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Computations of total sediment discharge, Niobrara River near Cody, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A natural chute in the Niobrara River near Cody, Nebr., constricts the flow of the river except at high stages to a narrow channel in which the turbulence is sufficient to suspend nearly the total sediment discharge. Because much of the flow originates in the sandhills area of Nebraska, the water discharge and sediment discharge are relatively uniform. Sediment discharges based on depth-integrated samples at a contracted section in the chute and on streamflow records at a recording gage about 1,900 feet upstream are available for the period from April 1948 to September 1953 but are not given directly as continuous records in this report. Sediment measurements have been made periodically near the gage and at other nearby relatively unconfined sections of the stream for comparison with measurements at the contracted section. Sediment discharge at these relatively unconfined sections was computed from formulas for comparison with measured sediment discharges at the contracted section. A form of the Du Boys formula gave computed tonnages of sediment that were unsatisfactory. Sediment discharges as computed from the Schoklitsch formula agreed well with measured sediment discharges that were low, but they were much too low at measured sediment discharges that were higher. The Straub formula gave computed discharges, presumably of bed material, that were several times larger than measured discharges of sediment coarser than 0.125 millimeter. All three of these formulas gave computed sediment discharges that increased with water discharges much less rapidly than the measured discharges of sediment coarser than 0.125 millimeter. The Einstein procedure when applied to a reach that included 10 defined cross sections gave much better agreement between computed sediment discharge and measured sediment discharge than did anyone of the three other formulas that were used. This procedure does not compute the discharge of sediment that is too small to be found in the stream bed in appreciable quantities. Hence, total sediment discharges were obtained by adding computed discharges of sediment larger than 0.125 millimeter to measured discharges of sediment smaller than 0.125 millimeter. The size distributions of the computed sediment discharge compared poorly with the size distributions of sediment discharge at the contracted section. Ten sediment discharges computed from the Einstein procedure as applied to a single section averaged several times the measured sediment discharge for the contracted section and gave size distributions that were unsatisfactory. The Einstein procedure was modified to compute total sediment discharge at an alluvial section from readily measurable field data. The modified procedure uses measurements of bed-material particle sizes, suspended-sediment concentrations and particle sizes from depth-integrated samples, streamflow, and water temperatures. Computations of total sediment discharge were made by using this modified procedure, some for the section at the gaging station and some for each of two other relatively unconfined sections. The size distributions of the computed and the measured sediment discharges agreed reasonably well. Major advantages of this modified procedure include applicability to a single section rather than to a reach of channel, use of measured velocity instead of water-surface slope, use of depth-integrated samples, and apparently fair accuracy for computing both total sediment discharge and approximate size distribution of the sediment. Because of these advantages this modified procedure is being further studied to increase its accuracy, to simplify the required computations, and to define its limitations. In the development of the modified procedure, some relationships concerning theories of sediment transport were reviewed and checked against field data. Vertical distributions of suspended sediment at relatively unconfined sections did not agree well with theoretical dist

Colby, Bruce R.; Hembree, C.H.



Total Sediment Thickness of the Worlds Oceans and Marginal Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This annotated global map show the total sediment thickness of the world's ocean basins. It may be useful in a discussion about how sedimentary transport processes and tectonics interact to create areas of high sediment thickness, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico and the Indian Ocean.

Center, National G.; Noaa


Sediment and Total Phosphorous Contributors in Rock River Watershed  

EPA Science Inventory

Total phosphorous (TP) and total suspended sediment (TSS) pollution is a problem in the US Midwest and is of particular concern in the Great Lakes region where many water bodies are already eutrophic. Increases in monoculture corn planting to feed ethanol based biofuel productio...


The measurement of total sediment load in alluvial streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The measurement of the total sediment load transported by streams that flow in alluvial channels has been a perplexing problem to engineers and geologists for over a century. Until the last decade the development of equipment to measure bed load and suspended load was carried on almost independently, and without primary consideration of the fundamental laws governing the transportation of fluvial sediments. French investigators during the nineteenth century described methods of measurement and a mathematical approach for computing the rate of bed-load movement. The comprehensive laboratory investigations by Gilbert early in this century provided data that are still being used for studies of sediment transport. Detailed laboratory investigations of bed-load movement conducted during the last two decades by a number of investigators have resulted in the development of additional mathematical formulas for computing rates of bed-load movement. Likewise, studies of turbulent flow have provided the turbulence suspension theory for suspended sediment as it is known today.

Benedict, P.C.; Matejka, D.Q.



A comparison of load estimates using total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentration data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents the results to-date from a continuing investigation into the differences between total suspended solids (TSS) and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data and the ramifications of using each type of data to estimate sediment loads. It compares estimates of annual suspended-sediment loads that were made using regression equations developed from paired TSS and SSC data, to annual loads computed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) using traditional techniques and SSC data. Load estimates were compared for 10 stations where sufficient TSS and SSC paired data were available to develop sediment-transport curves for the same time period that daily suspended-sediment records were available. Results of these analyses indicate that as the time frame over which the estimates were made increases, the overall errors associated with the estimates decreases with respect to loads computed using traditional USGS techniques. Using SSC data to compute loads tends to produce estimates closer to those computed by traditional techniques than those computed from TSS data. Loads computed from TSS data tend to be negatively biased with respect to those computed by traditional USGS techniques.

Glysson, G.D.; Gray, J.R.; Schwarz, G.E.



Concentrations, loads, and yields of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment and bacteria concentrations in the Wister Lake Basin, Oklahoma and Arkansas, 2011-13  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Poteau Valley Improvement Authority uses Wister Lake in southeastern Oklahoma as a public water supply. Total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediments from agricultural runoff and discharges from wastewater treatment plants and other sources have degraded water quality in the lake. As lake-water quality has degraded, water-treatment cost, chemical usage, and sludge production have increased for the Poteau Valley Improvement Authority. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Poteau Valley Improvement Authority, investigated and summarized concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, suspended sediment, and bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp.) in surface water flowing to Wister Lake. Estimates of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment loads, yields, and flow-weighted mean concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were made for the Wister Lake Basin for a 3-year period from October 2010 through September 2013. Data from water samples collected at fixed time increments during base-flow conditions and during runoff conditions at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla. (USGS station 07247015), the Poteau River near Heavener, Okla. (USGS station 07247350), and the Fourche Maline near Leflore, Okla. (USGS station 07247650), water-quality stations were used to evaluate water quality over the range of streamflows in the basin. These data also were collected to estimate annual constituent loads and yields by using regression models. At the Poteau River stations, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment concentrations in surface-water samples were significantly larger in samples collected during runoff conditions than in samples collected during base-flow conditions. At the Fourche Maline station, in contrast, concentrations of these constituents in water samples collected during runoff conditions were not significantly larger than concentrations during base-flow conditions. Flow-weighted mean total phosphorus concentrations at all three stations from 2011 to 2013 were several times larger than the Oklahoma State Standard for Scenic Rivers (0.037 milligrams per liter [mg/L]), with the largest flow-weighted phosphorus concentrations typically being measured at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla., station. Flow-weighted mean total nitrogen concentrations did not vary substantially between the Poteau River stations and the Fourche Maline near Leflore, Okla., station. At all of the sampled water-quality stations, bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp.) concentrations were substantially larger in water samples collected during runoff conditions than in water samples collected during base-flow conditions from 2011 to 2013. Estimated annual loads of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment in the Poteau River stations during runoff conditions ranged from 82 to 98 percent of the total annual loads of those constituents. Estimated annual loads of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment in the Fourche Maline during runoff conditions ranged from 86 to nearly 100 percent of the total annual loads. Estimated seasonal total phosphorus loads generally were smallest during base-flow and runoff conditions in autumn. Estimated seasonal total phosphorus loads during base-flow conditions tended to be largest in winter and during runoff conditions tended to be largest in the spring. Estimated seasonal total nitrogen loads tended to be smallest in autumn during base-flow and runoff conditions and largest in winter during runoff conditions. Estimated seasonal suspended sediment loads tended to be smallest during base-flow conditions in the summer and smallest during runoff conditions in the autumn. The largest estimated seasonal suspended sediment loads during runoff conditions typically were in the spring. The estimated mean annual total phosphorus yield was largest at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla., water-quality station. The estimated mean annual total phosphorus yield was largest during base flow at the

Buck, Stephanie D.



Annual Sediment Budgets for Newly Formed Point Bars on Powder River, Montana, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphodynamic processes have been monitored for 37 years on Powder River, a large, unregulated meandering river that drains an area of about 35,000 km2 in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana, USA. Cross-sectional surveys of the channel and adjacent floodplains and terraces have been measured nearly annually (30 out of 37 years) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at 24 locations along 90 kilometers of the river. This long-term data set has provided insights into the natural morphological and sedimentary processes; and most recently, into the annual sediment budgets for three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Because our cross-sectional surveys are generally made only once a year (during the low-flow period, usually September-October), we record only the net change in thickness of the annual deposition and erosion because some areas on a point bar may be scoured and refilled during multiple floods in a year. Point-bar sediment budgets vary spatially as well as annually. The long-term average of the net annual sediment budgets during the post-1978 years (n=26 surveys) indicates that the average annual increment of new sediment deposited on the three point bars has been three to four times the average annual increment of old sediment eroded from the point bars. This annual deposition-to-erosion ratio has varied at one point bar from a minimum of 0.14 (1986) to maximum of 275 (1995). At the other two point-bar sites the ratio ranged from 0.18 (1991) to 265 (2008) and from 0.023 (1980) to 479 (1987). The lack of correlation from year to year or from one point bar to the next suggests the importance of differences in the planimetric configurations and hydraulic histories of each point bar in the evolutionary process. All the deposited sediment we measured during an annual survey represents the same sediment year class, whereas the eroded sediment we measured is composed of different proportions of previous sediment year classes. An index of the preservation (completeness) of these sediment year classes was defined for each point-bar as the percent of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011. The average (n=20 surveys) completeness was 59, 81, and 64%, and in general, deposits had better chances for being preserved if they were deposited higher on the point bar surface, or if they were covered by new deposition in the following year. Net annual deposition correlated only weakly with annual peak water discharge, and we found no correlation between annual peak water discharge and the amount of sediment eroded from the point bars. These low correlations may be the result of our using only net deposition and erosion values, and not the total deposition and erosion. These results illustrate the dynamic nature of point bars that adds an important component to earlier uniform, lateral accretion models of point bars. This dynamic nature produces a range of vegetation year classes, and thus, a rich diverse habitat for terrestrial and aquatic populations. This abstract has described one application of this unique long-term data set, and the authors will be pleased to provide the data set to anyone who might need long-term fluvial geomorphic data to address other research questions such as floodplain contaminant storage, river restoration, and environmental change.

Moody, John; Meade, Robert



Total Sediment Thickness of the World's Oceans and Marginal Seas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site consists of a digital total sediment thickness map and database for the world's oceans and marginal seas. The data are derived from previously published maps, ocean drilling results (Ocean Drilling Program and Deep Sea Drilling Project), and seismic reflection profiles (National Geophysical Data Center archives and Geological/Geophysical Atlas of the Pacific). Features include a JPEG image of the map, a downloadable data set available as either a NetCDF grd file or ASCII file, and bibliographical information.


A New Method for the Determination of Annual Sediment Fluxes from Varved Lake Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculation of sediment mass accumulation rates instead of thickness accumulation is preferable for paleoclimatic reconstruction as it eliminates the effects of dilution and compaction. Annually laminated lake sediment sequences (varved) theoretically allow for the estimation of sediment fluxes at annual scale, but the calculation is limited by discrete bulk density measurements, often carried out at a much lower resolution (usually 1 cm) than the varves (ranging from 0.07 to 27.3 mm, average 1.84 mm according to Ojala et al. 2012). Since many years the development of automated logging instruments made available continuous and high resolution sediment property data, in a non-destructive fashion. These techniques can easily be used to extract the physical and chemical parameters of sediments at the varve scale (down to 100 ?m). Here we present a robust method to calculate annual sediment fluxes from varved lake sediments by combining varves thickness measurements to core logging data, and provide an example for its applications. Several non-destructive densitometric methods applied to the Strathcona Lake sediment, northern Ellesmere Island, Canada (78°33'N; 82°05'W) were compared: Hounsfield Units from a CT-Scan, coherent/incoherent ratio and X-ray radiography (of both split core and sediment slabs, from an Itrax core Scanner), and gamma ray attenuation density. Core logging data were statistically compared to 400 discrete measurements of dry bulk density, wet bulk density and water content performed at 2 mm contiguous intervals. A very strong relationship was found between X-ray grey level on sediment slab and dry bulk density. Relative X-ray densities, at 100?m resolution, were then successfully calibrated against real densities. The final step consisted in binning the calibrated densities to the corresponding varve thickness and then to calculate the annual mass accumulation rates by multiplying the two parameters for each varve year. Strathcona Lake is located directly downstream of the Agassiz ice cap and contains laminated sediments whose accumulation is directly related to hydrological inputs generated by the melting of the ice cap. Over the last 65 years, annual sediment accumulation rates in Strathcona Lake documented an increase in high-energy hydrologic discharge events from 1990 to 2009. This timing is in agreement with evidence for an increase in the amount of melt on the adjacent Agassiz Ice Cap, as recorded in ice cores. A good correspondence was also found between annual mass accumulation rates and Eureka air temperature records, suggesting that temperature changes affected the extent of summer melting on the Agassiz Ice Cap, leading to high sediment yield to Strathcona Lake. Ojala, A.E.K., Francus, P., Zolitschka, B., Besonen, M. and Lamoureux, S.F. (2012) Characteristics of sedimentary varve chronologies - A review. Quaternary Science Reviews, 43, 45-60.

Francus, P.; Massa, C.; Lapointe, F.



Sediment yield and spurious correlation-toward a better portrayal of the annual suspendend-sediment load of rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bivariate relations between annual sediment yield (tons per year per unit drainage area) and drainage-basin area are spurious because drainage-basin area is common to both axes. Two alternative methods for portraying the annual suspended-sediment load of a river are suggested. One method consists of plotting suspended-sediment load (tons per year) against distance downstream. Such plots indicate that annual suspended-sediment load does not necessarily have a linear relationship with distance. The second method consists of plotting annual suspended-sediment load against drainage-basin area. Both methods more accurately portray fundamental relations between annual sediment load and drainage-basin characteristics than does the yield-area relation because spurious correlation is avoided. Plots were made of annual suspended-sediment load versus time for several stations along each of eight rivers for the 10-15 years of available data. The plots are in-phase with respect to relative magnitude of annual sediment loads. ?? 1988.

Waythomas, C.F.; Williams, G.P.



Further Evaluation of an Emperical Equation for Annual Total Evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An empirical equation for annual total evaporation based on annual precipitation and net radiation was found to provide evaporation within 10% of the observed values at seven locations within temperate and tropical regions, but it overestimated evaporation by 90% at one location within the tundra region. A synthesis of observations at two other locations within the tundra region gives overestimates of about 65%. A general analysis of observed precipitation, net radiation, and runoff within the tundra region shows that the empirical equation is generally biased to overestimate annual evaporation within the tundra region. A theoretical analysis is being done to understand the reason behind this bias.

Choudhury, Bhaskar J.



Simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge with the modified Einstein procedure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A procedure was presented in 1950 by H. A. Einstein for computing the total discharge of sediment particles of sizes that are in appreciable quantities in the stream bed. This procedure was modified by the U.S. Geological Survey and adapted to computing the total sediment discharge of a stream on the basis of samples of bed sediment, depth-integrated samples of suspended sediment, streamflow measurements, and water temperature. This paper gives simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure. Each of four homographs appreciably simplifies a major step in the computations. Within the stated limitations, use of the homographs introduces much less error than is present in either the basic data or the theories on which the computations of total sediment discharge are based. The results are nearly as accurate mathematically as those that could be obtained from the longer and more complex arithmetic and algebraic computations of the Einstein procedure.

Colby, Bruce R.; Hubbell, David Wellington



Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes  

PubMed Central

Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grunzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.



Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.



Canadian Journal of Analytical Sciences and Spectroscopy Determination of Total Mercury in Porewater of Lake Sediments  

E-print Network

in Porewater of Lake Sediments: Control of Interference from Dissolved Organic Carbon and Sul- phide Chun vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry was developed to determine total dissolved Hg in lake sediment, mercury has become one of the most studied pollutant (1-2). The biogeochemical processes involving mercury

Belzile, Nelson


Sedimentation rate, dilution, preservation and total organic carbon: some results of a modelling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modelling exercise was undertaken to evaluate the positive (preservational) and negative (diluent) effects of sedimentation rate (SR) on the total organic carbon (TOC) content of marine sediments, and to use multiple regression analysis of modern data to predict TOC. Data presented show the predicted marine TOC using the carbon burial efficiency (BE) versus SR relationship of Betts and Holland

R. V. Tyson



Total nutrient and sediment loads, trends, yields, and nontidal water-quality indicators for selected nontidal stations, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 1985–2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 1985–2011 and for 32 stations in the years 2002–2011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 2006–2011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as “improving water-quality trend and a low yield” than “degrading water-quality trend and a high yield” for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.

Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.



Varve formation and the climatic record in an Alpine proglacial lake: calibrating annually laminated sediments against hydrological and meteorological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes leading to the formation of varves in proglacial Oeschinensee (Switzerland) are investigated. The aim is to calibrate annually-laminated sediments of the last three decades against hydrological and meteorological instrumental data. Results from water samples and sediment traps show that the suspended sediment in the lake is mainly distributed by underflows during the time of the largest sediment input from

Andreas Leemann; Frank Niessen



Quantitative PCR enumeration of total/toxic Planktothrix rubescens and total cyanobacteria in preserved DNA isolated from lake sediments.  


The variability of spatial distribution and the determinism of cyanobacterial blooms, as well as their impact at the lake scale, are still not understood, partly due to the lack of long-term climatic and environmental monitoring data. The paucity of these data can be alleviated by the use of proxy data from high-resolution sampling of sediments. Coupling paleolimnological and molecular tools and using biomarkers such as preserved DNA are promising approaches, although they have not been performed often enough so far. In our study, a quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique was applied to enumerate total cyanobacterial and total and toxic Planktothrix communities in preserved DNA derived from sediments of three lakes located in the French Alps (Lake Geneva, Lake Bourget, and Lake Annecy), containing a wide range of cyanobacterial species. Preserved DNA from lake sediments was analyzed to assess its quality, quantity, and integrity, with further application for qPCR. We applied the qPCR assay to enumerate the total cyanobacterial community, and multiplex qPCR assays were applied to quantify total and microcystin-producing Planktothrix populations in a single reaction tube. These methods were optimized, calibrated, and applied to sediment samples, and the specificity and reproducibility of qPCR enumeration were tested. Accurate estimation of potential inhibition within sediment samples was performed to assess the sensitivity of such enumeration by qPCR. Some precautions needed for interpreting qPCR results in the context of paleolimnological approaches are discussed. We concluded that the qPCR assay can be used successfully for the analysis of lake sediments when DNA is well preserved in order to assess the presence and dominance of cyanobacterial and Planktothrix communities. PMID:21984244

Savichtcheva, Olga; Debroas, Didier; Kurmayer, Rainer; Villar, Clement; Jenny, Jean Philippe; Arnaud, Fabien; Perga, Marie Elodie; Domaizon, Isabelle



Annual replenishment of bed material by sediment transport in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Transportation, conducted a study during 1985-87 to determine the annual replenishment of sand and gravel along a point bar in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming. Hydraulic- geometry relations determined from streamflow measurements; streamflow characteristics determined from 45 years of record at the study site; and analyses of suspended-sediment, bedload, and bed- material samples were used to describe river transport characteristics and to estimate the annual replenishment of sand and gravel. The Wind River is a perennial, snowmelt-fed stream. Average daily discharge at the study site is about 734 cubic feet per second, and bankfull discharge (recurrence interval about 1.5 years) is about 5,000 cubic feet per second. At bankfull discharge, the river is about 136 feet wide and has an average depth of about 5.5 feet and average velocity of about 6.7 feet per second. Streams slope is about 0.0010 foot per foot. Bed material sampled on the point bar before the 1986 high flows ranged from sand to cobbles, with a median diameter of about 22 millimeters. Data for sediment samples collected during water year 1986 were used to develop regression equations between suspended-sediment load and water discharge and between bedload and water discharge. Average annual suspended-sediment load was computed to be about 561,000 tons per year using the regression equation in combination with flow-duration data. The regression equation for estimating bedload was not used; instead, average annual bedload was computed as 1.5 percent of average annual suspended load about 8,410 tons per year. This amount of bedload material is estimated to be in temporary storage along a reach containing seven riffles--a length of approximately 1 river mile. On the basis of bedload material sampled during the 1986 high flows, about 75 percent (by weight) is sand (2 millimeters in diameter or finer); median particle size is about 0.5 milli- meter. About 20 percent (by weight) is medium gravel to small cobbles--12.7 millimeters (0.5 inch) or coarser. The bedload moves slowly (about 0.03 percent of the water speed) and briefly (about 10 percent of the time). The average travel distance of a median-sized particle is about 1 river mile per year. The study results indicate that the average replenishment rate of bedload material coarser than 12.7 millimeters is about 1,500 to 2,000 tons (less than 1,500 cubic yards) per year. Finer material (0.075 to 6.4 millimeters in diameter) is replen- ishment at about 4,500 to 5,000 cubic yards per year. The total volume of potentially usable material would average about 6,000 cubic yards per year.

Smalley, M.L.; Emmett, W.W.; Wacker, A.M.



Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes increase in the Mississippi and Columbia Basins, whereas fluxes markedly decrease in the Colorado Basin. No consistent pattern in trace element fluxes was detected in the Rio Grande Basin.

Horowitz, A. J.; Elrick, K. A.; Smith, J. J.



Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan  

EPA Science Inventory

Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...


Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines River at Jackson. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong relations with SSC at 10 of 14 sites and was superior to streamflow for estimating SSC at all sites. These results indicate that turbidity may be beneficial as a surrogate for SSC in many of Minnesota’s rivers. Suspended-sediment loads and annual basin yields indicated that the Minnesota River had the largest average annual sediment load of 1.8 million tons per year and the largest mean annual sediment basin yield of 120 tons of sediment per year per square mile. Annual TSS loads were considerably lower than suspended-sediment loads. Overall, the largest suspended-sediment and TSS loads were transported during spring snowmelt runoff, although loads during the fall and summer seasons occasionally exceeded spring runoff at some sites. This study provided data from which to characterize suspended sediment across Minnesota’s diverse geographical settings. The data analysis improves understanding of sediment transport relations, provides information for improving sediment budgets, and documents baseline data to aid in understanding the effects of future land use/land cover on water quality. Additionally, the data provides insight from which to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of best management practices at the watershed scale.

Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.



Distribution of surficial sediment in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters: Texture and total organic carbon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surficial sediment distribution within Long Island Sound has been mapped and described using bottom samples, photography, and sidescan sonar, combined with information from the geologic literature. The distributions of sediment type and total organic carbon (TOC) reveal several broad trends that are largely related to the sea-floor geology, the bathymetry, and the effects of modern tidal- and wind-driven currents. Sediment types are most heterogeneous in bathymetrically complex and shallow nearshore areas; the heterogeneity diminishes and the texture fines with decreasing bottom-current energy. Lag deposits of gravel and gravelly sand dominate the surficial sediment texture in areas where bottom currents are the strongest (such as where tidal flow is constricted) and where glacial till crops out at the sea floor. Sand is the dominant sediment type in areas characterized by active sediment transport and in shallow areas affected by fine-grained winnowing. Silty sand and sand-silt-clay mark transitions within the basin from higher- to lower-energy environments, suggesting a diminished hydraulic ability to sort and transport sediment. Clayey silt and silty clay are the dominant sediment types accumulating in the central and western basins and in other areas characterized by long-term depositional environments. The amount of TOC in the sediments of Long Island Sound varies inversely with sediment grain size. Concentrations average more than 1.9% (dry weight) in clayey silt, but are less than 0.4% in sand. Generally, values for TOC increase both toward the west in the Sound and from the shallow margins to the deeper parts of the basin floor. Our data also suggest that TOC concentrations can vary seasonally.

Poppe, L. J.; Knebel, H. J.; Mlodzinska, Z. J.; Hastings, M. E.; Seekins, B. A.



Regional variation of total microbial biomass in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight different sites from 2300 to 4420 m water depth in the Arabian Sea were sampled for a biochemical quantification of phospholipid concentrations in the sediments. This method serves as a measure of microbial biomass in marine sediments comprising all small-sized organisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoa. Phospholipid concentrations can be converted to carbon units as an estimate of total microbial biomass in the sediments. The average phospholipid concentrations in the surface sediments (0-1 cm) of the 4 abyssal sites ranged from 7 nmol cm -3 at the southern site (SAST, 10°N 65°E, 4425 m) to 29 nmol cm -3 at the western site (WAST, 16°N 60°E, 4045 m). The high values detected at the abyssal station WAST exceeded those in the literature for other abyssal sites and were comparable to values from the upper continental slope of the NE-Atlantic and the Arctic. At the four continental slope sites in the Arabian Sea, average phospholipid concentrations ranged from 9 to 53 nmol cm -3 with the maximum values at stations A (2314 m) and D (3142 m) close to the Omani coast. Records of particulate organic carbon flux to the deep sea are available for four of the investigated locations, allowing a test of the hypothesis that the standing stock of benthic microorganisms in the deep sea is controlled by substrate availability, i.e. particle sedimentation. Total microbial biomass in the surface sediments of the Arabian Sea was positively correlated with sedimentation rates, consistent with previous studies of other oceans. The use of the measurement of phospholipid concentrations as a proxy for input of particulate organic matter is discussed.

Boetius, Antje; Lochte, Karin



Spatial and Habitat-Based Variations in Total and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Surficial Sediments in the San Francisco Bay-Delta  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies indicate significant amounts of mercury (Hg) are annually transported into the San Francisco Bay-Delta (Bay-Delta) as a result of historic gold and Hg mining activities. We examined temporal and spatial variation in concentrations of total Hg (HgT) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in surficial sediments of various ecosystem types in the Bay-Delta. We sampled surficial sediments across the Bay-Delta system and found HgT sediment concentrations in the central Delta were generally100-200 ng g-1 and increased westward through Suisun Bay to 250-350 ng g-1. MMHg concentrations in the central Delta were between 1 and 3 ng g-1, while those in sediments in the perimeter waterways and adjacent bays were less than 1 ng g-1. Six sites were monitored monthly for over a year to identify seasonal changes in Hg sediment concentrations. HgT sediment concentrations ranged from 48 to 382 ng g-1 and varied as a function of location not season. However, MMHg concentrations varied seasonally, increasing from 1 ng g-1 during winter months to 6 ng g-1 during spring and summer. Transects conducted at three marshes in the central Delta revealed MMHg sediment concentrations of 4-8 ng g-1at the interior and 2 ng g-1 at the exterior of the marshes. Habitat type was a major factor controlling MMHg concentration and the MMHg to HgT ratio in sediments of the Bay-Delta. MMHg was significantly correlated to HgT (r 2 = 0.49) in marsh sediments.

Heim, Wesley A.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Stephenson, Mark; Choe, Key-Young; Gill, Gary A.; Foe, Chris



Sediment-porewater partitioning, total sulfur, and methylmercury production in estuaries.  


Mercury (Hg) speciation and the activity of Hg(II)-methylating bacteria are responsible for the rate of methylmercury production and thus bioaccumulation in marine foodwebs. Factors affecting porewater partitioning (Kd) and methylation of Hg(II) were examined at 11 sites in sediment of 4 biogeochemically diverse estuaries in the Northeast U.S. In Long Island Sound, 88% of total mercury (HgT) log Kd variability was described by porewater dissolved organic carbon concentration and sediment total sulfur (S) content. Whereas across all estuaries, regression analyses showed that S alone drives about 70% of Kd variability and 50% of changes in methylation rates; and the inclusion of DOC and sulfides did not improve the prediction. Thus, we demonstrated that S is a better predictor of HgT log Kd than the sediment organic matter across multiple estuaries, and while organic matter and S are interchangeable in small-scale studies, on a larger scale, sediment S content is the simplest and most effective variable to measure. PMID:24344684

Schartup, Amina T; Balcom, Prentiss H; Mason, Robert P



15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




Computer program for the computation of total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two versions of a computer program to compute total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure are presented. The FORTRAN 77 language version is for use on the PRIME computer, and the BASIC language version is for use on most microcomputers. The program contains built-in limitations and input-output options that closely follow the original modified Einstein procedure. Program documentation and listings of both versions of the program are included. (USGS)

Stevens, H.H.



Identifying the annual signal in laminated clastic sediments from a Late Pleistocene lake succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thick (>250m) succession of laminated lacustrine sediments at the Baumkirchen site in the Inn Valley (Austria) indicates the presence of a lake or series of lake phases existing during Marine Isotope Stage 3. The laminations are highly complex, entirely clastic, and vary considerably in thickness and internal structure. Despite high sedimentation rates of 5-6 cm per year indicated by radiocarbon and pollen data, there is no systematic macroscopic annual pattern in the laminations which could be used to develop a high-resolution (varve) chronology. Microscopic investigations of thin sections revealed sub-mm to cm-scale silt layers punctuated by very thin (0.25-2 mm) clay-rich layers spaced semi-regularly between 2 and 8 cm where present. The spacing and small grain size of these thin layers suggests a possible annual process responsible for their formation: rain-out of the fine suspended sediment from the water column during winter, when fluvial discharge into the lake was negligible and its surface was frozen. These potentially annual layers are not reliably identifiable macroscopically, however, analysis of X-ray fluorescence core scan data revealed the layers to be enriched in several heavy metals: most strongly in Zn but also in Pb, Cu and Ni. Possible carrier minerals of these heavy metals are currently being investigated. The radiocarbon chronology (in the short upper section where it is available) and heavy metal peak counting agree within error suggesting the heavy metal enriched clay-rich layers are mostly annual. Available X-ray fluorescence data for 150 m of the section suggest no significant long-term changes in annual layer spacing (i.e. sedimentation rate) from the 5-6 cm average indicated by the radiocarbon data, although there is a high degree of small-scale variation. Preliminary optically stimulated luminescence dates point to the presence of several hiatuses in this succession suggesting a fragmented record containing several lake periods of high sedimentation rates, rather than a continuous record. Local, annually resolved chronologies will open the door to perform high-resolution investigations into rates of change of climate proxies (pollen and biomarkers) across stadial-to-interstadial transitions.

Barrett, Samuel; Starnberger, Reinhard; Spötl, Christoph; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter



Total metal levels in crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823), and surface sediments in Lake Terkos, Turkey.  


The aim of this study was to determine the total metal accumulation (aluminium, copper, manganese, lead, cadmium and iron) in different organs and eggs of Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) and sediments total metal contents (aluminium, copper, manganese, lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, chromium, nickel) in Lake Terkos. Water and sediment samples were collected from two stations at two different depths (1 and 2 m) of Lake Terkos in May 2008. Crayfish samples were collected by trammel net at the same region. Primary hydrographic conditions, such as temperature (13.6-19.4 degrees C), salinity (0.27-0.34 per thousand), dissolved oxygen (7.04-12.30 mg l(-1)) and pH (7.42-8.51), were recorded for each sampling point. Moreover, the total organic carbon (1.65-5.44%) and the total calcium carbonate contents (19.44-41.16%) of sediment samples were determined. According to the Turkish Food Codex (J Zool 26:283-288, 2002), the maximum allowable Pb and Cd levels in crayfish are 0.5 mg/kg wet weight. Accordingly, the Pb and Cd levels determined in A. leptodactylus samples are below this limit. However, when compared with the acceptable metal limits defined by WHO, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Ministry of Agriculture in United Kingdom (UK), it is clear that the Cu level is at the limit and the Cd results exceed the limit. When the metal contents in sediment samples from Lake Terkos are examined, it is seen that the Al, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cu contents are lower while Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb contents are higher than the crustal average values. The high values draw attention to the land-based domestic and industrial inputs. Lake Terkos sediments have high enrichment factors (EF) of Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb metals which corroborate this result. The low EFs of Fe, Ni and Cu are due to the natural (terrigeneous) inputs. Additionally, there is no Al, Fe, Ni and Cu metal enrichment in these lake sediments because of the low contamination factor (CF) values. However, it is moderately contaminated by Zn, Cr and Pb, and heavily contaminated by Cd. PMID:19847663

Kurun, Aysegül; Balkis, Nuray; Erkan, Melike; Balkis, Hüsamettin; Aksu, Abdullah; Er?an, Mahmut Selim



Total and Methyl Mercury Distribution in Water, Sediment, and Fish tissue in New England Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions that are conducive to the methylation of mercury are of particular concern because methyl mercury (MeHg) is the most toxic mercury species and is rapidly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in wildlife and man. The New England Coastal Basins study unit, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment program, has evaluated relations between concentrations of total mercury (HgT) and MeHg in stream water and bed sediment, and HgT in fish tissue at sites with a variety of watershed characteristics. Fifty-five stream sites from Rhode Island to Maine were sampled for water and bed sediment during 1998 - 2000. A subset of 27 sites was sampled for fish tissue. Sediment, water, and fish tissue samples were collected during summer low flow conditions within a week of each other to show patterns of MeHg accumulation and partitioning relative to site and watershed conditions. Concentrations of HgT in water and bed sediment ranged from 1 to 13 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and from 7 to 3,100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of MeHg in water and sediment ranged from 0.04 to 1.8 ng/L and from 1 to 38 ng/g dry weight, respectively, and were positively correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. Methylation efficiency, as estimated by MeHg/HgT, ranged from 0.003 to 0.282 for sediment and water samples, with a median value of 0.071. Methylation efficiency was highest at sampling sites with low urbanization and high organic carbon concentrations. HgT concentrations in fish tissue (mixed sunfish species) ranged from 42 to 349 ng/g wet weight and were positively correlated with concentrations of MeHg in water and bed sediment. A positive relation was not observed between HgT concentrations in fish tissue and HgT concentrations in water and bed sediment. These preliminary results indicate a high potential for mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms in New England streams.

Chalmers, A. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.



Comparability of suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two laboratory analytical methods ? suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and total suspended solids (TSS) ? are predominantly used to quantify concentrations of suspended solid-phase material in surface waters of the United States. The analytical methods differ. SSC data are produced by measuring the dry weight of all the sediment from a known volume of a water-sediment mixture. TSS data are produced by several methods, most of which entail measuring the dry weight of sediment from a known volume of a subsample of the original. An evaluation of 3,235 paired SSC and TSS data, of which 860 SSC values include percentages of sand-size material, shows bias in the relation between SSC and TSS ?SSC values tend to increase at a greater rate than their corresponding paired TSS values. As sand-size material in samples exceeds about a quarter of the sediment dry weight, SSC values tend to exceed their corresponding paired TSS values. TSS analyses of three sets of quality-control samples (35 samples) showed unexpectedly small sediment recoveries and relatively large variances in the TSS data. Two quality-control data sets (18 samples) that were analyzed for SSC showed both slightly deficient sediment recoveries, and variances that are characteristic of most other quality-control data compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Sediment Laboratory Quality Assurance Program. The method for determining TSS, which was originally designed for analyses of wastewater samples, is shown to be fundamentally unreliable for the analysis of natural-water samples. In contrast, the method for determining SSC produces relatively reliable results for samples of natural water, regardless of the amount or percentage of sand-size material in the samples. SSC and TSS data collected from natural water are not comparable and should not be used interchangeably. The accuracy and comparability of suspended solid-phase concentrations of the Nation?s natural waters would be greatly enhanced if all these data were produced by the SSC analytical method.

Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. D.; Turcios, L. M.; Schwarz, G. E.



Statistical analysis and estimation of annual suspended sediments of major rivers in Japan.  


We evaluate the spatiotemporal trends of recent suspended sediment conditions in Japanese rivers. Statistical and spatiotemporal trend analysis is conducted on the 92 major rivers in Japan based on water quality monitoring data from 1992 to 2005. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric method was used to investigate the spatial and temporal trends for the suspended sediment indicator. Results show that the mean concentration of suspended sediments in Japanese rivers has generally declined in recent years, although there are still water quality problems at some monitoring sites (Kanto, Chubu, Kinki and Kyushu regions). A positive relationship between observed yearly discharge and suspended sediment load was found. Land use maps with 100 meter spatial resolution were used to apply an empirical model and develop a regression model for estimating annual suspended sediment loads directly from land use and hydrologic data. Rivers were assigned to three groups according to statistical cluster analysis of suspended sediment (SS) concentration. The correlation between the simulation result from the empirical model and the observed data had R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.71 for groups 2 and 3, and the correlation between the simulation result from the regression model and the observed data had R(2) values of 0.48 and 0.34 for groups 2 and 3. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads to river basins in Japan. Results also suggest prioritization methods and strategies that policy-makers can use to address suspended sediment pollution in rivers and water quality management in general. PMID:23563480

Luo, Pingping; He, Bin; Chaffe, Pedro Luiz Borges; Nover, Daniel; Takara, Kaoru; Mohd Remy Rozainy, M A Z



Coupling annual and decadal patterns of sediment flux with channel morphology in gravel- bedded mountain streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel morphologic parameters that may be expected to change in response to changes in driving variables of streamflow and sediment supply include bed material grain size, bed configuration, channel width and depth, and gradient. Determination of which variable is most likely to respond to a particular perturbation depends on the type and magnitude of perturbation and the time scale of interest. Channel width is often of primary interest because it has the potential to adjust on a decadal time frame and because it is a typical criterion in the evaluation of stream health and function. Changes in channel width associated with changes in flow and sediment flux on large sand-bed rivers have been frequently described. We have initiated a project to evaluate the coupling between changes in flow and sediment flux and channel morphologic variables and on a gravel-bedded mountain stream. On the Cub River in southern Idaho, a series of streamflow diversions have caused changes in the average pattern of runoff. Peak flows are lower in magnitude and of shorter duration in segments affected by greater proportions of floodwater extraction. Field measurements of sediment transport and calibrated transport relations indicate these changes in streamflow have significantly altered the longitudinal sediment flux. Annual sediment flux significantly decreases downstream in years of average to high runoff, in contrast to the stable or increasing flux that our models predict for undiverted conditions. However, have these changes affected channel morphology to a degree that can be detected on a gravel-bedded mountain stream over a period of ~100 years? Detailed longitudinal measurements of bed elevation, channel width, bed material size, bed mobility, and channel configuration indicate that with increasing magnitude of flow extraction (1) channel width and channel width variability decreases, (2) bed elevation variability increases, (3) bed mobility increases, and (4) there is a greater abundance of gravel bars that are in-channel sediment storage sites. We compare these patterns of channel characteristics with the sediment mass balance to determine the relative importance of changes in channel width and in-channel sediment storage in accommodating the estimated longitudinal imbalance of sediment supply and export.

Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J.; Majerova, M.



Adjustment of total suspended solids data for use in sediment studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identifies fluvial sediment as the single most widespread pollutant in the Nation's rivers and streams, affecting aquatic habitat, drinking water treatment processes, and recreational uses of rivers, lakes, and estuaries. A significant amount of suspended-sediment data has been produced using the total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis method. An evaluation of data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey and others has shown that the variation in TSS analytical results is considerably larger than that for traditional suspended-sediment concentration analyses (SSC) and that the TSS data show a negative bias when compared to SSC data. This paper presents the initial results of a continuing investigation into the differences between TSS and SSC results. It explores possible relations between these differences and other hydrologic data collected at the same stations. A general equation was developed to relate TSS data to SSC data. However, this general equation is not applicable for data from individual stations. Based on these analyses, there appears to be no simple, straightforward way to relate TSS and SSC data unless pairs of TSS and SSC results are available for a station.

Glysson, G. Douglas; Gray, John R.; Conge, Lisa M.



Can sediment total organic carbon and grain size be used to diagnose organic enrichment in estuaries?  


Eutrophication (i.e., nutrient enrichment, organic enrichment, and oxygen depletion) is one of the most common sources of impairment in Clean Water Act 303(d)-listed waters in the United States. Although eutrophication can eventually cause adverse effects to the benthos, it may be difficult to diagnose. Sediment organic carbon (OC) content has been used as an indicator of enrichment in sediments, but the amount of surface area available for carbon adsorption must be considered. We investigated the utility of the relationship between OC and sediment grain size as an indicator of eutrophication. Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program was used to test this relationship. However, anthropogenic contaminants are also capable of causing adverse effects to the benthos and often co-occur with elevated levels of OC. Contaminant analysis and toxicity tests were not consistently related to enrichment status as defined by relationship between total OC and grain size. Although variability in response occurred, reflecting the variance in the water column factors (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and nutrients) and limited sample sizes, the data supported the hypothesis that sites designated as enriched were eutrophied. Dissolved oxygen levels were reduced at enriched sites, whereas chlorophyll a and nutrients were higher at enriched sites. This suggests that the relationship of OC to grain size can be used as a screening tool to diagnose eutrophication. PMID:21298700

Pelletier, Marguerite C; Campbell, Daniel E; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Audette, Charles T; Detenbeck, Naomi E



Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment and fish from Swarze¸dzkie lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in water, sediment and fish collected from Swarze¸dzkie lake in order to understand their distribution and partitioning which are not well known. Samples of water and sediments were collected at 11 locations. Water THg (total mercury) concentrations ranged from 155 to 342 ng l and MeHg (methyl mercury) ranged from 21.7 to 36.5 ng l.

Danuta Baralkiewicz; Hanka Gramowska; Ryszard Go?dyn



Quantifying total suspended sediment export from the Burdekin River catchment using the loads regression estimator tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loads regression estimator (LRE) was introduced by Wang et al. (2011) as an improved approach for quantifying the export of loads and the corresponding uncertainty from river systems, where data are limited. We extend this methodology and show how LRE can be used to analyze a 24 year record of total suspended sediment concentrations for the Burdekin River. For large catchments with highly variable discharge such as that of the Burdekin River, it is important to quantify loads and their uncertainties accurately to determine the current load and to monitor the effect of changes in catchment management. The extended methodology incorporates (1) multiple discounted flow terms to represent the effect of flow history on concentration, (2) a term that captures sediment trapping and spatial sources of flow in terms of the ratio of flow from above the Burdekin Falls Dam, and (3) catchment vegetation cover. Furthermore, we validated model structure and performance in relation to the application tested. We also considered errors in gauged flow rates of 10% that were consistent with the literature. The results for the Burdekin site indicate substantial variability in loads across years. The inclusion of vegetation cover as a predictor had a significant impact on total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration, with values up to 2.1% lower noted per increasing percentage of vegetation cover. TSS concentration was up to 38% lower in years with greater proportions of flow from above the dam. The extended LRE methodology resulted in improved model performance. The results suggest that management of vegetation cover in dry years can reduce TSS loads from the Burdekin catchment, and this is the focus of future work.

Kuhnert, Petra M.; Henderson, Brent L.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Bainbridge, Zoe T.; Wilkinson, Scott N.; Brodie, Jon E.



Influence of different temporal sampling strategies on estimating total phosphorus and suspended sediment concentration and transport in small streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various temporal sampling strategies are used to monitor water quality in small streams. To determine how various strategies influence the estimated water quality, frequently collected water quality data from eight small streams (14 to 110 km2) in Wisconsin were systematically subsampled to simulate typically used strategies. These subsets of data were then used to estimate mean, median, and maximum concentrations, and with continuous daily flows used to estimate annual loads (using the regression method) and volumetrically weighted mean concentrations. For each strategy, accuracy and precision in each summary statistic were evaluated by comparison with concentrations and loads of total phosphorus and suspended sediment estimated from all available data. The most effective sampling strategy depends on the statistic of interest and study duration. For mean and median concentrations, the most frequent fixed period sampling economically feasible is best. For maximum concentrations, any strategy with samples at or prior to peak flow is best. The best sampling strategy to estimate loads depends on the study duration. For one-year studies, fixed period monthly sampling supplemented with storm chasing was best, even though loads were overestimated by 25 to 50 percent. For two to three-year load studies and estimating volumetrically weighted mean concentrations, fixed period semimonthly sampling was best.

Robertson, D.M.



Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (½70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba,

Arthur J. Horowitz; Kent A. Elrick; James J. Smith



Total mercury in sediments, macrophytes, and fish from a shallow steppe lake in eastern Austria.  


