated the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from on-road vehicles. Since these inventories are used to develop emission control strategies, it is critical that they accurately reflect on-road emissions. Research is currently being conducted by a variety of organizations to address this issue. For the past three years, the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee (CRC-APRAC) has sponsored an on-road vehicle emissions workshop whose purpose is to provide an informal forum in which recent real-world vehicle emissions results can be discussed along with plans for additional studies. Thirty-six papers were presented at the third workshop, which was held in San Diego, California, on December 1-3, 1992. This summary provides an overview of conclusions from the workshop, followed by a synopsis of individual papers. The conclusions are those of the authors, and do not necessarily represent a consensus of the workshop participants.

  18. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin third stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 m (PM2.5). This created a...

  19. Point source emission rate estimates from MAMAP airborne remote sensing total column observations of atmospheric CO2 and CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Hartmann, Jrg; Sachs, Torsten; Erzinger, Jrg; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2013-04-01

    Large parts of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of CO2 and CH4 are released from localised and point sources such as power plants or as fugitive emissions from fossil fuel mining and production sites. These emissions, however, are often not readily assessed by current measurement systems and networks. A tool developed to better understand point sources of CO2 and CH4 is the optical remote sensing instrument MAMAP (Methane Airborne MAPer), operated from aircraft. After a recent instrument modification, retrievals of the column averaged dry air mole fractions for methane XCH4 (or for carbon dioxide XCO2) derived from MAMAP observations in the short-wave infrared, have a precision of about 0.4% significantly improving data quality. MAMAP total column data also serve as a testbed for inversion concepts for greenhouse gas emissions from point sources using total column atmospheric concentration measurements. As information on wind speed is an important input parameter for the inference of emission rates using MAMAP data, recent measurement campaigns comprised an in-situ wind probe operated onboard the same aircraft. Incorporation of these wind measurements in combination with model data leads to a large reduction of uncertainties on the inversion result. Using the examples of two coal mine ventilation shafts in Western Germany as well as other anthropogenic targets, the value of high resolution total column data to obtain emission rate estimates is demonstrated. MAMAP has also been tested in sunglint geometry over the ocean and has therefore the potential for application also to offshore emission sites.

  20. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These data are combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities in the regions. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin that can be attributed to natural gas fugitive emissions has been determined to be 71 +/- 9%. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011).

  1. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.

    1994-12-15

    SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Sensitivity of simulated CO2 concentration to sub-annual variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Gurney, K. R.; Rayner, P. J.; Baker, D. F.; Liu, Y.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a sensitivity analysis of the impact of sub-annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated CO2 concentration using a global tracer transport model. Four sensitivity experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of three cyclic components (diurnal, weekly and monthly) and a complete cyclic component (the combination of the three) by comparing with a temporally "flat" fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory. A complete exploration of these impacts is quantified at annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal time scales of the CO2concentration for the surface, vertical profile and column-integral structure. Result shows an annual mean surface concentration difference varying from -1.35 ppm to 0.13 ppm at grid scale for the complete cyclic fossil fuel emissions, which is mainly driven by a large negative diurnal rectification and less positive seasonal rectification. The negative diurnal rectification is up to 1.45 ppm at grid scale and primarily due to the covariation of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions and diurnal variations of vertical mixing. The positive seasonal rectification is up to 0.23 ppm at grid scale which is mainly driven by the monthly fossil fuel CO2emissions coupling with atmospheric transport. Both the diurnal and seasonal rectifier effects are indicated at local-to-regional scales with center at large source regions and extend to neighboring regions in mainly Northern Hemisphere. The diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions is found to significantly affect the simulated diurnal CO2 amplitude (up to 9.12 ppm at grid scale), which is primarily contributed by the minima concentration differences around local sunset time. Similarly, large impact on the seasonal CO2 amplitude (up to 6.11 ppm) is found at regional scale for the monthly fossil fuel emissions. An impact of diurnal fossil fuel CO2 emissions on simulated afternoon CO2 concentration is also identified by up to 1.13 ppm at local scales. The study demonstrates a large cyclic fossil fuel CO2 emissions impact on simulated CO2 concentration, and suggests that attempts to constrain carbon fluxes using surface measurements and inversion models can be improved by avoiding the biases caused by considering the temporal variations in fossil fuel CO2 emissions.

  3. Limb observations of the 12.32 micron solar emission line during the 1991 July total eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Mccabe, George; Noyes, Robert; Wiedemann, Gunter; Espenak, Fred

    1992-01-01

    The limb profile of the Mg I 12.32-micron emission line is determined by occultation in the July 11, 1991 total solar eclipse over Mauna Kea. It is shown that the emission peaks are very close to the 12-micron continuum limb, as predicted by recent theory for this line as a non-LTE photospheric emission. The increase in optical depth for this extreme limb-viewing situation indicates that most of the observed emission arises from above the chromospheric temperature minimum, and it is found that this emission is extended to heights well in excess of the model predictions. The line emission can be observed as high as 2000 km above the 12-micron continuum limb, whereas theory predicts it to remain observable no higher than about 500 km above the continuum limb. The substantial limb extension observed in this line is quantitatively consistent with limb extensions seen in the far-IR continuum, and it is concluded that it is indicative of departures from gravitational hydrostatic equilibrium, or spatial inhomogeneities, in the upper solar atmosphere.

  4. 17 CFR 270.30b1-2 - Semi-annual report for totally-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Semi-annual report for totally-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of registered management investment company. 270.30b1-2 Section 270.30b1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS,...

  5. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These data are combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities in the region. The results are compared to inventories as well as other measurement techniques, and the uncertainty of the measurement is estimated.

  6. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile δ13CH4 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Crosson, E.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the δ13CH4 signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of mobile field δ13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to arrive at an overall isotope ratio for the region. (left panel) Distribution of oil and gas well pads (yellow) and landfills (blue) in the Dallas / Ft. Worth area. Mobile nocturnal measurements of methane are shown in red, indicating a strong degree of source heterogeneity. (right panel) Histogram of individual isotopic source signatures, showing distinct signatures for landfills (red) and oil and gas sources (green).

  7. Constant-Pressure Specific Heat to Hemispherical Total Emissivity Ratio for Undercooled Liquid Nickel, Zirconium, and Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Radiative cooling curves of nickel, zirconium, and silicon melts that were obtained using the high-temperature, high-vacuum electrostatic levitator (HTHVESL) have been analyzed to determine the ratio between the constant-pressure specific heat and the hemispherical total emissivity, c(sub p)(T)epsilon(sub T)(T). This ratio determined over a wide liquid temperature range for each material allows us to determine c(sub p)(T) if epsilon(sub T)(T) is known or vice versa. Following the recipe, the hemi-spherical total emissivities for each sample at its melting temperature, epsilon(sub T)(T(sub M)), have been determined using c(sub p)(T(sub m)) values available in the literature. They are 0.15, 0.29, and 0.17, for Ni, Zr, and Si, respectively.

  8. 1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

  9. Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue burning in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Crop residue burning is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue burning emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland burned area and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of burned area, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On average, annual crop residue burning in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an average interannual variability of crop residue burning emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue burning and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste burning by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis also showed that crop residue burning emissions are a minor source of CH4 emissions (< 1%) compared with the CH4 emissions from other agricultural sources, specifically enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation. PMID:21305885

  10. Plant-specific correlations to predict the total VOC emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskouie, Ali K.; Lordi, David T.; Granato, Thomas C.; Kollias, Louis

    Simple linear correlations between the lumped parameter of raw wastewater flow rate, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and concentration of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs), chloroform, dichloromethane and toluene in the liquid and gas phases, QMLSS(C/ER), and T, wastewater temperature, were found for three large wastewater treatment plants operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) using their monthly data for year 2000. These linear relationships were verified for these three dominant VOCs using the data from years 1987 to 1992, 1998, and 1999 for the three MWRDGC plants. The results of this theoretical study showed that linear functions could reasonably fit to the actual data, and the specific VOC compounds' emission rate could be predicted upon having information on ambient temperature, MLSS, and VOC concentration in the liquid phase at the influent to the specific plant without having to use the Bay Area Sewage Toxics Emission (BASTE) fate model as a future emission estimator once the baseline correlation was determined.

  11. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia’s harvest, 1965–2065

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). Results The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC’s greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC’s protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. Conclusions This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products. PMID:22828161

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SEASONAL AND ANNUAL BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a biogenic emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada, to assess the role of biogenic emissions in ozone formation. Emission inventories were developed at hourly and grid (1/4 x 116 degree) level from input data at the same scales. Emissio...

  13. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  14. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Perring, Loïc; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99+/-5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. PMID:12324843

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase Following the Termination of a Perennial Legume Phase of an Annual Crop Rotation within the Red River Valley, Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanis, K. L.; Tenuta, M.; Amiro, B. D.; Glenn, A. J.; Maas, S.; Gervais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Perennial legume forages may have the potential to increase soil carbon sequestration and decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere when introduced into annual cropping systems. However, little is known about what short-term effect the return to annual cropping following termination of perennial legume forage would have on carbon dioxide (CO2) and N2O emissions. Furthermore, there are few quantitative measurements about this impact on the Canadian Prairies. A long-term field experiment to continuously measure CO2 and N2O fluxes was established at the Trace Gas Manitoba (TGAS-MAN) Long Term Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Site at Glenlea, Manitoba using the flux gradient micrometeorlogical technique with a tunable diode laser analyzer. The soil is poorly drained clay in the Red River Valley. The field experiment consisted of four 4-hectare plots planted to corn in 2006 and faba bean in 2007. In 2008, grass-alfalfa forage was introduced to two plots (annual - perennial) and grown until 2011 whereas the other two plots (annual) were planted to annual crops: spring wheat, rapeseed, barley and spring wheat in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. In late September of 2011 the grass-alfalfa forage was killed and in 2012 all four plots were planted with corn. Termination of the grass-alfalfa forage resulted in greater fall CO2 emissions in 2011, greater spring melt CO2 emissions and net annual N2O emissions in 2012 from the annual-perennial plots when compared to the annual plots. Over seven crop years (2006-2012), the annual - perennial system increased carbon uptake by 3.4 Mg C ha-1 and reduced N2O emissions by 3.0 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 compared to the annual system. However after accounting for harvest removals both the annual and annual-perennial systems were net carbon sources of 5.7 and 2.5 Mg C ha-1 and net GHG sources of 38 and 24 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 respectively. We are currently following the long-term impacts of inclusion of perennial forages in an annual cropping system.

  16. Characterization of odor emission from alternating aerobic and anoxic activated sludge systems using real-time total reduced sulfur analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunook; Lee, Hyunjoo; Choi, Eunsun; Choi, Il; Shin, Taesub; Im, Hyungjoon; Ahn, Soobin

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of sulfur-containing compounds always generates volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) including H2S, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). VSC emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in odor complaints from people living nearby. To control odor-causing compounds in WWTPs, it is important to know the odor emission quantity particularly with continuous monitoring. Since modified activated sludge processes always include anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic conditions for nutrient removal, odor emission from these different environmental settings is expected. In this study, continuous monitoring of VSCs from the headspace of an alternating aerobic and anoxic (AAA) activated sludge process via total reduced sulfur (TRS) analyzer was performed. There is clear pattern of the initial TRS peak immediately after the initiation of the aeration in the AAA system and TRS concentration begins to drop through the remaining air-on cycle. On the other hand, during the air-off period, TRS concentrations increase with time. In particular, a clear inflection point in the TRS profile could be observed after complete removal of nitrate during air-off, meaning more VSCs formation. Since the highest odor emission occurs after the initiation of aeration, the future control of exhausted air should only deal with air collected during the initial aeration period (e.g., 30min), a similar concept for the treatment of first flush in combined sewer overflow. In addition, application of a control scheme to initiate aeration immediately after denitrification is completed during air-off should be beneficial in reducing odor emission. PMID:25180483

  17. Reconstruction of the net emission distribution from the total radiance distribution on a reflecting surface.

    PubMed

    Ruyten, W

    2001-01-01

    The problem is considered of reconstructing, from a measurement of the total radiance distribution on an emitting surface, the radiance distribution that would be observed in the absence of reflected radiation. An explicit solution of the implied inverse problem is derived for the case in which the reflective properties of the surface are given in terms of a bidirectional reflection distribution function. Also considered are the limiting cases of diffuse and specular reflection. Practical considerations are discussed for application of the theory to the nonintrusive and remote measurement of temperatures and pressures on concave surfaces, either by traditional radiometry or by the use of thermographic phosphors and temperature- and pressure-sensitive paints. PMID:11152000

  18. 1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  19. Methane emission from a boreal wetland: Annual balances, interannual variability, and effect on radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, J.; Haapanala, S.; Mammarella, I.; Peltola, O.; Aurela, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Tuittila, E.; Vesala, T.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted measurements of methane emission from a pristine boreal fen ecosystem, Siikaneva, continuously by eddy covariance technique since 2005. As already reported after the first year of measurements, methane emission is a significant part of the carbon balance of this ecosystem. Methane emission also shows a strong seasonal cycle reflecting the seasonality of the driving variables in this climatic region. Of the environmental parameters, methane emission correlates best with peat temperature, whereas no correlation with water table position is found. Using the dataset covering several years we explore the interannual variability of the methane emission and the possible drivers of this variability. We also study the contribution of methane to the carbon balance in interannual scale. The proper metric to compare the effects of methane and carbon dioxide exchange of pristine wetland ecosystems on the radiative forcing will be discussed.

  20. Nondestructive Total Excitation-Emission Fluorescence Microscopy Combined with Multi-Way Chemometric Analysis for Visually Indistinguishable Single Fiber Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio; Mujumdar, Nirvani; Heider, Emily C; Goicoechea, Hector C; Muñoz de la Peña, David; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-03-01

    The potential of total excitation-emission fluorescence microscopy combined with multiway chemometric analysis was investigated for the nondestructive forensic analysis of textile fibers. The four pairs of visually indistinguishable fibers consisted of nylon 361 dyed with acid yellow 17 and acid yellow 23, acetate satin 105B dyed with disperse blue 3 and disperse blue 14, polyester 777 dyed with disperse red 1 and disperse red 19, and acrylic 864 dyed with basic green 1 and basic green 4. Excitation emission matrices were recorded with the aid of an inverted microscope and a commercial spectrofluorimeter. The full information content of excitation-emission matrices was processed with the aid of unsupervised parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), PARAFAC supervised by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and discriminant unfolded partial least-squares (DU-PLS). The ability of the latter algorithm to classify the four pairs of fibers demonstrates the advantage of using the multidimensionality of fluorescence data formats for the nondestructive analysis of forensic fiber evidence. PMID:26861578

  1. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  2. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, I. B.; Beekmann, M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Hilboll, A.

    2010-04-01

    Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris). Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  3. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, I. B.; Beekmann, M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Hilboll, A.

    2010-09-01

    Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris). Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  4. Miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometry with online microwave-assisted oxidation for determination of total organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and portable system consisted of a laboratory-built miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge atomic emission spectrometer and a microwave-assisted persulfate oxidation reactor was developed for sensitive flow injection analysis or continuous monitoring of total organic carbon (TOC) in environmental water samples. The standard/sample solution together with persulfate was pumped to the reactor to convert organic compounds to CO2, which was separated from liquid phase and transported to the spectrometer for detection of the elemental specific carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. A limit of detection of 0.01 mg L(-1) (as C) was obtained based on a 10 mL sample injection volume, and the precision was better than 6.5% (relative standard deviation, RSD) at 0.1 mg L(-1). The system was successfully applied for TOC analysis of real environmental water samples. The obtained TOC value of 30 test samples agreed well with those by the standard high-temperature combustion coupled nondispersive infrared absorption method. Most importantly, the system showed good capability of in situ continuous monitoring of total organic carbon in environmental water. PMID:24862626

  5. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J. ); Ciriacks, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia.

  6. Denitrification and N2O emissions in annual croplands, perennial grass buffers, and restored perennial grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of perennial vegetation filter strips (PFS) in the toeslope of annual cropland watersheds can decrease nitrate (NO3) losses to ground and surface waters. Although PFS are similar to riparian buffers, PFS are a relatively new conservation tool and the processes responsible for NO3 removal f...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  8. Inter-annual variations of methane emission from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: a three-year study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yanfen; Zhu, Dan; Zhu, Qiu'an; Yang, Gang; Gao, Yongheng; Fang, Xiuqin; Wang, Xu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to understand the inter-annual variations of methane (CH(4)) emissions from an open fen on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) from 2005 to 2007. The weighted mean CH(4) emission rate was 8.3711.32 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1) during the summers from 2005 to 2007, falling in the range of CH(4) fluxes reported by other studies, with significant inter-annual and spatial variations. The CH(4) emissions of the year of 2006 (2.113.48 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1)) were 82% lower than the mean value of the years 2005 and 2007 (13.9117.80 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1) and 9.4414.32 mg CH(4) m(-2 )h(-1), respectively), responding to the inter-annual changes of standing water depths during the growing season of the three years. Significant drawdown of standing water depth is believed to cause such significant reduction in CH(4) emissions from wetlands in the year 2006, probably through changing the methanogen composition and decreasing its community size as well as activating methanotrophs to enhance CH(4) oxidation. Our results are helpful to understand the inter-annual variations of CH(4) emission and provide a more reasonable regional budget of CH(4) emission from wetlands on the QTP and even for world-wide natural wetlands under climate change. PMID:23342029

  9. Quasi-biennial oscillation and quasi-biennial oscillation-annual beat in the tropical total column ozone: A two-dimensional model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xun; Camp, Charles D.; Shia, Runlie; Noone, David; Walker, Christopher; Yung, Yuk L.

    2004-08-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 data are used to calculate the monthly mean meridional circulation and eddy diffusivity from 1979 to 2002 for use in the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry and transport model (CTM). This allows for an investigation of the impact of dynamics on the interannual variability of the tropical total column ozone for all years for which the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet merged total ozone data are available. The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the deseasonalized and detrended stratospheric stream function capture 88% of the total variance on interannual timescales. The first EOF, accounting for over 70% of the interannual variance, is related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its interaction with annual cycles, the QBO-annual beat (QBO-AB). The 2-D CTM provides realistic simulations of the seasonal and interannual variability of ozone in the tropics. The equatorial ozone anomaly from the model is close to that derived from the observations. The phase and amplitude of the QBO are well captured by the model. The magnitude of the QBO signal is somewhat larger in the model than it is in the data. The QBO-AB found in the simulated ozone agrees well with that in the observed data.

  10. PROCEEDINGS: ANNUAL ACID DEPOSITION EMISSION INVENTORY SYMPOSIUM (2ND), NOVEMBER 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    These proceedings document a 2-day symposium, held to discuss progress made by the National Acid Precipitation Program (NAPAP) and other organizations in developing emission inventories. The symposium was sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, in coope...

  11. Development of a method for estimating total CH4 emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model.

    PubMed

    Katayanagi, Nobuko; Fumoto, Tamon; Hayano, Michiko; Takata, Yusuke; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Shirato, Yasuhito; Sawano, Shinji; Kajiura, Masako; Sudo, Shigeto; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2016-03-15

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas, and paddy fields are one of its main anthropogenic emission sources. To mitigate this emission based on effective management measures, CH4 emission from paddy fields must be quantified at a national scale. In Japan, country-specific emission factors have been applied since 2003 to estimate national CH4 emission from paddy fields. However, this method cannot account for the effects of weather conditions and temporal variability of nitrogen fertilizer and organic matter application rates; thus, the estimated emission is highly uncertain. To improve the accuracy of national-scale estimates, we calculated country-specific emission factors using the DeNitrification-DeComposition-Rice (DNDC-Rice) model. First, we calculated CH4 emission from 1981 to 2010 using 986 datasets that included soil properties, meteorological data, and field management data. Using the simulated site-specific emission, we calculated annual mean emission for each of Japan's seven administrative regions, two water management regimes (continuous flooding and conventional mid-season drainage), and three soil drainage rates (slow, moderate, and fast). The mean emission was positively correlated with organic carbon input to the field, and we developed linear regressions for the relationships among the regions, water management regimes, and drainage rates. The regression results were within the range of published observation values for site-specific relationships between CH4 emission and organic carbon input rates. This suggests that the regressions provide a simplified method for estimating CH4 emission from Japanese paddy fields, though some modifications can further improve the estimation accuracy. PMID:26802630

  12. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-07-28

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  13. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-07-28

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  14. Indirect Estimates of the Total Gas Content of SDSS-IV/MaNGA Galaxies from Optical Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremonti, Christina A.; Pace, Zachary; Andrews, Brett; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; Martinsson, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Stark, David; Sanchez, Sebastian; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    To understand galaxy evolution it is critical to obtain a census of both the stellar and gaseous contents of galaxies. The SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will deliver exquisite stellar mass maps of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. However, radio surveys capable of providing matched resolution gas data for a large fraction of the MaNGA sample are a decade or more away. We are therefore exploring a new technique for obtaining maps of the total gas content directly from the MaNGA data. Following the method outlined in Brinchmann et al. 2013, we use the dust optical depth and the nebular metallicity measured from optical emission lines to estimate the total gas surface density in individual spaxels. We combine this with estimates of the stellar mass in each spaxel to produce spatially resolved estimates of the gas mass fraction. We compare trends in the global gas mass fraction with stellar mass and NUV-r color to those found in the literature. We explore how the radial gas mass fraction gradients of MaNGA galaxies correlate with other properties such as total stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SFR/M*), concentration, and environment.

  15. The transportable heavy-duty engine emissions testing laboratory. Annual progress report, April 1990--April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    West Virginia University has designed and constructed a Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for measuring emissions from heavy duty vehicles, such as buses and trucks operating on conventional and alternative fuels. The laboratory facility can be transported to a test site located at, or nearby, the home base of the vehicles to be tested. The laboratory has the capability of measuring vehicle emissions as the vehicle is operated under either transient or steady state loads and speeds. The exhaust emissions from the vehicle is sampled and the levels of the constituents of the emission are measured. The laboratory consists of two major units; a power absorber unit and an emissions measurement unit. A power absorber unit allows for the connection of a dynamic load to the drive train of the vehicle so that the vehicle can be ``driven`` through a test cycle while actually mounted on a stationary test bed. The emissions unit contains instrumentation and equipment which allows for the dilution of the vehicle`s exhaust with air. The diluteed exhaust is sampled and analyzed to measure the level of concentration of those constituents which have been identified to have impact on the clean environment. Sampling probes withdraw diluted exhaust which is supplied to a number of different exhaust gas analysis instruments. The exhaust gas analysis instruments have the capability to measure the levels of the following exhaust gas constituents: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), formaldehyde (HCHO), methane and particulate matter. Additional instruments or sampling devices can be installed whenever measurements of additional constituents are desired. A computer based, data acquisition system is used to continuously monitor a wide range of parameters important to the operation of the test and to record the test results.

  16. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. PMID:25863508

  17. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  18. Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

  19. Non-Native Plant Litter Enhances Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions in an Invaded Annual Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E.; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month?1) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month?1). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

  20. Inter-annual trend of the primary contribution of ship emissions to PM2.5 concentrations in Venice (Italy): Efficiency of emissions mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea; Donateo, Antonio; Cescon, Paolo; Cesari, Daniela; Merico, Eva; Belosi, Franco; Citron, Marta

    2015-02-01

    Ships and harbour emissions are currently increasing, due to the increase of tourism and trade, with potential impact on global air pollution and climate. At local scale, in-port ship emissions influence air quality in coastal areas impacting on health of coastal communities. International legislations to reduce ship emissions, both at Worldwide and European levels, are mainly based on the use of low-sulphur content fuel. In this work an analysis of the inter-annual trends of primary contribution, ε, of tourist shipping to the atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations in the urban area of Venice has been performed. Measurements have been taken in the summer periods of 2007, 2009 and 2012. Results show a decrease of ε from 7% (±1%) in 2007 to 5% (±1%) in 2009 and to 3.5% (±1%) in 2012. The meteorological and micrometeorological conditions of the campaigns were similar. Tourist ship traffic during measurement campaigns increased, in terms of gross tonnage, of about 25.4% from 2007 to 2009 and of 17.6% from 2009 to 2012. The decrease of ε was associated to the effect of a voluntary agreement (Venice Blue Flag) for the use of low-sulphur content fuel enforced in the area between 2007 and 2009 and to the implementation of the 2005/33/CE Directive in 2010. Results show that the use of low-sulphur fuel could effectively reduce the impact of shipping to atmospheric primary particles at local scale. Further, voluntary agreement could also be effective in reducing the impact of shipping on local air quality in coastal areas.

  1. Monthly, seasonal, and annual ammonia emissions from Southern High Plains cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emitted from beef cattle feedyards adds excess reactive nitrogen to the environment and contributes to degraded air quality as a precursor to secondary particulate matter. Accurate ammonia emissions are required because, beginning in 2009, most feedyards are required by the Emergency Plannin...

  2. Annual emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from natural sources in Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Gustin, M.S.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural source emissions on atmospheric mercury concentrations and the biogeochemical cycle of mercury is not known. To begin to assess this impact, mercury emissions to the atmosphere were scaled up for three areas naturally enriched in mercury: the Steamboat Springs geothermal area, Nevada, the New Idria mercury mining district, California, and the Medicine Lake volcano, California. Data used to scale up area emissions included mercury fluxes, measured in-situ using field flux chambers, from undisturbed and disturbed geologic substrates, and relationships between mercury emissions and geologic rock types, soil mercury concentrations, and surface heat flux. At select locations mercury fluxes were measured for 24 h and the data were used to adjust fluxes measured at different times of the day to give an average daily flux. This adjustment minimized daily temporal variability, which is observed for mercury flux because of light and temperature effects. Area emissions were scaled spatially and temporally with GIS software. Measured fluxes ranged from 0.3 to approximately 50 ng m-2 h-1 at undisturbed sites devoid of mercury mineralization, and to greater than 10,000 ng m-2 h-1 from substrates that were in areas of mercury mining. Area-averaged fluxes calculated for bare soil at Steamboat Springs, New Idria, and Medicine Lake of 181, 9.2, and 2 ng m-2 h-1, respectively, are greater than fluxes previously ascribed to natural non-point sources, indicating that these sources may be more significant contributors of mercury to the atmosphere than previously realized.

  3. Solid-Sampling Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry for Direct Determination of Total Oxygen in Coal.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Thomas; Bauer, Daniela; Nennstiel, David; Otto, Matthias

    2015-10-20

    A new analytical method for direct determination of total oxygen contents in eight coal samples of the Argonne Premium Coal (APC) series and in the NIST SRM 1632d is presented. The development of a suitable calibration procedure, optimization of measurement conditions, and the application of a tailored data processing for handling of plasma effects and high blanks enable the quantification of oxygen simultaneously with other trace, minor, or major elements in whole coal samples by means of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP OES). For comparison, the oxygen contents were determined by a direct oxygen analyzer. The obtained oxygen values of the APC and the reference material NIST SRM 1632d were compared to data in the literature. The precision of the ETV-ICP OES was within ±3.5%, and the recovery better than 92%. With this good accuracy, the developed direct solid sampling method ETV-ICP OES is well suited for the fast determination of oxygen in coals, varying in rank from lignite to semianthracite, in a content range of about 100 ppm up to 27% using 1.5 mg sample weight. This direct analysis method represents an accurate, advantageous alternative to currently used methods for estimation of total oxygen contents in coals. PMID:26372175

  4. Total hydrocarbon emission testing of waste-water sludge incinerators. Volume 1. Final report 1991-92

    SciTech Connect

    Chehaske, J.T.; DeWees, W.G.; Lewis, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The U.S. EPA is considering continuous monitoring of total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions from all wastewater sludge incincerators. The study was conducted to determine the reliability of total hydrocarbon analyzers (THCAs) in the application. Continuous monitors for oxygen (O2), carbon monoxide (CO), THC, and temperature were installed at two municipal wastewater sludge incinerators. The O2 data were used to normalize the measured THC concentrations to 7% O2. CO was measured to determine if it could be used as a surrogate for THC measurements. The two THCAs performed very well, achieving 94 and 90% on-line availability at the two sampling sites, respectively. The O2 and CO analyzers also worked well. There were initial problems with the sample conditioning system that is necessary for the CO and O2 monitors, but successful operation was achieved after it was modified. The report presents graphical and tabular summaries of the results. The report covers a period from February 1991 to September 1991, and work was completed as of May 29, 1992.

  5. Solar Total-Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A solar total energy system is used at a knitwear manufacturing facility to supply electric power to a utility grid and process steam and air conditioning to the facility. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system with parabolic dish solar collectors and steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW output with process steam extraction. A detailed chronological record of activities at the facility is presented. Progress is reported in the areas of site preparation and construction support, meteorology, and information dissemination/technology transfer. Cost summaries and future plans are also given. (LEW)

  6. Urban Greenhouse Gas Emissions Monitoring in Davos, Switzerland, Before, During and After the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Gloria; Davis, Ken; Richardson, Scott; Miles, Natasha; Lauvaux, Thomas; Deng, Aijun; Calonder, Gian-Paul; Ruesch, Marc; Lehning, Michael; Bals, Andre; DeCola, Phil; Rella, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions require validation. Atmospheric measurements capture all emissions, and provide a unique and powerful means of continuous validation and feedback. To demonstrate the utility of real time greenhouse gas measurements, in-situ GHG mixing ratio instruments were deployed in Davos, Switzerland to measure emissions from the city before, during and after the World Economic Forum (WEF). Three Instruments were deployed at two separate locations over 3 months (late December 2011 to February 2012). One site was located in the middle of the Davos urban area and a second site was located out of the valley in the surrounding mountains. Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) were measured continuously by Picarro G2401 instruments at both sites. Additionally, a Picarro flux analyzer was deployed in the city to evaluate the inverse fluxes. The mesoscale atmospheric model, WRF nudged to meteorological observations (WRF-FDDA), was used to simulate the transport of GHG over the valley of Davos at 1.3km resolution. A Mini Micro Pulse LiDAR (MiniMPL) from Sigma Space was deployed to evaluate the simulated planetary boundary layer depth from the WRF-FDDA model. The initial flux estimates for CO2 were constructed based on inventories reported for 2005. CO2 mixing ratio measurements prior to WEF suggest the difference between modeled (real-time) and inventory (annual) emissions to be on the order of +40%. The enhancement is likely due to the increased use of heating fuel in the winter. We present here the temporal variability in the inverse fluxes, which are correlated with a cold wave severely affecting Western Europe during the past winter, as well as changes in anthropogenic activities during the week of the WEF meeting. Also presented are new analyses of composite diurnal cycles of hourly CO/CO2 ratios, which provide additional information on the contributions of traffic relative to heating fuel. The absence of traffic peaks during the WEF meeting, indicate a change in road emissions potentially responsible for the observed decrease in the city emissions during the meeting. Acknowledgments: Calibration tanks were provided by C. Sweeney, NOAA ESRL.

  7. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Robert A.

    Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the

  8. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  9. Solar Total Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A part of the National Solar Thermal Energy Program, initially funded by DOE, the Shenandoah Project, is the world's largest industrial application of the solar total energy concept. The objective of the Project is to evaluate a solar total energy system that provides electrical power, process steam, and air conditioning for a knit-wear factory (operated by Bleyle of America, Inc.). During normal operation, solar energy generates a large part of the electricity and displaces part of the fossil fuels normally used to run the factory and produce the clothing. Construction of the system was completed early in 1982, when operations were initiated. Solution of unexpected electrical and mechanical problems produced significant information for subsequent system designs. An overview of the Project and a brief System Description is presented following a chronological summary of progress. A discussion of varius anomalies, together with subsequent high quality solar and thermodynamic system performance results, is then discussed.

  10. Solar Total Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, E.J.

    1984-10-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) at Shenandoah, Georgia, is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Georgia Power Company to further the search for new sources of energy. A part of the National Solar Thermal Energy Program, initially funded by DOE, the Shenandoah Project, is the world's largest industrial application of the solar total energy concept. The objective of the Project is to evaluate a solar total energy system that provides electrical power, process steam, and air conditioning for a knit-wear factory (operated by Bleyle of America, Inc.). During normal operation, solar energy generates a large part of the electricity and displaces part of the fossil fuels normally used to run the factory and produce the clothing. Construction of the system was completed early in 1982, when operations were initiated. Solution of unexpected electrical and mechanical problems produced significant information for subsequent system designs. A discussion of various anomalies, together with subsequent high quality solar and thermodynamic system performance results, is included.

  11. Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Database (GFED4) burned area data set, which provides global monthly burned area at 0.25 spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily burned area for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS burned area maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global <span class="hlt">annual</span> area burned for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an average of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in burned area on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the <span class="hlt">annual</span> area burned in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global burned area from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily burned area time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AtmEn..29..861K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995AtmEn..29..861K"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative contribution of oxygenated hydrocarbons to the <span class="hlt">total</span> biogenic VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of selected mid-European agricultural and natural plant species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knig, Georg; Brunda, Monika; Puxbaum, Hans; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Duckham, S. Craig; Rudolph, Jochen</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Emission</span> rates of more than 50 individual VOCs were determined for eight plant species and three different types of grass land typical for natural deciduous and agricultural vegetation in Austria. In addition to the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of isoprene and monoterpenes, 33 biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs) were detected. Of these, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 1-butanal, 2-butanal, 1-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, butanal and ethylhexylacetate were observed for the first time as plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In terms of prevalence of one of the groups of emitted VOCs (isoprene, terpenes, BOVOCs) the grain plants wheat and rye, grape, oilseed rape and the decidous trees hombeam and birch could be classified as "BOVOC"-emitters. For the grass plots examined, BOVOCs and terpenes appear to be of equal importance. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of the <span class="hlt">total</span> assigned organic plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ranged from 0.01 ? g -1 h -1 for wheat to 0.8 ?g g -1 h -1 for oak (based on dry leaf weight). Intercomparison with available data from other studies show that our <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates are rather at the lower end of reported ranges. The influence of the stage of growth was examined for rye, rape (comparing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of blossoming and nonblossoming plants) and for grape (with and without fruit). <span class="hlt">Emission</span> rate differences for different stages of growth varied from nondetectable for blossoming and nonblossoming rye to a factor of six for the grape with fruits vs grape without fruits (<span class="hlt">emission</span> rate based on dry leaf weight). The major decidous tree in Austria (beech) is a terpene emitter, with the contribution of BOVOCs below 5% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> assigned <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 0.2 ?g g -1 h -1 for the investigations of 20C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009848','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009848"><span id="translatedtitle">The Eighth <span class="hlt">Annual</span> NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity: Extending the boundaries of <span class="hlt">total</span> quality management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Templeton, Geoffrey B. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor); Still, William T. (Editor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Eighth <span class="hlt">Annual</span> NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity provided a forum to exchange knowledge and experiences in these areas of continuous improvement. The more than 1,100 attendees from government, industry, academia, community groups, and the international arena had a chance to learn about methods, tools, and strategies for excellence and to discuss continuous improvement strategies, successes, and failures. This event, linked via satellite to concurrent conferences hosted by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado, also explored extending the boundaries of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Quality Management to include partnerships for quality within communities and encouraged examination, evaluation, and change to incorporate the principles of continuous improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/49121','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/49121"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace element <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> report, October 1994--February 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21464740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21464740"><span id="translatedtitle">Fe II <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE ROLE OF <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> AND GAS-PHASE IRON ABUNDANCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shields, Gregory A.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Salviander, Sarah E-mail: randi@astro.as.utexas.ed</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have Fe II <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the broad-line region (BLR) that differs greatly in strength from object to object. We examine the role of the <span class="hlt">total</span> and gas-phase iron abundance in determining Fe II strength. Using AGN spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.35, we measure the Fe/Ne abundance of the narrow-line region (NLR) using the [Fe VII]/[Ne V] line intensity ratio. We find no significant difference in the abundance of Fe relative to Ne in the NLR as a function of Fe II/H{beta}. However, the [N II]/[S II] ratio increases by a factor of 2 with increasing Fe II strength. This indicates a trend in N/S abundance ratio, and by implication in the overall metallicity of the NLR gas, with increasing Fe II strength. We propose that the wide range of Fe II strength in AGN largely results from the selective depletion of Fe into grains in the low ionization portion of the BLR. Photoionization models show that the strength of the optical Fe II lines varies almost linearly with gas-phase Fe abundance, while the ultraviolet Fe II strength varies more weakly. Interstellar depletions of Fe can be as large as 2 orders of magnitude, sufficient to explain the wide range of optical Fe II strength in AGNs. This picture is consistent with the similarity of the BLR radius to the dust sublimation radius and with indications of Fe II emitting gas flowing inward from the dusty torus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...721.1835S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApJ...721.1835S"><span id="translatedtitle">Fe II <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in Active Galactic Nuclei: The Role of <span class="hlt">Total</span> and Gas-Phase Iron Abundance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shields, Gregory A.; Ludwig, Randi R.; Salviander, Sarah</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have Fe II <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the broad-line region (BLR) that differs greatly in strength from object to object. We examine the role of the <span class="hlt">total</span> and gas-phase iron abundance in determining Fe II strength. Using AGN spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the redshift range of 0.2 < z < 0.35, we measure the Fe/Ne abundance of the narrow-line region (NLR) using the [Fe VII]/[Ne V] line intensity ratio. We find no significant difference in the abundance of Fe relative to Ne in the NLR as a function of Fe II/H?. However, the [N II]/[S II] ratio increases by a factor of 2 with increasing Fe II strength. This indicates a trend in N/S abundance ratio, and by implication in the overall metallicity of the NLR gas, with increasing Fe II strength. We propose that the wide range of Fe II strength in AGN largely results from the selective depletion of Fe into grains in the low ionization portion of the BLR. Photoionization models show that the strength of the optical Fe II lines varies almost linearly with gas-phase Fe abundance, while the ultraviolet Fe II strength varies more weakly. Interstellar depletions of Fe can be as large as 2 orders of magnitude, sufficient to explain the wide range of optical Fe II strength in AGNs. This picture is consistent with the similarity of the BLR radius to the dust sublimation radius and with indications of Fe II emitting gas flowing inward from the dusty torus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=289686','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=289686"><span id="translatedtitle">Second stage seed-cotton cleaning system <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=289698','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=289698"><span id="translatedtitle">Third stage seed-cotton cleaning system <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=287903','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=287903"><span id="translatedtitle">First stage seed-cotton cleaning system <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data to address current regulatory issues. A ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=290810','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=290810"><span id="translatedtitle">3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning system <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and rates for cotton gins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-sec98-363.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-sec98-363.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.363 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management 98.363 Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) For all manure management system components listed in 98.360(b) except digesters, estimate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and sum for all the components to obtain <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the manure management system for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec98-363.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol20-sec98-363.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.363 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.363 Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) For all manure management system components listed in 98.360(b) except digesters, estimate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and sum for all the components to obtain <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the manure management system for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016170','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770016170"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Energy Consumption of a Multicylinder Piston Engine Running on Gasoline and a Hydrogen-gasoline Mixture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cassidy, J. F.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A multicylinder reciprocating engine was used to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen. Both bottled hydrogen and hydrogen produced by a research methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline. A high-compression-ratio, displacement production engine was used. Apparent flame speed was used to describe the differences in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and performance. Therefore, engine <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and performance, including apparent flame speed and energy lost to the cooling system and the exhaust gas, were measured over a range of equivalence ratios for each fuel. All <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels decreased at the leaner conditions. Adding hydrogen significantly increased flame speed over all equivalence ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=185063&keyword=ammonia+AND+production&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55601449&CFTOKEN=20629437','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=185063&keyword=ammonia+AND+production&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55601449&CFTOKEN=20629437"><span id="translatedtitle">OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> AMMONIA AND <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> REDUCTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO<SUB>2</SUB>) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=176324&keyword=measurement+AND+uncertainty&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50541766&CFTOKEN=52796577','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=176324&keyword=measurement+AND+uncertainty&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50541766&CFTOKEN=52796577"><span id="translatedtitle">MEASUREMENT OF <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> SITE MERCURY <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3518454','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3518454"><span id="translatedtitle">OPTIMIZING MULTI-PHOTON FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY LIGHT COLLECTION FROM LIVING TISSUE BY NON-CONTACT <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> DETECTION (epiTED)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Combs, Christian A.; Smirnov, Aleksandr; Chess, David; McGavern, Dorian B.; Schroeder, James L.; Riley, Jason; Kang, Silvia S.; Lugar-Hammer, Merav; Gandjbakhche, Amir; Knutson, Jay R.; Balaban, Robert S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary A benefit of multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is the inherent optical sectioning that occurs during excitation at the diffraction-limited spot. The scanned collection of fluorescence <span class="hlt">emission</span> is incoherent; i.e., no real image needs to be formed on the detector plane. The nearly isotropic <span class="hlt">emission</span> of fluorescence excited at the focal spot allows for new detection schemes that efficiently funnel all attainable photons to detector(s). We previously showed (Combs et al., 2007) that parabolic mirrors and condensers could be combined to collect the <span class="hlt">totality</span> of solid angle around the excitation spot for tissue blocks, leading to ~8-fold signal gain. Using a similar approach, we have developed an in vivo <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Detection (epiTED) instrument modified to make non-contact images from outside of living tissue. Simulations suggest that a ~4 fold enhancement may be possible (much larger with lower NA objectives than the 0.95 NA used here) with this approach depending on objective characteristics, imaging depth and the characteristics of the sample being imaged. In our initial prototype, two fold improvements were demonstrated in the mouse brain and skeletal muscle as well as the rat kidney using a variety of fluorophores and no compromise of spatial resolution. These results show this epiTED effectively doubles <span class="hlt">emission</span> signal in vivo ; thus, it will maintain the image signal to noise ratio (SNR) at two times the scan rate or enable full scan rate at approximately 30% reduced laser power (to minimize photo-damage). PMID:21118209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....810017P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....810017P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG) were covered. The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative based on 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4-5. At six sites <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. Both were characterized by fluctuating groundwater with elevated SO42- concentrations. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from -2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors for organic soils in rotation and permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2 for CH4, and 2.5 and 0.5 g m-2 for N2O. This first documentation of CH4 and N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from managed organic soils in Denmark confirms the levels and wide ranges of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> previously reported for this region. However, the factorial approach also identified links between gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and site-specific conditions with respect to soil, groundwater and vegetation which point to areas of future research that may account for part of the variability and hence lead to improved <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors or models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9..403P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9..403P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories were covered (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG). The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative as compared to 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4 to 5. At six sites <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. The two high-emitting sites were characterized by fluctuating groundwater, low soil pH and elevated groundwater SO42- concentrations. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from 2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus L. (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors for organic soils in rotation and with permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2 for CH4, and 2.5 and 0.5 g m-2 for N2O. This first documentation of CH4 and N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from managed organic soils in Denmark confirms the levels and wide ranges of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> previously reported for the Nordic countries. However, the stratified experimental design also identified links between gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and site-specific conditions with respect to soil, groundwater and vegetation which point to areas of future research that may account for part of the variability and hence lead to improved <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors or models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1038532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1038532"><span id="translatedtitle">Title V Semi-<span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Report for Permit P100R1 July 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Whetham, Walter</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Reports of actual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from permitted sources in Section 2.0 shall be submitted on a 6 month basis. Reports shall not include <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from insignificant activities. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> estimates of criteria pollutants NOx, CO, SO2, PM and VOCs shall not include fugitive <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> estimates of HAPs shall include fugitive <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The reports shall include a comparison of actual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that occurred during the reporting period with the facility-wide allowable <span class="hlt">emission</span> limits specified in Section 2.11 of this permit. The report required by Condition 4.1 shall be submitted within 90 days from the end of the reporting period. The semiannual report required by Condition 4.2 shall be submitted within 45 days from the end of the reporting period. The reporting periods are January 1st to June 30th and July 1st to December 31st. This condition is pursuant to 20.2.70.302.E.1 NMAC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/572371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/572371"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient anaysis of biomass in Costa Rica and a first estimate of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of greenhouse gases from biomass burning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Helmer, E.H.; Brown, S.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>One important component of sustainable development for a nation is the degree to which it can balance greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange with the atmosphere. Scientists at NHEERL-WED recently estimated the release of such GHGs from the conversion of a range of forest types in Costa Rica between 1940-1983. They also evaluated the influence of environmental gradients that affect the rates and patterns of deforestation and the carbon pools of the forest cleared on GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1087/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1087/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and <span class="hlt">total</span> phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Aulenbach, Brent T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and <span class="hlt">total</span> phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22720304R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22720304R"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative Transfer Models of Tidal Disruption Events: What Sets their <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Line Strengths and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Optical Flux?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Given the recent influx of observational data and theoretical investigation into the nature of the tidal disruption of stars by super-massive black holes (TDEs), a full radiative transfer calculation applicable to an optically thick, electron scattering-dominated reprocessing region can provide valuable insight. Such a calculation can help address puzzles such as the lack of hydrogen <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines in the optical spectra some TDEs, the origin of the optical and UV flux, and the simultaneous observation of x-rays along with the optical <span class="hlt">emission</span>. In this talk I will discuss such a calculation performed with my collaborators as part of my dissertation. We track the reprocessing of accretion luminosity from a supermassive black hole as the light travels through an extended, spherical envelope composed of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen from the disrupted star. The steady-state radiative transfer equation is coupled to a solver for the atomic level populations and ionization states that does not assume local thermodynamic equilibrium. Our calculations show how the hydrogen optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines can become more effectively optically thick than their helium counterparts, causing them to remain hidden even in the disruption of a hydrogen-rich star. More generally, variations in the structure of the reprocessing material can give rise to a variety of hydrogen-to-helium line ratios, as has been seen in recent observations. We also determine the amount of material necessary to transfer enough radiative energy from x-ray to optical wavelengths to match what is observed, and we demonstrate how the partial absorption of ionizing radiation can give rise to events simultaneously observed in x-rays and in the optical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=126257&keyword=THC&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49757747&CFTOKEN=83864208','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=126257&keyword=THC&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49757747&CFTOKEN=83864208"><span id="translatedtitle">RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 2.3: SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> HYDROCARBONS FROM SOURCES BY CONTINUOUS <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> MONITOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report is a recommended operating procedure (ROP) prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). he described method is applicable to the continuous measurement of <span class="hlt">total</span> hydrocarbons (THCs), also known as tot...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023686','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023686"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil efflux and <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain <span class="hlt">total</span> HLTK CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. <span class="hlt">Total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is the masking of a degassing event generated at depth and detected by a soil gas sensor network in September 1997 while an efflux survey was in progress. Thus, occasional efflux surveys are not an altogether effective surveillance tool for the HLTK, and making them effective by greatly increasing their frequency may not be practical. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvC..90a4602C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvC..90a4602C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> prompt γ-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> in fission of U235, Pu239,241, and Cf252</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Haight, R. C.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">total</span> prompt γ-ray energy distributions for the neutron-induced fission of U235 and Pu239,241 in the neutron energy range of 0.025 eV - 100 keV and the spontaneous fission of Cf252 were measured using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) in coincidence with the detection of fission fragments by a parallel-plate avalanche counter. DANCE is a highly segmented, highly efficient 4π γ-ray calorimeter. Corrections were made to the measured distribution by unfolding the two-dimension spectrum of <span class="hlt">total</span> γ-ray energy vs multiplicity using a simulated DANCE response matrix generated with a geometrical model of the detector arrays and validated with the γ-ray calibration sources. The mean values of the <span class="hlt">total</span> prompt γ-ray energy, determined from the unfolded distributions, are ˜20% higher than those of early measurements for all the fissile nuclei studied. The implication for the γ heating in nuclear reactors is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23673194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23673194"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of AERMOD and CALPUFF for predicting ambient concentrations of <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended particulate matter (TSP) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a quarry in complex terrain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Broday, David M; Stern, Eli</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Concentrations of particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a quarry located in hilly terrain were calculated by two common atmospheric dispersion models, AERMOD and CALPUFF. Evaluation of these models for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from quarries/open pit mines that are located in complex topography is missing from the literature. Due to severe uncertainties in the input parameters, numerous scenarios were simulated and model sensitivity was studied. Model results were compared among themselves, and to measured <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended particulate (TSP). For a wide range of meteorological and topographical conditions studied, AERMOD predictions were in a better agreement with the measurements than those obtained by CALPUFF. The use of AERMOD's "Open pit" tool seems unnecessary when accurate digital topographic data are available. Onsite meteorological data are shown to be crucial for reliable dispersion calculations in complex terrain. PMID:23673194</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1217817S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1217817S"><span id="translatedtitle">Prescribed-burning vs. wildfire: management implications for <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> along a latitudinal gradient of Calluna vulgaris-dominated vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santana, V. M.; Alday, J. G.; Lee, H.; Allen, K. A.; Marrs, R. H.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A~present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C <span class="hlt">emissions</span> minimized. Here, we model the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south, climatic gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads, and <span class="hlt">annual</span> C losses under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals. Additionally, we assessed the interaction of these parameters with an increasing wildfire return interval. We observed that litter accumulation patterns varied along the latitudinal gradient, with differences between northern (colder and wetter) and southern sites (hotter and drier). The accumulation patterns of the living vegetation dominated by Calluna were determined by site-specific conditions. The optimal prescribed-burning rotation interval for minimizing <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon losses also differed between sites: the rotation interval for northern sites was between 30 and 50 years, whereas for southern sites a hump-backed relationship was found with the optimal interval either between 8 to 10 years or between 30 to 50 years. Increasing wildfire frequency interacted with prescribed-burning rotation intervals by both increasing C <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and modifying the optimum prescribed-burning interval for C minimum <span class="hlt">emission</span>. This highlights the importance of studying site-specific biomass accumulation patterns with respect to environmental conditions for identifying suitable fire-rotation intervals to minimize C losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914863','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914863"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic Chromium <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> in China from 1990 to 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An inventory of chromium <span class="hlt">emission</span> into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium <span class="hlt">emission</span> to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite <span class="hlt">annual</span> growth trend. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, nearly 1.34104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% <span class="hlt">annually</span>, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr <span class="hlt">emissions</span> show significant variation based on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 2005 to 2009. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of <span class="hlt">emission</span> to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> to water. PMID:24505309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24505309"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic chromium <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in china from 1990 to 2009.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An inventory of chromium <span class="hlt">emission</span> into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×10⁵ t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium <span class="hlt">emission</span> to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite <span class="hlt">annual</span> growth trend. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, nearly 1.34×10⁴ t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and representing increases of 15.6% and 10.3% <span class="hlt">annually</span>, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr <span class="hlt">emissions</span> show significant variation based on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 2005 to 2009. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of <span class="hlt">emission</span> to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> to water. PMID:24505309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980228070','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980228070"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Hemispherical <span class="hlt">Emissivity</span> of Several Stably Oxidized Nickel-Titanium Carbide Cemented Hard Metals from 600 F to 1,600 F</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wade, William R.; Casey, F. W., Jr.</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">total</span> hemispherical <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> of several nickel-titanium carbide cemented hard metals have been measured over a temperature range from 600 F to l,600 F. A variety of cemented hard metals were obtained from the Kennametal Corporation. A brief discussion of the apparatus employed and the procedures used for this investigation is included. The results of the tests of specimens in the as-received and polished states indicate a nearly constant <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> for each material tested over the temperature range considered and only slight differences in <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> values for the different materials. Values obtained on the stably oxidized specimens range from 0.90 to 0.94 at 6000 F and o.88 to 0.92 at 1,600 F for the as-received specimens and from 0.82 to 0.89 at 600 F and 0.85 to 0.87 at 1,600 F for the polished specimens. The surface analysis of the oxidized materials as obtained by X-ray diffraction methods and metallographic techniques are presented as an aid to reproducing the surface on which these measurements were made.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20712315','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20712315"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Emission</span> of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">emission</span> profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span> in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span>, respectively. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span>, <span class="hlt">emission</span> density, <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher <span class="hlt">emission</span> density, while those in western and northern China featured higher <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity and population-normalized <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184846','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10184846"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control system for residential CWS furnace. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> status report number 1, 20 September 1989--30 September 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Balsavich, J.C.; Breault, R.W.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective <span class="hlt">emission</span> control system. Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated <span class="hlt">emission</span> control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. A reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor to control SO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, while providing a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any flyash exiting the reactor is completed with the use of high-efficiency bag filters. Tecogen Inc. developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor which makes use of centrifugal forces to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled to minimize NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. During the first year of the program, work encompassed a literature search, developing an analytical model of the SO{sub 2} reactor, fabricating and assembling the initial prototype components, testing the prototype component, and estimating the operating and manufacturing costs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=41451&keyword=LEAN&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=66665290&CFTOKEN=39615380','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=41451&keyword=LEAN&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=66665290&CFTOKEN=39615380"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW-<span class="hlt">EMISSION</span>, HIGH-EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS: FOURTH <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report summarizes technical progress during the fourth year of effort on EPA contract 68-02-2667. NOx and SOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics of two low-NOx distributed-mixing burners were tested with three coals in a large water-tube simulator furnace (50-70 million Btu/hr firing r...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JaJAP..31L1503Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JaJAP..31L1503Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Glancing Angle Dependence of the X-Ray <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Measured under <span class="hlt">Total</span> Reflection Angle X-Ray Spectroscopy (TRAXS) Condition during Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamanaka, Toshiro; Hanada, Takashi; Ino, Shozo; Daimon, Hiroshi</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>We measured the glancing angle (?g) dependence of the X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> from Si(111)-\\sqrt{3}\\sqrt{3}-Ag and ?-\\sqrt{3}\\sqrt{3}-Au surfaces during Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction observation under the <span class="hlt">Total</span> Reflection Angle X-ray Spectroscopy condition. The characteristic X-rays AgL and AuM decreased according to 1/sin ?g. The function 1/\\sin?g is easily understood in terms of Ag and Au atoms located at the top layer of the surface. The SiK and the bremsstrahlung showed broad peaks around 8. These trends of the curves are explained by an analysis using Monte Carlo electron trajectory simulation. By measuring the glancing angle dependence we can easily distinguish whether or not a specific kind of atom is confined at the top layer of the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=42679&keyword=THC&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49757747&CFTOKEN=83864208','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=42679&keyword=THC&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49757747&CFTOKEN=83864208"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> INVENTORY: AREA SOURCES, PRODUCT D (VERSION 5.0)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 1980 NAPAP <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Inventory area source <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data for the 48 contiguous United States are contained in the data file. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 11 pollutants (SO2, SO4, NOx, Pb, CO, HCl, HF, NH3, TSP, VOC, and <span class="hlt">total</span> hydrocarbons) from 88 area source categories in 3,070 coun...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43787&keyword=THC&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49757747&CFTOKEN=83864208','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=43787&keyword=THC&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=49757747&CFTOKEN=83864208"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT OF THE 1980 NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> INVENTORY: POINT SOURCES, PRODUCT B (VERSION 5.0)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 1980 NAPAP <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Inventory point source <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data for the 48 contiguous United States are contained in the data file. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 11 pollutants (SO2, SO4, NOx, Pb, CO, HC1, HF, NH3, TSP, VOC, and <span class="hlt">total</span> hydrocarbons) from 13,769 plants encompassing 34,483 emis...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64546&keyword=lipids&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58878372&CFTOKEN=10215979','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64546&keyword=lipids&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58878372&CFTOKEN=10215979"><span id="translatedtitle">RELATIONSHIPS AMONG <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> LIPID, LIPID CLASSES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS (GUKENSIA DEMISSA) OVER AN <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> CYCLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of <span class="hlt">total</span> lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877888','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877888"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL NESHAPs 2004 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harrach, R; Gallegos, G; Peterson, R; Wilson, K; Harrach, R J; Gallegos, G M; Peterson, S R; Wilson, K R</p> <p>2005-06-27</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">annual</span> report is prepared pursuant to the National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs; Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61, Subpart H). Subpart H governs radionuclide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcSpe..63..800S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcSpe..63..800S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> sulfur determination in gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel using inductively coupled plasma optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometry after direct sample introduction as detergent emulsions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Oliveira, Eliane Padua; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Bezerra, Marcos Almeida; Freire, Aline Soares</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Herein, we present the development of a procedure for the determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> sulfur in petroleum-derived products (gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel) employing inductively coupled plasma optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometry (ICP OES). For this procedure, samples were prepared as emulsions that were made using concentrated nitric acid, Triton X-100, sample, and ultra pure water in proportions of 5/10/7/78% (v/v), respectively. Sample volumes were weighed because of the density differences, and oxygen was added to the sheat gas entrance of the ICP OES in order to decrease carbon deposition in the torch and to minimize background effects. A Doehlert design was applied as an experimental matrix to investigate the flow ratios of argon (sheat and plasma gas) and oxygen in relation to the signal-to-background ratio. A comparative study among the slopes of the analytical curves built in aqueous media, surfactant/HNO 3, and by spike addition for several sample emulsions indicates that a unique solution of surfactant in acidic media can be employed to perform the external calibration for analysis of the emulsions. The developed procedure allows for the determination of the <span class="hlt">total</span> sulfur content in petroleum derivatives with a limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.72 and 2.4 μg g - 1 , respectively. Precision values, expressed as the relative standard deviations (% RSD, n = 10) for 12 and 400 μg g - 1 , were 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied toward the determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> sulfur in samples of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel commercialized in the city of Niterói/RJ, Brazil. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of the <span class="hlt">total</span> sulfur in three different standard reference materials (SRM): NIST 2723a (sulfur in diesel fuel oil), NIST 1616b (sulfur in kerosene), and NIST 2298 (sulfur in gasoline). The data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to these types of samples. Spiking tests, conducted with the analyzed samples, indicate that recoveries are between 97 and 103%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APJAS..51..183P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APJAS..51..183P"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributions of the pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> in South Korea to the aerosol concentrations and depositions in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Choe, Anna; Joo, Seung Jin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The spatial distributions of <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean concentrations and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> depositions of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA) in 2010 are investigated with pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over the whole model domain of Asia and without the pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> from South Korea using the Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is modified from the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling System. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean surface aerosol concentrations in Asia are found to affect a wide region as a complex mixture of AA and AD aerosols. However, the contribution of the pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> from South Korea is found to be limited to the neighboring regions. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> aerosol deposition in Asia is 485.2 Tg. However, the contribution due to the pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> from South Korea is about 1.9 Tg, suggesting of no significant contribution to the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139500','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139500"><span id="translatedtitle">IN ROW AND BETWEEN ROW ZONE HERBICIDE APPLICATION AT DIFFERENT RATES CONTROLS <span class="hlt">ANNUAL</span> WEEDS AND REDUCES <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> RESIDUAL HERBICIDE USE IN CORN (ZEA MAYS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Zone herbicide application uses 1) crop management to enhance crop competitiveness with weeds, 2) soil residual herbicide banded over crop rows at reduced rates and 3) the same herbicide banded between rows at higher rates than over crop rows, so that <span class="hlt">total</span> herbicide use per unit area is reduced. T...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920009056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920009056"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> Quality Leadership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh <span class="hlt">Annual</span> NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of <span class="hlt">total</span> quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of <span class="hlt">total</span> quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1015N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdSpR..57.1015N"><span id="translatedtitle">The measurement of the ionospheric <span class="hlt">total</span> content variations caused by a powerful radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> of "Sura" facility on a network of GNSS-receivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nasyrov, I. A.; Kogogin, D. A.; Shindin, A. V.; Grach, S. M.; Zagretdinov, R. V.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Observations of the perturbations of <span class="hlt">total</span> electron content (TEC) caused by a powerful radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> of "Sura" facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod) were carried out during several experimental campaigns from March of 2010 to March 2013. In this paper the data of experimental measurements of TEC-variations conducted on March, 15, 2010 and on March, 12, 2013, are presented. Parameters of TEC-variations were obtained by dual-frequency global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) diagnostics. Registration of signal parameters from GNSS-transmitters was performed at spatially separated sites along the geomagnetic latitude: Vasilsursk (56 °08‧ N, 46 °05‧ E), Zelenodolsk (55 °52‧ N, 48 °33‧ E) and Kazan (55 °48‧ N, 49 °08‧ E). In the experiments radio path from GNSS satellite to Vasilsursk passed over the disturbed region of ionosphere, but radio paths to Zelenodolsk and to Kazan did not. However, TEC-variations correlated with pumping of ionosphere by "Sura" facility were detected for all up to three ground measurements sites. Magnitudes of TEC-variations reached up to ∼ 0.6 - 0.7 TECU. The speculation that a sharp gradient of the electron density formed at the border of the main lobe of "Sura" facility may cause the generation of IGW is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102274','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22102274"><span id="translatedtitle">Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopies: <span class="hlt">Total</span> reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, S.-H.; Gray, A. X.; Kaiser, A. M.; Mun, B. S.; Sell, B. C.; Kortright, J. B.; Fadley, C. S.</p> <p>2013-02-21</p> <p>We present a general theoretical methodology and related open-access computer program for carrying out the calculation of photoelectron, Auger electron, and x-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensities in the presence of several x-ray optical effects, including <span class="hlt">total</span> reflection at grazing incidence, excitation with standing-waves produced by reflection from synthetic multilayers and at core-level resonance conditions, and the use of variable polarization to produce magnetic circular dichroism. Calculations illustrating all of these effects are presented, including in some cases comparisons to experimental results. Sample types include both semi-infinite flat surfaces and arbitrary multilayer configurations, with interdiffusion/roughness at their interfaces. These x-ray optical effects can significantly alter observed photoelectron, Auger, and x-ray intensities, and in fact lead to several generally useful techniques for enhancing surface and buried-layer sensitivity, including layer-resolved densities of states and depth profiles of element-specific magnetization. The computer program used in this study should thus be useful for a broad range of studies in which x-ray optical effects are involved or are to be exploited in next-generation surface and interface studies of nanoscale systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...11.7781K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACPD...11.7781K"><span id="translatedtitle">Branch-level measurement of <span class="hlt">total</span> OH reactivity for constraining unknown BVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments)-09 Field Campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, S.; Guenther, A.; Karl, T.; Greenberg, J.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple) in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX) field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT), in enclosure air, so that the measurement dataset contains both measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from <span class="hlt">emission</span> of a sesquiterpene, ?-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution from unmeasured isoprene (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem) oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism). Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity indicates that the ratio of OH reactivity from unmeasured products over OH reactivity from MVK + MACR is strongly dependent on NO concentrations. The unmeasured oxidation products can contribute ~7.2% (8.8% from LIM and 5.6% by MIM 2 when NO = 100 pptv) of the isoprene contribution towards <span class="hlt">total</span> ambient OH reactivity. This amount can explain ~8.0% (9.7% from LIM and 6.2% from MIM 2) of missing OH reactivity, reported by Di Carlo et al. (2004) at the same site. Further study on contribution from further generation of unmeasured oxidation products should be followed to constrain tropospheric photochemical reactivity of BVOC that have important implications for both photochemical ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....927195T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....927195T"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> from crematories in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic sources of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few ?g/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was calculated using the <span class="hlt">total</span> concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> amount of mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the <span class="hlt">total</span> number of corpses. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.3665T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.3665T"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> from crematories in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic sources of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few ?g/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was calculated using the <span class="hlt">total</span> concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> amount of mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the <span class="hlt">total</span> number of corpses. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=234868','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=234868"><span id="translatedtitle">Cover Crop Effects on Nitrous Oxide <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from a Manure-Treated Mollisol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Agriculture contributes 40% to 60% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would have a significant impact on greenhouse gas levels. Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil NO3, thereby reducing l...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021953','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021953"><span id="translatedtitle">N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a nitrogen-enriched river</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McMahon, P.B.; Dennehy, K.F.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the South Platte River in Colorado were measured using closed chambers in the fall, winter, and summer of 1994- 1995. The South Platte River was enriched in inorganic N (9-800 ??M) derived from municipal wastewater effluent and groundwater return flows from irrigated agricultural fields. River water was as much as 2500% supersaturated with N2O, and median N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates from the river surface ranged from less than 90 to 32 600 ??g-N m-2 d-1. Seventy-nine percent of the variance in N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates was explained by concentrations of <span class="hlt">total</span> inorganic N in river water and by water temperature. The estimated <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the South Platte River were 2 x 1013-6 x 1013 ??g-N yr-1. This amount of <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was similar to the estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all primary municipal wastewater treatment processes in the United States (1). Results from this study indicate that N-enriched rivers could be important anthropogenic sources of N2O to the atmosphere. However, N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements from other N-enriched rivers are needed to better quantify this source.Nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the South Platte River in Colorado were measured using closed chambers in the fall, winter, and summer of 1994-1995. The South Platte River was enriched in inorganic N (9-800 ??M) derived from municipal wastewater effluent and groundwater return flows from irrigated agricultural fields. River water was as much as 2500% supersaturated with N2O, and median N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates from the river surface ranged from less than 90 to 32 600 ??g-N m-2 d-1. Seventy-nine percent of the variance in N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates was explained by concentrations of <span class="hlt">total</span> inorganic N in river water and by water temperature. The estimated <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the South Platte River were 2??1013-6??1013 ??g-N yr-1. This amount of <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was similar to the estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all primary municipal wastewater treatment processes in the United States. Results from this study indicate that N-enriched rivers could be important anthropogenic sources of N2O to the atmosphere. However, N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements from other N-enriched rivers are needed to better quantify this source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRG..116.3004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRG..116.3004K"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir (Balbina, Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kemenes, Alexandre; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Melack, John M.