During summer 2011, samples of sediment, macrophytes, and fish tissues from the shallow, slightly alkaline Lake Neusiedl, Austria, were evaluated for their total Hg content. This is the first report of Hg levels from this lake. Sediments displayed Hg contents between 0.025 and 0.113 ?g g(-1) dw (dry weight), significantly correlating with the proportion of organic components pointing to a small anthropogenic impact on the lake's Hg content. Hg Levels in plants and fish were unexpectedly high: both investigated submerged plant species, Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, showed mean values of 0.245 ± 0.152 and 0.298 ± 0.115 ?g g(-1) dw, respectively. Biomagnification was evident when comparing muscle samples of the planktivorous fish species rudd Scardinus erythrophthalmus (n = 10, mean = 0.084 ?g g(-1) ww (wet weight)) with the piscivorous perch Perca fluviatilis (n = 21, mean = 0.184 ?g g(-1) ww) or pike-perch Sander lucioperca (n = 9, mean = 0.205 ?g g(-1) ww). Significantly lower values were found in the muscle of the piscivorous pike Esox lucius (n = 25, mean = 0.135 ?g g(-1) ww), pointing to a specific Hg metabolism of this fish, presumably under the particular physicochemical properties of the lake. Hg Concentrations in fish could pose a risk to piscivorous birds in this protected wetland system. PMID:25146770

Jirsa, Franz; Pirker, Daniel; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K



Mercury speciation and total organic carbon in marine sediments along the Mediterranean coast of Israel.  


Along the Israeli Mediterranean Coast, three areas are considered "hot spots" of mercury (Hg) pollution: (1) Northern Haifa Bay (NHB), (2) the lower Qishon River at the southern part of Haifa Bay, and (3) a marine outfall of activated sewage sludge at the southern coast off Palmachim (sewage-sludge disposal site [SDS]). Even though the total Hg (HgT) concentrations in the sediments at the three areas are of the same order of magnitude (250-500 ?g kg(-1)), Hg was shown to bioaccumulate in fish and benthic fauna from Haifa Bay but not in benthic fauna or in commercial fish caught along the southern Mediterranean Coast of Israel near the SDS outfall. The primary goal of this study was to measure the concentrations of Hg species (HgT, methyl-Hg [MeHg], and Hg in different biogeochemical fractions)-in conjunction with organic carbon-in sediments of NHB and the lower Qishon River to assess its impact on Hg transitions among the species as characterized by different bioavailability and bioaccessibility. HgT concentrations in NHB and the Qishon River ranged from 249 to 347 and 165 to 667 ?g kg(-1), respectively. MeHg was significantly higher in the Qishon River (6.3-34.0 ?g kg(-1)) than in NHB (0.22-0.70 ?g kg(-1)) as were total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations (average 2.5 vs. 0.13 %). The relative Hg distribution in the biogeochemical fractions in NHB was 2.3 % in the most bioaccessible fractions (F1 + F2), 55 % in the organo-chelated species fraction (F3), 42 % in the strong-complexed species fraction (F4), and 0.7 % in the mercuric-sulfide fraction (F5). In the Qishon River, the bioavailable F1 + F2 and F3 fractions were lower than in NHB (<0.01 and 23 %, respectively) and the more refractory F4 and F5 fractions higher (73 and 3.3 %, respectively). The fractionation of Hg in Qishon River sediments was similar to the distribution found in polluted stations at the SDS. TOC and MeHg were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, in Qishon River and NHB sediments. Methylation depended on TOC availability when its concentration was in the range of 2-4 wt%. It is possible that TOC in the sediment controlled Hg speciation: Hg in F3 decreased and in F4 increased with increasing TOC concentrations. In contrast, MeHg/HgT was significantly positively correlated with TOC and Hg in the stable F4 fraction and negatively correlated with Hg in the F3 fraction. It was therefore assumed that higher TOC concentrations enhanced microbial activity and decomposition of organic matter. Hg was released from the F3 fraction and was either transferred to the F4 fraction or made available for methylation processes. PMID:22961217

Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Azran, Shlomi; Kress, Nurit



Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.  


Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms. PMID:25048730

Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon



Vertical distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in sediment of the Fugong mangrove area at Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China.  


The concentrations and vertical distributions of total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (methyl Hg) in the sediment of the Fugong mangrove area, located at the Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China, were investigated. The concentrations of total mercury were between 0.12-0.17 and 0.11-40.14 microg/g, while concentrations of methylmercury were between 0.15-1.8 and 0.081-0.58 ng/g (as mercury), in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The total mercury concentration was not correlated with the sampling depth. As the depth increased, methylmercury concentrations first increased to their maximum level at a depth of 10-25 cm, and then decreased; this was similar to the vertical distribution characteristics of methylmercury/total mercury ratios. The mangrove ecosystem was considered as a source of methylmercury for adjacent areas, due to the higher average methylmercury concentration in the mangrove sediment than other sediments nearby. Statistically significant logarithmic correlations, conic correlations, and negative correlations were observed for methylmercury and sulfide concentration, sediment organic matter, and sediment pH, respectively. PMID:23833815

Liang, Ying; Yuan, Dongxing; Chen, Yaojin; Liu, Xiyao



Evaluating Climatic Controls of Proxy Indicators: A Calibration Study Using Annually Laminated Sediments From a Minnesota Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of paleoclimatic inferences from sedimentary proxy data depends on a solid understanding of what environmental factors control the proxy indicator. Despite the rapid accumulation of paleoclimatic data, few rigorous calibration studies exist that compare proxy records with instrumental weather data. We analyzed annually laminated sediments of the past 100 years from Steel Lake (46o58' N, 94o41' W), Minnesota,

J. Tian; F. Hu



Annually resolved lake and shallow marine sediment records of global climate change of the past 16,000 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal to annual resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, during the Younger Dryas, and during the middle and late Holocene, when

G. H. Haug; A. Brauer; G. Yancheva; P. Dulski; J. F. Negendank; L. C. Peterson; D. M. Sigman



Comparisons between thorium isotopes in seawater and marine sediments for reconstructing dissolved and total detrital inputs to the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thorium-232, the most abundant Th isotope in the continental crust, has been widely used in seawater and marine sediments to evaluate continental inputs to the ocean. Seawater 232Th concentrations combined with estimates of Th residence time in the surface ocean derived from measurements of 230Th (or 234Th or 228Th) have been used to assess the dissolved 232Th removal flux. Assuming a constant 232Th concentration in detritus and dust Th solubility in seawater, 232Th removal flux can be converted to atmospheric dust input to the ocean. In marine sediments, 232Th concentrations have been normalized by 230Th to estimate total 232Th sinking flux to the seafloor. Similarly, this flux can also be used to estimate dust input to the ocean. Comparisons between dissolved 232Th removal flux in seawater and total 232Th sinking flux in sediments are crucial, because the discrepancy between these two fluxes could provide insights into several important issues, including uncertain dust Th solubility, potential advective Th inputs, inaccurate 230Th-derived sediment accumulation rates, and unknown lateral sediment transport. However, comparisons between these two fluxes have rarely been made in the same core-top sediments and water columns above. In this study, we compile several seawater and marine sediment Th data from different regions of the ocean, with a focus on the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The data are used to estimate 232Th removal and sinking fluxes, and hence the dissolved and total detrital inputs to the ocean. The results are also compared with other dust tracers (e.g. Al and Ti) and modeled dust deposition to improve our understanding of Th and dust in the ocean. This work offers an important test for the use of Th isotopes in reconstructing paleo dust input to the ocean and the impacts of dust flux changes on marine productivity and climate change in the past.

Hsieh, Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Williams, R. H.; McGee, D.



Statistic analysis of annual total ozone extremes for the period 1964-1988  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Annual extremes of total column amount of ozone (in the period 1964-1988) from a network of 29 Dobson stations have been examined using the extreme value analysis. The extremes have been calculated as the highest deviation of daily mean total ozone from its long-term monthly mean, normalized by the monthly standard deviations. The extremes have been selected from the direct-Sun total ozone observations only. The extremes resulting from abrupt changes in ozone (day to day changes greater than 20 percent) have not been considered. The ordered extremes (maxima in ascending way, minima in descending way) have been fitted to one of three forms of the Fisher-Tippet extreme value distribution by the nonlinear least square method (Levenberg-Marguard method). We have found that the ordered extremes from a majority of Dobson stations lie close to Fisher-Tippet type III. The extreme value analysis of the composite annual extremes (combined from averages of the annual extremes selected at individual stations) has shown that the composite maxima are fitted by the Fisher-Tippet type III and the composite minima by the Fisher-Tippet type I. The difference between the Fisher-Tippet types of the composite extremes seems to be related to the ozone downward trend. Extreme value prognoses for the period 1964-2014 (derived from the data taken at: all analyzed stations, the North American, and the European stations) have revealed that the prognostic extremes are close to the largest annual extremes in the period 1964-1988 and there are only small regional differences in the prognoses.

Krzyscin, Janusz W.



Sediment-adsorbed total mercury flux through Yolo Bypass, the primary floodway and wetland in the Sacramento Valley, California.  


The fate and transport of mercury are of critical concern in lowland floodplains and wetlands worldwide, especially those with a history of upstream mining that increases the mobility of both dissolved and sediment-bound Hg in watersheds. A mass budget of total mercury (THg) quantifies sources and storage for particular areas - knowledge that is required for understanding of management options in lowland floodplains. In order to assess contaminant risk in the largest flood-control bypass, prime wetland, and restoration target in the Sacramento River basin, we estimated empirical relationships between THg, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and streamflow (Q) for each of the major inputs and outputs using data from various publicly available sources. These relationships were improved by incorporating statistical representations of the dynamics of seasonal and intra-flood exhaustion (hysteresis) of sediment and mercury. Using continuous records of Q to estimate SSC suspended sediment flux and SSC to estimate THg flux, we computed the net transfer of sediment-adsorbed mercury through the Yolo Bypass over a decade, 1993-2003. Flood control weirs spilling Sacramento River floodwaters into the bypass deliver ~75% of the water and ~50% of the river's suspended sediment load, while one Coast Range tributary of the bypass, Cache Creek, contributes twice the THg load of the mainstem Sacramento. Although estimated sediment flux entering Yolo Bypass is balanced by efflux to the Sacramento/San Francisco Bay-Delta, there is much evidence of deposition and remobilization of sediment in Yolo Bypass during flooding. These factors point to the importance of the bypass as sedimentary reservoir and as an evolving substrate for biogeochemical processing of heavy metals. The estimates of mercury flux suggest net deposition of ~500 kg in the 24,000 ha floodway over a decade, dominated by two large floods, representing a storage reservoir for this important contaminant. PMID:22078330

Springborn, Michael; Singer, Michael Bliss; Dunne, Thomas




EPA Science Inventory

Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...


Fast and Inexpensive Detection of Total and Extractable Element Concentrations in Aquatic Sediments Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)  

PubMed Central

Adequate biogeochemical characterization and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems, both for scientific purposes and for water management, pose high demands on spatial and temporal replication of chemical analyses. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) may offer a rapid, low-cost and reproducible alternative to standard analytical sample processing (digestion or extraction) and measuring techniques used for the chemical characterization of aquatic sediments. We analyzed a total of 191 sediment samples for total and NaCl-extractable concentrations of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, Si, and Zn as well as oxalate- extractable concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and P. Based on the NIR spectral data and the reference values, calibration models for the prediction of element concentrations in unknown samples were developed and tested with an external validation procedure. Except Mn, all prediction models of total element concentrations were found to be acceptable to excellent (ratio of performance deviation: RPD 1.8–3.1). For extractable element fractions, viable model precision could be achieved for NaCl-extractable Ca, K, Mg, NH4+-N, S and Si (RPD 1.7–2.2) and oxalate-extractable Al, Fe and P (RPD 1.9–2.3). For those elements that showed maximum total values below 3 g kg?1 prediction models were found to become increasingly critical (RPD <2.0). Low concentrations also limited the performance of NIRS calibrations for extracted elements, with critical concentration thresholds <0.1 g kg?1 and 3.3 g kg?1 for NaCl and oxalate extractions, respectively. Thus, reliable NIRS measurements of trace metals are restricted to sediments with high metal content. Nevertheless, we demonstrated the suitability of NIRS measurements to determine a large array of chemical properties of aquatic sediments. The results indicate great potential of this fast technique as an analytical tool to better understand the large spatial and temporal variation of sediment characteristics in an economically viable way. PMID:23923001

Kleinebecker, Till; Poelen, Moni D. M.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Holzel, Norbert



Measuring total longshore sediment transport with a LISST instrumented mini-sled.  

E-print Network

A surf zone sediment transport study was conducted in Jamaica Beach, Texas, using new oceanographic equipment. A mini-sled was constructed and outfitted with an instrument package that consisted of two velocimeters, one current profiler, three OBS...

Huchzermeyer, Erick Karl




EPA Science Inventory

Diatom assemblages are being investigated as response and diagnostic indicators as part of our Great Lakes coastal wetlands research designed to support the development of nutrient, habitat, and sediment criteria and to develop community- and landscape-level diagnostic indicator ...


Effects of Small Impoundments on Total Watershed Sediment Yield in Northeast Kansas, April through August 2011  

E-print Network

storm events. Based on these results, watershed managers might consider adding, dredging, or repairing small impoundments as a method to reduce downstream reservoir sedimentation, though environmental and economic factors would have to be considered....

Foster, Guy M.



Toxic elements at a disused mine district: Particle size distribution and total concentration in stream sediments and mine tailings.  


Heavy metal and metalloid pollution at a disused pyrite mine was investigated. Five solid samples collected in the area (three stream sediments with different soil texture, a background soil sample and a mine tailing) were characterised by mineral and element composition, particle size distribution (by wet and dry sieving and laser diffraction) and total concentration by acid digestion (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd, Sb and As). X-ray and element analyses denoted a common mineralogical and chemical composition of mainly quartz, clinochlore, muscovite, anorthite, and hematite. Particle size distributions of the five samples showed that stream sediments were characterised by larger percentage of sand range classes (2000-60 microm) while background sample and tailing are mainly characterised by gravel particles (>2000 microm). Wet and dry sieving procedures gave different particle size distributions, which can be interpreted by laser diffraction analysis and represented by Rosin-Rammler model. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd were higher in the stream sediments than the tailing and background soil, while Mn, As, Sb and Hg are mainly concentrated in the tailing sample. Metal concentrations in the three stream sediment samples are correlated with both particle size dimensions (D(63.2)) and concentration of geochemical normalizers (iron and aluminium). These correlations are observed also for the pollutants that are mainly concentrated in tailing sample (Mn and As), denoting the importance of surface interactions also for the binding of these elements onto stream sediments. PMID:17400373

Giuliano, V; Pagnanelli, F; Bornoroni, L; Toro, L; Abbruzzese, C



78 FR 19262 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2013-N-04] Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community...Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a...has average total assets below a statutory cap.\\2\\ The Bank Act was amended in...



77 FR 14366 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012-N-02] Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community...Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a...has average total assets below a statutory cap.\\2\\ The Bank Act was amended in...



76 FR 3142 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011-N-01] Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community...Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a...has average total assets below a statutory cap. See 12 U.S.C....



75 FR 9601 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2010-N-01] Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community...Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a...has average total assets below a statutory cap. See 12 U.S.C....



Comparability of suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended-solids data for two sites on the L'Anguille River, Arkansas, 2001 to 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data collected with automatic pumping samplers at the L'Anguille River near Colt and the L'Anguille River at Palestine, Arkansas, August 2001 to October 2003 were compared using ordinary least squares regression analyses to determine the relation between the two datasets for each of the two sites. The purpose of this report is to describe the suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended-solids data and examine the comparability of the two datasets for each site. Suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data for the L'Anguille River varied spatially and temporally from August 2001 to October 2003. The site at the L'Anguille River at Palestine represents a larger portion of the L'Anguille River Basin than the site near Colt, and generally had higher median suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids and greater ranges in values. The differences between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data for the L'Anguille River near Colt appeared inversely related to streamflow and not related to time. The relation between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids at the L'Anguille River at Palestine was more variable than at Colt and did not appear to have a relation with flow or time. The relation between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids for the L'Anguille River near Colt shows that total suspended solids increased proportionally as suspended-sediment concentration increased. However, the relation between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids for the L'Anguille River at Palestine showed total suspended solids increased less proportionally as suspended-sediment concentration increased compared to the L'Anguille River near Colt. Differences between the two analytical methods may partially explain differences between the suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data at the two sites. Total suspended solids are analyzed by removing an aliquot of the original sample for further analysis, and suspended-sediment concentrations are analyzed using all sediment and the total mass of the sample. At the L'Anguille River at Palestine another source of variability in the two data sets could have been the location of the automatic pumping sampler intake. The intake was located at a point in the stream cross-section that was subject to sedimentation, which may have resulted in positive sample bias.

Galloway, Joel M.; Evans, Dennis A.; Green, W. Reed



7th Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership' provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processess, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission. The conference was highlighted by the announcement of the first recipients of the George M. Low Trophy: NASA's Quality and Excellence Award. My congratulations go out to all nine finalist organizations and to the two recipients of this prestigious honor: Rockwell Space Systems Division and Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. (the first small business to achieve this honor). These organizations have demonstrated a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed in the aerospace industry. This report summarizes the presentations and is not intended to be a verbatim proceedings document. You are encouraged to contact the speakers with any requests for further information.



Estimation of suspended-sediment concentration from total suspended solids and turbidity data for Kentucky, 1978-1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended sediment is a constituent of water quality that is monitored because of concerns about accelerated erosion, nonpoint contamination of water resources, and degradation of aquatic environments. In order to quantify the relationship among different sediment parameters for Kentucky streams, long-term records were obtained from the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), the parameter traditionally measured and reported by the U.S. Geological Survey, was statistically compared to turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS), two parameters that are considered surrogate data. A linear regression of log-transformed observations was used to estimate SSC from TSS; 72% of TSS observations were less than coincident SSC observations; however, the estimated SSC values were almost as likely to be overestimated as underestimated. The SSC-turbidity relationship also used log-transformed observations, but required a nonlinear, breakpoint regression that separated turbidity observations ???6nephelometric turbidity units. The slope for these low turbidity values was not significantly different than zero, indicating that low turbidity observations provide no real information about SSC; in the case of the Kentucky sediment record, this accounts for 30% of the turbidity observations. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Williamson, T.N.; Crawford, C.G.




EPA Science Inventory

Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...



Microsoft Academic Search

Data from streambed-sediment samples collected from 45 sites in the Hudson River Basin and analyzed for organochlorine compounds indicate that residues of DDT, chlordane, and PCB's can be detected even though use of these compounds has been banned for 10 or more years. Previous studies indicate that DDT and chlordane were widely used in a variety of land use settings

Patrick J. Phillips; Karen Riva-Murray; Hannah M. Hollister; Elizabeth A. Flanary



Sediment discharge in Rock Creek and the effect of sedimentation rate on the proposed Rock Creek Reservoir, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment data collected from 1976 to 1985 and stream discharge data collected from 1952 to 1980 at gaging station 09060500, Rock Creek near Toponas, Colorado, were used to determine total sediment discharge into the proposed Rock Creek Reservoir. Suspended sediment discharge and bedload discharge were related to stream discharge by using logarithmic regression relations. Mean annual suspended sediment discharge was estimated to be 309 tons/yr, and mean annual bedload discharge was estimated to be 428 tons/yr in Rock Creek at the Toponas gaging station for the 1953 through 1980 water years. The mean annual total sediment discharge into the proposed reservoir was estimated to be 768 tons/yr, which includes 10% addition to the suspended sediment discharge calculated for the Toponas gaging station to account for suspended sediment discharge from Horse Creek. This rate of mean annual total sediment discharge would decrease the long-term water storage capacity of the proposed reservoir by < 1% after 100 years. Suspended sediment discharge/unit-drainage-basin area at gaging station 09060550, Rock Creek at Crater, located about 5 mi downstream for the proposed reservoir site, was equivalent to suspended-sediment discharge/unit-drainage-basin area at the Toponas gaging station during 1985. Long-term sediment data collection at the Crater gaging station could be used for detecting changes in suspended sediment discharge in Rock Creek at the proposed reservoir site. (Author 's abstract)

Butler, D. L.



University Sustem of Ohio (USO) Measures Department/School Availability 0. Total Degrees / Certificates Awarded (Annual) from IR  

E-print Network

/ Certificates Awarded (Annual) from IR At Least One- but Less than Two-Year Certificates from IR Associate from IR Bachelor's from IR Master's from IR Doctoral from IR 1a. Total post-secondary enrollment (Fall) from IR 1b. Underrgraduate enrollment (Fall) from IR 1c. Graduate enrollment (Fall) from IR 2. Total

Moore, Paul A.


Differentiation between bioavailable and total hazard potential of sediment-induced DNA fragmentation as measured by the comet assay with Zebrafish embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals, Scope and Background  While water quality strongly improved over decades in the Rhine River, sediments still reflect elapsed contaminations of organic\\u000a pollutants and heavy metals. In comparing genotoxic effects induced by both sediment extracts and whole sediments, a ratio\\u000a of bioavailable toxicity and total extractable toxicity is obtained. Since contaminated sites whose contaminants are toxic\\u000a and as well bioavailable present

Thomas Kosmehl; Falk Krebs; Werner Manz; Thomas Braunbeck; Henner Hollert



Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)



A semi-analytical total suspended sediment retrieval model in turbid coastal waters: a case study in Changjiang River Estuary.  


A simple semi-analytical model to estimate total suspended sediment matter (3S) was established for estimating TSM concentrations in Changjiang River Estuary. The results indicate that 3S model with near-infrared wavelengths provide good estimates of TSM concentrations in the study region. Furthermore, the applicability of 3S model was evaluated using an independent data set taken from Oujiang river estuary during September 2012. The results indicate that providing an available atmospheric correction scheme for satellite imagery, the 3S model could be used for quantitative monitoring of TSM concentration in coastal waters, even though local bio-optical information is still needed to reinitialize the model. PMID:23736555

Chen, Jun; D'Sa, Eurico; Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Xunhua



Summary Report of the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership" provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processes, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission.



The mineral magnetic properties of an annually laminated Holocene lake-sediment sequence in northern Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed mineral magnetic measurements were conducted on a 9000-year varved lake sediment sequence in northern Sweden (Lake Sarsjön). The results demonstrate that the paramagnetic susceptibility reflects the concentration of detrital minerogenic material in the lake sediments, which is controlled to a large extent by the intensity of the spring snow melt. In contrast, the concentration of ferrimagnetic magnetite (reflected by

Ian Snowball; Per Sandgren; Gunilla Petterson



Distribution and transport of total mercury and methylmercury in mercury-contaminated sediments in reservoirs and wetlands of the Sudbury River, east-central Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total mercury and methylmercury were measured in 4 reservoir cores and 12 wetland cores from Sudbury River. The distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in these cores was evaluated to determine the potential for total mercury and methylmercury transport from reservoir and wetlands sediments to the water column. Concentrations of methylmercury were corrected for an analytical artifact introduced during the separation distillation used in the analysis procedure. Corrected methylmercury concentrations correlated with total mercury concentrations in bulk sediment from below the top layers of reservoir and wetland cores; methylmercury concentrations at the top layers of cores were relatively high, however, and were not correlated with total mercury concentrations. Concentrations of methylmercury in pore water were positively correlated with methylmercury concentrations in the bulk sediment. High concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury in sediment (73 and 0.047 micrograms per gram dry-weight basis, respectively) contributed less to the water column in the reservoir than in the wetlands probably because of burial by low concentration sediment and differences in the processes available to transport mercury from the sediments to the water in the reservoirs, as compared to the wetlands .

Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Breault, Robert F.; Lent, Robert M.



Do You Need Help Paying for Child Care? If your total annual household income is less than $70,000,  

E-print Network

Do You Need Help Paying for Child Care? If your total annual household income is less than $70,000, you may be eligible to participate in the NIH Child Care Subsidy Program All NIH Federal employees, no matter where you live, can apply for child care tuition subsidy and use it at your local licensed child

Bandettini, Peter A.



EPA Science Inventory

Escherichia coli, a fecal coliform, and total coliforms were monitored between September 1999 to October 2001 in five marinas on Lake Texoma, located on the Oklahoma and Texas border. General trend was that densities of E. coli were lower in the summer season due to the lower ...


Impact of dams on Yangtze River sediment supply to the sea and delta intertidal wetland response  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of estimates of sediment accumulation in reservoirs, the impact of 50,000 dams on sediment supply and intertidal wetland response in the Yangtze River catchment is examined. The total storage capacity of reservoirs is 200 × 109 m3, or 22% of the Yangtze annual runoff. The sediment accumulation rate in reservoirs has increased from ?0 in 1950 to

S. L. Yang; J. Zhang; J. Zhu; J. P. Smith; S. B. Dai; A. Gao; P. Li



Sediment discharge in Muddy Creek and the effect of sedimentation rate on the proposed Wolford Mountain reservoir near Kremmling, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream-discharge data collected from May 1982 through October 1985 and sediment data collected from March 1985 through October 1985 at stream flow-gaging station 09041500 Muddy Creek at Kremmling, Colorado, were used to determine total-sediment discharge into the proposed Wolford Mountain Reservoir. The data were divided on a seasonal basis, and statistical relations between suspended-sediment discharge and stream discharge were determined for the rising stage, falling stage, and base-flow period. One statistical relation between bedload discharge and stream discharge was determined from all collected data. These relations were used with 3 years of daily stream-discharge data to estimate total-sediment discharge. Total-sediment discharge was largest prior to the annual peak stream discharge during the study period and decreased thereafter. At least 97% of the total-sediment discharge was suspended sediment. Mean annual total-sediment discharge in Muddy Creek near Kremmling was estimated to be 83,000 tons per year for the 1983 through 1985 water years. Water-storage capacity of the proposed Wolford Mountain Reservoir at site C would decrease 10% after 100 years at this rate of mean annual total-sediment discharge. (USGS)

Ruddy, B. C.



Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 8,500 years recorded in annually laminated sediments from Lake Szurpi?y, NE Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments provide a precise time scale for high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstructions of climatic change and human impact. We reconstructed the environmental changes from Lake Szurpi?y (NE Poland) using varve chronology and multi-proxy interdisciplinary approach. Our reconstruction is one of the few for NE Poland and extends the geographical network of laminated lacustrine sediments. This research was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grants (N N306 275635, N N306 009337, N N306 291639). It is a contribution to the bilateral scientific program "Northern Polish Lake Research" (NORPOLAR). Parallel overlapping sediment cores with total length of 12.38 m and extending back to the Late Glacial were retrieved in 2007. The geochemical (X-ray Fluorescence, CNS, stable isotopes), microscopic (varve thickness and structure), biological (diatoms, pollen) and statistical analyses were applied and combined in an annual scale based on the varve chronology, which was verified by independent radiometric dating (Pb-210, Cs-137 and AMS radiocarbon dating). Due to the large slump, this study focuses on the almost continuously varved uppermost 7.58-m long section of the profile, covering the last 8,500 years. The climate fluctuations were the main cause of the environmental changes during the first 6,000 years. The geochemical record is mainly driven by the lake productivity, oxic conditions and minerogenic input. Although the first evidence of the anthropogenic impact is documented in pollen record at 8,000 BP, the environmental conditions were relatively stable until 2,500 BP, when the human activity increased significantly. Since that time the climatic and human influence are combined and more difficult to disentangle. Three settlement phases separated by natural regeneration of the environment occurred between 2,500-400 BP. The variation of geochemical and pollen data at 400-100 BP reflects climate fluctuations during Little Ice Age. The synchronous distinct change in the variability of ?13C, lithogenic elements, C/N ratio and pollen (high percentage of Bryales) may be interpreted as the allochtonous organic matter enrichment related to forest clearing and soil erosion. The lake productivity increased possibly due to the peat bogs drainage and agriculture development. The lake become eutrophic in the last period (since 150 BP).

Kinder, Ma?gorzata; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bubak, Iwona; Enters, Dirk; Kupryjanowicz, Miros?awa; Mayr, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Christian; Piotrowska, Natalia; Zolitschka, Bernd



29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to...annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that...cost to the enterprise of such goods will be included in...



77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...entities within one organizational structure subject to stress testing requirements...for the supervisory stress tests and the annual company-run stress tests across various...entities within the same organizational structure. D....



Annual and decadal variation of sediment yield in Australia, and some global comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of 275 estimated sediment yields from Australia shows that regional differences of yield correlate with different variables for different sizes of drainage basin. Despite this scale-dependence, high yields in large streams appear to be the result of high delivery rates from uplands, controlled substantially by rainfall and runoff energy, and the nature of drainage networks. Land use plays





EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of this project is to investigate the role of calcium carbonate grain coatings on adsorption and heterogeneous reduction reactions of key chemical and radioactive contaminants in sediments on the Hanford Site. Research will ascertain whether these coatings p...


A comparative study of metal pollution and potential eco-risk in the sediment of Chaohu Lake (China) based on total concentration and chemical speciation.  


Total and extractable concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in surface sediments of west Chaohu Lake (China) by HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4 digestion and an optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure, respectively. The metal pollution was evaluated by the enrichment factor approach, and the potential eco-risk was evaluated by the sediment quality guideline (SQG) and risk assessment code (RAC) assessments. The results indicated that both total and extractable metal concentrations were highly variable and were affected by sediment properties, even though the sediments were predominantly composed of <63-?m particles (>89%). Enrichment factors of the metals based on the total and extractable concentrations all showed higher values in the northern lake area and decreasing values towards the south. This distribution indicated an input of anthropogenic metals via the Nanfei River. Anthropogenic Cu, Pb, and Zn in surface sediments showed comparable values for each metal based on the total and extractable concentrations, suggesting that anthropogenic Cu, Pb, and Zn resided predominantly in the extractable fractions. Sediment Cu had low eco-risk, and Pb and Zn had medium eco-risk by the SQG assessment, whereas the eco-risk rankings of Cu, Pb, and Zn were medium, low, and low-high, respectively, by the RAC assessment. Referencing to the labile (dilute acid soluble) metal concentrations, we deduced that the eco-risk of Cu may be largely overestimated by the RAC assessment, and the eco-risk of Pb may be largely overestimated by the SQG assessment. Overall, sediments Cu and Pb may pose low eco-risk, and Zn may pose low-high eco-risk. PMID:24566968

Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji



Mass-height profile and total mass transport of wind eroded aeolian sediments from rangelands of the Indian Thar Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind erosion is an active land degradation process in the Indian Thar Desert and severe dust storm events during hot summer months in the region are very common. Assessment of soil loss due to dust storm events from major land use systems of the Indian Thar Desert is highly essential for proper environmental planning. Characterization of the mass-height profile of wind eroded aeolian sediment is an important step to compute soil loss/mass transport but was not previously studied in the region. In the present study, aeolian mass fluxes (kg m -2) at different heights from soil surface were measured at two major rangelands in the Indian Thar Desert: Overgrazing rangeland at Jaisalmer (26°55'N and 70°57'E), and controlled grazing rangeland at Chandan (27°01'N and 71°01'E). Evaluation of several mass-height profile models revealed that a power decay function [ q( z) = az-b, where q( z) is the measured mass flux at an height of z (m) from soil surface; a and b are parameters of the equation] was best to characterize the mass-height relationship of aeolian sediments from the Indian Thar Desert. The average mass transport rate (kg m -1 day -1) or the total soil loss during hot summer months was significantly higher at the overgrazed rangeland site than at the controlled grazing rangeland site. Therefore, protection of existing rangelands, which comprise about 80% geographical area of the Indian Thar Desert may check the land degradation process due to wind erosion.

Mertia, R. S.; Santra, Priyabrata; Kandpal, B. K.; Prasad, R.



Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids of superficial sediments from three contrasted areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal changes in totally and enzymatically hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA and EHHA) and EHAA/THAA ratios of superficial sediments were assessed during 1997-1999 in three areas (i.e., the Gulf of Lions, the Bay of Biscay, and Central Chile) differing in their primary productivity. In all three areas, and even off Central Chile where a strong El Niño event took place during 1997-1998, spatial changes were always much greater than temporal ones. The factors affecting the spatial distributions of amino acid concentrations differed among areas. In the Gulf of Lions, sediment granulometry was apparently the most important driving force of THAA, EHAA, and EHAA/THAA, and there was no marked difference between stations located on the open slope and those in submarine canyons. Conversely, in the Bay of Biscay, there were clear differences between the stations located off Cap-Breton, on the open slope, and those in the Cap-Ferret canyon; the latter two featuring lower EHAA and THAA but higher EHAA/THAA. This pattern is likely to result from the predominance of different sources of organic matter and especially from the importance of continental inputs to the Cap-Breton canyon. Off Central Chile, amino acid concentrations and ratios were both maximal around 100 m depth, probably reflecting the interaction between the primary productivity gradient and the presence of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) reducing the degradation of sedimentary organics. When comparing the average values collected in the three areas studied, THAA and EHAA were highest in Central Chile, intermediate in the Bay of Biscay and lowest in the Gulf of Lions. EHAA/THAA ratios were also highest in Central Chile but were lowest in the Bay of Biscay. Differences between the Gulf of Lions and the Bay of Biscay could have been affected by sampling design. In Central Chile, the use of labile organic carbon to total organic carbon (C-LOM/TOC) and EHAA/THAA as indices of organic matter lability led to very similar results. This was not the case in the Bay of Biscay. It is therefore argued that the use of C-LOM/TOC should be restricted to highly productive areas.

Grémare, Antoine; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Anschutz, Pierre; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Deflandre, Bruno; Vétion, Gilles



Polluted harbor sediment and the annual reproductive cycle of the female flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.)  

SciTech Connect

Compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),and pesticides are metabolized by enzyme systems, which are also involved in steroid metabolism. Disturbances of reproduction may therefore occur through the interference of these compounds with the endocrine system. Several aspects of reproduction were studied in the flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.), an euryhaline flatfish which inhabits coastal waters and is therefore a suitable biomonitor for the effects of chemical pollutants. Fish were kept during three years in mesocosm systems of which the first provided a control, while the second one contained polluted sediment, derived from the Rotterdam harbor. In November, all ovaries from both mesocosms contained vitellogenic oocytes. In May, all the control fish were previtellogenic, while the ovaries of fish from the polluted mesocosm contained, besides previtellogenic oocytes, a large number of vitellogenic oocytes, indicating that an estrogenic induction had occurred. The in vitro tissue incubations with androstenedione as precursor revealed that the ovarian capacity to synthesize testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 2}) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) didn`t differ between both mesocosms. In May, however, the levels of T and E{sub 2} as well as the level of the yolk-precursor vitellogenin were significantly higher in the polluted mesocosm. The conclusion from this study was that polluted harbor sediment contains compounds that effect normal reproductive development, i.e. the induction of premature vitellogenesis.

Janssen, P.A.H.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Goos, H.J.T. [Department of Experimental Zoology, Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Group Comparative Endocrinology; Wezel, A.P. van; Opperhuizen, A. [National Inst. for Coastal and Marine Management, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecotoxicology



Sedimentation and occurrence and trends of selected chemical constituents in bottom sediment of 10 small reservoirs, Eastern Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many municipalities in Kansas rely on small reservoirs as a source of drinking water and for recreational activities. Because of their significance to the community, management of the reservoirs and the associated basins is important to protect the reservoirs from degradation. Effective reservoir management requires information about water quality, sedimentation, and sediment quality. A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring during 2002 and 2003 was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 26 trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, and 1 radionuclide in the bottom sediment of 10 small reservoirs in eastern Kansas. Original reservoir water-storage capacities ranged from 23 to 5,845 acre-feet. The mostly agricultural reservoir basins range in area from 0.6 to 14 square miles. The mean annual net volume of deposited sediment, estimated separately for several of the reservoirs, ranged from about 43,600 to about 531,000 cubic feet. The estimated mean annual net mass of deposited sediment ranged from about 1,360,000 to about 23,300,000 pounds. The estimated mean annual net sediment yields from the reservoir basins ranged from about 964,000 to about 2,710,000 pounds per square mile. Compared to sediment yield estimates provided by a statewide study published in 1965, the estimates determined in this study differed substantially and were typically smaller. A statistically significant positive correlation was determined for the relation between sediment yield and mean annual precipitation. Nutrient concentrations in the bottom sediment varied substantially among the 10 reservoirs. Median total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 1,400 to 3,700 milligrams per kilogram. Median total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 550 to 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. A statistically significant positive trend (that is, nutrient concentration increased toward the top of the sediment core) was indicated in one reservoir for total nitrogen and in two reservoirs for total phosphorus. Also, a possible positive trend for total nitrogen was indicated in two other reservoirs. These trends in nutrient concentrations may be related to a statewide increase in fertilizer use. Alternatively, the trends may be indicative of diagenesis (that is, postdepositional changes in the sediment caused by various processes including decomposition). Nutrient loads and yields also varied substantially among the five reservoirs for which loads and yields were estimated. Estimated mean annual net loads of total nitrogen deposited in the bottom sediment ranged from 4,080 to 49,100 pounds. Estimated mean annual net loads of total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment ranged from 1,120 to 20,800 pounds. Estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen from the basins ranged from 2,210 to 6,800 pounds per square mile. Estimated mean annual net yields of total phosphorus from the basins ranged from 598 to 2,420 pounds per square mile. Compared to nonenforceable sediment-quality guidelines adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, bottom-sediment concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel in samples from all 10 reservoirs typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels (TELs) but were less than the probable-effects levels (PELs). TELs represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur in aquatic organisms, whereas PELs represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc exceeded the TELs but were less than the PELs in sediment samples from about one-half of the reservoirs and were less than the TELs in samples from the remaining reservoirs. Mercury concentrations were less than the TEL (information only available for four reservoirs). Silver was not detected in the bottom sediment fro

Juracek, Kyle E.



Spatiotemporal climatic, hydrological, and environmental variations based on records of annually laminated lake sediments from northern Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern Poland there is the unique opportunity to compare varved lake sediment records with distinct climatic trends along a 700 km long W-E transect. Annually laminated Holocene sediment sequences from Lake Lubinskie, Lake Suminko, Lake Lazduny, and Lake Szurpily were cored for high-resolution multiproxy climate and environmental reconstruction in the framework of the Polish-German project “Northern Polish Lake Research” (NORPOLAR). First results from a 139 cm long gravity core of Lake Lazduny (53°51.4’N, 21°57.3’E) document deposition of an organic (mean organic matter: 13.9%; mean biogenic opal: 9.8%) and highly carbonaceous gyttja (mean calcite content: 61.6%). The finely laminated sediment consists of biochemical varves. Pale spring/summer layers composed of autochthonous carbonates alternate with dark fall/winter layers made of organic and minerogenic detritus. The established chronology for the last 1500 calendar-years is based on thin section analysis supported by independent radiometric dating (C-14, Pb-210). Sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses were carried out with a decadal temporal resolution. Additionally, non-destructive and high-resolution XRF scanning data reveal a rhythmic variation in the Ca content that reflects seasonal calcite deposition. Redox-sensitive elements like Fe, Mn and S are interpreted to be the response to mean winter temperatures: colder winter temperatures ? extended lake ice cover ? intensification of meromixis ? increased Fe/Mn ratio. In turn, these parameters can be linked to NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) variability, because a negative NAO is related to colder and drier conditions in northeastern Europe. Climate variability is also mirrored by the ?13C record of the endogenic calcite fraction. In mid-latitude lakes calcite precipitation is dominated by productivity-controlled consumption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. Thus the ?13C record potentially provides a proxy for lacustrine primary production related to seasonal water temperature. As human land use considerably increased and modified the nutrient availability since the 19th century, this relationship is not applicable for the upper part of the record. Main future goals of NORPOLAR will be to (1) establish absolute chronologies for all available records covering the entire Holocene; (2) provide high-resolution data sets of paleoredox conditions, paleoproductivity, lake water balance, lacustrine carbon cycles and soil erosion in the catchment areas; (3) link paleodata with modern instrumental and monitoring data to improve the understanding of signal generation from forcing factors via processes to proxy records; and (4) provide regional data sets of reconstructed and quantified climate parameters to be compared with the output of regional climate models.

Tylmann, W.; Blanke, L.; Kinder, M.; Loewe, T.; Mayr, C.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.



Quantitative determination of polyphosphate in sediments using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares regression.  


Phosphorus (P) is a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality in freshwater ecosystems. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. Despite the broad relevance of polyphosphate (Poly-P) in bioremediation and P release processes in the environment, its quantification is not yet well developed for sediment samples. Current methods possess significant disadvantages because of the difficulties associated with using a single extractant to extract a specific P compound without altering others. A fast and reliable method to estimate the quantitative contribution of microorganisms to sediment P release processes is needed, especially when an excessive P accumulation in the form of polyphosphate (Poly-P) occurs. Development of novel approaches for application of emerging spectroscopic techniques to complex environmental matrices such as sediments significantly contributes to the speciation models of P mobilization, biogeochemical nutrient cycling and development of nutrient models. In this study, for the first time Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with partial least squares (PLS) was used to quantify Poly-P in sediments. To reduce the high absorption matrix components in sediments such as silica, a physical extraction method was developed to separate sediment biological materials from abiotic particles. The aim was to achieve optimal separation of the biological materials from sediment abiotic particles with minimum chemical change in the sample matrix prior to ATR-FTIR analysis. Using a calibration set of 60 samples for the PLS prediction models in the Poly-P concentration range of 0-1 mg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight of sediment) (R(2) = 0.984 and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP = 0.041 at Factor-1) Poly-P could be detected at less than 50 ?g g(-l) d.w. Using this technique, there is no solvent extraction or chemical treatment required, sample preparation is minimal and simple, and the analysis time is greatly reduced. The results from this study demonstrated the potential of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy as an alternative method to study Poly-P in sediments. PMID:22801463

Khoshmanesh, Aazam; Cook, Perran L M; Wood, Bayden R



Sediment calibration strategies of Phase 5 Chesapeake Bay watershed model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment is a primary constituent of concern for Chesapeake Bay due to its effect on water clarity. Accurate representation of sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed model is critical for developing sound load reduction strategies. Sediment calibration remains one of the most difficult components of watershed-scale assessment. This is especially true for Chesapeake Bay watershed model given the size of the watershed being modeled and complexity involved in land and stream simulation processes. To obtain the best calibration, the Chesapeake Bay program has developed four different strategies for sediment calibration of Phase 5 watershed model, including 1) comparing observed and simulated sediment rating curves for different parts of the hydrograph; 2) analyzing change of bed depth over time; 3) relating deposition/scour to total annual sediment loads; and 4) calculating "goodness-of-fit' statistics. These strategies allow a more accurate sediment calibration, and also provide some insightful information on sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Wu, J.; Shenk, G. W.; Raffensperger, J.; Moyer, D.; Linker, L. C.



Potential effects of forest fire and storm flow on total mercury and methylmercury in sediments of an arid-lands reservoir.  


A study was conducted from July 1995 to June 1996 to examine the spatial and temporal changes of mercury concentrations in sediments of an arid-lands reservoir. Prior to the first sample collection in July, a forest fire burned 2930 ha of mixed conifer and ponderosa pine in the watershed of Caballo Reservoir in south-central New Mexico. The fire was eventually extinguished by summer rains and storm runoff resulting in the mobilization and transport of charred vegetative material into an intermittent tributary (Palomas Creek) that drains the watershed into Caballo Reservoir. Concentrations of total mercury (THg), monomethlymercury (MMHg), and total organic carbon (TOC) in surficial sediments revealed fire, followed by storm runoff, enhanced the transport of mercury and organic matter to the reservoir. Concentrations of THg in sediments increased from 7.5 etag/g in July to 46.1 etag/g by November 1995 at one site (Palomas) nearest the outflow of Palomas Creek. No other spatial or temporal trends were observed for THg at other sites throughout the remainder of the study. Concentrations of MMHg in sediments at the Palomas site increased from 0.428 etag/g in July to 12.46 etag/g by October 1995 compared to concentrations in sediments at the remaining sites which ranged from 0.11 to 1.50 etag/g throughout the study. The ratio of MMHg to THg (a gross index of methylation activity) was greatest in sediments from the Palomas site (5.4-33.8%) compared to the remaining sites (0.01-3.60%). The ratio was mirrored by elevated TOC in sediments at the Palomas site (2.5-11.8%) that remained elevated throughout the study. Fire and subsequent late-summer rains may have had a twofold effect on mercury concentrations in Caballo Reservoir. The storm-driven runoff following the forest fire carried mercury complexed to organic matter which resulted in elevated levels of mercury as well as providing a carbon source for microbial methylation processes in sediment. PMID:11032121

Caldwell, C A; Canavan, C M; Bloom, N S



Total Quality Management on Campus: Pipe Dream or New Paradigm? AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looked at how Total Quality Management (TQM) is being adopted in institutions of higher education. A questionnaire was developed seeking information on: (1) leadership of the TQM movement and timing of events; (2) the training, educating, and informing of employees; (3) specific areas using TQM and the specific statistical tools being…

Freed, Jann E.; And Others


Artificial radionuclides ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the sediments of the Baltic Sea: total and spatial inventories and some temporal trends.  


The Baltic Sea was contaminated by radioactivity following global nuclear fallout and later by the Chernobyl accident. Despite the decrease of radioactivity caused by radioactive decay, radionuclides have a prolonged residence time in the water of the Baltic Sea due to slow water exchange and relatively rapid sedimentation. Very little is known about the amounts or spatial differences of ??Sr and ²?¹Am in the Baltic Sea sediments. In this study, 20 sediment cores taken around the Baltic Sea were investigated to estimate inventories of these radionuclides. The rough results show that the Chernobyl fallout added the amount of ??Sr in the same areas where the increase of ¹³?Cs can be detected, whereas this is not the case for ²?¹Am which is more evenly distributed in the sea bottom. In addition, local differences occur in the concentrations. These results are an important amendment to the radioactivity baseline of the Baltic Sea. PMID:23582977

Hutri, Kaisa-Leena; Mattila, Jukka; Ikäheimonen, Tarja Tuulikki; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka



Bioprospecting from marine sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: exploring the relationship between total bacterial diversity and actinobacteria diversity.  


Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x = 5610 per sample). Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H' = 5.4 to 6.7). Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03) indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces) were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation. PMID:24531187

Duncan, Katherine; Haltli, Bradley; Gill, Krista A; Kerr, Russell G



Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity  

PubMed Central

Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x = 5610 per sample). Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H’ = 5.4 to 6.7). Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03) indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces) were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation. PMID:24531187

Duncan, Katherine; Haltli, Bradley; Gill, Krista A.; Kerr, Russell G.



Timescales of lateral sediment transport in the Panama Basin as revealed by radiocarbon ages of alkenones, total organic carbon and foraminifera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paired radiocarbon measurements on haptophyte biomarkers (alkenones) and on co-occurring tests of planktic foraminifera ( Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Globogerinoides sacculifer) from late glacial to Holocene sediments at core locations ME0005-24JC, Y69-71P, and MC16 from the south-western and central Panama Basin indicate no significant addition of pre-aged alkenones by lateral advection. The strong temporal correspondence between alkenones, foraminifera and total organic carbon (TOC) also implies negligible contributions of aged terrigenous material. Considering controversial evidence for sediment redistribution in previous studies of these sites, our data imply that the laterally supplied material cannot stem from remobilization of substantially aged sediments. Transport, if any, requires syn-depositional nepheloid layer transport and redistribution of low-density or fine-grained components within decades of particle formation. Such rapid and local transport minimizes the potential for temporal decoupling of proxies residing in different grain-size fractions and thus facilitates comparison of various proxies for paleoceanographic reconstructions in this study area. Anomalously old foraminiferal tests from a glacial depth interval of core Y69-71P may result from episodic spillover of fast bottom currents across the Carnegie Ridge transporting foraminiferal sands towards the north.

Kusch, Stephanie; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Mix, Alan C.; Mollenhauer, Gesine



The role of midlatitude mixing barriers in creating the annual variation of total ozone in high northern latitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

from the HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) are used to investigate the annual variation of total column ozone in high northern latitudes. Downward transport of ozone-rich air by the residual mean circulation during autumn and winter bends ozone isopleths down and increases the high-latitude ozone amounts, leading to an ozone maximum at the end of the winter. During the summer months eddy mixing acts to restore pre-fall distributions of ozone. In this study the large-scale mixing in the lower stratosphere is analyzed using Nakamura's (1996) equivalent length formulation with observed and simulated ozone. The analysis of ozone mixing is performed in the tracer equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinate system. Steep latitudinal gradients of ozone isopleths below about 500 K occur during the winter, where there are minima in the equivalent length, indicating barriers to mixing at 30°N-40°N. This transport barrier allows large ozone maxima to develop poleward of it. The barrier disappears over the summer, permitting latitudinal mixing of the high ozone air. Above 500 K mixing is more effective during the winter, so a large winter maximum does not occur. In both midlatitude and high latitude the lower stratospheric layer from 330 to 500 K doubles its ozone content from autumn to spring, compared with much smaller changes in the layer from 500 to 650 K. Our results confirm that the presence of the winter transport barrier in the lower stratosphere controls the seasonal variation of total ozone.

Gille, John; Karol, Svetlana; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Yudin, Valery



Solar influences on flood frequency in a 450-year time series of detrital layers in annually laminated sediments from pre-alpine Lake Ammersee (Southern Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting of extreme events and their impacts on the human habitat requires profound understanding of the triggering mechanisms and recurrence intervals. Since instrumental time series rarely exceed a century, geo-archives are adequate tools to examine such events on longer time scales and under different climate boundary conditions. Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments are continuous high-resolution archives of climate and environmental variability. Flood-triggered sediment fluxes of detrital catchment material into these lakes allow establishing an event stratigraphy with seasonal resolution. Precise time control of these events can be obtained by varve counting. Lake Ammersee in the alpine foreland is an ideal site for the reconstruction of long time series of flood frequencies. The annually laminated sediments enable precise dating and reliable detection of even microscopic flood layers by their sedimentological and geochemical characteristics. The seasonality of each layer can be determined by the micro-stratigraphic position within a varve. Instrumental and historical flood data of the main tributary River Ammer can be used for calibrating the palaeoflood-record. The existing high-resolution Holocene palaeotemperature reconstruction derived from ostracods in Lake Ammersee sediments (von Grafenstein et al., 1999) facilitates the discussion of changes in flood frequency patterns in relation to changes in climate boundary conditions. A combination of micro-facies analyses and high-resolution element scanning (µ-XRF) allowed reconstructing a seasonal 450-year time series of flood layers in two varved sediment cores from Lake Ammersee. A comparison between instrumental River Ammer runoff and weather regimes (Großwetterlagen) data distinguished five main flood-prone weather regimes triggering 71% of extreme Ammer flood events. The agreement of the flood layer record with flood-prone weather regimes and the correlation of flood layer frequency with solar activity suggest changes in mid-latitude atmospheric dynamics related to solar variability. Reference: von Grafenstein U., H. Erlenkeuser, A. Brauer, J. Jouzel, and S.J. Johnson (1999), A Mid-European Decadal Isotope-Climate Record from 15,000 to 5000 Years B.P., Science, 284(5420), 1654-1657, doi:10.1126/science.284.5420.1654.

Czymzik, Markus; Dulski, Peter; Plessen, Birgit; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Brauer, Achim



Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of floating macrophytes accumulated behind bridge constrictions and dams; in 2008, high flows during the early part of the growing season carried floating macrophytes past bridges and over dams, minimizing accumulations. Samples of Lemna were collected and weighed to provide an estimate of Lemna biomass based on areal coverage during the summer growing seasons at eight sites in the five impoundments. Average estimated biomass during 2007 was approximately twice the 2008 biomass in each of the areas monitored. In 2007, in situ hyperspectral and high-resolution, multispectral data from the IKONOS satellite were obtained to evaluate the feasibility of using remote sensing to monitor the extent of aquatic plant growth in Assabet River impoundments. Three vegetation indices based on light reflectance were used to develop metrics with which the hyperspectral and satellite data were compared. The results of the comparisons confirmed that the high-resolution satellite imagery could differentiate among the common aquatic-plant associations found in the impoundments. The use of satellite imagery could counterbalance emphasis on the subjective judgment of a human observer, and airborne hyperspectral data can provide higher resolution imagery than multispectral satellite data. In 2007 and 2008, the potential for sediment flux of phosphorus was examined in free-flowing reaches of the river and in the two largest impoundments-Hudson and Ben Smith. These studies were undertaken to determine in situ flux rates prior to the implementation of the Assabet River Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for phosphorus and to compare these rates with those used in the development and evaluation of the TMDL. Water samples collected from a chamber placed on the river bottom were analyzed for total phosphorus and orthophosphorus. Ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations and seasonal temperature differences appeared to affect the rates of sequestration and sediment release of phosphorus. When dissolved oxygen concentrations remained relatively high in the chambers and when the temperature was relat

Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian



Late Quaternary climates of East Asia deduced from the total organic carbon contents of cored sediments (MD179-3304, 3312) off Joetsu City, Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations are analyzed with high temporal resolution (ca. 100 years) for cores MD179-3304 and MD179-3312 taken from the Japan Sea off Joetsu City. The temporal changes in TOC and TN concentrations vary quasi-regularly in similar patterns. The age models are formed on the basis of the dates of 14C dating, marker tephra beds, TL layers, and marine isotope events with depth. TOC concentration is high in MIS 1 and 5, low in MIS 2 and 4, and slightly elevated in MIS 3 with frequent short fluctuations. This general trend is very similar to LR04 curve, except for the reduced dominance of TOC around the MIS 5.5 substage. As shown typically in MIS 3, there are many peaks of TOC in a short interval. The details of these TOC peaks can be correlated with the warm interstadials of the Greenland ice core. We can identify a sawtooth-like decreasing trend of TOC in MIS 3. In contrast, the decreasing trend of ?18O in the ice core corresponds to an increasing trend of TOC in MIS 5. The most plausible explanation for the correlation of climate changes between East Asia and the North Atlantic is oscillation of the Arctic polar front through time. The detailed correspondence of TOC concentrations of the Japan Sea sediments to other common paleoclimate proxies means that the TOC concentrations of these sediments is an excellent paleoclimate record in Far East Asia, although the genetic relationship between air temperature and biological productivity in the Japan Sea is as yet unknown.

Urabe, Tasuku; Kuriyama, Manato; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kumon, Fujio



Cumulative sediment trapping by reservoirs in large river basins: A case study of the Yellow River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir sedimentation has been a serious problem for reservoir operation and watershed management worldwide, which highlights the importance of accurate estimate of the deposited sediment amount. With reservoir information derived from remote sensing dataset and observed hydrological records of water and sediment, this paper is concerned with the cumulative reservoir sediment trapping in the Yellow River basin. The river basin was divided into 12 sub-basins, upon which the reservoirs' sediment trapping efficiency (TE) and their interception effects on inflowing sediment were estimated with sediment records extracted from 179 field sampling stations. The results show that, with the sediment TE greater than 80% for all the sub-basins, theoretically the basin-wide reservoirs are able to trap most sediment. For the whole river basin, the sediment TE averages 95.2%, which indicates that the reservoirs can collectively make a significant anthropogenic signature on basin-wide sediment delivery. A basin-wide sediment yield map was generated to estimate the reservoir sedimentation amount. During 1950-1970, annually about 2.483 Gt of sediment was transported into channels from sloping lands. Taking into account the actual water storage changes and the reservoir construction history, the actual reservoir sedimentation rate was estimated at 0.59 Gt/yr after corrections, which represents 47.6% of the river basin's total sediment load reduction. Globally, reservoir sedimentation in the Yellow River basin represents about 12-15% of the global mean rate. Up to 2010, approximately 19.32 Gt of sediment has been trapped by Yellow River reservoirs, and totally about 40.32 Gt of sediment has been artificially fixed if silt check dams are also considered. With huge amounts of sediment deposited, these reservoirs have been losing their storage capacity to sedimentation at a rate of 0.6% per year. The magnitude is expected to enhance in future following new reservoir completions. Thus, more efforts are strongly needed to explore the associated responses.

Ran, Lishan; Lu, X. X.; Xin, Zhongbao; Yang, Xiankun



Challenges in Measuring and Predicting Medium Term (Weeks to Annual) Aeolian Sediment Transport in Beach-Dune Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal dune budgets depend on sediment input by wind from the beach. Calculation of aeolian transport is thus a primary factor to understand coastal dune evolution and beach-dune coupled dynamics. However, measuring aeolian sediment transport in coastal areas presents fundamental technical and conceptual limitations that make numerical modeling difficult. Wind tunnel experiments isolate and reduce the number of variables to study, which is a necessary procedure to clearly manifest mechanistic relationships between cause and effect. But even with refinement and inclusion of new variables, traditional sediment transport formulas derived from wind tunnel experiments do not usually work well in natural areas. Short-term experiments may include precise instrumentation to obtain high frequency, detail time series of variables involved in aeolian transport, but inferring information at larger scales is problematic without knowledge of the timing and magnitude of particular transport events. There are two primary problems in attempting to predict sediment inputs to coastal dunes over periods of weeks, months or years: 1) to determine an appropriate set of predictive equations that incorporate complexities such as surface moisture content, beach width and the presence of vegetation; and 2) to provide quantitative data on these variables for input into the model at this time scale. Remote sensing techniques and the use of GIS software open the possibility to monitor key parameters regulating sediment transport dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution over time scales beyond short-term experiments. These were applied at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island National Park (Canada), in an attempt to measure factors affecting aeolian sediment input to the foredune at a medium scale. Three digital cameras covering different sections of the beach and foredune provide time series on shoreline position, fetch distances, vegetation cover, ice/snow presence, or superficial moisture content. The rectification of oblique images to UTM maps allows to keep the spatial variability of these factors, and thus to perform detailed analysis on their complex evolution. Auxiliary instrumentation such as anemometers, safires, or erosion-deposition pins completes the basic set up. Data is processed using ArcGIS 9.2 and PCI Geomatica 9.1, and managed by an ArcCatalog Geodatabase. The coupling of new technologies (digital imagery) with traditional instrumentation (e.g. anemometers), and the extensive GIS capabilities both in the spatial and temporal domain, permits a new set of questions in aeolian coastal research. The overall goal is to obtain information on what is the frequency and magnitude of transport events at the beach or what are the key parameters regulating them. Challenges remain in improving methodologies to measure sediment transport rates. Ironically enough, we are able to obtain high quality time series on the factors affecting aeolian transport at the beach, but actual transport rates are measured with rather rudimentary techniques or instrumentation not adapted to meso-scale monitoring. This information is needed to test new approaches in modeling and understanding aeolian sediment input from the beach to the foredunes.

Delgado-Fernandez, I.



Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the reservoir basin were 779 pounds per square mile per year and 342 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Trace element concentrations in the bottom sediment of John Redmond Reservoir generally were uniform over time. As is typical for eastern Kansas reservoirs, arsenic, chromium, and nickel concentrations typically exceeded the threshold-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Trace element concentrations did not exceed the probable-effects guidelines (available for eight trace elements), which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations that were less than the threshold-effects guidelines. Stream channel banks, compared to channel beds, likely are a more important source of sediment to John Redmond Reservoir from the upstream basin. Other sediment sources include surface-soil erosion in the basin and shoreline erosion in the reservoir.

Juracek, Kyle E.



Understanding Stream Channel Sediment Source Contributions For The Paradise Creek Watershed In Northern Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excess sediment from agricultural areas has been a major source of impairment for water bodies, resulting in the implementation of mitigation measures across landscapes. Watershed scale reductions often target upland erosion as key non-point sources for sediment loading. Stream channel dynamics, however, also play a contributing role in sediment loading in the form of legacy sediments, channel erosion and deposition, and buffering during storm events. In-stream contributions are not well understood, and are a potentially important consideration for Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs). The objective of this study is to differentiate stream bank and stream bed sediment contributions and better understand the role of legacy sediments. The study area is the Paradise Creek Watershed in northern Idaho. We modeled sediment yield to the channel system using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, and subsequent channel erosion and deposition using CONCEPTs. Field observations of cross-sections along the channel system over a 5-year period were collected to verify model simulations and to test the hypothesis that the watershed load was composed predominantly of legacy sediments. Our modeling study shows that stream channels contributed to 39% of the total annual sediment load for the basin, with a 19-year time lag between sediments entering the stream to leaving the watershed outlet. Observations from long-term cross sectional data in the watershed, and a sediment fingerprinting analysis will be presented to better understand sediment contributions from within the stream channel system.

Rittenburg, R.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.



Evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in marine sediments quality using multivariate statistical techniques.  


Spatial and temporal variations of sediment quality in Matanzas Bay (Cuba) were studied by determining a total of 12 variables (Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Ni, Co, Al, Fe, Mn, V, CO?²?, and total hydrocarbons (THC). Surface sediments were collected, annually, at eight stations during 2005-2008. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component (PCA), cluster (CA), and lineal discriminant (LDA) analyses were applied for identification of the most significant variables influencing the environmental quality of sediments. Heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, V, and As) and THC were the most significant species contributing to sediment quality variations during the sampling period. Concentrations of V and As were determined in sediments of this ecosystem for the first time. The variation of sediment environmental quality with the sampling period and the differentiation of samples in three groups along the bay were obtained. The usefulness of the multivariate statistical techniques employed for the environmental interpretation of a limited dataset was confirmed. PMID:25015344

Alvarez, Odalys Quevedo; Tagle, Margarita Edelia Villanueva; Pascual, Jorge L Gómez; Marín, Ma Teresa Larrea; Clemente, Ana Catalina Nuñez; Medina, Miriam Odette Cora; Palau, Raiza Rey; Alfonso, Mario Simeón Pomares



Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

Peplow, Dan



Modelling the contribution of individual radionuclides to the total gamma air kerma rate for the sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England.  


The aim of this study was to test the performance of a published dose-rate model, investigate the contribution of individual radionuclides to the total gamma air kerma rate (GAKR) and derive external doses to man in the Ribble Estuary, NW England. GAKRs were measured and sediment cores were collected in order to determine radionuclide specific activities with depth. The latter values were used as input data for the external dose-rate model. The model has a slight tendency to over-predict the GAKR, but, on average, the model predictions fall within +/-26% of the measured value. Improvements, in the present case, might be made by accounting for core shortening and variations in soil density in the input data. The model predicted that, for exposed intertidal mud sites, a range of GAKRs between 0.011 and 0.022 microGy h(-1) was attributable to Springfields discharges alone. The contribution due to 234mPa and 234Th ranged between 20 and 60%. An excess GAKR (GAKR arising from anthropogenic emissions alone) of 0.139-0.150 microGy h(-1), used in conjunction with relevant habit-survey data (for a potential critical group) and conversion factors, yielded a dose to man of 0.029-0.031 mSv year(-1). PMID:10616780

Brown, J E; McDonald, P; Williams, M; Parker, A; Rae, J E



Sediment Transport and Storage Within a Small Forested Stream: East Creek, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current challenge within fluvial geomorphology is the establishment of a relationship between sediment transport and sediment storage in small, forested, gravel-bed streams. Channel morphology is both an expression of and constraining variable for transport-storage relations. This study seeks to explore this relationship via an intensely monitored stream located within the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest in coastal British Columbia. Three sequential study reaches that total 600m in length and exhibit rapid, riffle-pool and step-pool morphologies have been monitored for 3 years using a variety of techniques. These techniques include annual and seasonal mapping of channel bed and banks, release and annual collection of magnetic tracer particles, five permanent sediment pit traps emptied after each sediment-mobilizing event and the design of a reach-based sediment budget. By identifying sediment sources and using tracer particles, it is our aim to establish both the residence time of materials in storage within the channel and the virtual sediment velocity associated with the distinct channel morphology and hydraulic regimes. Fractional sediment transport rates measured from the five pit traps are used to populate the sediment budget and constrain sediment transport behaviour to particular morphologies. The end goal is to produce a morphologically based transport-storage relation relevant for work in small gravel-bed streams.

Caulkins, J. L.; Hassan, M. A.



Sediment Production from Forest Roads During Different Rainfall Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment productions from storm-proofed forest roads were investigated at four locations in the managed forested land of Northwestern California (annual rainfall @1000 mm), where rocks have been characterized as Wildcat group consisting of mudstone, siltstone, claystone, and minor conglomerate. Rocked road (storm-proofed road) constitutes a part of the effective road management practices in the study area where other management practices include disconnection of roads from watercourses, reduction in distance between culverts, frequent road maintenance, and seasonal (or during rainfall) restrictions of log traffic. Specifically, this study examines the influence of rainstorm and road characteristics on sediment production from storm-proofed road in the context of varieties of road management practices in place. Continuous ditch flow during the rainstorm events was monitored using an UNIDATA float device and data logger. An ISCO sampler collected suspended sediment at temporal resolution of 2-h during the rainstorm events, and collected sediment samples were analyzed for turbidity and suspended sediment concentration in the laboratory. Sediment samples were also collected for particle size distribution analysis. Two tipping bucket rain gages located in the vicinity of road sites collected rainfall. Using an electronic total station, road surface was surveyed in detail, and a road Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated. Thus produced DEM was processed to delineate the road surface area contributing to ditch flow. The analysis of collected data for rainstorm events of hydrological year 2003/2004 reveals that the suspended sediment concentration conforms closely to rainfall hyetograph and ditch flow hydrograph with rapid flushing of road sediments for about 15-h following the onset of rainstorm. In general, ditch flow and suspended sediment concentration relation illustrates that the sediment transport is evidently "supply limited". For this reason, suspended sediment concentration decreases to a low level after about 15-h of onset of rainstorm even when ditch flow as well as rainfall are considerably high. In addition to rainstorm characteristics, road characteristics such as slope gradient, and road use (traffic volume) caused differences in the short-term sediment concentration and total sediment yield among road segments during rainstorm events. Temporal distribution of suspended sediment concentration and short-term peak suspended sediment concentration dependent on the traffic volume prior to the onset of rainstorm event since truck traffic was ceased during rainstorms. During the same storm, road segments with high traffic volume produced peak suspended sediment concentration of up to 30-fold compared to road segments with low traffic volume; however, the total sediment yield during the rainstorm did not vary that much among road segments.

Kunz, M. J.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A. S.



Impacts of soil-water conservation in Jialing River on sedimentation of the Three Gorges Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jialing River is one of the main tributaries of the Yangtze River. The average annual runoff accounts for 16% and the\\u000a sediment load 26% of the total at Yichang therefore it's one of the main contributors of sediment to the Three Gorges Reservoir.\\u000a Ever since 1989, our country has implemented “Yangtze River soil and water conservation” project, Till the

Lei Xiaozhang; Cao Shuyou; Jiang Xiaohua



Evaluation of the effects of agricultural conservation practices on sediment yield in the Colusa Basin, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on sediment runoff from almond orchards in the lower Colusa Basin Drain watershed in the Sacramento Valley, California. This study used modeling techniques that include varying hydrologic parameters for both upland areas and small channels to quantify the effects of BMPs water quality. The BMPs simulated in this study are commonly used in almond orchards and include strip cropping, cover cropping, vegetative filter strips, grassed waterways and channel stabilization. The effectiveness of each BMP was simulated for an above average, below average and average rainfall year. Comparison of annual total watershed sediment loads for each BMP simulation showed that overall, channel stabilization and grassed waterways, which target in stream sediment erosion and transport, are the most effective BMPs with an estimated respective reduction in sediment load of 18% and 35% for a below average precipitation year, 13% and 26% for an above average precipitation year, and 17% and 30% for an average precipitation year. Simulations of BMPs designed to reduce sediment transport in upland areas, which include strip cropping and vegetative filter strips, estimated a reduction in total annual sediment load of less than 1% at the watershed outlet. These results indicated that in-stream sediment transport is the dominant sediment transport process in this watershed. Implementation of channel stabilization measures or grassed waterways on almond orchards is estimated to result in an annual reduction of total sediment load of 41,874 kg or 72,753 kg of sediment per square kilometer of almond orchard for an above average precipitation year.

Gatzke, S. E.; Zhang, M.