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Hydroelectric reservoirs can release significant quantities of CO2, but very few results are available from the tropics. The objective of the present study was to estimate the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of CO2 from the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir in the central Brazilian Amazon. Diffusive and ebullitive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated at regular intervals, both above and below the dam, using a combination of static chambers and submerged funnels. Gas releases immediately below the dam were calculated as the difference between gas flux at the entrance and the outflow of the hydroelectric turbines. An inundation model derived from a bathymetric map and daily stage readings was used for spatial and temporal interpolation of reservoir <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2, upstream and downstream of Balbina dam for 2005, were estimated as 2450 and 81 Gg C, respectively, for a <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> flux of 2531 Gg C. Upstream <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were predominantly diffusive with only 0.02 Gg C yr-1 resulting from ebullition. On average, 51% of the downstream <span class="hlt">emission</span> was released by degassing at the turbine outflow, and the remainder was lost by diffusion from the downstream river. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> from Balbina dam, including the CO2 equivalent of previously estimated CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, was 3 Tg C yr-1, equivalent to approximately 50% of the CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> derived from the burning of fossil fuels in the Brazilian metropolis of So Paulo.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24209332','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24209332"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of dilute aqueous multifluorophoric mixtures using excitation-<span class="hlt">emission</span> matrix fluorescence (EEMF) and <span class="hlt">total</span> synchronous fluorescence (TSF) spectroscopy: a comparative evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Keshav; Mishra, Ashok Kumar</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>Excitation-<span class="hlt">emission</span> matrix fluorescence (EEMF) and <span class="hlt">total</span> synchronous fluorescence (TSF) spectroscopy are two conceptually different fluorescence techniques that have been used to map the fluorescence responses of the fluorophores present in a multifluorophoric mixture. EEMF was introduced four decades back and most of the fluorimeters have the suitable computer program which allows the acquisition EEMF spectra. Recently introduced TSF spectroscopy has been shown to possess good application potential in analytical fluorimetry and has started attracting the attention of analytical chemists. TSF data structure, however, is intrinsically different from EEMF data structure and a better understanding of TSF data structure is crucial to utilising its application potential. In the present work, a comprehensive comparative study between EEMF and TSF spectroscopic data set was performed by taking aqueous mixtures containing low concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, and pyrene as test case. The EEMF and TSF data structures were clearly explained by taking pyrene as an example. The effects of Rayleigh and Raman scattering on the quality of EEMF and TSF data sets were studied. EEMF and TSF data sets of dilute aqueous mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, and pyrene were subjected to three chemometric techniques PARAFAC, N-PLS, and MCR-ALS analysis. TSF data set in particular was found to be highly attuned to MCR-ALS analysis. Obtained results of chemometric analyses on EEMF and TSF data sets show that TSF data of dilute aqueous mixtures provides more accurate spectral and concentration information than EEMF data sets. Therefore, TSF spectroscopy could be considered as an alternate to the EEMF for the analyses of dilute multifluorophoric mixtures. PMID:24209332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A52B..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.A52B..03G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Fossil Fuels in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: China (13% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), Japan (5% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), India (5% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), South Korea (2% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), and Indonesia (1% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Currently, only national <span class="hlt">annual</span> data for anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACPD....8.7373S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACPD....8.7373S"><span id="translatedtitle">The travel-related carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of atmospheric researchers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> per capita CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average <span class="hlt">annual</span> per capita <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Norway's per-capita CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the oil industry. If the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Since most of the travel-related <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are due to air travel, water vapor <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACP.....8.6499S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACP.....8.6499S"><span id="translatedtitle">The travel-related carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of atmospheric researchers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> per capita CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average <span class="hlt">annual</span> per capita <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Norway's per-capita CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the oil industry. If the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Since most of the travel-related <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are due to air travel, water vapor <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961711"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review, 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20480856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20480856"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from U.S. institutions of higher education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinha, Parikhit; Schew, William A; Sawant, Aniket; Kolwaite, Kyle J; Strode, Sarah A</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates from signatories of the American College and University Presidents' Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) were compared across Carnegie institutional classifications. Average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all institutional classifications are 52,434 metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2E), with <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, and commuting accounting for approximately 88% of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity from all institutional classifications is 19.39 MTCO2E per 1000 gross square feet (GSF) and 7.67 MTCO2E per full-time equivalent (FTE) student. In 2005, U.S. institutions of higher education accounted for approximately 121 million MTCO2E, or nearly 2% of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> U.S. GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. For reference, these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are comparable to approximately one-quarter of those from the state of California. Because ACUPCC signatories represent over 30% of U.S. higher education enrollment, their long-term commitments to carbon neutrality can result in a measurable reduction (approximately 0.6%) of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> U.S. GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:20480856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41L..06X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A41L..06X"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the influence of land cover and land use change and meteorological conditions on <span class="hlt">total</span> and anthropogenic dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> in Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xi, X.; Sokolik, I. N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>An assessment is presented of the contribution of agricultural (i.e., cropland and pasture) land use and surface water changes to the dust emissionin Central Asia during the 1950-1990 time period. For this analysis we use the coupled mesoscale WRF-Chem-DuMo model which includes several dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> schemes of different complexity in representing dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> processes. To capture the land use dynamics, we performed historical reconstructions of the dominant land cover, soil texture and relevant land surface characteristics that are required by dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> schemes. The gridded cropland and pasture fraction dataset of Hurtt et al. (2006), various historical maps and satellite images were used to reconstruct the historical distribution of cropland and pasture land types and land/water masks. Results will be presented for the dust season (March-August) of five years under the influence of La Nina episodes: 1955, 1964, 1975, 1988, and 1998. In order to relate disturbances by human land uses to anthropogenic dust <span class="hlt">emission</span>, we introduce the land use intensity (LUI) factor, which is based on agricultural land use fractions of Hurtt et al. data and surface water changes in the region.The influence of model resolution and dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> scheme on assessment of anthropogenic dust <span class="hlt">emission</span> will also be addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from biomass burning in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Xin; Li, Mengmeng; Friedli, Hans R; Song, Yu; Chang, Di; Zhu, Lei</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Biomass burning covers open fires (forest and grassland fires, crop residue burning in fields, etc.) and biofuel combustion (crop residues and wood, etc., used as fuel). As a large agricultural country, China may produce large quantities of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from biomass burning. A new mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory in China is needed because previous studies reflected outdated biomass burning with coarse resolution. Moreover, these studies often adopted the <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors (mass of emitted species per mass of biomass burned) measured in North America. In this study, the mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from biomass burning in China (excluding small islands in the South China Sea) were estimated, using recently measured mercury concentrations in various biomes in China as <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from crop residues and fuelwood were estimated based on <span class="hlt">annual</span> reports distributed by provincial government. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from forest and grassland fires were calculated by combining moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product with combustion efficiency (ratio of fuel consumption to <span class="hlt">total</span> available fuels) considering fuel moisture. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from biomass burning was 27 (range from 15.1 to 39.9) Mg/year. This inventory has high spatial resolution (1 km) and covers a long period (2000-2007), making it useful for air quality modeling. PMID:21950526</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20790877','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20790877"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in anthropogenic mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China from 1995 to 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ye Wu; Shuxiao Wang; David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Melissa Chan; Jingkun Jiang</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>We have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China for 1995 through 2003. It is estimated that <span class="hlt">total</span> Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all anthropogenic sources increased at an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 2.9% during the period 1995-2003, reaching 696 ({+-}307) t in 2003, with a speciation split of 395 t of Hg{sup 0}, 230 t of Hg{sup 2+}, and 70 t of particulate mercury, Hg{sup p}. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, as nonferrous metals production and coal consumption keep increasing. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion together contributed {approximately}80% of <span class="hlt">total</span> Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the past decade. Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal combustion increased from 202 t in 1995 to 257 t in 2003 at an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 3.0%. Among all of the coal consumption sectors, the power sector is the leading one in Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> growth, up by 5.9% <span class="hlt">annually</span>. Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from nonferrous metals smelting increased from 230 t in 1995 to 321 t in 2003 at an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 4.2%. Although Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> related to gold smelting decreased since 1996, other nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead, and copper contributed significant Hg growth at <span class="hlt">annual</span> rates of 8.5%, 13.0%, and 6.9%, respectively. At provincial level, the trends of Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> show significant variation. The uncertainty level decreased from {+-}78% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 1995, to {+-}44% in 2003. This is primarily attributed to the decreased <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from those Hg sources with the largest uncertainty in both activity levels and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, such as artisanal gold smelting, mercury mining, and battery/fluorescent lamp production. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......495S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......495S"><span id="translatedtitle">A study to estimate and compare the <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate matter <span class="hlt">emission</span> indices (EIN) between traditional jet fuel and two blends of Jet A/Camelina biofuel used in a high by-pass turbofan engine: A case study of Honeywell TFE-109 engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard</p> <p></p> <p>The aviation industry is expected to grow at an <span class="hlt">annual</span> rate of 5% until the year 2031 according to Boeing Outlook Report of 2012. Although the aerospace manufacturers have introduced new aircraft and engines technologies to reduce the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> generated by aircraft engines, about 15% of all aircraft in 2032 will be using the older technologies. Therefore, agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Astronautics Administration (NASA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among others together with some academic institutions have been working to characterize both physical and chemical characteristics of the aircraft particulate matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to further understand their effects to the environment. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is also working to establish an inventory with Particulate Matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for all the aircraft turbine engines for certification purposes. This steps comes as a result of smoke measurements not being sufficient to provide detailed information on the effects of Particulate Matter (PM) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as far as the health and environmental concerns. The use of alternative fuels is essential to reduce the impacts of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> released by Jet engines since alternative aviation fuels have been studied to lower particulate matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in some types of engines families. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the <span class="hlt">emission</span> indices of the biofuel blended fuels were lower than the <span class="hlt">emission</span> indices of the traditional jet fuel at selected engine thrust settings. The biofuel blends observed were 75% Jet A-25% Camelina blend biofuel, and 50% Jet A-50% Jet A blend biofuel. The traditional jet fuel in this study was the Jet A fuel. The results of this study may be useful in establishing a baseline for aircraft engines' PM inventory. Currently the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engines <span class="hlt">emissions</span> database contains only gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data for only the TFE 731 and JT15D engines' families as representatives of other engines with rated thrust of 6000 pounds or below. The results of this study may be used to add to the knowledge of PM <span class="hlt">emission</span> data that has been collected in other research studies. This study was quantitative in nature. Three factors were designated which were the types of fuels studied. The TFE-109 turbofan engine was the experimental subject. The independent variable was the engine thrust setting while the response variable was the <span class="hlt">emission</span> index. Four engine runs were conducted for each fuel. In each engine run, four engine thrust settings were observed. The four engine thrust levels were 10%, 30%, 85%, and 100% rated thrusts levels. Therefore, for each engine thrust settings, there four replicates. The experiments were conducted using a TFE-109 engine test cell located in the Niswonger Aviation Technology building at the Purdue University Airport. The testing facility has the capability to conduct the aircraft PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span> tests. Due to the equipment limitations, the study was limited to observe <span class="hlt">total</span> PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span> instead of specifically measuring the non-volatile PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> indices of the blended biofuels were not statistically significantly lower compared to the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the traditional jet fuel at rated thrust levels of 100% and 85% of TFE-109 turbofan engine. However, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> indices for the 50%Jet A - 50%Camelina biofuel blend were statistically significantly lower compared to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> indices of the 100% Jet A fuel at 10% and 30% engine rated thrusts levels of TFE-109 engine. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> indices of the 50%-50% biofuel blend were lower by reductions of 15% and 17% at engine rated thrusts of 10% and 30% respectively compared to the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> indices of the traditional jet fuel at the same engine thrust levels. Experimental modifications in future studies may provide estimates of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> indices range for this particular engine these estimates may be used to estimate the levels of PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for other similar engines. Additional measurements steps such as heating of the sampling line, sampling dilution application, sampling line loss estimates, and calculations of the sampling line PM residence times will also be useful future results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19418817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19418817"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of policy in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory accuracy--a lesson from British Columbia, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krzyzanowski, Judi</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Actual atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in northeast British Columbia, Canada, are much higher than reported <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The addition of upstream oil and gas sector sources not included in the year-2000 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) increases <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">totals</span> of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by 115.1, 89.9, and 109.5%, respectively. These <span class="hlt">emissions</span> arise from numerous small and unregulated point sources (N = 10,129). CAC summaries are given by source type and source sector. An analysis of uncertainty and reporting policy suggests that inventory omissions are not limited to the study area and that Canadian pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are systematically underestimated. The omissions suggest that major changes in reporting procedures are needed in Canada if true estimates of <span class="hlt">annual</span> pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are to be documented. PMID:19418817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=190383&keyword=elemental+AND+emission+AND+mercury&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50400129&CFTOKEN=54134337','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=190383&keyword=elemental+AND+emission+AND+mercury&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50400129&CFTOKEN=54134337"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Site Mercury <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=219248','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=219248"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, soluble phosphorus, <span class="hlt">total</span> volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........35W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT........35W"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">total</span> reduced sulfur and sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a kraft recovery boiler using an artificial neural network, and, Investigating volatile organic compounds in an urban intermountain valley using a TD/GC/MS methodology and intrinsic tracer molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wrobel, Christopher Louis</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Back-propagation neural networks were trained to predict <span class="hlt">total</span> reduced sulfur (TRS) and SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from kraft recovery boiler operational data. A 0.721 coefficient of correlation was achieved between actual and predicted sulfur <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on test data withheld from network training. The artificial neural network (ANN) models found an inverse, linear relationship between TRS/SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and percent opacity. A number of relationships among operating parameters and sulfur <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were identified by the ANN models. These relationships were used to formulate strategies for reducing sulfur <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Disagreement between ANN model predictions on a subsequent data set revealed an additional scenario for sulfur release not present in the training data. ANN modeling was demonstrated to be an effective tool for analyzing process variables when balancing productivity and environmental concerns. Five receptor sites distributed in the Missoula Valley, Montana, were employed to investigate possible VOC (benzene, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, naphthalene, acetone, chloroform, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) sources. The most dominant source of VOCs was found to be vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Furthermore, anthropogenic sources of terpenoids overwhelmed biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, on a local scale. Difficulties correlating wind direction and pollutant levels could be explained by wind direction variability, low wind speed and seasonally dependent meteorological factors. Significant evidence was compiled to support the use of p-cymene as a tracer molecule for pulp mill VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Apportionment techniques using o-xylene and p-cymene as tracers for automobile and pulp mill <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively, were employed to estimate each source's VOC contribution. Motor vehicles were estimated to contribute between 56 and 100 percent of the aromatic pollutants in the Missoula Valley airshed, depending upon the sampling location. Pulp mill <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated to account from 1 to 34 percent of the aromatic chemicals in the airshed. Measured ambient chloroform levels were attributable to the pulp mill (12-70%) and non-point source urban <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (7.5-30%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A24A..06J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A24A..06J"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating CH4 <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> in California Using Measurements from a Tower Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, S.; Hsu, Y.; Andrews, A. E.; Bianco, L.; Vaca, P.; Wilczak, J. M.; Fischer, M. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We estimate regionally resolved methane (CH4) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for California using a Bayesian inverse model driven by CH4 mixing ratios measured at a network of five towers across the Central Valley during 2010 - 2011. The method estimates <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by comparing measurements with transport model predictions of CH4 signals obtained from two 0.1 degree prior <span class="hlt">emission</span> maps: 1) seasonally varying "California-specific" <span class="hlt">emission</span> maps, calibrated to State <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">totals</span>, and 2) the EDGAR4.2 static global <span class="hlt">emission</span> map. Atmospheric transport is calculated from particle trajectories and surface footprints using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Results for the 5-tower CARB-CEC-LBNL-NOAA network show that significant reductions in posterior <span class="hlt">emissions</span> uncertainty are obtained for regions comprising ~ 90% of California's known CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, with <span class="hlt">annually</span> averaged <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">totaling</span> 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.5+/-0.3 times California's inventory for the California-specific and EDGAR4.2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> maps, respectively. Assuming these results apply across California, <span class="hlt">total</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> account for approximately 8% - 14% of current state <span class="hlt">total</span> greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The magnitude and uncertainty of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from specific regions and source sectors (e.g., crop agriculture, waste management, livestock, and energy activities) are estimated by comparing region and source sector results obtained with the CA-specific and EDGAR4.2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol13-sec63-5870.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol13-sec63-5870.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from my wet-out area...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... lamination/casting operations? 63.5870 Section 63.5870 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... continuous lamination/casting operations? To calculate your <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol13-sec63-5870.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol13-sec63-5870.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from my wet-out area...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... lamination/casting operations? 63.5870 Section 63.5870 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... continuous lamination/casting operations? To calculate your <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol13-sec63-5870.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol13/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol13-sec63-5870.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.5870 - How do I calculate <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic HAP <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from my wet-out area...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... lamination/casting operations? 63.5870 Section 63.5870 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... continuous lamination/casting operations? To calculate your <span class="hlt">annual</span> uncontrolled and controlled organic...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A52B..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.A52B..03M"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing global radiative forcing due to regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of tropospheric ozone precursors: a step towards climate credit for ozone reductions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mauzerall, D. L.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Schwarzkopf, D.; Ramaswamy, V.; Oppenheimer, M.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: China (13% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), Japan (5% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), India (5% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), South Korea (2% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>), and Indonesia (1% of global <span class="hlt">total</span>). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Currently, only national <span class="hlt">annual</span> data for anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040043&hterms=agricultura&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dagricultura','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040043&hterms=agricultura&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dagricultura"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the troposphere from the Amazon floodplain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Devol, Allen H.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Wayne A.; King, Stagg L.; Martinelli, Luiz A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The magnitudes of CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the troposphere from the Amazon River floodplain and the mechanism of these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were investigated using the data of 94 individual flux measurements made along a 1700-km stretch of the river during July/August 1985. The overall average rate of CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from wetlands was found to be 390 mg CH4/sq m per day, with the highest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (590 mg CH4/sq m per day) attributed to the water surfaces covered by aquatic macrophytes. Ebullition was the dominant mechanism of <span class="hlt">emission</span>, accounting for 85 percent of the <span class="hlt">total</span>. Surface-water CH4 concentrations were highly supersaturated, averaging 6.4 micromolar. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of CH4 from the Amazon Basin to the troposphere, estimated from the area and the known <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate, is about 10 CH4 Tg/yr, indicating the importance of the area in the global atmospheric CH4 cycle.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5435M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5435M"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Changes in Barometric Pressure on Landfill Methane <span class="hlt">Emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McDermitt, Dayle; Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska USA. Methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the <span class="hlt">emission</span>, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the <span class="hlt">emission</span>. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> rates were systematically higher in December than during the summer period. Higher methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates were associated with changes in barometric pressure that were larger in magnitude and longer in duration in winter than in summer, and with lower mean temperatures, which appeared to reduce methane oxidation rates. Sharp changes in barometric pressure caused up to 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that continuous measurements over a period of at least 10 days were needed in order to capture 90% of <span class="hlt">total</span> variance in the methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> time series at our site. Our results suggest that point-in-time methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate measurements taken at monthly or even longer time intervals using techniques such as the tracer plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method may be subject to large variations because of the strong dependence of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on changes in barometric pressure. Estimates of long-term integrated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from landfills based on such measurements will inevitably yield large uncertainties. Our results demonstrate the value of continuous measurements for quantifying <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a landfill.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3916805J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3916805J"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variations in N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from central California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeong, Seongeun; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Sweeney, Colm; Bianco, Laura; Wilczak, James M.; Fischer, Marc L.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We estimate nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Central California for the period of December 2007 through November 2009 by comparing N2O mixing ratios measured at a tall tower (Walnut Grove, WGC) with transport model predictions based on two global a priori N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> models (EDGAR32 and EDGAR42). Atmospheric particle trajectories and surface footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) models. Regression analyses show that the slopes of predicted on measured N2O from both <span class="hlt">emission</span> models are low, suggesting that actual N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are significantly higher than the EDGAR inventories for all seasons. Bayesian inverse analyses of regional N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> show that posterior <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are larger than both EDGAR inventories by factors of 2.0 ± 0.4 (EDGAR32) and 2.1 ± 0.4 (EDGAR42) with seasonal variation ranging from 1.6 ± 0.3 to 2.5 ± 0.4 for an influence region of Central California within approximately 150 km of the tower. These results suggest that if the spatial distribution of N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in California follows the EDGAR <span class="hlt">emission</span> models, then actual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are 2.7 ± 0.5 times greater than the current California <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory, and <span class="hlt">total</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> account for 8.1 ± 1.4% of <span class="hlt">total</span> greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from California.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SerAJ.191...51N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SerAJ.191...51N"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of Solar Hydrogen Ly? Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in <span class="hlt">Total</span> Ionization Rate in Ionospheric D-region During the Maximum of Solar X-flare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nina, A.; ?ade, V. M.; Baj?eti?, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The solar Ly? line <span class="hlt">emission</span> can be considered as the dominant source of ionization processes in the ionospheric D-region at altitudes above 70 km during unperturbed conditions. However, large sudden impacts of radiation in some other energy domains can also significantly influence the ionization rate and, in this paper, we present a study on the contribution of Ly? radiation to the ionization rate when the ionosphere is disturbed by solar X-flares. We give relevant analytical expressions and make calculations and numerical simulations for the low ionosphere using data collected by the VLF receiver located in Serbia for the VLF radio signal emitted by the DHO transmitter in Germany.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SerAJ.tmp....3N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SerAJ.tmp....3N"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of Solar Hydrogen Ly? Line <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in <span class="hlt">Total</span> Ionization Rate in Ionospheric D-region During the Maximum of Solar X-flare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nina, A.; ?ade, V. M.; Baj?eti?, J.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The solar Ly? line <span class="hlt">emission</span> can be considered as the dominant source of ionization processes in the ionospheric D-region at altitudes above 70 km during unperturbed conditions. However, large sudden impacts of radiation in some other energy domains can also significantly influence the ionization rate and, in this paper, we present a study on the contribution of Ly? radiation to the ionization rate when the ionosphere is disturbed by solar X-flares. We give relevant analytical expressions and make calculations and numerical simulations for the low ionosphere using data collected by the VLF receiver located in Serbia for the VLF radio signal emitted by the DHO transmitter in Germany.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.6828Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.6828Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wildfires in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Huishi; Tao, Shu; Li, Bengang; Lang, Chang; Cao, Jun; Coveney, Raymond M.</p> <p></p> <p>On the basis of burned area, biomass density, burn efficiency and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor, <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from wildfires in China are estimated for the period from 1950 to 2005. During that period, 7.8 10 6 and 7.5 10 6 Mg of biomass are burned <span class="hlt">annually</span> by forest and grassland fires, respectively. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 16 PAHs was estimated at 256 185 Mg (average standard deviation). Among the 16 PAHs studied, NAP contributed 55% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wildfires. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> rates varied erratically and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> declined significantly since 1988. Wildfire PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span> in China has shown strong seasonality with peaks in spring and fall. The provinces of Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Yunnan ranked as the most prolific PAH source areas with respect to both density and amount of PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Spatial variations seem to be primarily related to vegetation cover which has been used in a regression model to predict a county-resolved <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory in China. Forest fires in Heilongjiang and Russia led to visible haze over Japan during October 2004. In order to trace the potential influence of PAHs, numerical simulation of potential receptor influence function (PRIF) based on forward trajectory calculation was implemented to address the general outflow pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-18/pdf/2010-26145.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-18/pdf/2010-26145.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 63804 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Retail Trade Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-18</p> <p>... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, <span class="hlt">annual</span> e-commerce sales, year-end... percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United States. These data are collected to... classification basis, <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, <span class="hlt">annual</span> e-commerce sales, purchases, <span class="hlt">total</span> operating expenses,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-22/pdf/2012-25909.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-22/pdf/2012-25909.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 64463 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Retail Trade Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-22</p> <p>..., the Census Bureau will collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, <span class="hlt">annual</span> e- commerce sales, year-end..., accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales..., <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, <span class="hlt">annual</span> e-commerce sales, purchases, <span class="hlt">total</span> and detailed operating expenses,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240512','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240512"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison on the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their corresponding carcinogenic potencies from a vehicle engine using leaded and lead-free gasoline.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mi, H H; Lee, W J; Tsai, P J; Chen, C B</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of using two kinds of lead-free gasoline [including 92-lead-free gasoline (92-LFG) and 95-lead-free gasoline (95-LFG), rated according to their octane levels] to replace the use of premium leaded gasoline (PLG) on the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaP(eq)) amounts from the gasoline-powered engine. The results show that the three gasoline fuels originally contained similar <span class="hlt">total</span> PAHs and <span class="hlt">total</span> BaP(eq) contents; however, we found significant differences in the engine exhausts in both contents. The above results suggest that PAHs originally contained in the gasoline fuel did not affect the PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the engine exhausts. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of both <span class="hlt">total</span> PAHs and <span class="hlt">total</span> BaP(eq) obtained from the three gasoline fuels shared the same trend: 95-LFG > PLG > 92-LFG. The above result suggests that when PLG was replaced by 95-LFG, the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would increase in both <span class="hlt">total</span> PAHs and <span class="hlt">total</span> BaP(eq), but when replaced by 92-LFG would lead to the decreased <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of both contents. By taking <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and their corresponding <span class="hlt">annual</span> gasoline consumption rates into account, we found that both <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH and <span class="hlt">total</span> BaP(eq) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increased from 1994 to 1999. However, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> increasing rates in <span class="hlt">total</span> BaP(eq) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were slightly higher than the corresponding increasing rates in <span class="hlt">total</span> PAHs. PMID:11748037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003483.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003483.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> protein</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">total</span> protein test measures the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=320862','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=320862"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of particle size distributions to <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for agricultural sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18538923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18538923"><span id="translatedtitle">Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an industrial park clustered with metallurgical industries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Jenshi B; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping</p> <p>2009-01-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from an industrial park operated as Taiwan's center of metallurgical industries were investigated. The characteristics of mean PCDD/F I-TEQ concentrations, congener profiles and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of each source were studied over samples of stack flue gases of individual sources. Different characteristics of congener profiles and large variations of <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs) were observed. The mean <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of electric arc furnaces were comparable to those for ALSs and much greater than those of municipal solid waste incinerators and sinter plants, but still less than that of clinical waste incinerators. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> PCDD/F <span class="hlt">emission</span> contribution of each source was estimated, raising critical concerns over the overall PCDD/F <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from metallurgical processes. The metallurgical industries altogether contributed approximately 98.1% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, while waste incinerators only 1.9%. The contributions by sinter plants and metallurgical industries to the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the Park were much higher than the corresponding national averages of Taiwan. The combined dioxin <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the entire metallurgical processes and their controls should be seriously envisaged by industrial parks devoted to metal productions. PMID:18538923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287751','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/287751"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics from automobiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koike, Noriyuki; Odaka, Matsuo</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>Exhaust gases discharged from automobiles are noticed as one of the reasons for recent increase in atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide concentration, which have been considered as greenhouse gases. In order to make an accurate estimation of methane and nitrous oxide discharged from automobiles, measurement methods were experimentally developed and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured for different kinds of automobiles under various driving conditions. Then, the authors have tried to estimate the <span class="hlt">annual</span> global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from automobiles using these measurement results and statistical data such as the number of automobiles, the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> mileage, and the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> fuel consumption, etc. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from passenger vehicles which have been estimated from the global number of automobiles were 477.263 t/year for methane and 313.472 t/year for nitrous oxide. These numbers are higher than what had been estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4399445','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4399445"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and <span class="hlt">total</span>-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Belanche, Alejandro; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Newbold, Charles J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rumen methanogenesis represents an energy waste for the ruminant and an important source of greenhouse gas; thus, integrated studies are needed to fully understand this process. Eight fauna-free sheep were used to investigate the effect of successive inoculation with holotrich protozoa then with <span class="hlt">total</span> fauna on rumen methanogenesis. Holotrichs inoculation neither altered rumen fermentation rate nor diet digestibility, but increased concentrations of acetate (+15%), butyrate (+57%), anaerobic fungi (+0.82 log), methanogens (+0.41 log) and methanogenesis (+54%). Further inoculation with <span class="hlt">total</span> fauna increased rumen concentrations of protozoa (+1.0 log), bacteria (+0.29 log), anaerobic fungi (+0.78 log), VFA (+8%), ammonia and fibre digestibility (+17%) without affecting levels of methanogens or methanogenesis. Rumen methanogens population was fairly stable in terms of structure and diversity, while the bacterial community was highly affected by the treatments. Inoculation with holotrich protozoa increased bacterial diversity. Further inoculation with <span class="hlt">total</span> fauna lowered bacterial diversity but increased concentrations of certain propionate and lactate-producing bacteria, suggesting that alternative H2 sinks could be relevant. This experiment suggests that holotrich protozoa have a greater impact on rumen methanogenesis than entodiniomorphids. Thus, further research is warranted to understand the effect of holotrich protozoa on methane formation and evaluate their elimination from the rumen as a potential methane mitigation strategy. PMID:25764558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216751','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1216751"><span id="translatedtitle">2008 <span class="hlt">annual</span> merit review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>None, None</p> <p>2009-01-18</p> <p>The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a <span class="hlt">total</span> of just over 100 reviewers. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512799L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512799L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> and accumulation rates in sub-arctic lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lundin, Erik; Bastviken, David; Klaminder, Jonatan; Olid Garcia, Carolina; Karlsson, Jan</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Lakes play an important role for the carbon cycling in the sub-arctic landscape by both storing carbon in sediments and by releasing carbon to the atmosphere. Still, our knowledge regarding the importance of carbon accumulation rates vs. carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in lakes is poor, restricting large scale assessment of source sink potential of lakes in the landscape. In this study we compare <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon accumulation rates and CO2 and CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the atmosphere for six Swedish subarctic lakes. We measured the partial pressure of CO2 (every second hour) during the ice free season. CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured using floating chambers. Furthermore, we sampled sediment cores from each lake (one to three cores per lake depending on lakes sizes) and calculated the recent accumulation rate of carbon into sediments by dating each core, using 210Pb. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (CO2 + CH4) ranged between 5 to 54 g C m-2 yr-1; hence, all lakes were atmospheric net sources of carbon. Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were overall dominated by CO2 which made up to over 90 % of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> in all lakes except one, having low CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, where CH4 counted for 40% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Sediment carbon accumulation rates were of comparable magnitudes as the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, counting for rates of 30 to 60% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> to the atmosphere. This results stress the dual role of subarctic lakes as they are acting both as atmospheric sources of CO2 and CH4 and as significant storages of carbon in sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/569000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/569000"><span id="translatedtitle">International energy <span class="hlt">annual</span> 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>The International Energy <span class="hlt">Annual</span> presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy <span class="hlt">Annual</span> includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735080"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from South Asian brick production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weyant, Cheryl; Athalye, Vasudev; Ragavan, Santhosh; Rajarathnam, Uma; Lalchandani, Dheeraj; Maithel, Sameer; Baum, Ellen; Bond, Tami C</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Thirteen South Asian brick kilns were tested to quantify aerosol and gaseous pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and optical scattering and absorption measurements in the exhaust of six kiln technologies demonstrate differences in overall <span class="hlt">emission</span> profiles and relative climate warming resulting from kiln design and fuel choice. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors differed between kiln types, in some cases by an order of magnitude. The kilns currently dominating the sector had the highest <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of PM2.5 and light absorbing carbon, while improved Vertical Shaft and Tunnel kilns were lower emitters. An improved version of the most common technology in the region, the zig-zag kiln, was among the lowest emitting kilns in PM2.5, CO, and light absorbing carbon. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors measured here are lower than those currently used in <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories as inputs to global climate models; 85% lower (PM2.5) and 35% lower for elemental carbon (EC) for the most common kiln in the region, yet the ratio of EC to <span class="hlt">total</span> carbon was higher than previously estimated (0.96 compared to 0.47). <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> estimated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the brick industry are 120 Tg CO2, 2.5 Tg CO, 0.19 Tg PM2.5, and 0.12 Tg EC. PMID:24735080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACP.....8.7297B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ACP.....8.7297B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal variation of historical anthropogenic NMVOCs <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bo, Y.; Cai, H.; Xie, S. D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Multiyear <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories of anthropogenic NMVOCs in China for 1980-2005 were established based on time-varying statistical data, literature surveyed and model calculated <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, which were further gridded at a high spatial resolution of 40 km40 km using the GIS methodology. Results show a continuous growth trend of China's historical NMVOCs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the period of 1980-2005, with the <span class="hlt">emission</span> increasing by 4.2 times at an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average rate of 10.6% from 3.91 Tg in 1980 to 16.49 Tg in 2005. Vehicles, biomass burning, industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion, solvent utilization, and storage and transport generated 5.50 Tg, 3.84 Tg, 2.76 Tg, 1.98 Tg, 1.87 Tg, and 0.55 Tg of NMVOCs, respectively, in 2005. Motorcycles, biofuel burning, heavy duty vans, synthetic fibre production, biomass open burning, and industrial and commercial consumption were primary <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources. Besides, source contributions of NMVOCs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> showed remarkable <span class="hlt">annual</span> variation. However, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these sources had been continuously increasing, which coincided well with China's economic growth. Spatial distribution of NMVOCs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> illustrates that high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mainly concentrates in developed regions of northern, eastern and southern coastal areas, which produced more <span class="hlt">emissions</span> than the relatively underdeveloped western and inland regions. Particularly, southeastern, northern, and central China covering 35.2% of China's territory, generated 59.4% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, while the populous capital cities covering merely 4.5% of China's territory, accounted for 24.9% of the national <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> variation of regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity shows that <span class="hlt">emissions</span> concentrating in urban areas tended to transfer to rural areas year by year. Moreover, eastern, southern, central, and northeastern China were typical areas of high <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensity and had a tendency of expanding to the northwestern China, which revealed the transfer of <span class="hlt">emission</span>-intensive plants to these areas, together with the increase of biomass open burning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090006832&hterms=eclipse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Declipse','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090006832&hterms=eclipse&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Declipse"><span id="translatedtitle">Obtaining Electron Temperatures and Flow Speeds from Thomson Scattered Coronal <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Observed during the 29 March 2006 <span class="hlt">Total</span> Solar Eclipse in Libya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davila, Joseph M.; Geginald, Nelson L.; Gashut, Hadi; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Hassler, Donald M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An experiment to measure the electron temperature and flow speed in the solar corona by observing the visible K-coronal spectrum was conducted during the <span class="hlt">total</span> solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Libya. New corona1 models accounting for the effect of electron temperature and flow on the resulting K-corona spectrum were used to interpret the observations. Results show electron temperatures of 1.10 +/- 0.05, 0.98 +/- 0.12, and 0.70 +/- 0.08 MK, at l.l{\\it R)$-{\\odot)$ in the solar north, east and west, respectively, and 0.93 +/- 0.12 MK, at 1.2 R(sub sun) in the solar east. The corresponding outflow speeds obtained from the spectral fit are 103 +/- 92, 0 + 10, 0 + 10, and 0 + 10 km/s. Since the observations are taken only at 1.1 and 1.2 R(sub sun) these velocities , consistent with zero outflow, are in agreement with expectations and provide additional confirmation that the spectral fitting method is working.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.DD008R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.DD008R"><span id="translatedtitle">β - γ and β-neutron- γ <span class="hlt">emission</span> in mass A=137 Decay Chain Studied with the Modular <span class="hlt">Total</span> Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasco, Charles; Fijałkowska, Aleksandra; Karny, Marek; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof; Wolińska-Cichocka, Marzena; Grzywacz, Robert</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The Modular <span class="hlt">Total</span> Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS) is a detector made up of 19 separate hexagon modules of NaI which results in over a ton of NaI in the MTAS detector. MTAS was designed to capture as much of the electromagnetic energy release in β-decays as possible. MTAS was constructed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility and measured over 20 decay products of 238U fission products in its inaugural measurement campaign in January 2012. The measurements were focused on nuclei identified as important for decay heat analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. Silicon detectors placed at the center of MTAS to provide β triggers, make for extremely clean signals in MTAS. Preliminary results on the average electromagnetic energy release in the β decay of 137Xe and 137I isotopes will be presented. These isotopes are among the priority 1 cases listed by the NEA. The 137I also has a beta -neutron decay branch that is detected in MTAS. Neutron detection in a large NaI detector will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US DOE by award no. DE-FG02-96ER40978 and by US DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760274"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of wintertime PM2.5 chemical composition in Xi'an, China: Evidences of changing source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Hongmei; Cao, Junji; Chow, Judith C; Huang, R-J; Shen, Zhenxing; Chen, L W Antony; Ho, Kin Fai; Watson, John G</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in Xi'an in wintertime of 2006, 2008, and 2010 were investigated. Markers of OC2, EC1, and NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratio were calculated to investigate the changes in PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources over the 5-year period. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to identify and quantify the main sources of PM2.5 and their contributions. The results showed that coal combustion, motor vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, fugitive dust, and secondary inorganic aerosol accounted for more than 80% of PM2.5 mass. The importance of these major sources to the PM2.5 mass varied yearly: coal combustion was the largest contributor (31.2%±5.2%), followed by secondary inorganic aerosol (20.9%±5.2%) and motor vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (19.3%±4.8%) in 2006; the order was still coal combustion <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (27.6%±3.4%), secondary inorganic aerosol (23.2%±6.9%), and motor vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (20.9%±4.6%) in 2008; while coal combustion <span class="hlt">emission</span> further decreased (24.1%±3.1%) with fugitive dust (19.4%±5.5%) increasing in 2010. The changes in PM2.5 chemical compositions and source contributions can be attributed to the social and economic developments in Xi'an, China, including energy structure adjustment, energy consumption, the expansion of civil vehicles, and the increase of urban construction activities. PMID:26760274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PCE....76...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PCE....76...42D"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of sample preparation methods for the detection of <span class="hlt">total</span> metal content using inductively coupled plasma optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometry (ICP-OES) in wastewater and sludge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimpe, K. M.; Ngila, J. C.; Mabuba, N.; Nomngongo, P. N.</p> <p></p> <p>Heavy metal contamination exists in aqueous wastes and sludge of many industrial discharges and domestic wastewater, among other sources. Determination of metals in the wastewater and sludge requires sample pre-treatment prior to analysis because of certain challenges such as the complexity of the physical state of the sample, which may lead to wrong readings in the measurement. This is particularly the case with low analyte concentration to be detected by the instrument. The purpose of this work was to assess and validate the different sample preparation methods namely, hot plate and microwave-assisted digestion procedures for extraction of metal ions in wastewater and sludge samples prior to their inductively coupled plasma optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometric (ICP-OES) determination. For the extraction of As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, three acid mixtures, that is, HNO3/H2O2, HNO3/HClO4/H2O2 and aqua regia + H2O2, were evaluated. Influent wastewater spiked with the SRM (CWW-TM-B) was used for the optimization of acid mixtures affecting the extraction procedure. After sample digestion, the filtration capabilities of cellulose-acetate filter paper and the acrodisc syringe filter with the pore size of 0.45 μm were compared. In terms of performance, acrodisc syringe filter in terms of the improved recoveries obtained, was found to be the best filtration method compared to the filter paper. Based on the analytical results obtained, microwave-assisted digestion (MAD) using aqua regia + H2O2 mixture was found to be the most suitable method for extraction of heavy metals and major elements in all the sample matrices. Therefore, MAD using aqua regia + H2O2 mixture was used for further investigations. The precision of the developed MAD method expressed in terms of relative standard deviations (% RSD) for different metals was found to be <5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.12% to 2.18 μg L-1 and 0.61% to 3.43 μg L-1, respectively. The accuracy of the developed method (MAD using aqua regia + H2O2) was verified by analyzing two SRMs (CWW-TM-A and CWW-TM-B) and the obtained results were in agreement with certified values with recoveries ranging from 80% to 104% for CWW-TM-A and 84% to 102% for CWW-TM-B. The accuracy of the developed method was verified also by the recovery test in the spiked sludge samples. The accuracy and spike recovery test for different metal ions were in the range 80-104% and 92-106%, respectively. The developed method was applied for extraction of the As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn in environmental samples, namely wastewater and sludge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..76...32Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..76...32Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical evaluation of vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in <span class="hlt">total</span> vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and <span class="hlt">annual</span> mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated <span class="hlt">total</span> vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for 40% of <span class="hlt">total</span> gaseous pollutants and 25% of <span class="hlt">total</span> PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to <span class="hlt">total</span> vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2009. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated <span class="hlt">total</span> vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> mitigation in Guangzhou required by the new National Ambient Air Quality Standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..98....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..98....1M"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using dynamic <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors: A case study of Delhi, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishra, Dhirendra; Goyal, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The estimation of vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> depends mainly on the values of <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, which are used for the development of a comprehensive <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of vehicles. In this study the variations of <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors as well as the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates have been studied in Delhi. The implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG), in the diesel and petrol, public vehicles in the year 2001 has changed the complete air quality scenario of Delhi. The dynamic <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of criteria pollutants viz. carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) for all types of vehicles have been developed after, which are based on the several factors such as regulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> limits, number of vehicle deterioration, vehicle increment, vehicle age etc. These <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are found to be decreased continuously throughout the study years 2003-2012. The International Vehicle <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> (IVE) model is used to estimate the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of criteria pollutants by utilizing a dataset available from field observations at different traffic intersections in Delhi. Thus the vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, based on dynamic <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors have been estimated for the years 2003-2012, which are found to be comparable with the monitored concentrations at different locations in Delhi. It is noticed that the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO, NOx, and PM10 are increased by 45.63%, 68.88% and 17.92%, respectively up to the year 2012 and the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of NOx and PM10 are grown continuously with an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average growth rate of 5.4% and 1.7% respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/339581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/339581"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cairns, M.A.; Hao, W.M.; Alvarado, E.; Haggerty, P.K.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>The authors used NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery, biomass density maps, fuel consumption estimates, and a carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor to estimate the <span class="hlt">total</span> carbon (C) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the Spring 1998 fires in tropical Mexico. All eight states in southeast Mexico were affected by the wildfires, although the activity was concentrated near the common border of Oaxaca, Chiapas, and Veracruz. The fires burned approximately 482,000 ha and the land use/land cover classes most extensively impacted were the tall/medium selvas (tropical evergreen forests), open/fragmented forests, and perturbed areas. The <span class="hlt">total</span> prompt <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were 4.6 TgC during the two-month period of the authors` study, contributing an additional 24% to the region`s average <span class="hlt">annual</span> net C <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from forestry and land-use change. Mexico in 1998 experienced its driest Spring since 1941, setting the stage for the widespread burning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGD..2016....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGD..2016....1S"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from German drinking water reservoirs estimated from routine monitoring data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saidi, H.; Koschorreck, M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Globally, reservoirs are a significant source of atmospheric CO2. However, precise quantification of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from drinking water reservoirs on the regional or national scale is still challenging. We calculated CO2 fluxes for 39 German drinking water reservoirs during a period of 22 years (1991-2013) using routine monitoring data in order to quantify <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of CO2 from drinking water reservoirs in Germany. All reservoirs were small net CO2 sources with a median flux of 167 g C m-2 y-1, which makes gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> a relevant process for the reservoirs carbon budgets. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, German drinking reservoirs emit 44000 t of CO2 <span class="hlt">annually</span>, which makes them a negligible CO2 source in Germany. Fluxes varied seasonally with median fluxes of 30, 11, and 46 mmol m-2 d-1 in spring, summer, and autumn respectively. Differences between reservoirs appeared to be primarily caused by the concentration of CO2 in the surface water rather than by the physical gas transfer coefficient. Consideration of short term fluctuations of the gas transfer coefficient due to variable wind had only a minor effect on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> budgets. High CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> only occurred in reservoirs with pH < 7 and <span class="hlt">total</span> alkalinity < 0.2 mEq l-1. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> correlated exponentially with pH, making pH a suitable proxy for CO <span class="hlt">emission</span> from German drinking water reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424031"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalog of <span class="hlt">total</span> excitation-<span class="hlt">emission</span> and <span class="hlt">total</span> synchronous fluorescence maps with synchronous fluorescence spectra of homologated fluorescent pesticides in large use in Morocco: development of a spectrometric low cost and direct analysis as an alert method in case of massive contamination of soils and waters by fluorescent pesticides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foudeil, S; Hassoun, H; Lamhasni, T; Ait Lyazidi, S; Benyaich, F; Haddad, M; Choukrad, M; Boughdad, A; Bounakhla, M; Bounouira, H; Duarte, R M B O; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to develop a direct spectrometric approach to monitor soils and waters, at a lower cost than the widely used chromatographic techniques; a spectrometric approach that is effective, reliable, fast, easy to implement, and without any use of organic solvents whose utilization is subject to law limitation. It could be suitable at least as an alert method in case of massive contamination. Here, we present for the first time a catalog of excitation-<span class="hlt">emission</span> and <span class="hlt">total</span> synchronous fluorescence maps that may be considered as fingerprints of a series of homologated pesticides, in large use in Morocco, aiming at a direct detection of their remains in agricultural soils and neighboring waters. After a large survey among farmers, agricultural workers and product distributors in two important agricultural regions of Morocco (Doukkala-Abda and Sebou basin), 48 commercial pesticides, which are fluorescent, were chosen. A multi-component spectral database of these targeted commercial pesticides was elaborated. For each pesticide, dissolved in water at the lowest concentration giving a no-noise fluorescence spectrum, the <span class="hlt">total</span> excitation-<span class="hlt">emission</span> matrix (TEEM), the <span class="hlt">total</span> synchronous fluorescence matrix (TSFM) in addition to synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) at those offsets giving the highest fluorescence intensity were recorded. To test this preliminary multi-component database, two real soil samples, collected at a wheat field and at a vine field in the region of Doukkala, were analyzed. Remains of the commercial Pirimor (Carbamate) and Atlantis (Sulfonylurea) were identified by comparison of the recorded TEEM, TSFM, and SFS to those of the preliminary catalog at one hand, and on the basis of the results of a field pre-survey. The developed approach seems satisfactory, and the fluorimetric fingerprint database is under extension to a higher number of fluorescent pesticides in common use among the Moroccan agricultural regions. PMID:25424031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-sec98-283.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-sec98-283.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.283 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>.... You must calculate and report the combined <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all silicon carbide.... (a) Calculate and report under this subpart the combined <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by operating... Sources). (b) Calculate and report under this subpart the combined <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....1112973U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ACP....1112973U"><span id="translatedtitle">The wildland fire <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory: western United States <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates and an evaluation of uncertainty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urbanski, S. P.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models that are used to understand the role of biomass fires in the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air quality, and the climate system. Significant progress has been achieved in the development of regional and global biomass burning <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories over the past decade using satellite remote sensing technology for fire detection and burned area mapping. However, agreement among biomass burning <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories is frequently poor. Furthermore, the uncertainties of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates are typically not well characterized, particularly at the spatio-temporal scales pertinent to regional air quality modeling. We present the Wildland Fire <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Inventory (WFEI), a high resolution model for non-agricultural open biomass burning (hereafter referred to as wildland fires, WF) in the contiguous United States (CONUS). The model combines observations from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra and Aqua satellites, meteorological analyses, fuel loading maps, an <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor database, and fuel condition and fuel consumption models to estimate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from WF. WFEI was used to estimate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO (ECO) and PM2.5 (EPM2.5) for the western United States from 2003-2008. The uncertainties in the inventory estimates of ECO and EPM2.5 (uECO and uEPM2.5, respectively) have been explored across spatial and temporal scales relevant to regional and global modeling applications. In order to evaluate the uncertainty in our <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates across multiple scales we used a figure of merit, the half mass uncertainty, ?EX (where X = CO or PM2.5), defined such that for a given aggregation level 50% of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> occurred from elements with uEX ?EX. The sensitivity of the WFEI estimates of ECO and EPM2.5 to uncertainties in mapped fuel loading, fuel consumption, burned area and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors have also been examined. The estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span>, domain wide ECO ranged from 436 Gg yr-1 in 2004 to 3107 Gg yr-1 in 2007. The extremes in estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span>, domain wide EPM2.5 were 65 Gg yr-1 in 2004 and 454 Gg yr-1 in 2007. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> WF <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were a significant share of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from non-WF sources (agriculture, dust, non-WF fire, fuel combustion, industrial processes, transportation, solvent, and miscellaneous) in the western United States as estimated in a national <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory. In the peak fire year of 2007, WF <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were ~20% of <span class="hlt">total</span> (WF + non-WF) CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and ~39% of <span class="hlt">total</span> PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. During the months with the greatest fire activity, WF accounted for the majority of <span class="hlt">total</span> CO and PM2.5 emitted across the study region. Uncertainties in <span class="hlt">annual</span>, domain wide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was 28% to 51% for CO and 40% to 65% for PM2.5. Sensitivity of ?ECO and ?EPM2.5 to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> model components depended on scale. At scales relevant to regional modeling applications (?x = 10 km, ?t = 1 day) WFEI estimates 50% of <span class="hlt">total</span> ECO with an uncertainty <133% and half of <span class="hlt">total</span> EPM2.5 with an uncertainty <146%. ?ECO and ?EPM2.5 are reduced by more than half at the scale of global modeling applications (? x = 100 km, ? t = 30 day) where 50% of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are estimated with an uncertainty <50% for CO and <64% for PM2.5. Uncertainties in the estimates of burned area drives the <span class="hlt">emission</span> uncertainties at regional scales. At global scales ?ECO is most sensitive to uncertainties in the fuel load consumed while the uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor for PM2.5 plays the dominant role in ?EPM2.5. Our analysis indicates that the large scale aggregate uncertainties (e.g. the uncertainty in <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO emitted for CONUS) typically reported for biomass burning <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories may not be appropriate for evaluating and interpreting results of regional scale modeling applications that employ the <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates. When feasible, biomass burning <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories should be evaluated and reported across the scales for which they are intended to be used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....8.8269J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011BGD.....8.8269J"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Peat surface CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 2300 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements were taken at 144 locations. The autotrophic root respiration component of the CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was separated from heterotrophic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of root respiration to daytime CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> is 21 % along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this is up to 80 % of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but it is negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements well away from trees are free of any root respiration contribution and thus represent only peat oxidation <span class="hlt">emission</span>. We find daytime mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 yr-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum <span class="hlt">emission</span> value of 80 t ha-1 yr-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which resulted in a 14.5 % reduction of the daytime <span class="hlt">emission</span>. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depths and peat oxidation CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous <span class="hlt">emission</span>/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation development may explain over 50 % of peat oxidation <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7215B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7215B"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a high-resolution (1 km 1 km, 1 h) <span class="hlt">emission</span> model for Spain: The High-Elective Resolution Modelling <span class="hlt">Emission</span> System (HERMES)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baldasano, Jos Mara; Gereca, Leonor Patricia; Lpez, Eugeni; Gass, Santiago; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro</p> <p></p> <p>This work presents the results of the development and application of the High-Elective Resolution Modelling <span class="hlt">Emission</span> System (HERMES). HERMES generates the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for Spain needed for the application of high-resolution chemistry transport models, taking the year 2004 as reference with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 1 km 2 considering both anthropogenic (power generation, industrial activities, on-road traffic, ports, airports, solvent use, domestic and commercial fossil fuel use) and biogenic sources (vegetation), using a bottom-up approach, up-to-date information and state-of-the-art methodologies for <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimation. HERMES is capable of calculating <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by sector-specific sources or by individual installations and stacks. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> addition of hourly sectorial <span class="hlt">emissions</span> leads to an estimation of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as follows: NO x, 795 kt; NMVOCs, 1025 kt; CO, 1236 kt; SO 2, 1142 kt and TSP, 180 kt; which are distributed principally in the greater areas of the main cities, highways and large point sources. NO x, SO 2 and PM 2.5 highly correlate with the power generation by coal use, achieving higher <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels during summertime due to the increase of electricity demand by cooling systems. NMVOCs show high correlation with temperature and solar radiation (mainly as a consequence of the important weight of biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>) causing the maximum <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the daylight hours of summer months. CO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are mostly influenced by the on-road traffic; consequently the higher <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are attained in summer because of the increase of daily average traffic during holidays. The most significant <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources are on-road traffic (38%), combustion in power generation plants (33%), biogenic sources (12%) and combustion in manufacturing industries (9%). The inventory generated with HERMES <span class="hlt">emission</span> model has been successfully integrated within the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's air quality forecasting system (Caliope project), being the <span class="hlt">emission</span> core for the validation and assessment of air quality simulations in Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16933641"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbonyl <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from commercial cooking sources in Hong Kong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Yu, Jian Zhen; Chu, Kam Wah; Yeung, Lam Lung</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Cooking fumes are an important carbonyl <span class="hlt">emission</span> source, especially in a highly urbanized city, such as Hong Kong. Cooking exhaust from 15 commercial kitchens of a variety of cooking styles was sampled and analyzed for a suite of 13 carbonyl compounds. Carbonyl compositions were varied among the different cooking styles. Formaldehyde was generally the most abundant carbonyl, and its contribution to the <span class="hlt">total</span> carbonyl amount on a molar basis ranged from 12 to 60%. Acrolein was also found to be an abundant carbonyl in the cooking exhaust. The highest contribution by acrolein to the <span class="hlt">total</span> carbonyls was found to be 30% in the exhaust of a western-style steak restaurant. Long-chain saturated carbonyls, that is, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal, accounted for a significant fraction (> 40%) of the <span class="hlt">total</span> carbonyls in kitchens that always used heated cooking oils. Two dicarbonyls, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, had a various presence in the cooking <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, ranging from negligible to 10%. The presence of benzaldehyde and tolualdehyde was mostly negligible in the sampled kitchen exhaust. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of both individual carbonyls and <span class="hlt">total</span> carbonyls were estimated for various types of commercial kitchens. Local-style fast-food shops contributed the highest <span class="hlt">total</span> carbonyl <span class="hlt">emissions</span> per year mainly because of the large number of this kind of restaurant in Hong Kong. The citywide <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of the three most toxic carbonyls, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, were estimated assuming that the limited number of sampled restaurants were representative of the average restaurants. Such estimates of carbonyl <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates were comparable to the estimated carbonyl <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from vehicular sources, suggesting the importance of commercial cooking as a source for carbonyls in Hong Kong. PMID:16933641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/466094"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">emission</span> density and trend of ammonia over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wen-Xing Wang; Xiao-Feng Lu; Yan-Bo Pang; Tao Wang</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Nationwide, province-based and gridded anthropogenic NH{sub 3} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China have been made based on the number of livestock, poultry, fertilizer application, NH{sub 3} production and human beings. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have been calculated to be 89194.4 kt in 1991. In which livestock, fertilizer application, human beings, poultry and NH{sub 3} production account for 56.8%, 17.5%, 16.7% and 0.9% respectively. The gridded <span class="hlt">emission</span> densities show that the high densities have appeared in the Middle Eastern China and Sichuan Basin. The average <span class="hlt">emission</span> density over China is 0.9 t/km{sup 2} a in 1991. Which is just less than that of Europe (1.1 t/km{sup 2} a). The <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends of NH{sub 3} have also been calculated from 1991 to 1992.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/986803"><span id="translatedtitle">The temporal and spatial distribution of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel use in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gregg, J; Losey, London M; Andres, Robert Joseph; Blasing, T J; Marland, Gregg</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Refinements in the spatial and temporal resolution of North American fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> provide additional information about anthropogenic aspects of the carbon cycle. In North America, the seasonal and spatial patterns are a distinctive component to characterizing anthropogenic carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The pattern of fossil-fuel-based CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on a monthly scale has greater temporal and spatial variability than the flux aggregated to the national <span class="hlt">annual</span> level. For some areas, monthly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can vary by as much as 85% for some fuels when compared with monthly estimates based on a uniform temporal and spatial distribution. The United States accounts for the majority of North American fossil carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and the amplitude of the seasonal flux in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the United States is greater than the <span class="hlt">total</span> mean monthly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in both Canada and Mexico. Nevertheless, Canada and Mexico have distinctive seasonal patterns as well. For the continent, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were aggregated on a 5{sup o} x 10{sup o} latitude-longitude grid. The monthly pattern of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> varies on both a north-south and east-west gradient and evolves through the time period analyzed (1990-2007). For many areas in North America, the magnitude of the month-to-month variation is larger than the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from land use change, making the characterization of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> patterns essential to understanding humanity's influence on the carbon cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol4-sec219-800.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol4-sec219-800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 219.800 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reports. 219.800 Section 219.800 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report § 219.800 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reports. (a) Each railroad that has a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 400,000 or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec219-800.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol4-sec219-800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 219.800 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reports. 219.800 Section 219.800 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report § 219.800 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reports. (a) Each railroad that has a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 400,000 or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-08/pdf/2011-28881.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-11-08/pdf/2011-28881.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 69239 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Retail Trade Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-08</p> <p>... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, <span class="hlt">annual</span> e-commerce sales, year-end... receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to..., <span class="hlt">annual</span> e-commerce sales, purchases, <span class="hlt">total</span> operating expenses, accounts receivables, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..155N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..155N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> maximum 5-day rainfall <span class="hlt">total</span> and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>We simulated changes in <span class="hlt">annual</span> maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and <span class="hlt">annual</span> maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050176378&hterms=diesel+emissions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddiesel%2Bemissions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050176378&hterms=diesel+emissions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddiesel%2Bemissions"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of Trace Gases and Particles from Two Ships in the Southern Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Christian, Ted J.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Bruintjes, Roelof</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Measurements were made of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of particles and gases from two diesel-powered ships in the southern Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Namibia. The measurements are used to derive <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors from ships of three species not reported previously, namely, black carbon, accumulation-mode particles, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), as well as for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and condensation nuclei. The effects of fuel grade and engine power on ship <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are discussed. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are combined with fuel usage data to obtain estimates of global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of various particles and gases from ocean-going ships. Global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of black carbon, accumulation- mode particles, and CCN from ocean-going ships are estimated to be 19-26 Gg yr(sup -1), (4.4-6.1) x 10(exp 26) particles yr(sup -1), and (1.0-1.5) x l0(exp 26) particles yr(sup -1), respectively. Black carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from ocean-going ships are approximately 0.2% of <span class="hlt">total</span> anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of NOx and SO2 from ocean-going ships are approximately 10-14% and approximately 3-4%, respectively, of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these species from the burning of fossil fuels, and approximately 40% and approximately 70%, respectively, of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these species from the burning of biomass. Global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO and CH4 from ocean-going ships are approximately 2% and approximately 2-5%, respectively, of natural oceanic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AtmEn..36.5619D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AtmEn..36.5619D"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of an <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor for ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from US swine farms based on field tests and application of a mass balance method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doorn, M. R. J.; Natschke, D. F.; Thorneloe, S. A.; Southerland, J.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses and summarizes post-1994 US and European information on ammonia (NH 3) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from swine farms and assesses the applicability for general use in the United States. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates for the houses calculated by various methods show good agreement and suggest that the houses are a more significant source than previously thought. A general <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor for houses of 3.7±1.0 kg NH 3/ year/ finisher pig or 59±10 g NH 3/kg live weight/year is recommended. For lagoons, it was found that there is good similarity between the field test results and the number calculated by a mass balance method. The suggested <span class="hlt">annual</span> NH 3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor for lagoons based on field tests at one swine farm lagoon in North Carolina is 2.4 kg/ year/ pig. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> rates from sprayfields were estimated using a <span class="hlt">total</span> mass balance approach, while subtracting the house and lagoon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates for finishing pigs at the test farm compared well to the <span class="hlt">total</span> rate established by a mass balance approach based on nitrogen intake and volatilization. Therefore, it was concluded that a mass balance approach can be helpful in estimating NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from swine farms. A general <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor of 7±2 kg NH 3/pig/year could be developed, which is comparable to general European <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, which varied from 4.8 to 6.4 kg NH 3/pig/year.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006544"><span id="translatedtitle">Procedure for estimating permanent <span class="hlt">total</span> enclosure costs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lukey, M.E.; Prasad, C.; Toothman, D.A.; Kaplan, N.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture <span class="hlt">emissions</span> before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is to use permanent <span class="hlt">total</span> enclosures (PTEs). By definition, an enclosure which meets the US Environmental Protection Agency's five-point criteria is a PTE and has a capture efficiency of 100%. Since costs play an important role in regulatory development, in selection of control equipment, and in control technology evaluations for permitting purposes, EPA has developed a Control Cost Manual for estimating costs of various items of control equipment. EPA's Manual does not contain any methodology for estimating PTE costs. In order to assist environmental regulators and potential users of PTEs, a methodology for estimating PTE costs was developed under contract with EPA, by Pacific Environmental Services, Inc. (PES) and is the subject of this paper. The methodology for estimating PTE costs follows the approach used for other control devices in the Manual. It includes procedures for sizing various components of a PTE and for estimating capital as well as <span class="hlt">annual</span> costs. It contains verification procedures for demonstrating compliance with EPA's five-point criteria. In addition, procedures are included to determine compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. Meeting these standards is an important factor in properly designing PTEs. The methodology is encoded in Microsoft Exel spreadsheets to facilitate cost estimation and PTE verification. Examples are given throughout the methodology development and in the spreadsheets to illustrate the PTE design, verification, and cost estimation procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20923838','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20923838"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of six semivolatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in southern Canada and the United States by use of an <span class="hlt">emissions</span> processing system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Elisabeth Galarneau; Paul A. Makar; Mourad Sassi; Miriam L. Diamond</p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds that are ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment. The input for an <span class="hlt">emissions</span> processing system that was originally configured for the study of criteria air pollutants was updated to calculate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of six semivolatile PAHs. The goal of the work was to produce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates with the spatial and temporal resolution needed to serve as input to a regional air quality model for southern Canada and the U.S. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of the six PAHs ({Sigma}6PAH) for both countries was estimated at 18,273 Mg/year. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 90% of these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> arise from U.S. sources. The top six source types account for 73% of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and are related to metal production, open burning, incineration, and forest fires. Other sources include coal-fired boilers, diesel and gasoline vehicles, oxygen furnaces, and iron sintering. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors used in this study were derived from published compilations. Although this approach has the advantage of quality control during the compilation process, some compilations include factors from older studies that may overestimate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> since they do not account for recent improvements in <span class="hlt">emission</span> control technology. When compared to estimates published in the National <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Inventory (NEI) for 2002, the U.S. <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in this study are higher by a factor of 4. Much of the difference is likely due to use of data unavailable in the 2002 NEI but inferred here on the basis of the PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> literature. Augmenting the 2002 NEI with this additional information would bring its reported <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to 8213 Mg/year, which is within a factor of 2 of the estimates made by the authors. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24798347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24798347"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted. PMID:24798347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10331045G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...10331045G"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal course of isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a midlatitude deciduous forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Allen H.; Goulden, Michael L.; Munger, J. William; Wofsy, Steven C.; Geron, Christopher D.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Continuous measurements of whole canopy isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over an entire growing season are reported from Harvard Forest (4232'N, 7211'W). <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> were calculated from the ratio of observed CO2 flux and gradient multiplied by the observed hydrocarbon gradients. In summer 1995, 24-hour average <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of isoprene from June 1 through October 31 were 32.71010 molecules cm-2 s-l (mg C m-2 h-l = 2.8 1011 molecules cm-2 s-1), and the mean midday mixing ratio was 4.4 ppbv at 24 m. Isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were zero at night, increased through the morning with increasing air temperature and light, reached a peak in the afternoon between the peaks in air temperature and light, and then declined with light. Isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were observed over a shorter seasonal period than photosynthetic carbon uptake. Isoprene <span class="hlt">emission</span> was not detected from young leaves and reached a peak rate (normalized for response to measured light and temperature conditions) 4 weeks after leaf out and 2 weeks after <span class="hlt">emissions</span> began. The normalized <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate remained constant for approximately 65 days, then decreased steadily through September and into October. <span class="hlt">Total</span> isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over the growing season (42 kg C ha-1 yr-1) were equal to 2% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> net uptake of carbon by the forest. Measured isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were higher than the Biogenic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Inventory System-II model by at least 40% at midday and showed distinctly different diurnal and seasonal <span class="hlt">emission</span> patterns. Seasonal adjustment factors (in addition to the light and temperature factors) should be incorporated into future empirical models of isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Comparison of measured isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with estimates of anthropogenic volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emissions</span> suggests that isoprene is more important for ozone production in much of Massachusetts on hot summer days when the highest ozone events occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7034857','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7034857"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. Centro de Ecologia)</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>Estimates of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an <span class="hlt">annual</span> deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of <span class="hlt">total</span> deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's <span class="hlt">total</span> for 1985--87. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10181847"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D.</p> <p>1992-08-01</p> <p>Estimates of carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an <span class="hlt">annual</span> deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of <span class="hlt">total</span> deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s <span class="hlt">total</span> for 1985--87. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.9498L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.9498L"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitric oxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a typical vegetable field in the Pearl River Delta, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Dejun; Wang, Xinming</p> <p></p> <p>Croplands contribute to atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), but very limited data are available about NO fluxes from intensively managed croplands in China. In this study, NO fluxes were measured in a typical vegetable field planted with flowering Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee), which is the most widely cultivated vegetable in Guangdong province, south China. NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> drastically increased after nitrogen fertilizer application, and other practices involving loosening the soil also enhanced NO <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Mean NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> flux was 47.5 ng N m -2 s -1 over a complete growth cycle. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the vegetable field was about 10.1 kg N ha -1 yr -1. Fertilizer-induced NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor was estimated to be 2.4%. <span class="hlt">Total</span> NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> from vegetable fields in Guangdong province was roughly estimated to be 11.7 Gg N yr -1 based on the vegetable field area and <span class="hlt">annual</span> NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate, and to be 13.3 Gg N yr -1 based on fertilizer-induced NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor and background NO <span class="hlt">emission</span>. This means that NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> from vegetable fields was approximately 6% of NO x from commercial energy consumption in Guangdong province.