Fluvial sediment in Ohio  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Characteristics of fluvial sediment in Ohio streams and estimates of sediment yield are reported. Results are based on data from several daily record stations and 5 years of intermittent record from a 38-station network. Most of the sediment transported by Ohio streams is in suspension. Mean annual bedload discharge, in percentage of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge, is estimated to be less than 10 percent at all but one of the sediment stations analyzed. Duration analysis shows that about 90 percent of the suspended sediment is discharged during 10 percent of the time. Concentration of suspended sediment averages less than 100 milligrams per liter 75 percent of the time and less than 50 milligrams per liter 50 percent of the time. Suspended sediment in Ohio streams is composed mostly of silt and clay. Sand particle content ranges from 1 to 2 percent in northwestern Ohio to 15 percent in the east and southeast. Sediment yields range from less than 100 tons per square mile per year (35 tonnes per square kilometer per year) in the northwest corner of Ohio to over 500 tons per square mile per year (17,5 tonnes per square kilometer per year) in the southern part, in Todd Fork basin, lower Paint Creek basin, and the Kentucky Bluegrass area. Yield from about 63 percent of Ohio's land area ranges from 100 to 200 tons per square mile per year (35 to 70 tonnes per square kilometer per year).

Anttila, Peter W.; Tobin, Robert L.



Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.




Comparative Aspects of Sulfur Mineralization in Sediments of a Eutrophic Lake Basin †  

PubMed Central

The net mineralization of organic sulfur compounds in surface sediments of Wintergreen Lake was estimated from a mass-balance budget of sulfur inputs and sediment sulfur concentrations. The net mineralization of organic sulfur inputs is <50% complete, which is consistent with the dominance of organic sulfur (>80% of total sulfur) in sediment. Although sediment sulfur is predominantly organic, sulfate reduction is the most significant process in terms of the quantities of sulfur transformed in surface sediments. Rates of sulfate reduction in these sediments average 7 mmol/m2 per day. On an annual basis, this rate is 19-fold greater than net rates of organic sulfur mineralization and 65-fold greater than sulfate ester hydrolysis. PMID:16346037

King, Gary M.; Klug, M. J.



Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the…

Schwabe, Robert A.


Fate of metals in coastal sediments of a Mediterranean flood-dominated system: An approach based on total and labile fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of sediment-bound metals (Cs, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn) were studied off the Têt River (western Gulf of Lion), a typical Mediterranean coastal river punctuated by short and violent flash-floods. Spatial and temporal sampling strategies were combined to elucidate the fate of these elements in response to both the riverine sediment input and the offshore transport of these sediments through hydrodynamics. Our results show the temporal entrapment of riverborne particles and associated metals, consecutively to a major flood event, in the nearshore sedimentary unit called prodelta. Here, deposition and resuspension mechanisms define a sedimentological cycle that could be followed completely in this study. In terms of speciation between reactive (labile) and residual fractions along the fluvio-deltaic continuum, our results show that Cu, Pb and Zn are the most labile (potentially mobile) metals in the river, in accordance with their contributions from anthropogenic sources. But in the marine surficial sediments, two main behaviours can be discriminated when compared to the riverine suspended particulate matter. While Pb and Zn depict rather a constant labile fraction, Cu is characterized by decreasing levels (up to 50% difference). In terms of environmental impact, these contrasting trends have direct repercussions for the contaminant dispersal in the coastal area. Whereas Pb and Zn conserve their enhanced levels because of their stronger affinity with fine sediments, Cu is marked by the entire loss of its anthropogenic component that is progressively transferred to the dissolved phase, likely mediated by organic ligands. We ascribe these behaviours to different post-depositional partition mechanisms with respect to oxidation of the particulate organic phase at the bottom sediment/water interface. Also, analysis of one sediment core from the prodelta indicates that these early diagenetic processes govern the chemical forms of land-derived contaminants sequestrated in the nearshore sedimentary archives.

Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Radakovitch, Olivier; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, André; Charrière, Bruno; Buscail, Roselyne



Estimates of Sediment Load Prior to Dam Removal in the Elwha River, Clallam County, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Years after the removal of the two dams on the Elwha River, the geomorphology and habitat of the lower river will be substantially influenced by the sediment load of the free-flowing river. To estimate the suspended-sediment load prior to removal of the dams, the U.S. Geological Survey collected suspended-sediment samples during water years 2006 and 2007 at streamflow-gaging stations on the Elwha River upstream of Lake Mills and downstream of Glines Canyon Dam at McDonald Bridge. At the gaging station upstream of Lake Mills, discrete samples of suspended sediment were collected over a range of streamflows including a large peak in November 2006 when suspended-sediment concentrations exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter, the highest concentrations recorded on the river. Based on field measurements in this study and from previous years, regression equations were developed for estimating suspended-sediment and bedload discharge as a function of streamflow. Using a flow duration approach, the average total annual sediment load at the gaging station upstream of Lake Mills was estimated at 327,000 megagrams with a range of uncertainty of +57 to -34 percent (217,000-513,000 megagrams) at the 95 percent confidence level; 77 percent of the total was suspended-sediment load and 23 percent was bedload. At the McDonald Bridge gaging station, daily suspended-sediment samples were obtained using an automated pump sampler, and concentrations were combined with the record of streamflow to calculate daily, monthly, and annual suspended-sediment loads. In water year 2006, an annual suspended-sediment load of 49,300 megagrams was determined at the gaging station at McDonald Bridge, and a load of 186,000 megagrams was determined upstream at the gaging station upstream of Lake Mills. In water year 2007, the suspended-sediment load was 75,200 megagrams at McDonald Bridge and 233,000 megagrams upstream of Lake Mills. The large difference between suspended-sediment loads at both gaging stations shows the extent of sediment trapping by Lake Mills, and a trap efficiency of 0.86 was determined for the reservoir. Pre-dam-removal estimates of suspended-sediment load and sediment-discharge relations will help planners monitor geomorphic and habitat changes in the river as it reaches a dynamic equilibrium following the removal of dams.

Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Higgins, Johnna L.; Bryant, Mark K.



The role of two sediment-dwelling invertebrates on the mercury transfer from sediments to the estuarine trophic web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual total and organic mercury bioaccumulation pattern of Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor was assessed to evaluate the potential mercury transfer from contaminated sediments to estuarine food webs. S. plana was found to accumulate more total and organic mercury than H. diversicolor, up to 0.79 mg kg -1 and 0.15 mg kg -1 (wet weight) respectively, with a maximum annual uptake of 0.21 mg kg -1 y -1, while for methylmercury the annual accumulation was similar between species and never exceeded 0.045 mg kg -1 y -1. The higher organic mercury fraction in H. diversicolor is related to the omnivorous diet of this species. Both species increase methylmercury exposure by burrowing activities and uptake in anoxic, methylmercury rich sediment layers. Integration with the annual biological production of each species revealed mercury incorporation rates that reached 28 ?g m -2 y -1, and to extract as much as 11.5 g Hg y -1 (of which 95% associated with S. plana) in the 0.4 km 2 of the most contaminated area, that can be transferred to higher trophic levels. S. plana is therefore an essential vector in the mercury biomagnification processes, through uptake from contaminated sediments and, by predation, to transfer it to economically important and exploited estuarine species.

Coelho, J. P.; Nunes, M.; Dolbeth, M.; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.



The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity: Extending the boundaries of total quality management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity provided a forum to exchange knowledge and experiences in these areas of continuous improvement. The more than 1,100 attendees from government, industry, academia, community groups, and the international arena had a chance to learn about methods, tools, and strategies for excellence and to discuss continuous improvement strategies, successes, and failures. This event, linked via satellite to concurrent conferences hosted by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado, also explored extending the boundaries of Total Quality Management to include partnerships for quality within communities and encouraged examination, evaluation, and change to incorporate the principles of continuous improvement.

Templeton, Geoffrey B. (editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (editor); Still, William T. (editor)



The Sediment-delivery Fallacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expression `sediment-delivery rate' was used by Glymph (1954) to denote the percentage relationship between annual sediment yield of a catchment and the annual gross erosion of the catchment. In subsequent literature, `sediment-delivery ratio' has been used. The latter is preferable. These ratios are typically less, often much less, than one. Both Boyce (1975) and Graf (1988) recognised that such ratios are problematic. They contravene Playfair's Law and mean that catchments must progressively fill with undelivered sedim ent. Both catchment sediment yield and gross erosion are measured in units of weight/area. These units are inappropriate for the data on which the ratios are based. Sediment yield is obtained either by measuring sedimentation in reservoirs or by sampling the sediment load carried in streamflow. These data are fluxes. There is no basis for assuming that the sediment flux at a point along a stream is proportional to the catchment area. Likewise, for hillslope erosion, it cannot be assumed that the flux of sediment measured at the outlet of an erosion plot has been derived from and is, therefore, proportional to the area of the plot. For both streams and hillslopes, data on travel distances of particles indicate that much of the sediment flux may be locally derived. The relationship of sediment flux to contributing area is both complex and dependent on the erosion processes. The sediment-delivery ratio is a fallacy born out of use of incorrect units of measurement.

Parsons, Anthony; Wainwright, John; Powell, Mark; Brazier, Richard


Radiometrically determined dates and sedimentation rates for recent sediments in nine North African wetland lakes (the CASSARINA Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores were collected from nine wetland lakes in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt for the CASSARINA project investigating environmental change in Northern African wetlands. The cores were dated radiometrically by using natural (210Pb) and artificial (137Cs and 241Am) radionuclides. At sites in Morocco and Tunisia with mean annual rainfall totals ranging from 500–1000 mm yr-1, fallout records were generally satisfactory

P. G. Appleby; H. H. Birks; R. J. Flower; N. Rose; S. M. Peglar; M. Ramdani; M. M. Kraïem; A. A. Fathi



Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and the Lower Snake River  

SciTech Connect

Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Patton, Gregory W; Crecelius, Eric A



Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia RIver and the Lower Snake River  

SciTech Connect

Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

Patton, Gregory W.; Crecelius, Eric A.



Sediment removal by prairie filter strips in row-cropped ephemeral watersheds.  


Twelve small watersheds in central Iowa were used to evaluate the effectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in trapping sediment from agricultural runoff. Four treatments with PFS of different size and location (100% rowcrop, 10% PFS of total watershed area at footslope, 10% PFS at footslope and in contour strips, 20% PFS at footslope and in contour strips) arranged in a balanced incomplete block design were seeded in July 2007. All watersheds were in bromegrass ( L.) for at least 10 yr before treatment establishment. Cropped areas were managed under a no-till, 2-yr corn ( L.)-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation beginning in 2007. About 38 to 85% of the total sediment export from cropland occurred during the early growth stage of rowcrop due to wet field conditions and poor ground cover. The greatest sediment load was observed in 2008 due to the initial soil disturbance and gradually decreased thereafter. The mean annual sediment yield through 2010 was 0.36 and 8.30 Mg ha for the watersheds with and without PFS, respectively, a 96% sediment trapping efficiency for the 4-yr study period. The amount and distribution of PFS had no significant impact on runoff and sediment yield, probably due to the relatively large width (37-78 m) of footslope PFS. The findings suggest that incorporation of PFS at the footslope position of annual rowcrop systems provides an effective approach to reducing sediment loss in runoff from agricultural watersheds under a no-till system. PMID:23099945

Helmers, Matthew J; Zhou, Xiaobo; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Kolka, Randy; Tomer, Mark D; Cruse, Richard M



Spatial variation of sediment deposition in the Hudson River - a detailed inventory and potential causes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment deposition in urban estuaries is controlled by the interaction of human modifications and natural factors that include tides, fresh water inputs, bed morphology, sediment supply, and hydrodynamics. A key element of managing these estuaries is detailed understanding of sediment deposition and its driving processes. Using a combination of geophysical and geochemical analysis we establish a detailed inventory of 20 century deposition for most of the mud-dominated sections of the Hudson River. These data show variations between different segments of the Hudson River as well as strong local variations within each section, with depositional settings ranging from erosional to those accumulating at ~10 mm/year. Our work indicates that 170,000 - 250,000 metric tons of sediment are deposited annually in the areas studied, which is a significant portion of the estimated total annual sediment load of ~700,000 - 800,000 metric tons. This also suggests that some of the accumulated sediments are re-mobilized, e.g. during major storms. The observed patterns of deposition/erosion are primarily caused by natural conditions, but, in some parts, they are strongly influenced by human modifications of the estuary, such as dredging. In addition to improving our understanding of the sediment dynamic of the Hudson River, the observed distribution of sediment deposition is also an indicator for the occurrence of contaminants including heavy metals and PCB’s and thus a valuable tool for management decisions.

Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.



Large-scale quantification of suspended sediment transport and deposition in the Mekong Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dynamics play a major role for the agricultural and fishery productivity of the Mekong Delta. However, the understanding of sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta, one of the most complex river deltas in the world, is very limited. This is a consequence of its large extent, the intricate system of rivers, channels and floodplains and the scarcity of observations. This study quantifies, for the first time, the suspended sediment transport and sediment-nutrient deposition in the whole Mekong Delta. To this end, a quasi-2-D hydrodynamic model is combined with a cohesive sediment transport model. The combined model is calibrated automatically using six objective functions to represent the different aspects of the hydraulic and sediment transport components. The model is calibrated for the extreme flood season in 2011 and shows good performance for the two validation years with very different flood characteristics. It is shown how sediment transport and sediment deposition vary from Kratie at the entrance of the Delta to the coast. The main factors influencing the spatial sediment dynamics are the setup of rivers, channels and dike-rings, the sluice gate operations, the magnitude of the floods and tidal influences. The superposition of these factors leads to high spatial variability of sediment transport, in particular in the Vietnamese floodplains. Depending on the flood magnitude, the annual sedimentation rate averaged over the Vietnamese floodplains varies from 0.3 to 2.1 kg m-2 yr-1, and the ring dike floodplains trap between 1 and 6% of the total sediment load at Kratie. This is equivalent to 29 × 103-440 × 103 t of nutrients (N, P, K, TOC) deposited in the Vietnamese floodplains. This large-scale quantification provides a basis for estimating the benefits of the annual Mekong floods for agriculture and fishery, and is important information for assessing the effects of deltaic subsidence and climate change related sea level rise.

Manh, N. V.; Dung, N. V.; Hung, N. N.; Merz, B.; Apel, H.



Reconstruction of annual air temperatures for three thousand years in Altai region by lithological and geochemical indicators in Teletskoe Lake sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological studies show that the variation of climate conditions over the catchment area of the lake are reflected in the composition and structure of bottom sediments, allowing one to use the measurable physicochemical characteristics of the sediments for the reconstruction of paleoclimate conditions. The mountain lakes of Siberia were not subjected to any significant anthropogenic pollution over the last 100?150

I. A. Kalugin; A. V. Daryin; V. V. Babich



Forensic differentiation of biogenic organic compounds from petroleum hydrocarbons in biogenic and petrogenic compounds cross-contaminated soils and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Total petroleum hydrocarbons” (TPHs) or “petroleum hydrocarbons” (PHCs) are one of the most widespread soil pollutants in Canada, North America, and worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils and sediments costs the Canadian economy hundreds of million of dollars annually. Much of this activity is driven by the need to meet regulated levels of PHC in soil. These PHC values are legally

Zhendi Wang; C. Yang; F. Kelly-Hooper; B. P. Hollebone; X. Peng; C. E. Brown; M. Landriault; J. Sun; Z. Yang



Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2??0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2??0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

McKee, L.J.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.



Hydroclimatic control of sediment and metal export from a rural catchment in northwestern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines sediment and metal (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) exportation at different timescales (annual, seasonal and event) during a 3-year period (2005-2008) in the Mero River headwater, a rural catchment under humid temperate climate. Interannual differences were found both in annual loads and their distributions throughout the year. At annual scale, sediment and particulate metal loads followed the same trend as streamflow, while dissolved metals showed different patterns. Runoff events contributed to 63% of the total sediment load, whereas particulate and dissolved loads in events accounted for between 38-61 and 27-49%, respectively. Runoff events were characterized by high variability in sediment and metal loads, a few events representing a high percentage of the metal exported. Sediment loads were related to maximum and initial discharge. Particulate metal loads were highly correlated with sediment loads, runoff being the hydrological variable that best explains the load of these metals. Dissolved metal loads displayed different patterns. Dissolved Al, showed a great correlation with runoff, while dissolved Mn with maximum discharge.

Palleiro, L.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.



Annual Report 2006 Annual Report  

E-print Network

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A Kinetic Model To Quantify The Effect Of Total Organic Carbon Content On The Loss Of Magnetic Susceptibility Values In Surficial Sediments Of Coastal Environments: The Case Study Of The Ría De Muros, NW Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed magnetic study of mineral dissolution has been carried out in surficial sediments from the Ría de Muros, a large coastal embayment in NW Iberia. The study area is under the influence of one of the world's most intense coastal upwelling systems, which along with the important continental supplies of organic carbon, cause very high organic matter contents in the sediment. The magnetic susceptibility of the surficial (top 20 cm of the sea bed) sediments of the Ría de Muros is dominated by the occurrence of ferromagnetic minerals, mostly biogenic magnetite and detrital (titano-) magnetite. The way in which the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the sediment controls the occurrence and concentration of these minerals is twofold. First because a minimal amount of organic matter it is needed for the development of the magnetotactic bacteria. Second because values above a given TOC concentration promote early redoxomorfic diagenesis and subsequently, ferromagnetic minerals depletion by dissolution. Maximum magnetic susceptibility values (up to 7 x 10-8 SI) are subsequently found in sediments with enough supply of organic matter to ensure the growth of magnetotactic bacteria, but where the TOC content is not as high as to cause the development of suboxic conditions within the surficial layers of the sediments. The magnetic susceptibility loss due to the increase in TOC can be explained and quantified with a simple geochemical kinetic model. Textural dilution of the magnetic signal due to the presence of coarse diamagnetic quartz and biogenic carbonates in the sediment matrix, are accounted for by normalizing with Al, a well-know grain-size proxy in this environment. When the normalized magnetic susceptibility is plotted against the TOC, the resulting distribution shows a neat exponential decay trend from high magnetic susceptibility and low TOC values to low magnetic susceptibility and high TOC values, resulting from the kinetics of magnetite dissolution. This profile is interpreted as a consequence of the microbial degradation of organic matter that occurs in muddy or muddy sandy ría sediments, where the TOC availability is not a limiting factor due to the high organic matter concentrations (2 to 10%). On the contrary, the process appears to be limited by the availability of electron acceptors and, as a result, suboxic conditions are achieved at very shallow depths. Considering this, we propose a simple second order kinetic model for the dissolution of magnetite in which the rate of dissolution of magnetite depends on the TOC and magnetite concentrations of the sediment. The resulting model explains the exponential profile of magnetic susceptibility versus TOC with a significance level of p<0.01 (r2=0.98). From the parameters of this model, it is possible to estimate that an increase of 0.35±0.05% in the sedimentary TOC is able to reduce by half the magnetite concentration in the sediments of this ría.

Andrade, A.; Rey, D.; Mohamed, K. J.; Rubio, B.



Sediments deposition due to soil erosion in the watershed region of Mangla dam.  


Soil erosion is the most important reason of sedimentation load of water reservoirs in the world. In Pakistan, Mangla dam is one of the most important water reservoirs used for the production of electricity and for the supply of water for irrigation purposes. However, the capacity of Mangla dam reservoir has reduced by more than 20% since its construction. This study highlights the impact of rainfall on soil erosion and consequently on sedimentation deposition in Mangla dam reservoir. Sedimentation, annual rainfall, and normal rainfall data of 39 years were used in this study. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data were used to calculate the total drainage area of the Mangla watershed region. The sedimentation data of Mangla reservoir from 1967 to 2005 were retrieved from Water and Power Development Authority in Pakistan. The meteorological observatories in the Mangla watershed region are identified. Annual rainfall data from 1967 to 2005 for the meteorological observatories in the Mangla watershed regions were retrieved from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD). In addition, normal rainfall data for the years 1949 to 1978 and for the years 1979 to 2008 were also retrieved from PMD. The impact of annual rainfall is observed on sedimentation load in Mangla dam. The correlation coefficient between annual rainfall and sedimentation load is 0.94. This study shows that with an increase in rainfall, the soil erosion of the area increases which subsequently is responsible for the increase in the rate of sedimentation load in Mangla dam. This study further demonstrates that better soil management can reduce the sedimentation load in the Mangla reservoir. PMID:21225339

Butt, Mohsin Jamil; Mahmood, Rashed; Waqas, Ahmad



Monitoring urban impacts on suspended sediment, trace element, and nutrient fluxes within the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Program design, methodological considerations, and initial results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atlanta, Georgia (City of Atlanta, COA), is one of the most rapidly growing urban areas in the US. Beginning in 2003, the US Geological Survey established a long-term water-quantity/quality monitoring network for the COA. The results obtained during the first 2 years have provided insights into the requirements needed to determine the extent of urban impacts on water quality, especially in terms of estimating the annual fluxes of suspended sediment, trace/major elements, and nutrients. During 2004/2005, suspended sediment fluxes from the City of Atlanta (COA) amounted to about 150 000 t year-1; ??? 94% of the transport occurred in conjunction with storm-flow, which also accounted for ??? 65% of the annual discharge. Typically, storm-flow averaged ??? 20% of theyear. Normally, annual suspended sediment fluxes are determined by summing daily loads based on a single calculation step using mean-daily discharge and a single rating curve-derived suspended sediment concentration. Due to the small and 'flashy' nature of the COAs streams, this approach could produce underestimates ranging from 25% to 64%. Accurate estimates (?? 15%) require calculation time-steps as short as every 2-3 h. Based on annual median base-flow/storm-flow chemical concentrations, the annual fluxes of ??? 75% of trace elements (e.g. Cu, Pb, Zn), major elements (e.g. Fe, Al), and total P occur in association with suspended sediment; in turn, ??? 90% of the transport of these constituents occur in conjunction with storm-flow. As such, base-flow sediment-associated and dissolved contributions represent relatively insignificant portions of the total annual load. An exception is total N, whose sediment-associated fluxes range from 50% to 60%; even so, storm-related transport typically exceeds 80%. Hence, in urban environments, non-point-source appear to be the dominant contributors to the fluxes of these constituents.

Horowitz, A. J.; Elrick, K. A.; Smith, J. J.



Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and diatoms in bottom sediment, Perry Lake, northeast Kansas, 1969-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 26 metals and trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, 1 radionuclide, and diatoms in bottom sediment of Perry Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1969 through 2001 in the original conservation-pool area of the lake was 2,470 million cubic feet (56,700 acre-feet) and 97,200 million pounds (44,100 million kilograms), respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 23 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the lake. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1969 was estimated to be 3,040 million pounds (1,379 million kilograms). Mean annual sediment yield from the Perry Lake Basin was estimated to be 2,740,000 pounds per square mile (4,798 kilograms per hectare). The estimated mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake were 7,610,000 pounds per year (3,450,000 kilograms per year) and 3,350,000 pounds per year (1,520,000 kilograms per year), respectively. The estimated mean annual yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Perry Lake Basin were 6,850 pounds per square mile per year (12.0 kilograms per hectare per year) and 3,020 pounds per square mile per year (5.29 kilograms per hectare per year), respectively. A statistically significant positive trend for total nitrogen deposition in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was indicated. However, the trend may be due solely to analytical variance. No statistically significant trend for total phosphorus deposition was indicated. Overall, the transport and deposition of these constituents have been relatively uniform throughout the history of Perry Lake. On the basis of nonenforceable sediment-quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Most nickel concentrations also exceeded the probable-effects level, which represents the concentration above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Statistically significant positive depositional trends for arsenic and manganese and statistically significant negative depositional trends for beryllium, chromium, titanium, and vanadium were indicated. However, the trends may be due solely to analytical variance. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations less than the threshold-effects levels. Evidence of a negative depositional trend for DDE (degradation product of DDT) was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected were DDD and dieldrin. Diatom occurrence in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was dominated by species that are indicators of eutrophic (nutrient-rich) conditions. Thus, it was concluded that eutrophic conditions have existed during much of the history of Perry Lake. However, an increase in the relative percentage abundance of the oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) species, combined with the significant positive depositional trends for two oligotrophic species (Aulacoseira islandica and Cyclotella radiosa) and the significant negative depositional trend for one eutrophic species (Stephanodiscus niagarae), indicated that conditions in Perry Lake may have become less eutrophic in recent years. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial decrease in alfalfa production and a substantial increase in soybean production from 1965 to 2000. These and other changes in human activi

Juracek, Kyle E.



Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment transport through the Brazilian sector of the Amazon River valley, a distance of 2010 km, involves exchanges between the channel and the flood plain that in each direction exceed the annual flux of sediment out of the river at O??bidos (???1200 Mt yr-1). The exchanges occur through bank erosion, bar deposition, settling from diffuse overbank flow, and sedimentation in flood-plain channels. We estimated the magnitude of these exchanges for each of 10 reaches of the valley, and combined them with calculations of sediment transport into and out of the reaches based on sediment sampling and flow records to define a sediment budget for each reach. Residuals in the sediment budget of a reach include errors of estimation and erosion or deposition within the channel. The annual supply of sediment entering the channel from bank erosion was estimated to average 1570 Mt yr-1 (1.3 ?? the O??bidos flux) and the amount transferred from channel transport to the bars (380 Mt yr-1) and the flood plain (460 Mt yr-1 in channelized flow; 1230 Mt yr-1 in diffuse overbank flow) totaled 2070 Mt yr-1 (1.7 ?? the O??bidos flux). Thus, deposition on the bars and flood plain exceeded bank erosion by 500 Mt yr-1 over a 10-16 yr period. Sampling and calculation of sediment loads in the channel indicate a net accumulation in the valley floor of approximately 200 Mt yr-1 over 16 yr, crudely validating the process-based calculations of the sediment budget, which in turn illuminate the physical controls on each exchange process. Another 300-400 Mt yr-1 are deposited in a delta plain downstream of O??bidos. The components of the sediment budget reflect hydrologie characteristics of the valley floor and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and flood plain, which in turn are influenced by tectonic features of the Amazon structural trough.

Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Meade, R.H.; Richey, J.E.; Forsberg, B.R.



Response of total belowground carbon flux and soil organic carbon storage to increasing mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forest.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controls on the allocation of carbon belowground by plants and the retention of this carbon as new soil organic carbon are poorly quantified, yet exert a large influence on the carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere. While many studies have now quantified total belowground carbon flux (TBCF), and general global patterns have been identified, rigorous field tests of the effects of climate variables on TBCF do not yet exist, and the conversion of TBCF into soil organic carbon - particularly long-lived soil organic carbon - has received little attention. These represent critical gaps in our understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling, and currently severely constrain efforts to model climate change impacts on belowground carbon processes and storage. We have established a model mean annual temperature gradient spanning 5.2°C in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests where soil type and age, soil moisture balance, vegetation composition, and disturbance history do not co-vary with temperature. We found that TBCF increases by a factor of two over the 5.2°C MAT gradient in response to increasing ecosystem productivity, while total soil carbon storage is constant. These findings suggest that as temperatures warm, there will be a significant increase in TBCF and belowground carbon process leading to increased flux of CO2 from soils as soil respiration, but that soil organic carbon storage will be relatively insensitive to warming - at least where moisture availability is not affected by rising temperatures. While short-term responses to warming may differ, this study represents long-term insight into the impacts of rising temperatures on belowground carbon cycling and assumes that ecosystem characteristics will change with warming as quantified across this MAT gradient.

Giardina, C. P.; Litton, C. M.; Crow, S. E.



Assimilation of selected PAH and PCB congeners sorbed to sediment by benthic invertebrates. Annual report, 15 Oct 90-14 Oct 91  

SciTech Connect

Methods have been developed for removing and manipulating fecal pellets, and techniques for measuring organic carbon in sediment and fecal pellets and lipid content in Diporeia have been learned. A simple and time efficient extraction procedure has been developed to extract 14C-B(a)P and 51Cr from sediment, Diporeia and fecal pellets. In addition, experiments have shown that 51Cr can be used as a conservative tracer for Diporeia and sediment. Good progress has been made in developing the basic methods involved in determining assimilation efficiencies and preliminary data have been collected for the direct measurement and dual-labeled approaches independent of one another.

Lydy, M.J.



Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The city of Limeira is located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 ?g L - 1 and in sediment samples 0.03 ?g g - 1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb.

Moreira, Silvana; Fazza, Elizete Vieira



Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Reporting and statistical evaluation of the subsequent year (sixth) data  

SciTech Connect

This annual report has historically been prepared to meet the annual reporting requirements of the Tennessee Department of and Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Hazardous Waste Management Regulation 1200-1-11-.05 (6)(e), for detection monitoring data collected on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wells in place around facilities which are accorded interim status. The regulatory authority for these units at the Y-12 Plant is currently in transition. A Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with an effective date of January 1, 1992, has been negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This agreement provides a framework for remediation of the Oak Ridge Reservation so that both RCRA and CERCLA requirements are integrated into the remediation process and provides for State, EPA, and DOE to proceed with CERCLA as the lead regulatory requirement and RCRA as an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement. This report is presented for the RCRA certified wells for two interim status units at the Y-12 Plant. These units are Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin. Kerr Hollow is currently undergoing clean closure under RCRA. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) was closed in 1989 under a TDEC approved RCRA closure plan. The relevance of a RCRA Post-Closure Permit to either of these units is a matter of contention between DOE and TDEC since the FFA does not contemplate post-closure permits.

McMahon, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mercier, T.M. [H and R Technical Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [comps.



Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients and other chemical constituents in bottom sediment, Tuttle Creek Lake, Northeast Kansas, 1962-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total ammonia plus organic nitrogen and total phosphorus), 44 metals and trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, and 1 radionuclide in bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1962 through 1999 in the original conservation-pool area of the lake was 6,170 million cubic feet (142,000 acre-feet) and 292,400 million pounds (133,000 million kilograms), respectively. The volume of sediment occupies about 33 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the lake. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1962 was estimated to be 7,900 million pounds (3,600 million kilograms). Mean annual net sediment yield from the Tuttle Creek Lake Basin was estimated to be 821,000 pounds per square mile (1,440 kilograms per hectare). The estimated mean annual net loads of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake were 6,350,000 pounds per year (2,880,000 kilograms per year) and 3,330,000 pounds per year (1,510,000 kilograms per year), respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Tuttle Creek Lake Basin were 657 pounds per square mile per year (1.15 kilograms per hectare per year) and 348 pounds per square mile per year (0.61 kilograms per hectare per year), respectively. No statistically significant trend for total phosphorus deposition in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake was indicated (trend analysis for total ammonia plus organic nitrogen was not performed). On the basis of available sediment-quality guidelines, the concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, silver, and zinc in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake frequently or typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally less than the threshold-effects levels. Following an initial positive trend, a statistically significant negative depositional trend was indicated for DDE (degradation product of DDT), which was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected included aldrin, DDD, and dieldrin. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial increase in the production of grain corn and soybeans from the 1960s to the 1990s. This increase in production was accompanied by a pronounced increase in the number of irrigated acres. Also, during the same time period, there was an overall increase in hog production. These changes in human activity have not had a discernible effect on the deposition of chemical constituents in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake.

Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.



Assimilation of selected PAH and PCB congeners sorbed to sediment by benthic invertebrates. Annual report, 15 Oct 90-14 Oct 91  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods have been developed for removing and manipulating fecal pellets, and techniques for measuring organic carbon in sediment and fecal pellets and lipid content in Diporeia have been learned. A simple and time efficient extraction procedure has been developed to extract 14C-B(a)P and 51Cr from sediment, Diporeia and fecal pellets. In addition, experiments have shown that 51Cr can be used




Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

Porterfield, George



Sediment deposition and trends and transport of phosphorus and other chemical constituents, Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment deposition, water-quality trends, and mass transport of phosphorus, nitrogen, selected trace elements, and selected pesticides within the Cheney Reservoir watershed in south-central Kansas were investigated using bathymetric survey data and reservoir bottom-sediment cores. Sediment loads in the reservoir were investigated by comparing 1964 topographic data to 1998 bathymetric survey data. Approximately 7,100 acre-feet of sediment deposition occurred in Cheney Reservoir from 1965 through 1998. As of 1998, sediment had filled 27 percent of the reservoir's inactive conservation storage pool, which is less than the design estimate of 34 percent. Mean annual sediment deposition was 209 acre-feet per year, or 0.22 acre-feet per year per square mile, and the mean annual sediment load was 453 million pounds per year. During the 3-year period from 1997 through 1999, 23 sediment cores were collected from the reservoir, and subsamples were analyzed for nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen species), selected trace elements, and selected organic pesticides. Mean concentrations of total phosphorus in reservoir bottom sediment ranged from 94 milligrams per kilogram at the upstream end of the reservoir to 710 milligrams per kilogram farther downstream near the reservoir dam. The mean concentration for all sites was 480 milligrams per kilogram. Total phosphorus concentrations were greatest when more silt- and clay-sized particles were present. The implications are that if anoxic conditions (inadequate oxygen) occur near the dam, phosphorus could be released from the sediment and affect the drinking-water supply. Analysis of selected cores also indicates that total phosphorus concentrations in the reservoir sediment increased over time and were probably the result of nonpoint-source activities in the watershed, such as increased fertilizer use and livestock production. Mean annual phosphorus loading to Cheney Reservoir was estimated to be 226,000 pounds per year on the basis of calculations from deposited sediment in the reservoir. Mean total phosphorus concentration in the surface-water inflow to Cheney Reservoir was 0.76 milligram per liter, mean annual phosphorus yield of the watershed was estimated to be 0.38 pound per year per acre, and both are based on sediment deposition in the reservoir. A comparison of the Cheney Reservoir watershed to the Webster Reservoir, Tuttle Creek Lake, and Hillsdale Lake watersheds showed that phosphorus yields were smallest in the Webster Reservoir watershed where precipitation was less than in the other watersheds. Mean concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen in bottom sediment from Cheney Reservoir ranged from 1,200 to 2,400 milligrams per kilogram as nitrogen. A regression analysis between total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen and sediment particle size showed a strong relation between the two variables and suggests, as with phosphorus, that total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen adsorbs to the silt- and clay-sized particles that are transported to the deeper parts of the reservoir. An analysis of trends with depth of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen did not indicate a strong relation between the two variables despite the increase in fertilizer use in the watershed during the past 40 years. Selected cores were analyzed for trace elements. Concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel at many sites exceeded levels where adverse effects on aquatic organisms sometimes occur. Larger concentrations of these elements also occurred in sediment closer to the reservoir dam where there is a larger percentage of silt and clay in the bottom sediment than farther upstream. However, the lack of industrial or commercial land use in the watershed suggests that these concentrations may be the result of natural conditions. Organochlorine insecticides were detected in the reservoir-bottom sediment in Cheney Reservoir. DDT and its degradation products DDD and DD

Mau, D.P.



Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.  


Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. PMID:24509365

Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris



Sediment source fingerprinting to quantify fine sediment sources in forested catchments, Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study to improve the understanding of the primary sediment sources and transfer pathways in catchments disturbed following forest plantation harvesting is being undertaken in South-Central Chile. The study focuses on two sets of paired experimental catchments (treatment and control), located about 400 km apart, with similar soil type but contrasting mean annual rainfall: Nacimiento (1,200 mm year-1) and Los Ulmos (2,500 mm year-1). Sediment source fingerprinting techniques are being used to document the primary fine sediment sources. In each catchment, three potential sediment sources were defined: clearcut slopes (Z1), forest roads (Z2) and the stream channel (Z3). In each catchment, multiple representative composite samples of the different potential source materials were collected before harvest operations from the upper 1 cm layer in Z1, Z2, and from the channel bank and bed for Z3. A time-integrating trap sampler installed in the discharge monitoring station constructed at the outlet of each catchment has been used to collect samples of the suspended sediment and these have been supplemented by sediment collected from the weir pools. Total suspended sediment load is been quantified in the monitoring stations using discharge records and integrated water sampling. Caesium-137 (137Cs), excess lead-210 (210Pbex) and other sediment properties are being used as fingerprints. After air-drying, oven-drying at 40°C and disaggregation, both the source material samples and the sediment samples collected in the discharge monitoring stations were sieved through a 63-?m sieve and the <63-?m fractions were used for subsequent analyses. For radionuclide assay, the samples were sealed in Petri dishes and after 4 weeks the mass activity density (activity concentration) of 137Cs and 210Pbex was determined by gamma analysis, using an ORTEC extended range Ge detector of 53% relative efficiency. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activity and organic carbon (Corg) concentration associated with potential source materials and the target sediment show that the two radionuclides used in combination with the Corg property provide effective source fingerprints. Additional work using a mixing model taking account of particle size effects is required to establish the relative contributions of the three sources to the fine sediment loads of the study catchments. This research is supported by the Chilean Government through FONDECYT Project 1090574 and by the IAEA through CRP D1.20.11 (Contract CHI-15531 and Technical Contract 15478) and the RLA 05/051 Project.

Schuller, P.; Walling, D. E.; Iroume, A.; Castillo, A.; Quilodran, C.



Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

Aulenbach, Brent T.



Sediment Loading from Crab Creek and Other Sources to Moses Lake, Washington, 2007 and 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The average sediment-accumulation rate on the bed of Moses Lake since 1980, based on the identification of Mount St. Helens ash in lakebed cores, was 0.24 inches per year. Summed over the lake surface area, the average sediment-accumulation rate on the lakebed is 190,000 tons per year. Based on USGS stream-gaging station data, the average annual sediment load to Moses Lake from Crab Creek was 32,000 tons per year between 1943 and 2008; the post Mount St. Helens eruption annual load from Crab Creek was calculated to be 13,000 tons per year. The total mass input from Crab Creek and other fluvially derived sediment sources since 1980 has been about 20,000 tons per year. Eolian sediment loading to Moses Lake was about 50,000 tons per year before irrigation and land-use development largely stabilized the Moses Lake dune field. Currently, eolian input to the lake is less than 2,000 tons per year. Considering all sediment sources to the lake, most (from 80 to 90 percent) of post-1980 lakebed-sediment accumulation is from autochthonous, or locally formed, mineral matter, including diatom frustuals and carbonate shells, derived from biogenic production in phytoplankton and zooplankton. Suspended-sediment samples collected from Crab Creek and similar nearby waterways in 2007 and 2008 combined with other USGS data from the region indicated that a proposed Bureau of Reclamation supplemental feed of as much as 650 cubic feet per second through Crab Creek might initially contain a sediment load of as much as 1,500 tons per day. With time, however, this sediment load would decrease to about 10 tons per day in the sediment-supply-limited creek as available sediment in the channel is depleted. Sediment loads in the supplemental feed ultimately would be similar to loads in other bypass canals near Moses Lake. Considering the hydrology and geomorphology of the creek over multiple years, there is little evidence that the proposed supplemental feed would substantially increase the overall sediment load from Crab Creek to Moses Lake relative to natural, background conditions. Because Moses Lake is relatively shallow and subject to significant wind-driven circulation currents, mixing also would redistribute some of the fluvial sediment load deposited from Crab Creek throughout Parker Horn and the rest of Moses Lake, further mitigating the local effect of Crab Creek sedimentation near the City of Moses Lake.

Magirl, Christopher S.; Cox, Stephen E.; Mastin, Mark C.; Huffman, Raegan L.



Fluvial sediment in Double Creek subwatershed No. 5, Washington County, Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most precipitation falling on subwatershed No. 5 does not flow through the reservoir. During this study approximately three-fourths (47,000 acre-feet) of the precipitation was lost by evaporation and transpiration; a small amount is lost by deep subsurface percolation. Fifty-nine percent of the total sediment load was discharged from the reservoir during four major outflow periods representing 34 percent of the outflow days. The highest percentage of runoff and sediment yield occurs from March through June. Fifty-three percent of the water discharged and 63 percent of the sediment yield occurred during this 4-month period. The average annual yield of fluvial sediment from watershed No. 5 was 607 tons per square mile, or 0.95 ton per acre. A total of 21,370 tons of fluvial sediment was transported into reservoir No. 5 and a total of 19,930 tons was deposited. Seventy-eight percent of the total fluvial sediment was deposited during the first 9.2 years, or 63 percent of time of reservoir operation. The computed trap efficiency of reservoir No. 5 was 93 percent.

Bednar, Gene A.; Waldrep, T.E.



The contribution of sediment from forested areas of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine-grained sediment is a major pollutant in the Chesapeake Bay and its receiving waters. Sediment budget studies have been conducted in small basins draining to the Bay over the last decade to understand the important sources of fine-grained sediment, quantify erosion rates, and determine sediment yields. Sediment budget approaches include modeling (SPARROW), sediment fingerprinting, and quantifying upland rates of erosion (Cesium-137). SPARROW model results indicate that forests deliver between 2 to 8% of the total sediment to the Bay. Sediment-fingerprinting results from small watershed studies indicate that forests contribute between 13 to 29 % of the sediment. The Cesium-137 technique was used to quantify soil redistribution (erosion and deposition) rates for forested areas in the Linganore Creek (146 km2) watershed which drains the Piedmont Physiographic Province. Average forest erosion rates measured in 2009 for Linganore Creek using Cesium-137 were 2.6 t/ha/yr. With 27% of the Linganore Creek watershed in forest, over 10,300 may be eroded off of forested lands which is more than the average annual suspended-sediment load (8,050 Mg/yr) in Linganore Creek, indicating that much of the eroded forest sediment goes in storage. Most of the forested areas in the Chesapeake Bay watershed were cut down for agriculture between the time of European colonization and the early 20th Century. In the late 20th century forested lands show an increase in areal extent. Although studies have not been conducted to understand why these secondary growth forests are eroding, it may involve that these forests have not fully recovered from deforestation. Soil profiles are thin, and runoff and sediment relations may have been altered, leading to high rates of erosion.

Gellis, A.; Brakebill, J.




EPA Science Inventory

Research is investigating mineralogic and geochemical factors controlling the desorption rate of 137Cs+ from subsurface sediments on the Hanford Site contaminated with different types of high-level waste. The project will develop kinetic data and models that describe the release ...


From agricultural intensification to conservation: Sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively aff ects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate longterm TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that eff orts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. ?? 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Jones, C.S.; Schilling, K.E.



Sediment inflow, outflow and deposition for Lakes Marion and Moultrie, South Carolina, October 1983-March 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1941 a Coastal Plain reach of the Santee River was impounded to form Lake Marion and diverted into a diked-off part of the Cooper River basin to form Lake Moultrie. Rates of sediment inflow and outflow of the lakes were determined by the U.S. Geological Survey for the periods July 1966 - June 1968 and October 1983 - March 1985. Total sediment discharge was estimated for two inflow stations and continuous streamflow monitors and automatic suspended-sediment samplers were used for computation of suspended-sediment discharge. Bedload discharge was computed by the modified Einstein procedure. Suspended-sediment discharge was monitored at three outflow stations, with the suspended-sediment concentration measured on a weekly basis. During the 1983-1985 study, mean annual suspended-sediment inflow to Lakes Marion and Moultrie was estimated to be 722,000 tons, and the outflow was estimated at 175,000 tons, for a trap efficiency of 76% and a deposition rate of about 547,000 tons/year. This is about 33% less than the deposition rate determined during the 1966-68 study. The deposition rate for suspended and bedload sediment during the 1983 - 1985 study was about 650,000 tons/year. (USGS)

Cooney, T.W.



Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons



Sediment Setback  

E-print Network

the sediment problem. Vegetation protects the soil from damage, and vegeta- tion and soil work together to maintain a nutrient balance. It also acts as a filter to remove sediment from run-off, preventing the sediment from entering lakes and rivers... the sediment problem. Vegetation protects the soil from damage, and vegeta- tion and soil work together to maintain a nutrient balance. It also acts as a filter to remove sediment from run-off, preventing the sediment from entering lakes and rivers...

Crawford, Amanda



Full implementation of a distributed hydrological model based on check dam trapped sediment volumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of hydrometeorological data is one of the most compelling limitations to the implementation of distributed environmental models. Mediterranean catchments, in particular, are characterised by high spatial variability of meteorological phenomena and soil characteristics, which may prevents from transferring model calibrations from a fully gauged catchment to a totally o partially ungauged one. For this reason, new sources of data are required in order to extend the use of distributed models to non-monitored or low-monitored areas. An important source of information regarding the hydrological and sediment cycle is represented by sediment deposits accumulated at the bottom of reservoirs. Since the 60s, reservoir sedimentation volumes were used as proxy data for the estimation of inter-annual total sediment yield rates, or, in more recent years, as a reference measure of the sediment transport for sediment model calibration and validation. Nevertheless, the possibility of using such data for constraining the calibration of a hydrological model has not been exhaustively investigated so far. In this study, the use of nine check dam reservoir sedimentation volumes for hydrological and sedimentological model calibration and spatio-temporal validation was examined. Check dams are common structures in Mediterranean areas, and are a potential source of spatially distributed information regarding both hydrological and sediment cycle. In this case-study, the TETIS hydrological and sediment model was implemented in a medium-size Mediterranean catchment (Rambla del Poyo, Spain) by taking advantage of sediment deposits accumulated behind the check dams located in the catchment headwaters. Reservoir trap efficiency was taken into account by coupling the TETIS model with a pond trap efficiency model. The model was calibrated by adjusting some of its parameters in order to reproduce the total sediment volume accumulated behind a check dam. Then, the model was spatially validated by obtaining the simulated sedimentation volume at the other eight check dams and comparing it to the observed sedimentation volumes. Lastly, the simulated water discharge at the catchment outlet was compared with observed water discharge records in order to check the hydrological sub-model behaviour. Model results provided highly valuable information concerning the spatial distribution of soil erosion and sediment transport. Spatial validation of the sediment sub-model provided very good results at seven check dams out of nine. This study shows that check dams can be a useful tool also for constraining hydrological model calibration, as model results agree with water discharge observations. In fact, the hydrological model validation at a downstream water flow gauge obtained a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.8. This technique is applicable to all catchments with presence of check dams, and only requires rainfall and temperature data and soil characteristics maps.