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918401"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling reported and unreported HFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with atmospheric observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lunt, Mark F; Rigby, Matthew; Ganesan, Anita L; Manning, Alistair J; Prinn, Ronald G; O'Doherty, Simon; Mühle, Jens; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Arnold, Tim; Weiss, Ray F; Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Krummel, Paul B; Steele, L Paul; Fraser, Paul J; Li, Shanlan; Park, Sunyoung; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K; Lunder, Chris; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Maione, Michela; Arduini, Jgor; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G</p> <p>2015-05-12</p> <p>We infer global and regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of five of the most abundant hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) using atmospheric measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, networks. We find that the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2-equivalent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the five HFCs from countries that are required to provide detailed, <span class="hlt">annual</span> reports to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) increased from 198 (175-221) Tg-CO2-eq ⋅ y(-1) in 2007 to 275 (246-304) Tg-CO2-eq ⋅ y(-1) in 2012. These global warming potential-weighted aggregated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> agree well with those reported to the UNFCCC throughout this period and indicate that the gap between reported <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and global HFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> derived from atmospheric trends is almost entirely due to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from nonreporting countries. However, our measurement-based estimates of individual HFC species suggest that <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, from reporting countries, of the most abundant HFC, HFC-134a, were only 79% (63-95%) of the UNFCCC inventory <span class="hlt">total</span>, while other HFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were significantly greater than the reported values. These results suggest that there are inaccuracies in the reporting methods for individual HFCs, which appear to cancel when aggregated together. PMID:25918401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434701','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4434701"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciling reported and unreported HFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with atmospheric observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lunt, Mark F.; Rigby, Matthew; Ganesan, Anita L.; Manning, Alistair J.; Prinn, Ronald G.; O’Doherty, Simon; Mühle, Jens; Harth, Christina M.; Salameh, Peter K.; Arnold, Tim; Weiss, Ray F.; Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Krummel, Paul B.; Steele, L. Paul; Fraser, Paul J.; Li, Shanlan; Park, Sunyoung; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Lunder, Chris; Hermansen, Ove; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Maione, Michela; Arduini, Jgor; Young, Dickon; Simmonds, Peter G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We infer global and regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of five of the most abundant hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) using atmospheric measurements from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment and the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan, networks. We find that the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2-equivalent <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the five HFCs from countries that are required to provide detailed, <span class="hlt">annual</span> reports to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) increased from 198 (175–221) Tg-CO2-eq⋅y–1 in 2007 to 275 (246–304) Tg-CO2-eq⋅y–1 in 2012. These global warming potential-weighted aggregated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> agree well with those reported to the UNFCCC throughout this period and indicate that the gap between reported <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and global HFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> derived from atmospheric trends is almost entirely due to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from nonreporting countries. However, our measurement-based estimates of individual HFC species suggest that <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, from reporting countries, of the most abundant HFC, HFC-134a, were only 79% (63–95%) of the UNFCCC inventory <span class="hlt">total</span>, while other HFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were significantly greater than the reported values. These results suggest that there are inaccuracies in the reporting methods for individual HFCs, which appear to cancel when aggregated together. PMID:25918401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..35.8811T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeoRL..35.8811T"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of future climate change and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reductions on nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Woo, Jung-Hun; He, Shan; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Potential impacts of global climate change and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on the <span class="hlt">total</span> nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the US are investigated. Three future years' <span class="hlt">annual</span> average deposition rates (i.e., 2049-2051) are compared with historic ones (i.e., 2000-2002) accounting for existing US and individual State's <span class="hlt">emission</span> regulations and strategies. Impacts of global climate change alone on regional nitrogen and sulfur deposition are small compared to impacts from <span class="hlt">emission</span> control-related reductions for the projections used in this study. The combined effect of climate change and <span class="hlt">emission</span> reductions is a decrease in the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average nitrogen and sulfur deposition over the US. Reduced nitrogen species dominate oxidized nitrogen deposition in the future. Spatial distribution plots for both components show lower deposition rates in the future mainly in the middle and eastern States where reductions in NOx and SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are more pronounced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/136174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/136174"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yienger, J.J.; Levy, H. II</p> <p>1995-06-20</p> <p>The authors construct a global, temperature and precipitation dependent, empirical model of soil-biogenic NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using 6-hour general circulation model forcing. New features of this source relative to the latest published ones by Dignon et al. and Muller include synoptic-scale modeling of {open_quotes}pulsing{close_quotes} (the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> burst following the wetting of a dry soil), a biome dependent scheme to estimate canopy recapture of NO{sub x}, and an explicit linear dependence of <span class="hlt">emission</span> on N fertilizer rate for agricultural soils. Their best estimate for <span class="hlt">annual</span> above-canopy <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is 5.5 Tg N (NO{sub x}) with a range of 3.3-7.7 Tg N. Globally, the strongest emitters are agriculture, grasslands, and tropical rain forests, accounting for 41%, 35%, and 16% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> budget, respectively. {open_quotes}Pulsing{close_quotes} contributes 1.3 Tg N <span class="hlt">annually</span>. In temperate regions, agriculture dominates <span class="hlt">emission</span>, and in tropical regions, grassland dominates. Canopy recapture is significant, consuming, on average, possibly 50% of soil <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In temperate regions, periodic temperature changes associated with synoptic-scale disturbances can cause <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluctuations of up to 20 ng N m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, indicating a close correlation between <span class="hlt">emission</span> and warm weather events favorable to O{sub 3}/smog formation. By the year 2025, increasing use of nitrogen fertilizer may raise <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to 6.9 Tg N with agriculture accounting for more than 50% of the global source. Finally, biomass burning may add up to an additional 0.6 Tg N globally by stimulating <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for a short period after the burn. 74 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595402"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling effects of temperature and precipitation on carbon characteristics and GHGs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Abies fabric forest of subalpine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Xuyang; Cheng, Genwei; Xiao, Feipeng; Fan, Jihui</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Abies fabric forest in the eastern slope of Gongga mountain is one type of subalpine dark coniferous forests of southwestern China. It is located on the southeastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and is sensitive to climatic changes. A process-oriented biogeochemical model, Forest-DNDC, was applied to simulate the effects of climatic factors, temperature and precipitation changes on carbon characteristics, and greenhouse gases (GHGs) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in A. fabric forest. Validation indicated that the Forest-DNDC could be used to predict carbon characteristics and GHGs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with reasonable accuracy. The model simulated carbon fluxes, soil carbon dynamics, soil CO2, N2O, and NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with the changes of temperature and precipitation conditions. The results showed that with variation in the baseline temperature from -2 degrees C to +2 degrees C, the gross primary production (GPP) and soil organic carbon (SOC) increased, and the net primary production (NPP) and net ecosystem production (NEP) decreased because of higher respiration rate. With increasing baseline precipitation the GPP and NPP increased slightly, and the NEP and SOC showed decreasing trend. Soil CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increased with the increase of temperature, and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> changed little with increased baseline precipitation. With increased temperature and decreased baseline temperature, the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> soil N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increased. With the variation of baseline temperature from -2 degrees C to +2 degrees C, the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> soil NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increased. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O and NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> showed increasing trends with the increase of precipitation. The biogeochemical simulation of the typical forest indicated that temperature changes strongly affected carbon fluxes, soil carbon dynamics, and soil GHGs <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The precipitation was not a principal factor affecting carbon fluxes, soil carbon dynamics, and soil CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but changes in precipitation could exert strong effect on soil N2O and NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:18595402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.4986G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.4986G"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the continental united states: Inverse model estimation and evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilliland, Alice B.; Wyat Appel, K.; Pinder, Robert W.; Dennis, Robin L.</p> <p></p> <p>Significant uncertainty exists in the seasonal distribution of NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> since the predominant sources are animal husbandry and fertilizer application. Previous studies that estimated bottom-up and top-down NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have provided the most comprehensive information available about the seasonality of NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In this study, this bottom-up and top-down <span class="hlt">emission</span> information is combined with the most recent 2001 USEPA National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Inventory (NEI) to construct a best prior estimate of seasonal NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. These <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates are then used in an <span class="hlt">annual</span> 2001 USEPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulation for the continental United States. A key objective of this study is to evaluate these prior NH 3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates and test the top-down inverse modeling method for a different year and a larger modeling domain than used previously. Based on the final posterior NH 3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates, the inverse modeling results suggest that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> NEI NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are reasonable and that a previous high bias in older USEPA <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories has been addressed in the updated inventory. Inverse modeling results suggest that the prior NH 3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates should be increased in the summer and decreased in the winter, while results for the spring and fall are questionable due to precipitation prediction biases. A final conclusion from this study is that <span class="hlt">total</span> NH x (NH 3 and aerosol NH 4+) air concentration data are essential for quantitative top-down analyses of NH 3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that can extend beyond what is possible using precipitation chemistry data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10133010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10133010"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of ion chromatography-dc plasma atomic <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometry for the speciation of trace metals. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> performance report, February 1, 1989--January 31, 1992</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Urasa, I.T.</p> <p>1991-09-20</p> <p>The original objects of this research program were: to interface d.c. plasma atomic <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrometer with an ion chromatograph; to characterize and optimize the combined systems for application in the speciation of metals in aqueous solutions; to use this system in the study of the solution chemistry of various metals; and to find ways in which the measurement sensitivity of the method can be enhanced, thereby allowing the detection of metal species at low ppb concentration levels. This approach has been used to study the chemistry of and speciate several elements in solution including: arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel phosphorus, platinum, selenium, and vanadium. During the course of this research, we have found that the solution chemistry of the elements studied and the speciation data obtained can vary considerably depending on the solution, and the chromatographic conditions employed. The speciation of chromium, iron, and vanadium was found to be highly influenced by the acidity of the sample. The element selective nature of the d.c. plasma detector allows these changes to be monitored, thereby providing quantitative information on the new moieties formed. New approaches are being developed including the use of chelating ligands as preconcentration agents for purposes of reducing further the detection limits of the elements of interest and to improve the overall element speciation scheme. New thrusts are being directed towards the employment of post-column derivatization method coupled with colorimetric measurements to detect and quantify metal species eluting from the chromatographic column. The influence of sample acidity on these investigations will be carefully evaluated. These new thrusts are described in the accompanying Project Renewal Proposal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482329"><span id="translatedtitle">Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from open burning of crop residues in China between 1997 and 2004.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from open burning of crop residues in each province of China mainland between 1997 and 2004 were estimated to be ranged from 1.38x10(3) to 1.52x10(3) g I-TEQ/yr, with the average of 1.50+/-0.08x10(3) g I-TEQ/yr, which contributed to approximately 10% approximately 20% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China. The PCDD/F <span class="hlt">emissions</span> mainly occurred in the largest crop-producing provinces, especially in those of higher economic levels. The major sources of PCDD/F <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from open burning in China were found to be cereal residues (i.e. rice, wheat, and corn), which accounted about 70% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Moreover, the first-order one-variable grey differential equation model (GM (1,1) model) for <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PCDD/Fs was established based on grey system theory. The GM (1,1) model was proved to be robust to predict the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PCDD/F <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from crop residue field burning in forthcoming years. PMID:17482329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..679X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GBioC..28..679X"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of changes in barometric pressure on landfill methane <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Liukang; Lin, Xiaomao; Amen, Jim; Welding, Karla; McDermitt, Dayle</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured continuously using the eddy covariance method from June to December 2010. The study site was located at the Bluff Road Landfill in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. Our results show that landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure; rising barometric pressure suppressed the <span class="hlt">emission</span>, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the <span class="hlt">emission</span>, a phenomenon called barometric pumping. There was up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to changes in barometric pressure. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> variance in the methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> time series at our landfill site. From our results, it is clear that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from landfills based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28.8% underestimation to 32.3% overestimation. Our results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> landfill <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This conclusion may apply to the study of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environmental contexts where <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are from porous media or ebullition. Other implications from the present study for hazard gas monitoring programs are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/643288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/643288"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL NESHAPs 1996 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gallegos, G.M.</p> <p>1997-01-06</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">annual</span> report is prepared pursuant to the National <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H; Subpart H governs radionuclide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. NESHAPs limits the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of radionuclides to the ambient air from DOE facilities to levels resulting in an <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose equivalent (EDE) of 10 mrem (10 microsieverts) to any member of the public. The EDEs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from 1996 operations were (1) Livermore site: 0. 093 mrem (0.93 microsievert) (52% from point-source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, 48% from diffuse-source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>); (2) Site 300: 0.033 mrem (0.33 microsievert) (99% from point-source, 1% from diffuse-source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>). The EDEs were generally calculated using the EPA-approved CAP88-PC air-dispersion/dose-assessment model. Site-specific meteorological data, stack flow data, and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates based on radionuclide inventory data or continuous-monitoring systems data were the specific input to CAP88-PC for each modeled source. 5 figs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9b4010G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9b4010G"><span id="translatedtitle">The socioeconomic drivers of Chinas primary PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Dabo; Su, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Peters, Glen P.; Liu, Zhu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Primary PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contributed significantly to poor air quality in China. We present an interdisciplinary study to measure the magnitudes of socioeconomic factors in driving primary PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emission</span> changes in China between 1997-2010, by using a regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory as input into an environmentally extended input-output framework and applying structural decomposition analysis. Our results show that Chinas significant efficiency gains fully offset <span class="hlt">emissions</span> growth triggered by economic growth and other drivers. Capital formation is the largest final demand category in contributing <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM2.5 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but the associated <span class="hlt">emission</span> level is steadily declining. Exports is the only final demand category that drives <span class="hlt">emission</span> growth between 1997-2010. The production of exports led to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 638 thousand tonnes of PM2.5, half of the EU27 <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span>, and six times that of Germany. Embodied <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Chinese exports are largely driven by consumption in OECD countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AtmEn..33.3345C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AtmEn..33.3345C"><span id="translatedtitle">A UK inventory of nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from farmed livestock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chadwick, D. R.; Sneath, R. W.; Phillips, V. R.; Pain, B. F.</p> <p></p> <p>A UK inventory of the nitrous oxide (N 2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from farmed livestock was compiled to identify areas where potential abatement practices may be effective. Where possible, <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors based on direct experimental data gathered under UK conditions were used, but published data were used when this was not feasible, together with statistical information, which included details of numbers of animals within each category of a species, animal liveweights, number of days housed, excretal rates and volumes of manures in stores. <span class="hlt">Total</span> N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were calculated for each component of livestock production systems, i.e. animal houses, manure stores, following application of manures to land and during grazing. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> were also estimated from land used for forage conservation and tillage. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from UK farmed livestock, based mainly on 1996 animal census data, were estimated to be 38.27 kt. The two main terms were 22.66 kt N 2O from mineral fertilisers after application to soils and 5.61 kt N 2O from stored manures (mainly in the form of farmyard manure). Within buildings, poultry were the largest contributors of N 2O, 2.97 kt, followed by cattle, 1.62 kt. Within the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from stored manures, cattle were the largest contributors of N 2O, 3.58 kt, followed by poultry, 1.86 kt. Dietary manipulation and a move from solid manure based systems to slurry based systems appear to be promising abatement practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24526614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24526614"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from gasoline vehicles to the volatile organic compound inventory in Mexico City.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; González-Macías, C</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The strategy for decreasing volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Mexico has been focused much more on tailpipe <span class="hlt">emissions</span> than on evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, so there is very little information on the contribution of evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the <span class="hlt">total</span> volatile organic compound inventory. We examined the magnitudes of exhaust and evaporative volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and the species emitted, in a representative fleet of light-duty gasoline vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The US "FTP-75" test protocol was used to estimate volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with diurnal evaporative losses, and when the engine is started and a journey begins. The amount and nature of the volatile organic compounds emitted under these conditions have not previously been accounted in the official inventory of the area. Evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from light-duty vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were estimated to be 39 % of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> amount of hydrocarbons emitted. Vehicles built before 1992 (16 % of the fleet) were found to be responsible for 43 % of the <span class="hlt">total</span> hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from exhausts and 31 % of the evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of organic compounds. The relatively high amounts of volatile organic compounds emitted from older vehicles found in this study show that strong <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls need to be implemented in order to decrease the contribution of evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of this fraction of the fleet. PMID:24526614</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037951&hterms=emissivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Demissivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037951&hterms=emissivity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Demissivity"><span id="translatedtitle">(abstract) Determination of the Specific Heat and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Hemispherical <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">Emissivity</span> of the Highly Undercooled Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) Alloy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Busch, R.; Kim, Y. J.; Johnson, W. L.; Rulison, A. J.; Rhim, W. K.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>High temperature high vacuum electrostatic levitation was combined with DSC experiments to determine the specific heat C(sub p) of the undercooled Zr(sub 41.2)Ti(sub 13.8)Cu(sub 12.5)Ni(sub 10.0)Be(sub 22.5) liquid as a function of temperature. The containerless approach made it possible to undercool the melt to the glass transition temperature without inducing nucleation. Because the cooling process was purely radiative, noncontact temperature measurement techniques could be used to determine the specific heat to <span class="hlt">total</span> hemispherical <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> ratio, C(sub p)/epsilon(sub t), for the undercooled liquid region. Using C(sub p) values which were independently obtained by DSC, epsilon(sub t) could be determined. With knowledge of C(sub p) of the undercooled liquid it was possible to determine other thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs free energy and entropy as a function of undercooling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6505014','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6505014"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from municipal solid waste combustors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>This report examines <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> nationwide MSW combustor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled <span class="hlt">emissions</span>) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such <span class="hlt">emissions</span> control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960011437','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960011437"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypergolic oxidizer and fuel scrubber <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Curran, Dan; Hodge, Tim; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Hypergolic fuels and oxidizer are emitted to the environment during fueling and deservicing shuttle and other spacecraft. Such <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are difficult to measure due to the intermittent purge flow and to the presence of suspended scrubber liquor. A new method for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitoring was introduced in a previous paper. This paper is a summary of the results of a one-year study of shuttle launch pads and orbiter processing facilities (OPF's) which proved that <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be determined from field scrubbers without direct measurement of vent flow rate and hypergol concentration. This new approach is based on the scrubber efficiency, which was measured during normal operations, and on the accumulated weight of hypergol captured in the scrubber liquor, which is part of the routine monitoring data of scrubber liquors. To validate this concept, three qualification tests were performed, logs were prepared for each of 16 hypergol scrubbers at KSC, the efficiencies of KSC scrubbers were measured during normal operations, and an estimate of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was made based on the efficiencies and the propellant buildup data. The results have confirmed that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the KSC scrubbers can be monitored by measuring the buildup of hypergol propellant in the liquor, and then using the appropriate efficiency to calculate the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. There was good agreement between the calculated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on outlet concentration and flow rate, and the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> calculated from the propellant buildup and efficiency. The efficiencies of 12 KSC scrubbers, measured under actual servicing operations and special test conditions, were assumed to be valid for all subsequent operations until a significant change in hardware occurred. An estimate of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 16 scrubbers for three years showed that 0.3 kg/yr of fuel and 234 kg/yr of oxidizer were emitted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-125.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol21-sec89-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. (a) Upon the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-125.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol21-sec89-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. (a) Upon the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-125.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol20-sec89-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. (a) Upon the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-125.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol20/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol20-sec89-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 89.125 - Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. 89... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.125 Production engines, <span class="hlt">annual</span> report. (a) Upon the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275265','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4275265"><span id="translatedtitle">Frozen Cropland Soil in Northeast China as Source of N2O and CO2 <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (NovemberMarch), when soil temperatures are below ?7C for extended periods, were 0.893.01 g N m?2 h?1, and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.735.48 g N m?2 h?1. The cumulative N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were on average 0.271.39, 0.030.08 and 0.030.11 kg N2ON ha?1 during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were 6.312.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were similar. Cumulative CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were 2.734.94, 0.130.20 and 0.070.11 Mg CO2-C ha?1 during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was 2.02.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> continue throughout the winter. PMID:25536036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.8849Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.8849Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of energy paths and <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls and standards on future trends in China's <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of primary air pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> controls are estimated, generating a <span class="hlt">total</span> of nine combined activity-<span class="hlt">emission</span> control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of primary air pollutants through 2030. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> should decline. For example, the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of SO2, NOx, <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed <span class="hlt">emission</span> standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of <span class="hlt">emission</span> projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about <span class="hlt">emission</span> control plans by region. The predicted <span class="hlt">emission</span> trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and thereby concentrations of negative-forcing sulfate particles. Expanded control of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols from small industrial and residential sources is recommended, and a more comprehensive <span class="hlt">emission</span> control strategy targeting a wider range of pollutants (volatile organic compounds, NH3 and CO, etc.) and taking account of more diverse environmental impacts is also urgently needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5351690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5351690"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and source type distribution of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of selected toxic volatile organic compounds in the United States in 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benjey, W.G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>An improved interim toxic <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory for the purpose of screening-level regional dispersion and deposition modeling is estimated from a 1990 interim <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the United States. The VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory was derived by updating portions of the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, principal contributing source types, and spatial distributions for four selected toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene, are presented for the United States. The resulting <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates are an improvement over an earlier application of this approach, despite necessary heavy reliance on general and default speciation profiles. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">totals</span> generally exceed national estimates based on partial or top-down inventory approaches by one to two orders of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-sec98-113.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-sec98-113.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... = <span class="hlt">Annual</span> mass of alloy product k tapped from EAF (tons). Cproduct k = Carbon content in alloy product k... = <span class="hlt">Annual</span> process CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an individual EAF (metric tons). Mproduct i = <span class="hlt">Annual</span> mass of alloy.... EFproduct i = CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor for alloy product i from Table K-1 in this subpart (kg of CH4...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026593','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026593"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> and Semi-<span class="hlt">Annual</span> Temperature Oscillations in the Upper Mesosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Fourier transform spectrometer observations of the mesosphere have been performed at the University of Michigan (latitude: 42.5 N) on a long term basis. A database of near infrared Meinel hydroxyl spectra has been accumulated from which rotational temperatures have been determined. Harmonic analysis of one-day averaged temperatures for the period 1992.0 to 1994.5 has shown a distinct <span class="hlt">annual</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variation. Subsequent fitting of a five term periodic function characterizing the <span class="hlt">annual</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> temperature oscillations to the daily averaged temperatures was performed. The resultant mean temperature and the amplitudes and phases of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations are shown to coincide with an <span class="hlt">emission</span> height slightly above 85 km which is consistent with the mean rocket derived altitude for peak nocturnal hydroxyl <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6943073','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6943073"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from natural wetlands: Global distribution, area, and environmental characteristics of sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matthews, E.; Fung, I. )</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>A global data base of wetlands at 1 degree resolution was developed from the integration of three independent global, digital sources: (1) vegetation, (2) soil properties and (3) fractional inundation in each 1 degree cell. The integration yielded a global distribution of wetland sites identified with in situ ecological and environmental characteristics. The wetland sites were classified into five major groups on the basis of environmental characteristics governing methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The global wetland area derived in this study is 5.3 trillion sq m, approximately twice the wetland area previously used in methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> studies. Methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> was calculated using methane fluxes for the major wetland groups, and simple assumptions about the duration of the methane production season. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from wetlands is about 110 Tg, well within the range of previous estimates. Tropical/subtropical peat-poor swamps from 20 degrees N to 30 degrees S account from 30% of the global wetland area and 25% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>. About 60% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> comes from peat-rich bogs concentrated from 50-70 degrees N, suggesting that the highly seasonal <span class="hlt">emission</span> from these ecosystems is the major contributor to the large <span class="hlt">annual</span> oscillations observed in atmospheric methane concentrations at these latitudes. 78 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4711884','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4711884"><span id="translatedtitle">Cold season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Henderson, John M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D.; Kimball, John S.; Lipson, David A.; Oechel, Walter C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 flux, with the highest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> occur during the “zero curtain” period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra <span class="hlt">total</span> 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y−1, ∼25% of global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from extratropical wetlands, or ∼6% of <span class="hlt">total</span> global wetland methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The dominance of late-season <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming. PMID:26699476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26699476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26699476"><span id="translatedtitle">Cold season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> dominate the Arctic tundra methane budget.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C; Miller, Charles E; Dinardo, Steven J; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y-W; Henderson, John M; Murphy, Patrick C; Goodrich, Jordan P; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D; Kimball, John S; Lipson, David A; Oechel, Walter C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 flux, with the highest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra <span class="hlt">total</span> 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y(-1), ∼25% of global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from extratropical wetlands, or ∼6% of <span class="hlt">total</span> global wetland methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The dominance of late-season <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming. PMID:26699476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9..617J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9..617J"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Peat surface CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 2300 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements were taken at 144 locations, over a 2 year period. The autotrophic root respiration component of CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was separated from heterotrophic <span class="hlt">emission</span> caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of autotrophic respiration to daytime CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was 21% along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this was up to 80% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but it was negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements well away from trees were free of any autotrophic respiration contribution and thus represent only heterotrophic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We found daytime mean <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 y-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum <span class="hlt">emission</span> value of 80 t ha-1 y-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which may result in a 14.5% reduction of the daytime <span class="hlt">emission</span>. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depth and peat oxidation CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous <span class="hlt">emission</span>/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation establishment may explain over 50% of peat oxidation <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Our study sets a standard for greenhouse gas flux studies from tropical peatlands under different forms of agricultural land management. It is the first to purposefully quantify heterotrophic CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> resulting from tropical peat decomposition by separating these from autotrophic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It also provides the most scientifically- and statistically-rigorous study to date of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> resulting from anthropogenic modification of this globally significant carbon rich ecosystem. Our findings indicate that past studies have underestimated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from peatland plantations, with important implications for the scale of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> arising from land use change, particularly in the light of current, rapid agricultural conversion of peatlands in the Southeast Asian region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081301"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A <span class="hlt">Total</span> Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Tomography Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron <span class="hlt">emission</span> tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A <span class="hlt">total</span> distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3079461','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3079461"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Biogenic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Uncertainties on the Simulated Response of Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter to Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Reductions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G.; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E.; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates from two commonly used biogenic <span class="hlt">emission</span> models, the Model of <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN <span class="hlt">emissions</span> resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1–0.25 μg/m3 in the summer <span class="hlt">total</span> organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1–2% of the value of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 μg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:21305893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21B0056E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A21B0056E"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass Burning <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> and Deforestation in The Legal Amazon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ellicott, E. A.; Vermote, E. F.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning, often concomitant with deforestation, is recognized as a significant source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and has received attention from the scientific community as an important agent in climate change. Earth observing satellites have made significant contributions to fire and deforestation detection, monitoring, and characterization for nearly three decades. In this work, we demonstrate the application of our approach to estimate fire radiative energy (FRE) released from biomass burning to infer CO2 and organic and black carbon aerosol (OCBC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from biomass burning in the Legal Amazon. We then compared <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates with deforestation rates produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Our research offers a new approach and insights to the dynamics of fire, deforestation, <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean CO2 and OCBC emitted for the study period (2001-2009) from the Legal Amazon biomass burning was estimated to be 253 Tg and 2.3 Tg, respectively. This represents 9% and 14% of the global CO2 and OCBC, respectively, emitted from fires. In general, the trend in <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates mirrored deforestation rates. However, 2007 was an anomalous year in Brazil as it was one of the highest years in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fire, but a relatively low year for deforestation (Fig. 1). This discrepancy is a result of an abnormally dry year which resulted in a greater frequency of fires not directly associated with deforestation, but which may be tied to agricultural and pasture maintenance fires. A similar discrepancy was observed when comparing deforestation and <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates from Mato Grosso and Par; the two states responsible for most of the deforestation (71%) and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (~65%) from the Legal Amazon during the study period. Although as of 2006 Par had <span class="hlt">annually</span> surpassed Mato Grosso in <span class="hlt">annual</span> forest loss it wasnt until 2009 that <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Par were greater. Thus, suggesting the importance of non-deforestation related fires to <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Mato Grosso. Therefore, any discussion of reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from deforestation and degradation (REDD+) should also consider the implications of fire as a tool for managing the land after deforestation has occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol9-sec61-162.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol9-sec61-162.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.162 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standard for Inorganic Arsenic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>... <span class="hlt">total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) <span class="hlt">Total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol8-sec61-162.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol8-sec61-162.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.162 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standard for Inorganic Arsenic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>... <span class="hlt">total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) <span class="hlt">Total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol9-sec61-162.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol9-sec61-162.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.162 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standard for Inorganic Arsenic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>... <span class="hlt">total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) <span class="hlt">Total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol8-sec61-162.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol8-sec61-162.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.162 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standard for Inorganic Arsenic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>... <span class="hlt">total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) <span class="hlt">Total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol9-sec61-162.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol9-sec61-162.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.162 - <span class="hlt">Emission</span> limits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standard for Inorganic Arsenic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span>... <span class="hlt">total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be less than 2.5 Mg (2.7 ton) per year, or (2) <span class="hlt">Total</span> arsenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the glass melting furnace shall be conveyed to a control device...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1534533M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1534533M"><span id="translatedtitle">The contribution of soil biogenic NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a managed hyper-arid ecosystem to the regional NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during growing season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mamtimin, B.; Badawy, M.; Behrendt, T.; Meixner, F. X.; Wagner, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A study was carried out to understand the contributions of soil biogenic NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from managed (fertilized and irrigated) hyper-arid ecosystem in NW-China to the regional NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during growing season. Soil biogenic NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were quantified by laboratory incubation of corresponding soil samples. We have developed the Geoscience General Tool Package (GGTP) to obtain soil temperature, soil moisture and biogenic soil NO <span class="hlt">emission</span> at oasis scale. Bottom-up anthropogenic NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have been scaled down from <span class="hlt">annual</span> to monthly values to compare mean monthly soil biogenic NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The top-down <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates have been derived from satellite observations compared then with the bottom-up <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates (anthropogenic and biogenic). The results show that the soil biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of NO2 during the growing period are (at least) equal until twofold of the related anthropogenic sources. We found that the grape soils are the main summertime contributor to the biogenic NO <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of study area, followed by cotton soils. The top-down and bottom-up <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates were shown to be useful methods to estimate the monthly/seasonal cycle of the <span class="hlt">total</span> regional NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The resulting <span class="hlt">total</span> NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> show a strong peak in winter and a secondary peak in summer, providing confidence in the method. These findings provide strong evidence that biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from soils of managed drylands (irrigated and fertilized) in the growing period can be much more important contributors to the regional NO2 budget (hence to regional photochemistry) of dryland regions than thought before.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26281719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26281719"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marchese, Anthony J; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel J; Martinez, David M; Williams, Laurie L; Robinson, Allen L; Mitchell, Austin L; Subramanian, R; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>New facility-level methane (CH4) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> measurements obtained from 114 natural gas gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in 13 U.S. states were combined with facility counts obtained from state and national databases in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from U.S. natural gas gathering and processing operations. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 2421 (+245/-237) Gg were estimated for all U.S. gathering and processing operations, which represents a CH4 loss rate of 0.47% (0.05%) when normalized by 2012 CH4 production. Over 90% of those <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were attributed to normal operation of gathering facilities (1697 +189/-185 Gg) and processing plants (506 +55/-52 Gg), with the balance attributed to gathering pipelines and processing plant routine maintenance and upsets. The median CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimate for processing plants is a factor of 1.7 lower than the 2012 EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate, with the difference due largely to fewer reciprocating compressors, and a factor of 3.0 higher than that reported under the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Since gathering operations are currently embedded within the production segment of the EPA GHGI, direct comparison to our results is complicated. However, the study results suggest that CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from gathering are substantially higher than the current EPA GHGI estimate and are equivalent to 30% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> net CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the natural gas systems GHGI. Because CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from most gathering facilities are not reported under the current rule and not all source categories are reported for processing plants, the <span class="hlt">total</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from gathering and processing reported under the EPA GHGRP (180 Gg) represents only 14% of that tabulated in the EPA GHGI and 7% of that predicted from this study. PMID:26281719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212314','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212314"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seiferlein, Katherine E.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....”</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/290881','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/290881"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal industry <span class="hlt">annual</span> 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Coal Industry <span class="hlt">Annual</span> 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the <span class="hlt">annual</span> survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national <span class="hlt">total</span> coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-211.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol9-sec665-211.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.211 - <span class="hlt">Total</span> Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Total</span> Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665.211... Fisheries 665.211 <span class="hlt">Total</span> Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set <span class="hlt">annually</span> for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the <span class="hlt">annual</span> TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-211.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol11-sec665-211.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 665.211 - <span class="hlt">Total</span> Allowable Catch (TAC) limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Total</span> Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. 665... Fisheries 665.211 <span class="hlt">Total</span> Allowable Catch (TAC) limit. (a) TAC limits will be set <span class="hlt">annually</span> for the fishing... Administrator shall publish a notice indicating the <span class="hlt">annual</span> TAC limit in the Federal Register by August 31...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..62..461B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..62..461B"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of road traffic <span class="hlt">emission</span> models in Madrid (Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> models and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging <span class="hlt">emission</span> figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> NOX <span class="hlt">emissions</span> predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared with observations through a series of statistics. Although there are no remarkable differences between both model runs, the results suggest that HBEFA may overestimate traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. However, the results are strongly influenced by methodological issues and limitations of the traffic model. This study was useful to provide a first alternative estimate to the official <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory in Madrid and to identify the main features of the traffic model that should be improved to support the application of an <span class="hlt">emission</span> system based on "real world" <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......419S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......419S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling study of natural <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, source apportionment, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> control of atmospheric mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shetty, Suraj K.</p> <p></p> <p>Mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and is important to understand its cycling in the environment. In this dissertation, a number of modeling investigations were conducted to better understand the <span class="hlt">emission</span> from natural surfaces, the source-receptor relationship of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> reduction of atmospheric mercury. The first part of this work estimates mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from vegetation, soil and water surfaces using a number of natural <span class="hlt">emission</span> processors and detailed (LAI) Leaf Area Index data from GIS (Geographic Information System) satellite products. East Asian domain was chosen as it contributes nearly 50% of the global anthropogenic mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> into the atmosphere. The estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> natural mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (gaseous elemental mercury) in the domain are 834 Mg yr-1 with 462 Mg yr-1 contributing from China. Compared to anthropogenic sources, natural sources show greater seasonal variability (highest in simmer). The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are significant, sometimes dominant, contributors to <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the regions. The estimates provide possible explanation for the gaps between the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates based on activity data and the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inferred from field observations in the regions. To understand the contribution of domestic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to mercury deposition in the United States, the second part of the work applies the mercury model of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling system (CMAQ-Hg v4.6) to apportion the various <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources attributing to the mercury wet and dry deposition in the 6 United States receptor regions. Contributions to mercury deposition from electric generating units (EGU), iron and steel industry (IRST), industrial point sources excluding EGU and IRST (OIPM), the remaining anthropogenic sources (RA), natural processes (NAT), and out-of-boundary transport (BC) in domain was estimated. The model results for 2005 compared reasonably well to field observations made by MDN (Mercury Deposition Network) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a <span class="hlt">total</span> deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (< 100 km) the <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources, indicating that <span class="hlt">emission</span> reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Among the sources, BC contributes to about 68% to 91% of <span class="hlt">total</span> deposition. Excluding the BC's contribution, EGU contributes to nearly 50% of deposition caused by CONUS <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the Northeast, Southeast and East Central regions, while <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). The modeling results implies that implementation of the new <span class="hlt">emission</span> standards proposed by USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) would significantly benefit regions that have larger contributions from EGU sources. Control of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal combustion processes has attracted great attention due to its toxicity and the <span class="hlt">emission</span>-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and surface area of 90.25 cm2 g -1). The model result demonstrated that a batch of activated carbon </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12775078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12775078"><span id="translatedtitle">Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using input-output tables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Preparing <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, energy consumption, and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the <span class="hlt">total</span> amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from limestone (for example, during cement production). The <span class="hlt">total</span> energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> induced in each sector by the economic final demand. PMID:12775078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710012M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710012M"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory is needed. In this work, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> amounts of PAHs were estimated as <span class="hlt">annual</span> rates of <span class="hlt">emission</span>-related activities multiplied by respective <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors from local measurements were used. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount. PAHs <span class="hlt">emission</span> profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces of China were characterized by higher <span class="hlt">emission</span> per capita. The PAHs <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were higher in the winter than those in the summer. In the following work, the above <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory will be used as an input to Chemical Transport Model to simulate the ambient PAHs concentrations in China, and the uncertainty of the inventory will be assessed based on the comparisons between simulated concentrations and available observations. Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41175102). Corresponding author: Xuesong Wang</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22236636"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic atmospheric nickel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and its distribution characteristics in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tian, H Z; Lu, L; Cheng, K; Hao, J M; Zhao, D; Wang, Y; Jia, W X; Qiu, P P</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>Nickel and its compounds are considered as potential human carcinogens, and atmospheric nickel is one of the major routes for human exposure. By applying the best available fuel-based or product-based <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors and <span class="hlt">annual</span> activity levels, a multiple-year comprehensive inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric nickel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China is presented with temporal trend and spatial resolutions for the period of 1980-2009 from both fuels combustion sources and industrial producing processes. We estimate that the <span class="hlt">total</span> atmospheric nickel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all the sources have increased from 1096.07 t in 1980 to 3933.71 t in 2009, at an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> growth rate of 4.5%. Therein, coal combustion is the leading source, attributing 63.4% of the national <span class="hlt">total</span> nickel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2009; liquid fuels consumption ranks the second, contributing 12.4% of the <span class="hlt">totals</span>; biofuels burning accounts for 8.4% and the remaining sources together contribute 15.8% of the <span class="hlt">totals</span>. Significant spatial variations are demonstrated among provincial <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the most concentrated regions are the highly industrialized and densely populated areas like the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Moreover, the overall uncertainties are estimated at -32.6%-37.7% by using Monte Carlo simulation, most of which come from non-ferrous metals smelting category, implying the urgent need for further investigation and field tests. This article may help to combat the increasing stress on air heavy metals pollution in China and provide useful information to calculate global mass balance models for hazardous trace elements. PMID:22236636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050177923&hterms=acetic+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dacetic%2Bacid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050177923&hterms=acetic+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dacetic%2Bacid"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Miombo Woodland and Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles over and downwind of two prescribed savanna fires in Zambia are described. The measurements include profiles through the smoke plumes of condensation nucleus concentrations and normalized excess mixing ratios of particles and gases, <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for 42 trace gases and seven particulate species, and vertical profiles of ambient conditions. The fires were ignited in plots of miombo woodland savanna, the most prevalent savanna type in southern Africa, and dambo grassland savanna, an important enclave of miombo woodland ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors for the two fires are combined with measurements of fuel loading, combustion factors, and burned area (derived from satellite burn scar retrievals) to estimate the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of trace gases and particles from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia and southern Africa during the dry season (May-October) of 2000. It is estimated that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2, CO, <span class="hlt">total</span> hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, methyl bromide, <span class="hlt">total</span> particulate matter, and black carbon from woodland and grassland savanna fires during the dry season of 2000 in southern Africa contributed 12.3%, 12.6%, 5.9%, 10.3%, 7.5%, 24.2%, 2.8%, 17.5%, and 11.1%, respectively, of the average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all types of savanna fires worldwide. In 2000 the average <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, propene, formaldehyde, methanol, and acetic acid from the use of biofuels in Zambia were comparable to or exceeded dry season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of these species from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..933W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..933W"><span id="translatedtitle">Significant fraction of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from boreal lakes derived from hydrologic inorganic carbon inputs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Kosten, Sarian; Wallin, Marcus B.; Tranvik, Lars J.; Jeppesen, Erik; Roland, Fabio</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from lakes and other inland waters into the atmosphere are estimated to almost entirely compensate the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon uptake by oceans. CO2 supersaturation in lakes, which results in CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, is frequently attributed to CO2 produced within the lake. However, lateral inorganic carbon flux through watersheds can also be sizeable. Here we calculated lake surface water CO2 concentrations and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using lake pH, alkalinity and temperature from a compilation of data from 5,118 boreal lakes. Autumn surface water CO2 concentrations and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the 5,118 lakes co-varied with lake internal autumn CO2 production. However, using a mass balance approach we found that CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the majority of lakes was sustained by inorganic carbon loading from the catchment rather than by internal CO2 production. Small lakes with high dissolved organic carbon and phosphorus concentrations, shorter retention times and longer ice-free seasons had the highest CO2 concentrations. CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these small lakes was twice that of comparable lakes in colder regions, and similar to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from subtropical and tropical lakes. We conclude that changes in land use and climate that increase dissolved inorganic carbon may cause <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels from boreal lakes to approach those of lakes in warmer regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20441144"><span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of perfluorocarbons in East Asia deduced from continuous atmospheric measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saito, Takuya; Yokouchi, Yoko; Stohl, Andreas; Taguchi, Shoichi; Mukai, Hitoshi</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The atmospheric mixing ratios of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), extremely potent greenhouse gases, have been continuously measured at two Japanese stations (Cape Ochiishi and Hateruma Island) since 2006, to infer their global and regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The baseline mixing ratios of the measured C(2)-C(4) PFCs [PFC-116 (C(2)F(6)), PFC-218 (C(3)F(8)), and PFC-318 (c-C(4)F(8))] showed slight <span class="hlt">annual</span> increases of 1%-3%. Enhanced mixing ratios above baseline were occasionally observed at both sites in air masses that had passed over metropolitan regions in East Asia, suggesting high PFC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from those regions. We applied transport models to these pollution events and an inversion technique to estimate national <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The results suggest that, among the studied regions (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan), China was the largest PFC emitter, accounting for more than half of the regional <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, followed by Japan. The estimated <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of each PFC from East Asia were 0.86 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-116, 0.31 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-218, and 0.56 Gg yr(-1) for PFC-318. They contributed greatly to global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as derived from the <span class="hlt">annual</span> increases in the baseline mixing ratios, accounting for more than 75% of global PFC-218 and PFC-318 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and for approximately 40% of global PFC-116 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. PMID:20441144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5194136','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5194136"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional analysis of S <span class="hlt">emission</span>-deposition trends in North America from 1979 through 1988</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shannon, J.D.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Variations in SO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> weighted by a regional deposition model are shown to account for most of the variance in regionally averaged <span class="hlt">annual</span> wet deposition (WD) and precipitation-weighted concentrations (PWCs) of sulfate in the United States and Canada during the period 1979--1988. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> decreased about 15% during that time. For all sites combined, weighted <span class="hlt">emissions</span> accounted for about two-thirds of the variance, with slightly better performance for PWC than for WD. Restricting the <span class="hlt">emission</span> regions to the states containing the monitoring sites in each region led to very mixed results, with good explanation of WD and PWC variance in the Midwest and in all sites combined but generally poor explanation elsewhere, particularly for WD. In some regions, local <span class="hlt">emission</span> densities are quite low, and most deposition would be expected to result from outside sources, so no strong relationship between local <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates and deposition would be expected. Including <span class="hlt">annual</span> meteorological variability in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> weighting improved variance explanation in several of the peripheral regions, but reduced variance explanation elsewhere, particularly in the Midwest, the region of the highest <span class="hlt">emission</span> density. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-sec98-73.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-sec98-73.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.73 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... must calculate and report the <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each ammonia manufacturing process unit... subpart the process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by operating and maintaining CEMS according to the Tier 4 Calculation... this section: ER30OC09.034 Where: CO2,G,k = <span class="hlt">Annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> arising from gaseous...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-sec98-113.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-sec98-113.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... must calculate and report the <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each EAF not subject to paragraph (c... and report under this subpart the process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by operating and maintaining CEMS according to... subpart the <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using the procedure in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-sec98-113.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-sec98-113.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... must calculate and report the <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each EAF not subject to paragraph (c... and report under this subpart the process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by operating and maintaining CEMS according to... subpart the <span class="hlt">annual</span> process CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using the procedure in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23827483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23827483"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full <span class="hlt">annual</span> growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> rates were quantified in a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, producing greater than 95% of BVOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term <span class="hlt">emission</span> dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates (BER, normalized to 1000?molm(-2)s(-1) and 30C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0?gg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1?gg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from <0.01 to 0.15?gg(-1)h(-1). BER of up to 1.2?gg(-1)h(-1) of the SQT germacrene B were found from Q. gambelii, peaking in late summer. The ?-factor, used to define temperature dependence in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped <span class="hlt">emission</span> pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors illustrated large deviations when <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are applied for other seasons than those in which they were experimentally determined. PMID:23827483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1321003F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1321003F"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in East Asia determined by inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 <span class="hlt">emission</span> trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in countries that are not obligated to report their <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the <span class="hlt">total</span> SF6 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the <span class="hlt">total</span> East Asian <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the <span class="hlt">total</span>. The per-capita SF6 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from China increased rapidly and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from South Korea increased slightly, while <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/959124"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>M. Aslam K. Khalil</p> <p>2009-07-16</p> <p>This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor which is the <span class="hlt">annual</span> amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing <span class="hlt">emission</span> from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant <span class="hlt">total</span> global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural <span class="hlt">emissions</span> appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> From Rice Fields Increase as Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> fall and nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1242006','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1242006"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL NESHAPs 2014 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, K.; Bertoldo, N.; Gallegos, G.; MacQueen, D.; Wegrecki, A.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 μSv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 4.0.1.17, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual member of the public for the Livermore Site and Site 300.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/958671','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/958671"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL NESHAPs 2008 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bertoldo, N; Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Wegrecki, A; Wilson, K</p> <p>2009-06-25</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC operates facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H, which regulates radionuclide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to air from Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Specifically, NESHAPs limits the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of radionuclides to the ambient air to levels resulting in an <span class="hlt">annual</span> effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem (100 {mu}Sv) to any member of the public. Using measured and calculated <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and building-specific and common parameters, LLNL personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 1.0, to calculate the dose to the maximally exposed individual for the Livermore site and Site 300. The dose for the LLNL site-wide maximally exposed members of the public from operations in 2008 are summarized here: {sm_bullet} Livermore site: 0.0013 mrem (0.013 {mu}Sv) (26% from point source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, 74% from diffuse source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>). The point source <span class="hlt">emissions</span> include gaseous tritium modeled as tritiated water vapor as directed by EPA Region IX; the resulting dose is used for compliance purposes. {sm_bullet} Site 300: 0.000000044 mrem (0.00000044 {mu}Sv) (100% from point source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11620304S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11620304S"><span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from shifting cultivation in the tropics, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, J. M. N.; Carreiras, J. M. B.; Rosa, I.; Pereira, J. M. C.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, and NOx from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems in tropical Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at national and continental levels as the product of area burned, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor. The <span class="hlt">total</span> area of shifting cultivation in each country was derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 map, while the area cleared and burned <span class="hlt">annually</span> was obtained by multiplying the <span class="hlt">total</span> area by the rotation cycle of shifting cultivation, calculated using cropping and fallow lengths reported in the literature. Aboveground biomass accumulation was estimated as a function of the duration and mean temperature of the growing season, soil texture type, and length of the fallow period. The uncertainty associated with each model variable was estimated, and an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of greenhouse gas estimates was performed with Monte Carlo and variance decomposition techniques. Our results reveal large uncertainty in <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates for all five gases. In the case of CO2, mean (standard deviation) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from shifting cultivation in Asia, Africa, and America were estimated at 241 (132), 205 (139), and 295 (197) Tg yr-1, respectively. Combustion completeness and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were the model inputs that contributed the most to the uncertainty of estimates. Our mean estimates are lower than the literature values for atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> from biomass burning in shifting cultivation systems. Only mean values could be compared since other studies do not provide any measure of uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26148549"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft-Based Measurements of Point Source Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> in the Barnett Shale Basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavoie, Tegan N; Shepson, Paul B; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Stirm, Brian H; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Lan, Xin; Lyon, David</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We report measurements of methane (CH4) <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates observed at eight different high-emitting point sources in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using aircraft-based methods performed as part of the Barnett Coordinated Campaign. We quantified CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates from four gas processing plants, one compressor station, and three landfills during five flights conducted in October 2013. Results are compared to other aircraft- and surface-based measurements of the same facilities, and to estimates based on a national study of gathering and processing facilities <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and 2013 <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reported to the U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). For the eight sources, CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurements from the aircraft-based mass balance approach were a factor of 3.2-5.8 greater than the GHGRP-based estimates. Summed <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">totaled</span> 7022 2000 kg hr(-1), roughly 9% of the entire basin-wide CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimated from regional mass balance flights during the campaign. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> measurements from five natural gas management facilities were 1.2-4.6 times larger than <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on the national study. Results from this study were used to represent "super-emitters" in a newly formulated Barnett Shale Inventory, demonstrating the importance of targeted sampling of "super-emitters" that may be missed by random sampling of a subset of the <span class="hlt">total</span>. PMID:26148549</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction&pg=5&id=EJ862971','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction&pg=5&id=EJ862971"><span id="translatedtitle">35th <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Official Education Construction Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Agron, Joe</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Spending on construction by the nation's education institutions increased in 2008, reversing four years of declines in <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> expenditures, according to "American School & University"'s 35th <span class="hlt">annual</span> Official Education Construction Report. One of the reasons for the increase in spending was the fact that the majority of the construction…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-21/pdf/2012-6799.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-21/pdf/2012-6799.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 16484 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Stress Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-21</p> <p>... in the ] proposed rule.\\2\\ Please submit your comments using only one method. \\2\\ See 77 FR 3166... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 325 RIN 3064-AD91 <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Stress Test AGENCY: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation... Corporation with <span class="hlt">total</span> consolidated assets of more than $10 billion to conduct <span class="hlt">annual</span> stress tests. \\1\\...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction+AND+project&pg=2&id=EJ862971','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=construction+AND+project&pg=2&id=EJ862971"><span id="translatedtitle">35th <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Official Education Construction Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Agron, Joe</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Spending on construction by the nation's education institutions increased in 2008, reversing four years of declines in <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> expenditures, according to "American School & University"'s 35th <span class="hlt">annual</span> Official Education Construction Report. One of the reasons for the increase in spending was the fact that the majority of the construction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27160.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-11-13/pdf/2013-27160.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 68023 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wholesale Trade Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-13</p> <p>... collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, e- commerce sales, purchases, <span class="hlt">total</span> operating expenses, year-end... Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and... offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, e-commerce sales, year-end...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-18/pdf/2010-26149.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-18/pdf/2010-26149.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 63805 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wholesale Trade Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-18</p> <p>... Census Bureau will collect data on <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, <span class="hlt">total</span> operating expenses... wholesale distributors, the Census Bureau will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end... manufacturers' sales branches and offices, the Census Bureau will collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-19/pdf/2011-27059.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-10-19/pdf/2011-27059.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 64894 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Wholesale Trade Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-19</p> <p>... collect data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, <span class="hlt">total</span> operating expenses, year-end..., e- commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United States, purchases, and... data covering <span class="hlt">annual</span> sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.8963C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.8963C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of vehicular <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories in China from 1980 to 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong</p> <p></p> <p>Multi-year inventories of vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at a high spatial resolution of 40 km40 km were established in China using the GIS methodology for the period 1980-2005, based on provincial statistical data from yearbooks regarding vehicles and roads, and on the <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for each vehicle category in each province calculated by COPERT III program. Results showed that the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CH 4, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, NO x, PM 10, and SO 2 increased from 5, 1066, 19 893, 169, 174, 26, and 16 thousand tons in 1980 to 377, 36 197, 674 629, 5911, 4539, 983, and 484 thousand tons in 2005 at an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average rate of 19%, 15%, 15%, 15%, 14%, 16%, and 15%, respectively. Statistical analysis of vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and GDP showed that they were well positively correlated, which revealed that increase of pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> has been accompanying the growth of GDP. Spatial distribution of pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was rather unbalanced: over three-quarters of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> concentrated in developed regions of China's southeastern, northern and central areas covering only 35.2% of China's territory, while the remaining <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were distributed over the southwestern, northwestern and northeastern regions covering as much as 64.8% of the territory. In 2005, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta covering only 2.3%, 2.2%, and 1.9%, respectively, of the territory, generated about 10%, 19%, and 12%, respectively, of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Since 1990, motorcycles have been the major contributors to the CH 4, CO, NMVOC, and PM 10 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, due to the large population. Heavy-duty vans were the major contributors to the NO x and SO 2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> because of high <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors. Passenger cars contributed about one third of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of each pollutant. Contributions of vehicle categories to <span class="hlt">emissions</span> varied from province to province, due to the diversity of vehicle compositions among provinces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13L3336B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13L3336B"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct Continuous Measurements of Methane <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from a Landfill: Method, Station and Latest Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burba, G. G.; Xu, L.; Lin, X.; Amen, J.; Welding, K.; McDermitt, D. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Solar-powered automated flux station was deployed continuously inside the Bluff Road Landfill (Lincoln, NE) for the period of over4 years starting June 2010. Landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were measured using the eddy covariance method, reporting hourly <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates. The data shown in this presentation are from the period of June to December 2010 when no gas recovery was in operation. The continuous measurements of hourly <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates allowed a number of important analyses of the key factors affecting landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at different time scales. In particular, the results show that landfill methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> strongly depended on changes in barometric pressure. Rising barometric pressure suppressed the <span class="hlt">emission</span>, while falling barometric pressure enhanced the <span class="hlt">emission</span>, resulting in up to a 35-fold variation in day-to-day methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Wavelet coherence analysis revealed a strong spectral coherency between variations of barometric pressure and methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> at periodicities ranging from 1 day to 8 days. Power spectrum and ogive analysis showed that at least 10 days of continuous measurements was needed in order to capture 90% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> variance in the methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> time series at the site.From these results, it is apparent that point-in-time measurements taken at monthly or longer time intervals using techniques such as the trace plume method, the mass balance method, or the closed-chamber method will be subject to large variations in measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates because of the barometric pumping phenomenon. Estimates of long-term integrated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on such measurements could yield uncertainties, ranging from 28% underestimation to 32% overestimation.The results demonstrate a need for continuous measurements to quantify <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> landfill <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This conclusion may also apply to the wetlands, peatlands, lakes, and other environments where <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are from porous media or ebullition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.108...41H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.108...41H"><span id="translatedtitle">Gridded atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Establishment of the dioxins <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a <span class="hlt">total</span> dioxin <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory in China from different <span class="hlt">emission</span> categories in 2004, this study created a gridded <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that <span class="hlt">annually</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its <span class="hlt">emission</span> in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air <span class="hlt">emission</span> (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the <span class="hlt">total</span> 2,3,7,8-TCDD <span class="hlt">emission</span> in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of <span class="hlt">total</span> land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the <span class="hlt">total</span> 2,3,7,8-TCDD <span class="hlt">emission</span> in 2009 in China, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.3747P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AtmEn..38.3747P"><span id="translatedtitle">A temporally and spatially resolved ammonia <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory for dairy cows in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinder, Robert W.; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff I.; Adams, Peter J.</p> <p></p> <p>Previous inventories of ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the United States have not characterized the seasonal and geographic variations that are necessary for accurately predicting ambient concentrations of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate aerosol. This research calculates the seasonal and geographic variation in ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from dairy cows in the United States. Monthly, county-level <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are calculated with a process-based model of dairy farm <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the national distribution of farming practices, seasonal climate conditions, and animal populations. <span class="hlt">Annual</span>, county-level <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are estimated to range between 13.1 and 55.5, with a national average of 23.9 kg NH 3 cow -1 yr -1. The seasonal variation of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor is estimated to be as high as a factor of seven in some counties. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> are predicted to be the highest in the spring and fall, because of high manure application rates during the spring planting and after the fall harvest. Summer <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are higher than winter, resulting from the temperature dependence of housing and storage <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In the summer and winter, the majority of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are from animal housing. In the spring and fall, the majority of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are from field applied manure. The 5% and 95% confidence interval about the national <span class="hlt">annual</span> average <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor is between 18 and 36 kg NH 3 cow -1 yr -1. Uncertainties in farming practices contribute most to the <span class="hlt">total</span> uncertainty, yet uncertainty in the timing of manure application, the quantity of manure and nitrogen excreted by cows, and the physical processes of volatilization affecting applied manure are also significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8767P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8767P"><span id="translatedtitle">Does extreme precipitation intensity depend on the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Lehner, Flavio; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Xu, Yangyang</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The rate of increase of global-mean precipitation per degree global-mean surface temperature increase differs for greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings and across <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenarios with differing composition of change in forcing. We investigate whether or not the rate of change of extreme precipitation also varies across the four <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenarios that force the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, version 5 multimodel ensemble. In most models, the rate of increase of maximum <span class="hlt">annual</span> daily precipitation per degree global warming in the multimodel ensemble is statistically indistinguishable across the four scenarios, whether this extreme precipitation is calculated globally, over all land, or over extratropical land. These results indicate that in contrast to mean precipitation, extreme precipitation depends on the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of warming and does not depend on <span class="hlt">emissions</span> scenario in most models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131069','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131069"><span id="translatedtitle">Attributing land-use change carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to exported biomass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saikku, Laura; Soimakallio, Sampo; Pingoud, Kim</p> <p>2012-11-15</p> <p>In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> agricultural land harvested and LUC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> effectively worldwide, leakage of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and <span class="hlt">annual</span> level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to <span class="hlt">emission</span> reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..55..319R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmEn..55..319R"><span id="translatedtitle">The global distribution of ammonia <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from seabird colonies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Seabird colonies represent a significant source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote maritime systems, producing a source of nitrogen that may encourage plant growth, alter terrestrial plant community composition and affect the surrounding marine ecosystem. To investigate seabird NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on a global scale, we developed a contemporary seabird database including a <span class="hlt">total</span> seabird population of 261 million breeding pairs. We used this in conjunction with a bioenergetics model to estimate the mass of nitrogen excreted by all seabirds at each breeding colony. The results combined with the findings of mid-latitude field studies of volatilization rates estimate the global distribution of NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from seabird colonies on an <span class="hlt">annual</span> basis. The largest uncertainty in our <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimate concerns the potential temperature dependence of NH3 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. To investigate this we calculated and compared temperature independent <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates with a maximum feasible temperature dependent <span class="hlt">emission</span>, based on the thermodynamic dissociation and solubility equilibria. Using the temperature independent approach, we estimate global NH3 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from seabird colonies at 404 Gg NH3 per year. By comparison, since most seabirds are located in relatively cold circumpolar locations, the thermodynamically dependent estimate is 136 Gg NH3 per year. Actual global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are expected to be within these bounds, as other factors, such as non-linear interactions with water availability and surface infiltration, moderate the theoretical temperature response. Combining sources of error from temperature (±49%), seabird population estimates (±36%), variation in diet composition (±23%) and non-breeder attendance (±13%), gives a mid estimate with an overall uncertainty range of NH3 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from seabird colonies of 270 [97-442] Gg NH3 per year. These <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are environmentally relevant as they primarily occur as "hot-spots" in otherwise pristine environments with low anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.4779F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.4779F"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in East Asia determined by inverse modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 <span class="hlt">emission</span> trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in countries that are not obligated to report their <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the <span class="hlt">total</span> SF6 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the <span class="hlt">total</span> East Asian <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the <span class="hlt">total</span>. The per capita SF6 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from China and from South Korea increased, while <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24433051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24433051"><span id="translatedtitle">Global mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from combustion in light of international fuel trading.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The spatially resolved <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national <span class="hlt">emission</span> data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate <span class="hlt">emission</span>, then the resulting global mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were mapped at 0.1 0.1 resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> anthropogenic mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23374420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23374420"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from grazed pastures as affected by use of nitrification inhibitor and restricted grazing regime.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart F; Lindsey, Stuart B</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Integration of a restricted grazing regime in winter with the use of a nitrification inhibitor can potentially reduce N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from grazed pasture systems. A three year field study was conducted to compare <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates from a "tight nitrogen" grazed farmlet with those from a control farmlet. The control farmlet was managed under a conventional rotational all-year grazing regime, while the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was under a similar grazing regime, except during winter and early spring seasons when cows grazed for about 6h per day. A nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide, DCD) was applied onto the "tight nitrogen" farmlet immediately after grazing through winter and early spring. A chamber technique was used to measure N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in several paddocks from each farmlet during three contrasting seasons each year. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology was used to estimate CH4 and indirect N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to calculate CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the farm systems. The individual and combined effects of restricted grazing and DCD use on N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were also determined. During the late spring/summer and autumn periods, N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates were generally similar between the two farmlets. The use of a restricted grazing regime and DCD reduced N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the grazed farmlet during the winter/early spring seasons by 43-55%, 64-79% and 45-60% over each of the three years, respectively. The use of restricted grazing and DCD both resulted in a similar reduction in N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but there was no significant further reduction from the combination of these technologies. For the three study years, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate from the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was 20% lower, on average, than from the control. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, however, were only 5% less in the "tight nitrogen" system. PMID:23374420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018479','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018479"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from north-temperate lakes following ice melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Michmerhuizen, C.M.; Striegl, R.G.; McDonald, M.E.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Methane, a radiatively active 'greenhouse' gas, is emitted from lakes to the atmosphere throughout the open-water season. However, <span class="hlt">annual</span> lake CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> calculated solely from open-water measurements that exclude the time of spring ice melt may substantially underestimate the lake CH4 source strength. We estimated potential spring CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> at the time of ice melt for 19 lakes in northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Lakes ranged in area from 2.7 to 57,300 ha and varied in littoral zone sediment type. Regression analyses indicated that lake area explained 38% of the variance in potential CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> for relatively undisturbed lakes; as lake area increases potential CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> per unit area decreases. Inclusion of a second term accounting for the presence or absence of soft organic-rich littoral-zone sediments explained 83% of the variance in potential spring CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. <span class="hlt">Total</span> estimated spring CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> for 1993 for all Minnesota lakes north of 45?? with areas ???4 ha was 1.5 x 108 mol CH4 assuming a 1 : 1 ratio of soft littoral sediment to hard littoral sediment lakes. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> estimates ranged from 5.3 x 107 tool assuming no lakes have soft organic-rich littoral sediments to 4.5 x 108 mol assuming all lakes have soft organic-rich littoral sediments. This spring CH4 pulse may make up as much as 40% of the CH4 <span class="hlt">annually</span> emitted to the atmosphere by small lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10197039','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10197039"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal industry <span class="hlt">annual</span> 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-12-06</p> <p>Coal Industry <span class="hlt">Annual</span> 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63675&keyword=excel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58518652&CFTOKEN=48643951','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=63675&keyword=excel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=58518652&CFTOKEN=48643951"><span id="translatedtitle">PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING PERMANENT <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> ENCLOSURE COSTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The paper discusses a procedure for estimating permanent <span class="hlt">total</span> enclosure (PTE) costs. (NOTE: Industries that use add-on control devices must adequately capture <span class="hlt">emissions</span> before delivering them to the control device. One way to capture <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is to use PTEs, enclosures that mee...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9h4018D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9h4018D"><span id="translatedtitle">Commitment accounting of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Steven J.; Socolow, Robert H.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The world not only continues to build new coal-fired power plants, but built more new coal plants in the past decade than in any previous decade. Worldwide, an average of 89 gigawatts per year (GW yr-1) of new coal generating capacity was added between 2010 and 2012, 23 GW yr-1 more than in the 2000-2009 time period and 56 GW yr-1 more than in the 1990-1999 time period. Natural gas plants show a similar pattern. Assuming these plants operate for 40 years, the fossil-fuel burning plants built in 2012 will emit approximately 19 billion tons of CO2 (Gt CO2) over their lifetimes, versus 14 Gt CO2 actually emitted by all operating fossil fuel power plants in 2012. We find that <span class="hlt">total</span> committed <span class="hlt">emissions</span> related to the power sector are growing at a rate of about 4% per year, and reached 307 (with an estimated uncertainty of 192-439) Gt CO2 in 2012. These facts are not well known in the energy policy community, where <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> receive far more attention than future <span class="hlt">emissions</span> related to new capital investments. This paper demonstrates the potential for commitment accounting to inform public policy by quantifying future <span class="hlt">emissions</span> implied by current investments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.2641J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.2641J"><span id="translatedtitle">Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for particulate matter and carbon monoxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">total</span> PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PM. We have also compared the <span class="hlt">annually</span> averaged <span class="hlt">emission</span> values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol9-sec1315-11.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol9-sec1315-11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 1315.11 - Assessment of <span class="hlt">annual</span> needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assessment of <span class="hlt">annual</span> needs. 1315.11 Section 1315... QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Assessment of <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Needs 1315.11 Assessment of <span class="hlt">annual</span> needs. (a) The Administrator shall determine the <span class="hlt">total</span> quantity of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......310D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......310D"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Mobile Source <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> and Trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dallmann, Timothy Ryan</p> <p></p> <p>Mobile sources contribute significantly to air pollution problems. Relevant pollutants include numerous gaseous and particle-phase species that can affect human health, ecosystems, and climate. Accurate inventories of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from these sources are needed to help understand possible adverse impacts, and to develop effective air quality management strategies. Unfortunately large uncertainties persist in the understanding of mobile source <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and how these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are changing over time. This dissertation aims to evaluate long-term trends in mobile source <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the United States, and to make detailed measurements of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from present-day fleets of on-road vehicles operating in California. Long-term trends in mobile source <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of nitrogen oxides (NO x) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States were investigated through development of a fuel-based <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from on- and off-road gasoline and diesel engines were quantified for the years 1996-2006. Diesel engines were found to be the dominant mobile source of NOx and PM2.5, and on-road diesel vehicles were identified as the single largest anthropogenic source of NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the United States as of 2005. The importance of diesel engines as a source of exhaust particulate matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> has led to the recent introduction of advanced <span class="hlt">emission</span> control technologies in the United States, such as diesel particle filters (DPF), which have been required since 2007 for all new on-road heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines. In addition to national requirements for the use of such control devices on new engines, California has mandated accelerated clean-up of statewide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from older in-use diesel engines. The plume capture method was further applied to measure <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a more diverse population of trucks observed at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 2010. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from hundreds of individual trucks were measured, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor distributions were characterized for nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, BC, as well as optical properties of the emitted particles. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factor distributions for all species were skewed, with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. These findings confirm that the use of catalyzed DPF systems is leading to increased primary NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Absorption and scattering cross-section <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 +/- 0.03. This value of aerosol SSA is very low compared to typical values (0.90-0.99) observed in ambient air studies. It is indicative of a strongly light-absorbing aerosol, due to the high BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> that are a characteristic feature of diesel exhaust PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Measurements at the Caldecott tunnel also included efforts to quantify light-duty (LD) gasoline vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, and further investigation of the relative contributions of on-road gasoline and diesel engines to air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Measurements of CO, NOx, PM2.5, BC, and organic aerosol (OA) were made in a tunnel traffic bore where LD vehicles account for >99% of <span class="hlt">total</span> traffic. Measured pollutant concentrations were apportioned between LD gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks, and fleet-average <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were quantified for LD gasoline vehicles using a carbon balance method. Diesel trucks contributed 18 +/- 3, 22 +/- 5, 44 +/- 8% of measured NOx, OA, and BC concentrations, respectively, despite accounting for <1% of <span class="hlt">total</span> vehicles. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> factors and overall fuel consumption for gasoline and diesel engines were used to describe the relative contributions of these sources to overall on-road vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Gasoline engines were found to be the dominant source of CO, an insignificant source of BC, and a relatively minor source of on-road OA <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at urban, state, and national scales. Measurements at the Caldecott tunnel also featured use of a new high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, which was used to characterize the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles. Measurements of PM in the exhaust of individual HD trucks show a predominance of cyclyoalkane-derived ion signals relative to saturated alkane ion signals in the truck exhaust OA spectra, indicating that lubricating oil, rather than diesel fuel, was the dominant source of OA emitted by diesel trucks. This conclusion is supported by the presence of lubricant-derived trace elements in truck exhaust, emitted relative to <span class="hlt">total</span> OA at levels that correspond to their weight fractions in bulk oil. Furthermore, comparison of mass spectra for sampling periods with varying levels of diesel influence found a high degree of similarity in the chemical composition of OA emitted by gasoline and diesel engines, suggesting a common lubricating oil rather than fuel-derived source for OA <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23659377"><span id="translatedtitle">Global atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Chen, Han; Li, Tongchao; Sun, Kang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu</p> <p>2013-06-18</p> <p>Global atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimate country and time specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1 0.1 grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). The global <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 16 PAHs in 2007 was 504 Gg (331-818 Gg, as interquartile range), with residential/commercial biomass burning (60.5%), open-field biomass burning (agricultural waste burning, deforestation, and wildfire, 13.6%), and petroleum consumption by on-road motor vehicles (12.8%) as the major sources. South (87 Gg), East (111 Gg), and Southeast Asia (52 Gg) were the regions with the highest PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span> densities, contributing half of the global <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Among the global <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, 6.19% of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were in the form of high molecular weight carcinogenic compounds and the percentage of the carcinogenic PAHs was higher in developing countries (6.22%) than in developed countries (5.73%), due to the differences in energy structures and the disparities of technology. The potential health impact of the PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was greatest in the parts of the world with high anthropogenic PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, because of the overlap of the high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and high population densities. Global <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> peaked at 592 Gg in 1995 and declined gradually to 499 Gg in 2008. <span class="hlt">Total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from developed countries peaked at 122 Gg in the early 1970s and decreased to 38 Gg in 2008. Simulation of PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 2009 to 2030 revealed that PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in developed and developing countries would decrease by 46-71% and 48-64%, respectively, based on the six IPCC SRES scenarios. PMID:23659377</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753807','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753807"><span id="translatedtitle">Global atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Dan; Li, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Chen, Han; Li, Tongchao; Sun, Kang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Global atmospheric <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimate country and time specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1°× 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). The global <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 16 PAHs in 2007 was 504 Gg (331-818 Gg, as interquartile range), with residential/commercial biomass burning (60.5%), open-field biomass burning (agricultural waste burning, deforestation, and wildfire, 13.6%), and petroleum consumption by on-road motor vehicles (12.8%) as the major sources. South (87 Gg), East (111 Gg), and Southeast Asia (52 Gg) were the regions with the highest PAH <span class="hlt">emission</span> densities, contributing half of the global <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Among the global <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, 6.19% of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were in the form of high molecular weight carcinogenic compounds and the percentage of the carcinogenic PAHs was higher in developing countries (6.22%) than in developed countries (5.73%), due to the differences in energy structures and the disparities of technology. The potential health impact of the PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was greatest in the parts of the world with high anthropogenic PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, because of the overlap of the high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and high population densities. Global <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> peaked at 592 Gg in 1995 and declined gradually to 499 Gg in 2008. <span class="hlt">Total</span> PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from developed countries peaked at 122 Gg in the early 1970s and decreased to 38 Gg in 2008. Simulation of PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 2009 to 2030 revealed that PAH <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in developed and developing countries would decrease by 46-71% and 48-64%, respectively, based on the six IPCC SRES scenarios. PMID:23659377</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..95..185L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..95..185L"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical variations of biogenic volatile organic compound <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories in China, 1981-2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, L. Y.; Xie, S. D.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>To evaluate the variations in temporal and spatial distribution of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in China, historical BVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories at a spatial resolution of 36 km 36 km for the period of 1981-2003 were developed firstly. Based on the time-varying statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000), <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of isoprene, 37 monoterpenes, 32 sesquiterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated using MEGANv2.1 driven by WRF model. Results show China's BVOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> had increased by 28.01% at an <span class="hlt">annual</span> average rate of 1.27% from 37.89 Tg in 1981 to 48.50 Tg in 2003. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs had increased by 41.60%, 34.78%, 41.05%, and 4.89%, respectively. With fixed meteorological variables, the estimated BVOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would increase by 19.25%, resulting from the increasing of vegetation biomass during the last 23 years. On average, isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs were responsible for 52.40%, 12.73%, 2.58%, and 32.29% of the national BVOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively. ?-pinene and ?-pinene, farnesene and caryophyllene were the largest contributors to the <span class="hlt">total</span> monoterpene and sesquiterpene <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively. The highest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were found over northeastern, southeastern, southwestern China, Qinling Mountain, and Hainan and Taiwan provinces. The regions with high <span class="hlt">emissions</span> had been expanding over the years, especially in the Changbai Mountain, southern China, and southwestern forest regions. The lowest <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in southern China occurred in 1984-1988. Almost all the provinces had experienced increasing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but their contributions to the national <span class="hlt">emissions</span> differed significantly over the past 23 years. Yunnan, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, and Sichuan provinces always dominated the national BVOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, excluding in 1977-1981, when the three northeastern provinces had relatively lower <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38684&keyword=spark&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57485797&CFTOKEN=77862232','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38684&keyword=spark&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57485797&CFTOKEN=77862232"><span id="translatedtitle">FERROALLOY PROCESS <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> MEASUREMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report gives results of sampling and analysis to characterize and quantify particulate, organic, and inorganic chemical <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in effluents from a <span class="hlt">totally</span> sealed metallurgical furnace at a ferroalloy plant. Effluents were sampled downstream of a venturi scrubber during sil...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/948852','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/948852"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>West, Tristram O.; Brandt, Craig C; Marland, Gregg; Nelson, Richard G; Hellwinckel, Chad M; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2 from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for cropping practices in the US at the county scale. Energy consumption and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for cropping practices enable (a) the monitoring of energy and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with changes in land management, and (b) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and <span class="hlt">total</span> energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on US croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6-7.9 GJ ha-1 yr-1 and from 5.5-20.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1, respectively. On-site and <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2004 ranged from 23-176 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 91-365 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national <span class="hlt">total</span> energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204-1297 PJ yr-1 (Petajoule = 1 1015 Joule) with associated <span class="hlt">total</span> fossil CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> ranging from 22.0-23.2 Tg C yr-1 (Teragram = 1 1012 gram). The <span class="hlt">annual</span> proportion of on-site CO2 to <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the US from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction of 2.4 Tg C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ERL.....3c4002C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ERL.....3c4002C"><span id="translatedtitle">Cow power: the energy and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> benefits of converting manure to biogas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cullar, Amanda D.; Webber, Michael E.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the <span class="hlt">total</span> potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure <span class="hlt">annually</span> on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> US <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure <span class="hlt">emissions</span> alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sourcesmanure and coal combustionwith a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US <span class="hlt">total</span> energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 0.6% of <span class="hlt">annual</span> electricity consumption in the US. Replacing coal and manure GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from biogas would produce a net potential GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction of 99 59 million metric tons or 3.9 2.3% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from electricity generation in the US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10j5007R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10j5007R"><span id="translatedtitle">Zero <span class="hlt">emission</span> targets as long-term global goals for climate protection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Knutti, Reto; Alcamo, Joseph; Riahi, Keywan; Hare, William</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> thereafter. Because of residual non-CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, net zero is always reached later for <span class="hlt">total</span> GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> than for CO2. Net zero <span class="hlt">emissions</span> targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25655106"><span id="translatedtitle">Updated <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories for speciated atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Wu, Ye; Duan, Lei; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Yang, Mei; Yang, Hai; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Xiang</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>China is the largest contributor to global atmospheric mercury (Hg), and accurate <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories in China are needed to reduce large gaps existing in global Hg mass balance estimates and assess Hg effects on various ecosystems. The China Atmospheric Mercury <span class="hlt">Emission</span> (CAME) model was developed in this study using probabilistic <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors generated from abundant on-site measurements and literature data. Using this model, <span class="hlt">total</span> anthropogenic Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated to be continuously increasing from 356 t in 2000 to 538 t in 2010 with an average <span class="hlt">annual</span> increase rate of 4.2%. Industrial coal combustion, coal-fired power plants, nonferrous metal smelting, and cement production were identified to be the dominant Hg <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources in China. The ten largest contributing provinces accounted for nearly 60% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2010. Speciated Hg <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory was developed over China with a grid-resolution of 36 36 km, providing needed <span class="hlt">emission</span> fields for Hg transport models. In this new inventory, the sectoral Hg speciation profiles were significantly improved based on the latest data from field measurements and more detailed technology categorization. The overall uncertainties of the newly developed inventory were estimated to be in the range of -20% to +23%. PMID:25655106</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0084S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0084S"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal distribution of onroad CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the Urban spatial scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Y.; Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Mendoza, D. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Hestia Project is a multi-disciplinary effort to help better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emission</span> at urban scale. Onroad transportation is an essential source of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This study examines two urban domains: Marion County (Indianapolis) and Los Angeles County and explores the methods and results associated with the spatial and temporal distribution of local urban onroad CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. We utilize a bottom-up approach and spatially distribute county <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Average Daily Traffic (AADT) counts provided by local Department of Transportation. The <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is calculated by the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) for Marion County and the <span class="hlt">EMission</span> FACtors (EMFAC) model for Los Angeles County. The NMIM model provides CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> based on vehicle miles traveled (VMT) data at the county-level from the national county database (NCD). The EMFAC model provides CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for California State based on vehicle activities, including VMT, vehicle population and fuel types. A GIS road atlas is retrieved from the US Census Bureau. Further spatial analysis and integration are performed by GIS software to distribute onroad CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> according to the traffic volume. The temporal allocation of onroad CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> is based on the hourly traffic data obtained from the Metropolitan Planning Orgnizations (MPO) for Marion County and Department of Transportation for Los Angeles County. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are distributed according to each hourly fraction of traffic counts. Due to the fact that ATR stations are unevenly distributed in space, we create Thiessen polygons such that each road segment is linked to the nearest neighboring ATR station. The hourly profile for each individual station is then combined to create a "climatology" of CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in time on each road segment. We find that for Marion County in the year 2002, urban interstate and arterial roads have less than 15% of <span class="hlt">total</span> road length and more than 60% of <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Urban minor arterials and major collectors have 9% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> road length with 21% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Urban minor collectors and local roads have 63% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> road length and 16% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The rural roads have 13% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> road length and less than 4% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The temporal distribution shows that the peak hour of CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> is from 7am to 8am in the morning and 4pm to 5pm in the afternoon. Our study also reveals that further downscaling and refining in both spatial and temporal resolution is required to derive more accurate and precise distribution of onroad CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5179367','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5179367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> hydrocarbon analyzer evaluation study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shamat, N. ); Crumpler, E. ); Roddan, A. )</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Measuring and controlling organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from incineration processes has become a major environmental concern in recent years. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed a regulation for sewage sludge incinerators under section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act that will require all sludge incinerators to monitor <span class="hlt">total</span> hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (THCs) on a continuous basis. Such a requirement would be part of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits and site-specific THC limits would be established for facilities based on a risk assessment of organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Before EPA can finalize the proposed requirement, THC monitoring must be successfully conducted in a plant environment and the system required by any final regulation must be kept in operation so that facilities can comply with their permits. The Metropolitan Waste Control Commission (MWCC) in St. Paul, Minn., and Rosemount Analytical Division in La Habre, Calif., entered into a joint agreement with EPA to demonstrate a hot' THC monitoring system to detect THCs in stack gases. The objectives of the study are to determine the feasibility of THC monitoring of sludge incinerator <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; evaluate the long term reliability, cost of operation, and consistency of a continuous THC monitoring system in an incinerator environment; and determine the correlation of THC stack concentration to incinerator and scrubber operating conditions, carbon monoxide concentration, and specific VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847720"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining national greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (<span class="hlt">annual</span> waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (<span class="hlt">annual</span> means range from 32±2 to 51±3kg CO2,foss/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from waste incineration. The <span class="hlt">total</span> energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources. PMID:26847720</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knoll&pg=6&id=EJ031855','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knoll&pg=6&id=EJ031855"><span id="translatedtitle">English in a Program of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Innovation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Knoll, Robert E.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Explains an experimental program designed to give the student a <span class="hlt">total</span> look at himself and his society through literature, politics, and history; a paper presented at <span class="hlt">annual</span> convention of National Council of Teachers of English (Washington, D. C., November 28, 1969) and published in Kansas English" (February 1970). (Editor/SW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24213893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24213893"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> database for global atmospheric research (Edgar).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olivier, J G; Bouwman, A F; van der Maas, C W; Berdowski, J J</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric chemistry and climate modellers require gridded global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data as input into their models. To meet this urgent need a global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> source database called EDGAR is being developed by TNO and RIVM to estimate for 1990, on a regional and on a grid basis, <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, NOx, non-methane VOC, SOx), of NH3, and of ozone depleting compounds (halocarbons) from all known sources. The aim is to establish at due levels of spatial, temporal and source aggregation the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources: a complete set of data required to estimate the <span class="hlt">total</span> source strength of the various gases with a 11 resolution (altitude resolution of 1 km) and a temporal resolution of a month, supplemented by diurnal variation, as agreed upon in the Global <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Inventory Activity (GEIA) of the International Atmospheric Chemistry Programme (IGAC). In this way EDGAR will meet the requirements of present and future developments in the field of atmospheric modelling. The data comprise demographic data, social and economic factors, land use distributions and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors (with due emphasis on the uncertainty). As understanding in this field is still changing, due attention is paid to flexibility regarding the disaggregation of sources, spatial and temporal resolution and species. The objective and methodology chosen for the construction of the database and the structural design of the database system are presented, as well as the type and sources of data and the approach used for data collection. As an example, the construction of the N2O inventory is discussed. PMID:24213893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6057C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6057C"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of modeled carbon-dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an urban neighborhood with direct eddy-covariance measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christen, A.; Coops, N. C.; Crawford, B. R.; Kellett, R.; Liss, K. N.; Olchovski, I.; Tooke, T. R.; van der Laan, M.; Voogt, J. A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Modeled carbon-dioxide (CO 2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from an urban area are validated against direct eddy-covariance flux measurements. Detailed maps of modeled local carbon-dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for a 4 km 2 residential neighborhood in Vancouver, BC, Canada are produced. Inputs to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> model include urban object classifications (buildings, trees, land-cover) automatically derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and optical remote sensing in combination with census, assessment, traffic and measured radiation and climate data. Different sub-models for buildings, transportation, human respiration, soils and vegetation were aggregated. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> and monthly CO 2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were modeled on a spatial grid of 50 m for the entire study area. The study area overlaps with the source area of a micrometeorological flux tower for which continuous CO 2 flux data (net exchange) were available for a two-year period. The measured <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> was 6.71 kg C m -2 yr -1with significant seasonal differences (16.0 g C m -2 day -1 in Aug vs. 22.1 g C m -2 day -1 in Dec correlated with the demand for space heating) and weekday-weekend differences (25% lower <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on weekends attributed to traffic volume differences). Model results were weighted using the long-term turbulent source areas of the tower. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> modeled (7.42 kg C m -2 yr -1) and measured <span class="hlt">emissions</span> agreed within 11%, but show more substantial differences in wind sectors dominated by traffic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Over the year, agreement was better in summer (5% overestimation by model) vs. winter (15% overestimation), which is partially attributed to climate differences unaccounted for in the building energy models. The study shows that direct CO 2 flux measurements based on the EC approach - if sites are carefully chosen - are a promising method to validate fine-scale <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories/models at the block or neighborhood scale and can inform further model improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15461163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15461163"><span id="translatedtitle">NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from agricultural burning in São Paulo, Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oppenheimer, Clive; Tsanev, Vitchko I; Allen, Andrew G; McGonigle, Andrew J S; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Wiatr, Antony; Paterlini, Willian; Dias, Cristine de Mello</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>We report here on the application of a compact ultraviolet spectrometer to measurement of NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from sugar cane field burns in São Paulo, Brazil. The time-resolved NO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a 10 ha plot peaked at about 240 g (NO2) s(-1), and amounted to a <span class="hlt">total</span> yield of approximately 50 kg of N, or about 0.5 g (N) m(-2). <span class="hlt">Emission</span> of N as NOx (i.e., NO + NO2) was estimated at 2.5 g (N) m(-2), equivalent to 30% of applied fertilizer nitrogen. The corresponding <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of NOx nitrogen from São Paulo State sugar cane burning was >45 Gg N. In contrast to mechanized harvesting, which does not require prior burning of the crop, manual harvesting with burning acts to recycle nitrogen into surface soils and ecosystems. PMID:15461163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11987396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11987396"><span id="translatedtitle">[Lead <span class="hlt">emission</span> amount from coal combustion and its environment effect in Xi'an City].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, Kunli; Wang, Douhu; Tan, Jianan; Wang, Lizheng; Feng, Fujian; Li, Ribang</p> <p>2002-01-30</p> <p>For study the lead <span class="hlt">emission</span> amount from coal combustion and its environment effect, the lead content of coal, ash and cinder of power station and coal-fired boiler, the lead content of dusts in the period of heating time and the non-heating time in Xi'an City were studied in this paper. The results show that amount of lead <span class="hlt">emission</span> from 1 ton coal combustion, which lead content in coal was 30 g, was 20 g in atmosphere. The rate of lead <span class="hlt">emission</span> of coal combustion was about 66%. About 10 million tons of coal was straight burning every year in Xi'an City and suburb, those coal mainly come from Permo-Carboniferous coal in Weibei coal mine, Shaanxi, their average lead content was 30 mg/kg. So the <span class="hlt">total</span> lead <span class="hlt">emission</span> from coal combustion to atmosphere was about 200 t <span class="hlt">annually</span> in Xi'an City. PMID:11987396</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014606"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from US grasslands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mummey, D.L.; Smith, J.L.; Bluhm, G.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from temperate grasslands are poorly quantified and may be an important part of the atmospheric N{sub 2}O budget. In this study N{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were simulated for 1,052 grassland sites in the US using the NGAS model of Parton and others (1996) coupled with an organic matter decomposition model. N{sub 2}O flux was calculated for each site using soil and land use data obtained from the National Resource Inventory (NRI) database and weather data obtained from NASA. The estimates were regionalized based upon temperature and moisture isotherms. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> N{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for each region were based on the grassland area of each region and the mean estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> N{sub 2}O flux from NRI grassland sites in the region. The regional fluxes ranged from 0.18 to 1.02 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr with the mean flux for all regions being 0.29 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Even though fluxes from the western regions were relatively low, these regions made the largest contribution to <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to their large grassland area. <span class="hlt">Total</span> US grassland N{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated to be about 67 Gg N{sub 2}O N/yr. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from the Great Plains states, which contain the largest expanse of natural grassland in the US, were estimated to average 0.24 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Using the <span class="hlt">annual</span> flux estimate for the temperate Great Plains, the authors estimate that temperate grasslands worldwide may potentially produce 0.27 Tg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Even though the estimate for global temperate grassland N{sub 2}O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is less than published estimates for other major temperate grasslands are a significant part of both United States and global atmospheric N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O flux estimation although additional data from carefully designed field studies is needed to further validate model results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A11A0079C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.A11A0079C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from International Shipping in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Corbett, J. J.; Winebrake, J. J.; Gold, M.; Harder, S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Studies assessing the potential impacts of international shipping on climate and air pollution demonstrate that ships contribute significantly to global climate change and health impacts through <span class="hlt">emission</span> of GHGs and raised the potential for disproportionate impacts from shipping in the Arctic region. We present an activity- based model inventory of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of CO2, BC, NOx, SOx, PM, and CO for shipping in the Arctic. We estimate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for a particular "vessel-trip" or "voyage" based on Arctic shipping data collected by the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment for 2004. The detailed voyage data provided for our inventory effort included some 3800 ship trips, represent some 2.6 million km of ship voyages (range 2.0 to 3.9 million km, or 1.1 to 2.1 million nautical miles), and nearly 15,000 voyage days for 2004; this is equivalent to less than 500 transoceanic voyages, compared to many tens of thousands transoceanic voyages per year to major ports around the world. In 2004, the top five vessel types, bulk carrier, general cargo, fishing, government vessels, and containerships, account for nearly 80 percent of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Preliminary results show CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from shipping in the Arctic to be approximately 2.3 Tg CO2 per yr. Given that <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from international shipping globally are about 1000 Tg CO2 per yr, Arctic contributions would amount to less than 0.25 percent of <span class="hlt">total</span> ship <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Relative to <span class="hlt">total</span> CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all sources, the contributions of Arctic shipping are on the order of one-hundredth of one percent (0.006-0.008 percent). BC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Arctic shipping, on a mass basis alone (estimated here to be ~600 tonnes /year), may have limited independent impact on global climate change compared to other sources, but could have significant regional impacts. More concerning may be micro-scale <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (e.g., at harbor or in port) which could affect local air pollution or ecosystems, depending on regional conditions. Pollutants with more regional impact include NOx, SOx, CO, and PM. For these pollutants Arctic shipping <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are small contributors to global inventories on a mass basis. For example, Arctic shipping accounts for about 62,400 tonnes per year of NOX pollution in the Arctic region, about 0.3 percent of 25.6 Tg of NOx (as NO2, or 7.8 Tg as N in 2007) global ship NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Future trends toward increased international shipping in the Arctic will increase these numbers proportional to the increased traffic, although future research is needed to determine whether the increased climate-scale impacts would be proportional to Arctic shipping activity. Previous research (Granier et al, GRL 2006) indicated that shipping growth could account for an additional 0.65 to 1.3 million Tg N from Arctic shipping (2.5 Tg to 4.9 Tg NOx as NO2). Using our preliminary inventory results, this corresponds to between 40 and 70 times more Arctic shipping activity in 2050 than in 2004, representing <span class="hlt">annually</span> compounding growth rates in the range of 8 to 10 percent. We will present our inventory and discuss data quality needs to better reduce the uncertainty in Arctic shipping inventories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 1999</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seiferlein, Katherine E.</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>A generation ago the Ford Foundation convened a group of experts to explore and assess the Nation’s energy future, and published their conclusions in A Time To Choose: America’s Energy Future (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1974). The Energy Policy Project developed scenarios of U.S. potential energy use in 1985 and 2000. Now, with 1985 well behind us and 2000 nearly on the record books, it may be of interest to take a look back to see what actually happened and consider what it means for our future. The study group sketched three primary scenarios with differing assumptions about the growth of energy use. The Historical Growth scenario assumed that U.S. energy consumption would continue to expand by 3.4 percent per year, the average rate from 1950 to 1970. This scenario assumed no intentional efforts to change the pattern of consumption, only efforts to encourage development of our energy supply. The Technical Fix scenario anticipated a “conscious national effort to use energy more efficiently through engineering know-how." The Zero Energy Growth scenario, while not clamping down on the economy or calling for austerity, incorporated the Technical Fix efficiencies plus additional efficiencies. This third path anticipated that economic growth would depend less on energy-intensive industries and more on those that require less energy, i.e., the service sector. In 2000, <span class="hlt">total</span> energy consumption was projected to be 187 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in the Historical Growth case, 124 quadrillion Btu in the Technical Fix case, and 100 quadrillion Btu in the Zero Energy Growth case. The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 1999 reports a preliminary <span class="hlt">total</span> consumption for 1999 of 97 quadrillion Btu (see Table 1.1), and the Energy Information Administration’s Short-Term Energy Outlook (April 2000) forecasts <span class="hlt">total</span> energy consumption of 98 quadrillion Btu in 2000. What energy consumption path did the United States actually travel to get from 1974, when the scenarios were drawn, to the end of the century? What happened to the relationship between growth and energy consumption? How did the fuel mix change over this period? What are the effects of energy usage on our environment? What level of consumption will the United States—and the world—record in the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2025? We present this edition of the <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review to help investigate these important questions and to stimulate and inform our thinking about what the future holds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22863059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22863059"><span id="translatedtitle">Watershed-based riverine discharge loads and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor of perfluorinated surfactants in Korean peninsula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Seung-Kyu</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Long-range transport of and exposure to perfluorinated substances (PFSs) strongly depend on their <span class="hlt">emission</span> mode. In the present study, watershed-based riverine discharge loads and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors are estimated for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexylsulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) by using spatially distributed data of chemical concentrations together with water flows and a geographic information system (GIS). Average per capita <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (<span class="hlt">emission</span> factor, ?g capita(-1) d(-1)) are 75 for PFOA, 36 for PFNA, 17 for PFHxS, and 43 for PFOS, which are several times lower than the estimates for Japan and the European continent. A relatively uniform distribution is observed for PFHxS and PFOS <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors, while elevated values of PFOA and PFNA predominate in one of eight river basins. This may indicate the leading contribution of diffusive sources (e.g. nonpoint source) for PFHxS and PFOS versus the presence of localized point sources for PFOA and PFNA. The lower-upper bound of <span class="hlt">total</span> riverine loads discharged <span class="hlt">annually</span> from the Korean peninsula are in the range of 0.53-1.3 tons for PFOA, 0.09-0.60 tons for PFNA, 0.07-0.29 tons for PFHxS, and 0.19-0.73 tons for PFOS, accounting for <1% of global <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Furthermore, these riverine discharge loads are significantly greater than the discharge loads from a wastewater treatment plant, indicating the necessity of further study of nonpoint sources. PMID:22863059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17081594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17081594"><span id="translatedtitle">Increase in carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from forest fires after intensive reforestation and forest management programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Byung-Kwon</p> <p>2006-12-15</p> <p>This paper shows an example of substantial increase in carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from forest fires after reforestation on a national scale. It is the first estimation of historical carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from forest fires in Korea during the last 40 years. Investigation was focused on the recent increase in large forest fires and its closely related factors. A simple modeling approach to estimate carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> was applied. The direct carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> from forest fires in 2000, ranging from 115 to 300 Gg C, corresponds to 1-3% of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> carbon uptake by forests. The influence of forest fires on the carbon cycle in Korea is not so significant, but Korean forests have a large potential for generating severe local fires due to increasing forest carbon density and a high forest area ratio (forest area/<span class="hlt">total</span> land area) of 65%. The carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> per area burned (Mg C ha(-1)) clearly reflects the trend toward increases in the number of severe fires. Statistical analyses and the trends of <span class="hlt">annual</span> temperature and precipitation show that the recent large increase in carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may be the negative consequences of intensive forest regrowth that is the product of successful reforestation and forest management programs rather than the effect of climate change. These results imply a need for further studies in other countries, where large-scale plantation has been conducted, to evaluate the role of plantation and forest fires on the global carbon cycle. PMID:17081594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26458120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26458120"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation Trend and Driving Factors of Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Chinese Magnesium Production.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Feng; Liu, Yu; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Gong, Xianzheng; Wang, Zhihong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>As the largest magnesium producer in the world, China is facing a great challenge of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction. In this paper, the variation trend and driving factors of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Chinese magnesium production were evaluated and the measures of technology and policy for effectively mitigating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were provided. First, the energy-related and process-oriented GHG inventory is compiled for magnesium production in China. Then, the driving forces for the changes of the energy-related <span class="hlt">emission</span> were analyzed by the method of Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition. Results demonstrated that Chinese magnesium output from 2003 to 2013 increased by 125%, whereas GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> only increased by 16%. The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> caused by the fuels consumption decline most significantly (from 28.4 to 6.6 t CO2eq/t Mg) among all the <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources. The energy intensity and the energy structure were the main offsetting factors for the increase of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, while the scale of production and the international market demand were the main contributors for the <span class="hlt">total</span> increase. Considering the improvement of technology application and more stringent policy measures, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Chinese primary magnesium production will be controlled within 22 million tons by 2020. PMID:26458120</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from open biomass burning in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Biomass burning in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from open biomass burning in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC burned area product and MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both burned areas and fire <span class="hlt">emissions</span> showed clearly spatial and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variations. The L3JRC burned areas ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS burned areas ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the <span class="hlt">total</span> burned areas and forest burned areas derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> average L3JRC-based <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, though burned area within forest biomes only constituted a minority of <span class="hlt">total</span> burned area. Fire <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was in good agreement with that of <span class="hlt">total</span> burned areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23858994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23858994"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with industrial open pit gold mines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">emission</span> to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGD.....5.4993K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008BGD.....5.4993K"><span id="translatedtitle">A new European plant-specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds for use in atmospheric transport models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karl, M.; Guenther, A.; Kble, R.; Seufert, G.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We present a new European plant-specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory for isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and other VOC (OVOC), with a spatial resolution of 10 km, for implementation in atmospheric transport models. The inventory incorporates new data on <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors at standard conditions for tree and crop species that became available in the last years and more accurate data on foliar biomass densities coming from several new litterfall databases. In contrast to previous <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories, a bioclimatic correction factor was introduced to correct the foliar biomass densities for the different plant growth conditions that can be found in Pan-Europe. The 2004-2005 averaged <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the Pan-European domain are estimated to be about 15 Tg with a large contribution from the OVOC class of about 6 Tg and from monoterpenes of about 5 Tg. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are found to be about 3 Tg, insensitive to the chosen <span class="hlt">emission</span> algorithm. For the first time crop-specific land use information and standard <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were employed. Contrary to former European inventories, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of monoterpenes and OVOC were found to originate to a large extent from agriculture. However, monoterpene standard <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for crops are highly uncertain and probably positively biased by measurement artifacts. Further experiments on crop <span class="hlt">emissions</span> should be carried out to check the validity of the high <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for monoterpenes and OVOC. In view of future intensified use of agricultural crops as biofuels, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of OVOC and monoterpenes from agriculture need to be evaluated in the field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212310','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212310"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seiferlein, Katherine E.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212313"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fichman, Barbara T.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212312"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fichman, Barbara T.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, and renewable energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding the content of the AER and other EIA publications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212311','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212311"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seiferlein, Katherine E.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212315','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212315"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seiferlein, Katherine E.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Annual</span> Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of <span class="hlt">annual</span> historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are data on <span class="hlt">total</span> energy production, consumption, and trade; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, international energy, as well as financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversion tables. Publication of this report is required under Public Law 95–91 (Department of Energy Organization Act), Section 205(c), and is in keeping with responsibilities given to the EIA under Section 205(a)(2), which states: “The Administrator shall be responsible for carrying out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program which will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information....” The AER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the AER and in other EIA publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000333','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000333"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for <span class="hlt">total</span> plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in <span class="hlt">annual</span> U.S. fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for <span class="hlt">total</span> and electricity generation <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21095739','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21095739"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist</p> <p>2008-08-15</p> <p>Estimates of fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for <span class="hlt">total</span> plant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in <span class="hlt">annual</span> U.S. fossil-fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for <span class="hlt">total</span> and electricity generation <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/266872','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/266872"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluxes from Technical Area 54, Area G and L. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eklund, B.</p> <p>1995-03-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">emission</span> flux (mass/time-area) of tritiated water from TA-54 was measured to support the characterization of radioactive air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from waste sites for the Radioactive Air <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Management (RAEM) program and for the Area G Performance Assessment. Measurements were made at over 180 locations during the summers of 1993 and 1994, including randomly selected locations across Area G, three suspected areas of contamination at Area G, and the property surrounding TA-54. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluxes of radon were measured at six locations and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at 30 locations. Monitoring was performed at each location over a several-hour period using the U.S. EPA flux chamber approach. Separate samples for tritiated water, radon, and VOCs were collected and analyzed in off-site laboratories. The measured tritiated water <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluxes varied over several orders of magnitude, from background levels of about 3 pCi/m{sup 2}-min to 9.69 x 10{sup 6} pCi/m{sup 2}-min near a disposal shaft. Low levels of tritiated water were found to have migrated into Pajarito Canyon, directly south of Area G. The tritium flux data were used to generate an estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate of 14 Curies/yr for all of Area G, with the majority of this activity being emitted from relatively small areas adjacent to several disposal shafts. The estimated <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> release is less than 1% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> tritium release from all LANL in 1992 and results in a negligible off-site dose. Based on the limited data available, the average <span class="hlt">emission</span> flux of radon from Area G is estimated to be 8.1 pCi/m{sup 2}-min. The measured <span class="hlt">emission</span> fluxes of VOCs were < 100 {mu}g/m{sup 2}-min, which is small compared with fluxes typically measured at hazardous waste landfills. The air quality impacts of these releases were evaluated in a separate report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181950"><span id="translatedtitle">1992 Carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This article reports on the global <span class="hlt">total</span> of carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil-fuel burning and cement manufacture in 1992. The <span class="hlt">total</span> estimate of 6097 million metric tons of carbon is essentially the same for 1990 and down slightly from 1991, but 7 of 9 geographical regions had increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.5084A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AtmEn..44.5084A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and <span class="hlt">total</span> mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated <span class="hlt">annual</span> average acetic acid <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using <span class="hlt">annually</span> averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.2679G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.2679G"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional and sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garg, Amit; Bhattacharya, Sumana; Shukla, P. R.; Dadhwal, V. K.</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper the authors have estimated for 1990 and 1995 the inventory of greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O for India at a national and sub-regional district level. The district level estimates are important for improving the national inventories as well as for developing sound mitigation strategies at manageable smaller scales. Our estimates indicate that the <span class="hlt">total</span> CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from India were 592.5, 17, 0.2 and 778, 18, 0.3 Tg in 1990 and 1995, respectively. The compounded <span class="hlt">annual</span> growth rate (CAGR) of these gases over this period were 6.3, 1.2 and 3.3%, respectively. The districts have been ranked according to their order of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and the relatively large emitters are termed as hotspots. A direct correlation between coal consumption and districts with high CO 2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was observed. CO 2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the largest 10% emitters increased by 8.1% in 1995 with respect to 1990 and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from rest of the districts decreased over the same period, thereby indicating a skewed primary energy consumption pattern for the country. Livestock followed by rice cultivation were the dominant CH 4 emitting sources. The waste sector though a large CH 4 emitter in the developed countries, only contributed about 10% the <span class="hlt">total</span> CH 4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from all sources as most of the waste generated in India is allowed to decompose aerobically. N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the use of nitrogen fertilizer were maximum in both the years (more than 60% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> N 2O). High <span class="hlt">emission</span> intensities, in terms of CO 2 equivalent, are in districts of Gangetic plains, delta areas, and the southern part of the country. These overlap with districts with large coal mines, mega power plants, intensive paddy cultivation and high fertilizer use. The study indicates that the 25 highest emitting districts account for more than 37% of all India CO 2 equivalent GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Electric power generation has emerged as the dominant source of GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, followed by <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from steel and cement plants. It is therefore suggested, to target for GHG mitigation, the 40 largest coal-based thermal plants, five largest steel plants and 15 largest cement plants in India as the first step.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.9135L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.9135L"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> hotspots from organic soils in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leppelt, T.; Dechow, R.; Gebbert, S.; Freibauer, A.; Lohila, A.; Augustin, J.; Drsler, M.; Fiedler, S.; Glatzel, S.; Hper, H.; Jrveoja, J.; Lrke, P. E.; Maljanen, M.; Mander, .; Mkiranta, P.; Minkkinen, K.; Ojanen, P.; Regina, K.; Strmgren, M.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Organic soils are a main source of direct nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, an important greenhouse gas (GHG). Observed N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from organic soils are highly variable in space and time which causes high uncertainties in national <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories. Those uncertainties could be reduced when relating the upscaling process to a priori identified key drivers by using available N2O observations from plot scale in empirical approaches. We used the empirical fuzzy modelling approach MODE to identify main drivers for N2O and utilize them to predict the spatial <span class="hlt">emission</span> pattern of European organic soils. We conducted a meta study with a <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of 659 <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O measurements which was used to derive separate models for different land use types. We applied our models to available, spatial explicit input driver maps to upscale N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on European level and compared the inventory with recently published IPCC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors. The final statistical models explained up to 60% of the N2O variance. Our study results showed that cropland and grasslands emitted the highest N2O fluxes 0.98 1.08 and 0.58 1.03 g N2O-N m-2 a-1, respectively. High fluxes from cropland sites were mainly controlled by low soil pH-value and deep drained groundwater tables. Grassland hotspot <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were strongly related to high amount of N-fertilizer inputs and warmer winter temperatures. In contrast N2O fluxes from natural peatlands were predominantly low (0.070.27 g N2O-N m-2 a-1) and we found no relationship with the tested drivers. The <span class="hlt">total</span> inventory for direct N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from organic soils in Europe amount up to 149.5 Gg N2O-N a-1, which included also fluxes from forest and peat extraction sites and exceeds the inventory calculated by IPCC <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors of 87.4 Gg N2O-N a-1. N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from organic soils represent up to 13% of <span class="hlt">total</span> European N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reported in the European Union (EU) greenhouse gas inventory of 2011 from only 7% of the EU area. Thereby the model demonstrated that with up to 85% the major part of the inventory is induced by anthropogenic management, which shows the significant reduction potential by rewetting and extensivation of agricultural used peat soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-sec98-223.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol21-sec98-223.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) You must determine <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O process <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an <span class="hlt">annual</span> performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-sec98-223.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol22-sec98-223.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) You must determine <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O process <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an <span class="hlt">annual</span> performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-sec98-223.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol22/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol22-sec98-223.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) You must determine <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O process <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an <span class="hlt">annual</span> performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-sec98-223.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol21/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol21-sec98-223.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 98.223 - Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.223 Calculating GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) You must determine <span class="hlt">annual</span> N2O process <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from each nitric acid train according to paragraphs (a...) You must conduct an <span class="hlt">annual</span> performance test for each nitric acid train according to paragraphs...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11424302H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11424302H"><span id="translatedtitle">Top-down analysis of the elemental carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory in the United States by inverse modeling using Community Multiscale Air Quality model with decoupled direct method (CMAQ-DDM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Yongtao; Odman, M. Talat; Russell, Armistead G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model based inverse method is used for calibrating the 2004 elemental carbon (EC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the continental United States. We convert the Thermal Optical Transmittance (TOT) EC measurements to the Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) equivalents to fully utilize available observational networks. The reestimate of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is 0.40 Tg yr-1, about 13% higher than the a priori. The posterior CMAQ simulation driven by the adjusted <span class="hlt">emissions</span> had an ˜10% reduction in <span class="hlt">annual</span> average fractional error based on 24 h EC observations. Comparison of simulated EC concentrations to hourly aethalometer black carbon (BC) measurements improved as well. Also, using the EC scaling factors to adjust the primary particulate organic matter (OM) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> improved performance for OM simulation. Results show that splitting sources further spatially and category-wise increases the flexibility of adjusting <span class="hlt">emissions</span> according to the spatial variability of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> strength and hence makes a better reestimate of <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510616P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510616P"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatile compounds <span class="hlt">emission</span> from canopy fine litterfall in a hemiboreal mixed forest at Jrvselja</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Noe, Beate; Noe, Steffen M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The seasonal distribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from canopy fine litterfall was investigated over a period of two years. Three stands of a hemiboreal mixed forest were studied. The stands presented different dominant tree species: (1) Norway spruce, (2) Scots pine, and (3) Silver birch and Downy birch. The litterfall was monthly collected in litter traps. The BVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> of litter was sampled by placing the litter into a glass jar equipped with a vent tube and pumping the head space air through a VOC adsorbing tube (carbotrap). Adsorbed BVOCs were analyzed in a GC-MS. Fifteen compounds were quantified. Seasonal differences in the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of BVOCs were found, defined by a maximum in summer and a minimum in autumn and winter. During summer months, litter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were dominated by limonene, ?-pinene, camphene and 3-carene in the three litter types, accounting for 70-75 % of <span class="hlt">total</span> BVOC emitted in June. 3-Carene, ?-pinene and ?-pinene were the main compounds emitted during winter time, accounting for 50-60 % of <span class="hlt">total</span> BVOC emitted in January. Stand to stand differences were assessed. The spruce and birch dominated stands showed more similarities in their BVOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> pattern if compared to the pine dominated stand. Together with the litterfall data, an estimation of the <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> BVOC emitted by the soil litter layer is presented for each stand type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8403H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.8403H"><span id="translatedtitle">Fertiliser induced nitrous oxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during energy crop cultivation on loamy sand soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hellebrand, Hans J.; Scholz, Volkhard; Kern, Jürgen</p> <p></p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N 2O) fluxes from a loamy sand soil have been collected at an experimental field since 1999. To study the nitrogen (N) fertiliser induced <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, <span class="hlt">annual</span> crops and perennial plants received three different levels of N fertilisation: 0, 75, and 150 kg N ha -1. N 2O was measured by gas chromatography and closed chamber technique. Water content of the soil was determined gravimetrically and the soil content of mineral N by ion chromatography. The N 2O fluxes were below 30 μg N 2O m -2 h -1 during the winter season and varied from 10 to more than 1000 μg N 2O m -2 h -1 in the course of the vegetation season. N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> after N fertilisation were assigned to fertiliser induced <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. High N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at the end of the vegetation period are the result of increased mineralisation of soil organic matter. N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from freeze-thaw cycles gave only a small contribution to the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> N 2O <span class="hlt">emission</span> budget from all blocks studied. Since the mean soil moisture content is very low (10%) and the water-filled pore space (WFPS) correlates negatively with N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, nitrification is considered the main source for N 2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Evaluation of the data regarding dependence on fertilisation level indicates that N 2O fluxes are positively correlated to soil NO 3-N content. The N 2O fluxes from <span class="hlt">annual</span> crop plots are higher than those from plots with perennial plants (grass, willow, poplar). The mean N 2O-N <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor for fertiliser induced <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from tilled soil is 1.0% in contrast to that of non-tilled soil with 0.7%. The mean fertiliser induced N 2O-N <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, averaged over all crops and the <span class="hlt">total</span> period of nine years, are in the range of 0.8 ± 0.2% of the N fertiliser applied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/tah','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/tah"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> Artificial Heart</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a <span class="hlt">Total</span> Artificial Heart? A <span class="hlt">total</span> artificial heart (TAH) is a ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest <span class="hlt">Total</span> Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1973J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1973J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> measurements of alkenes, alkanes, SO2, and NO2 from stationary sources in Southeast Texas over a 5 year period using SOF and mobile DOAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johansson, John K. E.; Mellqvist, Johan; Samuelsson, Jerker; Offerle, Brian; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglck, Bernhard; Flynn, James; Yarwood, Greg</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>A mobile platform for flux measurements of VOCs (alkanes and alkenes), SO2, and NO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> using the Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) method and mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used in four different studies to measure industrial <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The studies were carried out in several large conglomerates of oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Southeast and East Texas in 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2012. The measured alkane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) have been fairly stable between 2006 and 2011, averaging about 11,500 kg/h, while the alkene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have shown greater variations. The ethene and propene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> measured from the HSC were 1511 kg/h and 878 kg/h, respectively, in 2006, while dropping to roughly 600 kg/h for both species in 2009 and 2011. The results were compared to <span class="hlt">annual</span> inventory <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, showing that measured VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were typically 5-15 times higher, while for SO2 and NO2 the ratio was typically 0.5-2. AP-42 <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were used to estimate meteorological effects on alkane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from tanks, showing that these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> may have been up to 35-45% higher during the studies than the <span class="hlt">annual</span> average. A more focused study of alkene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a petrochemical complex in Longview in 2012 identified two upset episodes, and the elevation of the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during the measurement period due to the upsets was estimated to be approximately 20%. Both meteorological and upset effects were small compared to the factor of 5-15, suggesting that VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are systematically and substantially underestimated in current <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a5009T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a5009T"><span id="translatedtitle">The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tubiello, Francesco N.; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sourcesincluding national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 <span class="hlt">emission</span> data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Second, growth in global <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961-2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to <span class="hlt">total</span> climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of <span class="hlt">emission</span> statistics over a reference period 1961-2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increased by 1.1% <span class="hlt">annually</span>, reaching 4.6 Gt CO2 yr-1 in 2010 (up to 5.4-5.8 Gt CO2 yr-1 with <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade 2000-2010, the ratio of agriculture to fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span> has decreased, from 17.2% to 13.7%, and the decrease is even greater for the ratio of net deforestation to fossil fuel <span class="hlt">emissions</span>: from 19.1% to 10.1%. In fact, in the year 2000, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from agriculture have been consistently largerabout 1.2 Gt CO2 yr-1 in 2010than those from net deforestation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51I..06G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51I..06G"><span id="translatedtitle">A new gridded on-road CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory for the United States, 1980-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gately, C.; Hutyra, L.; Sue Wing, I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil fuel CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. However, mapping vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories have used spatial proxies such as population and road density to downscale national or state level data, which may introduce errors where the proxy variables and actual <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are weakly correlated. We have developed a national on-road <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory product based on roadway-level traffic data obtained from the Highway Performance Monitoring System. We produce <span class="hlt">annual</span> estimates of on-road CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at a 1km spatial resolution for the contiguous United States for the years 1980 through 2011. For the year 2011 we also produce an hourly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> product at the 1km scale using hourly traffic volumes from hundreds of automated traffic counters across the country. National on-road <span class="hlt">emissions</span> rose at roughly 2% per year from 1980 to 2006, with <span class="hlt">emissions</span> peaking at 1.71 Tg CO2 in 2007. However, while national <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have declined 6% since the peak, we observe considerable regional variation in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> trends post-2007. While many states show stable or declining on-road <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, several states and metropolitan areas in the Midwest, mountain west and south had <span class="hlt">emissions</span> increases of 3-10% from 2008 to 2011. Our <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates are consistent with state-reported <span class="hlt">totals</span> of gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. This is in contrast to on-road CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimated by the <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Database of Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), which we show to be inconsistent in matching on-road <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to published fuel consumption at the scale of U.S. states, due to the non-linear relationships between <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and EDGAR's chosen spatial proxies at these scales. Since our <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates were generated independent of population density and other demographic data, we were able to conduct a panel regression analysis to estimate the relationship between these variables and on-road CO2 at various spatial scales. In the case of Massachusetts we find a non-linear relationship between <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and population density indicating that increasing density resulted in increased <span class="hlt">emissions</span> when density is less than 2000 persons-km-2. These results highlight the value of using an <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution. At coarser spatial scales, much of the variation in population density and on-road <span class="hlt">emissions</span> between towns is lost due to aggregation. The high spatial resolution and broad temporal scope of our CO2 estimates provides a basis for analyses to support <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitoring, verification and mitigation policies at regional, state and local scale.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25169871"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and quantification of shipping <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Bohai Rim, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Wang, Xiaoping; Huang, Guopei; Fang, Yin; Zong, Zheng</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Rapid development of port and shipbuilding industry in China has badly affected the ambient air quality of coastal zone due to shipping <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 60 ambient air samples were collected from background site of Tuoji Island in Bohai Sea strait. The air samples were analyzed for PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), inorganic elements, and water-soluble ions. The maximum concentration of PM2.5 was observed during spring (73.6 ?gm(-3)) compared to winter (39.0 ?gm(-3)) with mean of 54.6 ?gm(-3). Back trajectory air mass analysis together with temporal distribution of vanadium (V) showed that V could be the typical tracer of shipping <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at Tuoji Island. Furthermore, the ratios of vanadium to nickel (V/Ni), vanadium to lead (V/Pb) and vanadium to zinc (V/Zn) also suggest shipping <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at Tuoji Island. The <span class="hlt">annual</span> average primary PM2.5 estimate of shipping <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was 0.65 ?gm(-3) at Tuoji Island, accounting for 2.94% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> primary PM2.5, with a maximum of 3.16% in summer and a minimum of 2.39% in autumn. PMID:25169871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..98....8S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..98....8S"><span id="translatedtitle">A high-resolution and multi-year <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory for biomass burning in Southeast Asia during 2001-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Yusheng; Yamaguchi, Yasushi</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Biomass burning (BB) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from forest fires, agricultural waste burning, and peatland combustion contain large amounts of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and observation data, and spatiotemporal variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution and multi-year <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory for BB in Southeast Asia (SEA) during 2001-2010. The 1-km grid was effective for quantifying <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from small-sized fires that were frequently misinterpreted by coarse grid data due to their large smoothed pixels. The average <span class="hlt">annual</span> BB <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in SEA during 2001-2010 were 277 Gg SO2, 1125 Gg NOx, 55,388 Gg CO, 3831 Gg NMVOC, 553 Gg NH3, 324 Gg BC, 2406 Gg OC, 3832 Gg CH4, 817,809 Gg CO2, and 99 Gg N2O. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> were high in western Myanmar, Northern Thailand, eastern Cambodia, northern Laos, and South Sumatra and South Kalimantan of Indonesia. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from forest burning were the dominant contributor to the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> among all land types. The spatial pattern of BB <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was consistent with that of the burned areas. In addition, BB <span class="hlt">emissions</span> exhibited similar temporal trends from 2001 to 2010, with strong interannual and intraannual variability. Interannual and intraannual <span class="hlt">emission</span> peaks were seen during 2004, 2007, 2010, and January-March and August-October, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.5685C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.5685C"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from indoor and outdoor painting processes in shipyards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Celebi, Ugur Bugra; Vardar, Nurten</p> <p></p> <p>Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting solvents are one of the most important sources of pollutant outputs for the shipbuilding and ship repair industry. Two ships of equal tonnage with the same painted area as each other, which were built in Turkish shipyards, are compared in terms of VOCs produced during painting and coating. <span class="hlt">Total</span> area of all painted surfaces and <span class="hlt">total</span> paint consumption of a 3500 deadweight tonne (DWT) oil/chemical tanker and a general cargo ship are calculated. An improved model for calculating the surface <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of VOCs from painting and coating processes is utilized. Material balance <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimation approach is employed to calculate the amount of VOCs, since it is used most often where a relatively large amount of material is emitted during use, and/or all air <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are uncaptured. For both ships calculated VOCs are presented in figures. For the years 2005 and 2006 the <span class="hlt">total</span> deadweight tonnage of ships delivered in Tuzla region, where 42 shipyards are located, is known. Therefore, a linear estimation is made to guess the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> caused by painting operations. Finally, this information is used to project the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of VOCs emitted to the atmosphere for the year 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.7465B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.7465B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of mercury in southern Africa derived from long-term observations at Cape Point, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H. H.; Labuschagne, C.; Slemr, F.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in South Africa have so far been estimated only by a bottom-up approach from activities and <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors for different processes. In this paper we derive GEM/CO (GEM being gaseous elemental mercury, Hg0), GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios from plumes observed during long-term monitoring of these species at Cape Point between March 2007 and December 2009. The average observed GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios were 2.40 2.65 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 47), 62.7 80.2 pg m-3 ppm-1 (n = 44), 3.61 4.66 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 46), 35.6 25.4 ppb ppm-1 (n = 52), 20.2 15.5 ppb ppm-1 (n = 48), and 0.876 1.106 ppb ppb-1 (n = 42), respectively. The observed CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios agree within the combined uncertainties of the observations and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with the ratios calculated from EDGAR (version 4.2) CO2, CO, and CH4 inventories for South Africa and southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique) in 2007 and 2008 (inventories for 2009 are not available yet). <span class="hlt">Total</span> elemental mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 13.1, 15.2, and 16.1 t Hg yr-1 are estimated independently using the GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, and GEM/CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> ratios and the <span class="hlt">annual</span> mean CO, CO2, and CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, respectively, of South Africa in 2007 and 2008. The average of these independent estimates of 14.8 t GEM yr-1 is much less than the <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 257 t Hg yr-1 shown by older inventories which are now considered to be wrong. Considering the uncertainties of our <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimate, of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories, and the fact that <span class="hlt">emission</span> of GEM represents 50-78 % of all mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, our estimate is comparable to the currently cited GEM <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2004 and somewhat smaller than <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 2006. A further increase of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> due to increasing electricity consumption will lead to a more pronounced difference. A quantitative assessment of the difference and its significance, however, will require <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventories for the years of observations (2007-2009) as well as better data on the speciation of the <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in South Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25508320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25508320"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi (India).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumari, Ragini; Attri, Arun K; Panis, Luc Int; Gurjar, B R</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results show that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement in vehicle-technology and fuel use. PM <span class="hlt">emission</span> from exhaust and non-exhaust sources in general has increased. Heavy commercial vehicles-need attention to control particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> as it emerged as a predominant source of PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Among non-exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended particulate matter (TSP), road-surface wear (~49%) has the prime contribution. As a result of-introduction of unleaded gasoline Pb has significantly reduced (~8 fold) whereas share of Cu and Zn are still considerable. Among non-exhaust sources, Pb release was the most significant one from tyre-wear whereas from break-wear, Cu release was found to be the most significant followed by Pb and Cr + Zn. Because of public health concerns further policies need to be developed to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PM and HMs from the road transport of megacity Delhi. PMID:25508320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464689"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi (India).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumari, Ragini; Attri, Arun K; Panis, Luc Int; Gurjar, B R</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive <span class="hlt">emission</span> inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Results show that the <span class="hlt">annual</span> exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement in vehicle-technology and fuel use. PM <span class="hlt">emission</span> from exhaust and non-exhaust sources in general has increased. Heavy commercial vehicles-need attention to control particulate <span class="hlt">emission</span> as it emerged as a predominant source of PM <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Among non-exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended particulate matter (TSP), road-surface wear (~49%) has the prime contribution. As a result of-introduction of unleaded gasoline Pb has significantly reduced (~8 fold) whereas share of Cu and Zn are still considerable. Among non-exhaust sources, Pb release was the most significant one from tyre-wear whereas from break-wear, Cu release was found to be the most significant followed by Pb and Cr + Zn. Because of public health concerns further policies need to be developed to reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of PM and HMs from the road transport of megacity Delhi. PMID:25464689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25705922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25705922"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter <span class="hlt">emissions</span> during high energy demand days.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector <span class="hlt">emissions</span> contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to <span class="hlt">annual</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">totals</span> unless a source is matched to a continuous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitor (CEM) in the National <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively. PMID:25705922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B44A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B44A..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Global N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> - with a focus on natural soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saikawa, E.; Schlosser, C. A.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.; Fraser, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, P.; Odoherty, S. J.; Simmonds, P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.; Tohjima, Y.; Machida, T.; Nakazawa, T.; Aoki, S.; Ishijima, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Nitrous oxide (N2O) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> weighted by ozone depletion potential currently dominate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of ozone depleting substances, and N2O is now the third most significant long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas after CO2 and CH4. Despite its impact on stratospheric ozone destruction, it is not regulated under the Montreal Protocol, and global observations show a continuous N2O mole fraction increase of 0.2 to 0.3% per year. Sinks and sources of N2O still have large uncertainties but previous studies have estimated that soil <span class="hlt">emissions</span> share more than a half of the global <span class="hlt">total</span>. Because the variability in soil <span class="hlt">emissions</span> could potentially have important implications for regional and global climate, and vice versa, it is essential to better understand the processes and feedbacks associated with soil N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. To achieve this goal and quantify global soil N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, we have included nitrification-denitrification processes (DNDC) into the Community Land Model (CLM) version 3.5. Using three different bias-corrected, reanalysis-based meteorological datasets (NCC, CAS and GOLD), we constructed a suite of global gridded soil N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> estimates from 1975 through the mid-2000s. We evaluate our global soil N2O flux estimates against: 1) an existing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> inventory (GEIA), 2) another process model (NASA-CASA), and 3) observations from an existing forest N2O flux dataset in the Amazon and in the United States. Both the global and regional <span class="hlt">totals</span> agree well and the model reproduces the observed seasonal cycles of N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Next, we input these <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates to a 3-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model - the Model for OZone And Related Tracers (MOZART) version 4 - to analyze the impact of monthly and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability in soil <span class="hlt">emissions</span> on atmospheric observations. Using these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as an initial estimate, we also determine new regional and global N2O <span class="hlt">emissions</span> by inverse modeling from 1995 through 2009. Data from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), as well as Tohoku University are used after having been averaged into monthly mean values with associated uncertainties. This combination of process-based and inverse estimation allows new insights into the drivers of seasonal and inter-<span class="hlt">annual</span> variability of this important atmospheric constituent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18992919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18992919"><span id="translatedtitle">Deforestation and greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr(-1)) was converted into harvested biomass (m(3)) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m(-3). For <span class="hlt">annual</span> GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the <span class="hlt">annual</span> deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4x10(3) m(3) of wood biomass, including 267.6x10(3) m(3) round wood and 240.8x10(3) m(3) branches and small trees. <span class="hlt">Total</span> GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378028 t CO(2), 15554 t CO, 1778 t CH(4), 442 t NO(X), 288 t NO and 12 t N(2)O per annum. The combined CO(2)-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (excluding NO(X) and NO) is 455666 t yr(-1). While these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> form only a small part of Sudan's <span class="hlt">total</span> GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management. PMID:18992919</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198196-methane-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-lakes-along-northsouth-latitudinal-transect-alaska','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1198196-methane-carbon-dioxide-emissions-from-lakes-along-northsouth-latitudinal-transect-alaska"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane and carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.</p> <p>2014-09-12</p> <p>Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4more » <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. <span class="hlt">Total</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and <span class="hlt">total</span> nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113251S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113251S"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane and carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 40 lakes along a north-south latitudinal transect in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas <span class="hlt">emission</span> modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span> modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">annual</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. <span class="hlt">Total</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and <span class="hlt">total</span> nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10612633W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10612633W"><span id="translatedtitle">Inventory of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from U.S. cattle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Johnson, K. A.; Huyler, M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Many countries, including the United States, are in the process of inventorying greenhouse gas <span class="hlt">emissions</span> as a prerequisite for designing control strategies. We have developed a measurement-based inventory of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from cattle in the United States. Methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors were established for the major livestock groups using an internal tracer method. The groups studied included cows, replacement heifers, slaughter cattle, calves, and bulls in the beef sector and cows plus replacement heifers in the dairy industry. Since methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> is dependent on the quality and quantity of feed, diets were chosen that are representative of the feed regimes utilized by producers in the United States. Regional cattle populations, obtained from U.S. Department of Agriculture statistics, were combined with the methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> factors to yield regional <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates. The methane <span class="hlt">totals</span> from the five regions were then summed to give a U.S. inventory of cattle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998. <span class="hlt">Annual</span> releases ranged from 6.50 Tg in 1990 to a high of 6.98 Tg in 1996. On a regional scale the North Central region of the United States had the largest methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from livestock followed by the South Central and the West. The beef cow group released the most methane (˜2.5 Tg yr-1) followed by slaughter cattle (˜1.7 Tg yr-1) and dairy cows at about 1.5 Tg yr-1. Methane released by cattle in the United States contributes about 11% of the global cattle source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol8-sec61-254.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol8-sec61-254.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.254 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.254 Section 61.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol8-sec61-254.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol8-sec61-254.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.254 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.254 Section 61.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol9-sec61-24.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol9-sec61-24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.24 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.24 Section 61.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol8-sec61-24.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol8-sec61-24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.24 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.24 Section 61.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol9-sec61-254.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol9-sec61-254.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.254 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.254 Section 61.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol8-sec61-24.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol8-sec61-24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.24 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.24 Section 61.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol9-sec61-254.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol9-sec61-254.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.254 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.254 Section 61.254 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol9-sec61-24.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol9-sec61-24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 61.24 - <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Annual</span> reporting requirements. 61.24 Section 61.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards for...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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