Bussi, Gianbattista; Francés, Félix



Identifying Drivers of Interannual Variability in Seasonal Sedimentation Patterns in the Corsica River (MD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corsica River, located on Maryland's eastern shore, has been the site of restoration efforts targeted to sediment and nutrient load reduction. While a long-term (~100-y) sediment budget has recently been established, processes that operate over shorter time scales more relevant to management may be more useful. In addition, a shorter-term sediment budget is needed to assess the potential impact of restoration efforts. To address these needs, bottom sediments have been collected to determine end-of-summer conditions for the last 6 years (2006-2011) and analyzed for their chemical and textural properties. Short-term (annual) deposition rates and biological mixing coefficients are calculated via the naturally occurring radioisotopes 7Be and 234Th (half-lives 53.3 and 24.1 d, respectively). Deposition rates are then used to determine the total mass deposit on an annual time scale for comparison across years to assess sedimentation patterns, as well as the interannual variability of observations. For example, deposition is greatest immediately upstream of a sill present near the mouth in one year but is located much farther upstream in the following year. Deposition patterns are compared to relatively simple indicators of physical forcing, such as rainfall and wind direction and magnitude, to identify potential drivers of interannual variability with the ultimate goal of deriving a predictive climatology of sedimentation.

Palinkas, C. M.; Cornwell, J.



Spatial and vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments.  


The distribution and historical changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong SAR were investigated. Surface sediments (2-3 cm) collected from four mangrove swamps exhibited significant spatial variations in concentrations of total PAH (with SigmaPAHs ranging from 56 to 3758 ng g(-1) dry wt), as well as the composition of 16 USEPA priority PAH compounds. Within a small swamp with an area of 0.68 ha, the total PAH concentrations also differed from sampling site to site, indicating that the PAH contamination is localized and confined to a very small area within the same swamp. Discharges from municipal and industrial wastewater, urban runoff, oil leakage from boats and ships, and accidental oil spill are possible sources of the PAH contamination. The sediment depth profiles reveal that the surface sediment layer (0-5 cm) had lower total PAH concentrations than that in the bottom layer (15-20 cm), and PAH composition also changed with the sediment layers. Based on the estimated annual sediment deposition rate in Hong Kong SAR of around 0.4-0.5 cm, the present findings suggest that the PAH contamination was most serious between 1958 and 1979 but started to decline thereafter. Such decline was probably due to changes in petroleum usage in urban areas and a better control of wastewater discharges from 1980 onwards in this region. PMID:15752500

Ke, L; Yu, K S H; Wong, Y S; Tam, N F Y



Aquatic Sediments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

Sanville, W. D.; And Others




EPA Science Inventory

One hundred seventeen literature references in the area of freshwater sediments were abstracted and synthesized to produce a review of sediment-related research for the period November, 1975 through October, 1976. Research areas covered included sediment-water interchange, sampli...



EPA Science Inventory

A modeling framework that can be used to evaluate sedimentation in stream networks is described. This methodology can be used to determine sediment Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in sediment impaired waters, and provide the necessary hydrodynamic and sediment-related data t...


Surface-water and suspended-sediment inflow and outflow for Nutria Reservoir No 3, Zuni Indian Reservation, New Mexico, March 1994 to September 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface-water and suspended-sediment inflow to and outflow from Nutria Reservoir No. 3 on the Zuni Indian Reservation, western New Mexico, were calculated. The period of study was March 3, 1994, to September 30, 1995. Total runoff into Nutria Reservoir No. 3 during the study period was 6,812 acre-feet. During the study period, 24,310 tons of suspended sediment was transported into Nutria Reservoir No. 3, and 259 tons of suspended sediment was transported out of Nutria Reservoir No. 3. Runoff during the study period, recorded at an upstream gage with 25 years of record, was 137 percent higher than that for a 19-month period similar to the study period. This may indicate that suspended-sediment loads transported into Nutria Reservoir No. 3 also were larger than average. Based on the difference between inflow and outflow of suspended sediment, 24,050 tons of suspended sediment was deposited in Nutria Reservoir No. 3. From March 1994 to May 1994 the spillway elevation of Nutria Reservoir No. 3 was raised to allow water to be diverted into an adjacent reservoir, Nutria Reservoir No. 4. This flow and sediment transported into Nutria Reservoir No. 4 were not recorded. If the elevation of the spillway had not been raised, suspended- sediment loads recorded downstream from Nutria Reservoir No. 3 would have been larger and the calculated amount of sediment deposited in Nutria Reservoir would have been smaller. Of the total suspended-sediment load entering Nutria Reservoir No. 3 during the study period, 94 percent was transported by an arroyo, Garcia Draw. Garcia Draw drains only 15 percent of the total drainage area of Nutria Reservoir No. 3 and contributed less than 5 percent of the total surface runoff to the reservoir. The average annual amount of sediment deposited in Nutria Reservoir No. 3 during the study was 15,355 tons. By using a dry-weight density of 99.4 pounds per cubic foot for the deposited sediment, the annual volume of sediment deposited in Nutria Reservoir No. 3 is 7.09 acre-feet per year. This number is smaller than the previously reported sedimentation rate of 15.0 acre-feet per year obtained from past surveys. The capacity of Nutria Reservoir No. 3 in 1993 was 191 acre-feet. By using the calculated average sedimentation rate of 7.09 acre-feet per year, Nutria Reservoir No. 3 could be completely filled approximately 27 years after the 1993 survey.

Gellis, A. C.



Quantification and interpretation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples by a GC/MS method and comparison with EPA 418.1 and a rapid field method.  


Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three currently used methods (GC/MS, conventional EPA 418.1, and a rapid field method PetroFLAG) were performed to quantify the TPH content in samples collected from a site contaminated by transformer oil. To standardize the method and improve the comparability of TPH data, crucial GC-based quantification issues were examined, e.g., quantification based on internal standards (ISTD) vs external standards (ESTD), single vs multiple ISTD, and various area integration approaches. The interpretation of hydrocarbon chromatographic results was examined in the context of field samples. The performance of the GC/MS method was compared with those of EPA 418.1 and PetroFLAG. As a result, it was observed that the ISTD quantification method was preferred to the ESTD method, multiple ISTD might be better than single ISTD, and three different area integration approaches did not have a significant effect on TPH results. Evaluation of the chromatograms between a reference sample and three unknown samples showed that the extent of contamination varied appreciably with sample depth. It was also found that there existed a good positive correlation between GC/MS and both EPA 418.1 and PetroFLAG, and that EPA 418.1 produced the higher overall estimate while GC/MS and PetroFLAG resulted in lower, more statistically comparable TPH values. PMID:10330912

Xie, G; Barcelona, M J; Fang, J



Effects of urbanization on streamflow and sediment transport in the Rock Creek and Anacostia River basins, Montgomery County, Maryland, 1962-74  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land use, precipitation, streamflow, and sediment discharge data were collected from nine small drainage basins in Montgomery County, Maryland, to evaluate runoff and sediment response to sediment-control practices in areas undergoing urban development. Drainage basins ranged in size from 0.35 to 21.1 sq mi and land use ranged from rural to 60 percent urban. Urbanization did not affect low and medium flows, but it did result in increased storm runoff and peak flows. Suspended sediment transported from one of the basins that underwent urban development, the 21.1 sq mi Anacostia River basin, averaged 15 ,400 tons/yr between 1962 and 1974. Bedload was estimated as 5 to 11 percent of the total load. Cropland, urban land, and construction sites were the major sources of sediment. Average annual sediment yields ranged from 065 to 4.3 tons/acre for cropland, 3.7 tons/acre for urban land, and 7 to 100 tons/acre for urban construction sites. The magnitude of the yields from construction sites was significantly affected by (1) the slope of the sites, (2) the proximity of stream channels, (3) buffer zones of natural vegetation, and (4) sediment-control measures. Sediment controls, particularly those enforced under a 1971 sediment-control ordinance, apparently decreased construction-site sediment yields by 60 to 80 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

Yorke, Thomas H.; Herb, William J.



Perfluorinated compounds in sediments from the Daliao River system of northeast China.  


Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have received much attention on their distributions in various matrixes of different areas globally, however, little is known about their existences in river sediments of China. In this study, eight target PFCs including perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) were determined based upon the upper 10cm surface sediment samples collected from eleven sites covering three main streams of the Daliao River system in northeast China, which received huge amount of industrial and domestic wastewater annually from the neighbouring areas. Analytical results indicated that total concentrations of PFCs were determined in the range of 0.29-1.03ngg(-1) dry weight in sediments from this river system. As the dominant PFCs contaminants in sediment samples, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were ranged between total PFCs concentrations in sectioned sediment core samples from three main streams of this river system presented overall decreasing trends of PFCs contaminations with depth in the top 10cm surface sediments of these rivers. PMID:19735931

Bao, Jia; Jin, Yihe; Liu, Wei; Ran, Xiaorong; Zhang, Zhixu



Three decades of TBT contamination in sediments around a large scale shipyard.  


Tributyltin (TBT) contamination in sediments was investigated in the vicinity of a large-scale shipyard in the years after the implementation of a total ban on the use of TBT based antifouling paints in Korea. Extremely high level of TBT (36,292ng Sn/g) in surface sediment was found at a station in front of a drydock and near surface runoff outfall of the shipyard. TBT concentration in surface sediments of Gohyeon Bay, where the shipyard is located, showed an apparent decreased TBT concentration gradient from the shipyard towards the outer bay. The vertical distribution of TBT contamination derived from a sediment core analysis demonstrated a significant positive correlation (r(2)=0.88; p<0.001) with the annual tonnage of ship-construction in the shipyard within the past three decades. TBT concentrations at six stations surveyed before (2003) and seven years after (2010) the total ban showed no significant differences (p>0.05). Despite the ban on the use of TBT, including ocean going vessels, surface sediments are still being heavily contaminated with TBT, and its levels well exceeded the sediment quality guideline or screening values. PMID:21704453

Kim, Nam Sook; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Shin, Kyung Hoon



A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: implications for habitat restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with this uncertainty provides a more statistically rigorous method of quantifying this uncertainty than the more typical “sum of errors” approach. The results of this study reinforce the need for measurement of estuarine sediment fluxes over multiple years (multiple hydrologic conditions) to adequately detail the variability in flux. Additionally, the timing of breaching events for the restoration project could be tied to annual hydrologic conditions to capitalize on increased regional sediment supply.

Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.



Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, T.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fontaine, T.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)



Total Quality Leadership  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.



Terrestrial Sediment and Nutrient Discharge, and Their Potential Influence on Coral Reefs, Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and nutrient discharge to the insular shelf of Puerto Rico (18 degrees latitude), augmented by anthropogenic activity, is believed to have contributed to widespread degradation of coral reefs of Puerto Rico during the 20th century. Sediment deposition degrades coral reefs because it reduces the area of sea floor suitable for growth of new coral, diminishes the amount of light available for photosynthesis by symbiotic algae that live within individual coral animals, and in extreme cases, buries coral colonies. Land-use history and data from 30 water-discharge, 9 daily and 15 intermittent sediment-concentration, and 24 water-quality gaging stations were analyzed to investigate the timing and intensity of terrestrial sediment and nutrient discharge into coastal waters. Watersheds in Puerto Rico generally are small (10's to 100's of square km), channel gradients are steep, and stream valleys are deeply incised and narrow. Major storms are usually brief (<24 h) but intense such that the majority of the annual sediment discharge occurs in a few days. From 1960 through 2000 the highest mean daily discharge for a water year (October - September) accounted for 20 to 60 percent of the total annual sediment discharge. Major storms, with a return frequency of approximately a decade, were capable of discharging up to 30 times the median annual sediment-discharge volume. Prior to agricultural and industrial development, coastal waters are believed to have been relatively transparent, with strong currents and seasonal high-energy swells assisting corals in the removal of minor amounts of sediment deposited after storms. Land clearing and modification, first for agriculture and later for urban development, have increased sediment and nutrient influx to the coast during the 19th and 20th centuries. Although forest cover has increased to approximately 30 percent of the surface of Puerto Rico during the past 60 years, sediment eroded from hillslopes during the agricultural period is still being episodically transported from upland valleys to downstream floodplains and the coast. In response to better land management, the quality of water has improved significantly since the 1980s. Nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in river waters are now well within regulatory limits, although current concentrations are as much as 10 times the estimated pre-settlement levels. Concentrations of pathogens also are improved but continue to be near or above regulatory limits. Unlike sediment discharge, which is episodic and intense, the discharge of river-borne nutrients and pathogens is a less intense but chronic stressor to coral reefs located near the mouths of rivers.

Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M.; Warne, A. G.



Nitrogen and phosphorus flux rates from sediment in the lower St. Johns River estuary.  


Internal cycling of nutrients from the sediment and water column can be an important contribution to the total nutrient load of an aquatic ecosystem. Our objective was to estimate the internal nutrient loading of the Lower St. Johns River (LSJR). Dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and ammonium (NH(4)-N) flux from sediments were measured under aerobic and anaerobic water column conditions using intact cores, to estimate the overall contribution of the sediments to P and N loading to the LSJR. The DRP flux under aerobic water column conditions averaged 0.13 mg m(-2) d(-1), approximately 37 times lower than that under anaerobic conditions (4.77 mg m(-2) d(-1)). The average NH(4)-N released from the anaerobic cores (18.03 mg m(-2) d(-1)) was also significantly greater than in the aerobic cores for all sites and seasons, indicating the strong relationship between nutrient fluxes and oxygen availability in the water column. The mean annual internal DRP load was estimated to be 330 metric tons (Mg) yr(-1), 21% of the total P load to the river, while the mean annual internal load of NH(4)-N was determined to be 2066 Mg yr(-1), 28% of the total N load to the LSJR estuary. As water resource managers reduce external loading to the LSJR the frequency of anaerobic events should decline, thereby reducing nutrient fluxes from the sediment to the water column, reducing the internal loading of DRP and NH(4)-N. Results from this study demonstrate that the internal flux of nutrients from sediments may be a significant portion of the total load and should be accounted for in the total nutrient budget of the river for successful restoration. PMID:15254137

Malecki, Lynette M; White, John R; Reddy, K R



An integrated suspended sediment budgeting of the agricultural Can Revull catchment (Mallorca, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region of Europe has a long history of human settlement and human impacts. The very high spatial and temporal variability of fluvial processes in the region also creates problems for measurement and monitoring and for assessment of effects. Extensive rainfed herbaceous crops are one of the most representative agricultural elements of this region, which should be one of the major factor affecting erosion processes. Although land use is commonly seen as resulting in increased sediment yields, the implementation of soil and water conservation practices can have the reverse effect. Sediment budgets offer a means to assess the sources, storage, rates of transport, yields, and efficiency of delivery of sediment for a range of catchment scales. Field measurements were conducted in Can Revull, a small agricultural catchment (1.03 km2) on the island of Mallorca. This study uses 137Cs measurements, sediment source fingerprinting and continuous turbidity records of four hydrological years (2004-2005 to 2007-2008) to quantify the individual components of the budget. A large proportion of the material mobilized from cultivated fields without conservation practices (gross erosion was 775 t yr-1; 1,270 t km-2 yr-1) was, however, subsequently deposited either within the field of origin (112 t yr-1; 180 t km-2 yr-1) or at intermediate locations between the source field and the channel network (field-to-channel conveyance loss was 591 t yr-1; 1,090 t km-2 yr-1). The estimates of sediment accumulation rates on the floodplain in the lower reaches of the catchment indicate that the mean sedimentation rate was 0.47 g cm-2 yr-1. This value was extrapolated to the total area of the floodplain to estimate a total annual conveyance loss or storage of 150 t yr-1. Monitoring at the catchment outlet over the study period indicated a mean annual suspended sediment yield of 7 t km-2 yr-1. The sum of the estimates of sediment yield and floodplain storage (157 t yr-1) was taken to represent the total annual input of suspended sediment to the channel system. This value was subsequently apportioned using the information provided by the fingerprinting investigation, to estimate the mass of sediment reaching the channel network from cultivated fields and from eroding channel banks. Thus the annual contribution from channel banks was estimated to be 84 t yr-1. In the case of the contributions from cultivated fields, the estimates obtained were, as expected, significantly less than the values of net soil loss from these zones provided by the 137Cs measurements due to conveyance losses associated to field-to-channel conveyance loss. The overall sediment delivery ratios (<1%) indicate that approximately 99% of the sediment mobilized by erosion within the Can Revull catchment is subsequently deposited before reaching the monitoring station. As such, the low sediment outputs from the study catchment should be seen as reflecting the importance of conveyance losses and storage rather than a lack of sediment mobilization from the catchment surface, although part of the catchment headwaters was modified historically by means of terraces and transverse walls to prevent erosion.

Estrany, J.; Garcia, C.



Design of a new total knee replacement An estimated 1.3 million artificial knee joints are implanted annually around the world.  

E-print Network

Design of a new total knee replacement An estimated 1.3 million artificial knee joints of the world's leading manufacturers of total knee replacements to support them in developing new and better joints are well-designed, robust and long lasting. Millions of artificial knee joints have now been

Sóbester, András



EPA Science Inventory

Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of total lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...


Biomarker evidence of Holocene climate and cryosphere variability: results from a 171m, annually laminated, sediment core from the Adélie coast, Antarctica (IODP Expedition 318)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Ocean remains the least studied region on Earth with respect to Holocene climate variability. The few Antarctic proximal marine sedimentary records available tend to be short, low resolution, and discontinuous. However, sediments recently recovered from the Adélie drift during IODP Expedition 318 present a new opportunity to study East Antarctic Holocene climatic evolution, at a resolution that facilitates direct comparison with ice-cores. Expedition 318 recovered 171m of Holocene laminated diatom ooze from site U1357B. The sediments represent continuous Holocene accumulation up to the present day (based on 89 AMS 14C dates) and are characterised by 2-6cm thick, light/dark laminae couplets, interpreted as seasonal biogenic production and accumulation events. We present the results of initial biomarker analyses: fatty acid ?D and TEX86 measurements on lipid extracts from paired light/dark laminae throughout the Holocene. The C18 fatty acid is assumed to represent an integrated signal from the algal precursors and thus surface water conditions. The ?DC18-FA values show no consistent offset between the light and dark laminae, and values become isotopically heavier on average through the Holocene (ca. -220 to 140‰), in line with declining insolation at 65°S. Superimposed on this trend are millennial scale isotopic excursions of ca. 20 to 60‰, including a clear excursion coeval with an increase in grain size in U1356B and the late Holocene climate 'optimum' between 6 and 3 kyr, inferred from East Antarctic ice-cores. ?DC18-FA shows no clear relationship with TEXL86 sea-surface temperature estimates, which display pronounced early variability and relative warmth from 11.2 to 10.4 ka (0 to 6.5 °C, average ca. 3.5 °C), but almost no change after 10.4 ka, as cold, stable SSTs (average ca. 2 °C) persist through the rest of the Holocene. We explore the potential controls on the ?DC18-FA record and suggest the influence of isotopically depleted meltwater from the proximal ice-sheet (additive to a salinity effect) and/or upwelling could account for the millennial scale variability. The next steps are to ground-truth the proxies in this unique archive and to exploit the paleoclimatic information encoded in the abundant algal sterol compounds, the higher plant waxes and to apply compound-specific ?13C as well as additional ?D measurements.

Bendle, J. A.; Seki, O.; Kawamura, K.; Willmott, V.; Schouten, S.; Sangiorgi, F.; McKay, R.; Riesselman, C. R.; Dunbar, R. B.



Toxicological significance of sediment/metal interactions  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological consequences of metal sorption and desorption by stream sediment were evaluated using aquatic bioassays with embryo-larval stages of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). The effects of sediment-released cadmium and copper were studied by exposing eyed eggs directly to metal-enriched sediments and to the effluents from chambers containing enriched sediments. The effects of cadmium and copper uptake by sediment were assessed by exposing eyed embryos to metal solutions before, during, and after circulation of the toxicants over untreated sediment. Egg and larval survival, frequency of teratogenesis, and metal uptake by the organisms were quantified. Test solutions were analyzed for total, soluble, and electroactive metal before and after contact with sediments. Organisms in direct contact wth cadmium-enriched sediments accumulated significantly more metal than did animals having the same aqueous exposure but with no sediment contact, although embryonic survival did not correlate with sediment metal content. Cadmium and copper concentrations in water flowing over sediments enriched to 1000 mg/kg averaged about 7 Approximately 80 to 90% of the sediment-released cadmium was soluble and electroactive. About 80% of the released copper was soluble, but almost no electroactive species were detected. Aqueous cadmium solutions were less toxic to trout embryos after flowing through chambers housing untreated stream sediment. Furthermore, embryos developing on the sediment surface accumulated significantly less cadmium and showed reduced frequencies of teratogenesis compared to organisms receiving similar aqueous exposure but having no contact with sediments.

Francis, P.C.



Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC.




Measuring and Modeling the Effects of Development on Sediment Production and Delivery, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in sediment delivery rates into tropical marine environments may pose a serious threat to nearshore coral reef communities. The island of St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands is at particular risk because the areas outside of the Virgin Islands National Park are being subjected to rapid development, 80% of its land surface has slopes greater than 30%, and the average annual erosivity is 13,500 MJ mm ha-1 hr-1. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure erosion rates from a variety of anthropogenic and natural sources; and (2) develop a GIS-based model to estimate basin-scale increases in sediment delivery. Sediment production rates were measured from unsurfaced roads, road cutslopes, undisturbed hillslopes, streambanks, and treethrow. Unsurfaced roads had the highest erosion rates with values of up to 38 kg m-2 yr-1, while road cutslopes generated only about 0.8 kg m-2 yr-1. Since undisturbed areas generated only 0.001 kg m-2 yr-1, unsurfaced roads can increase hillslope-scale sediment production rates by up to four orders of magnitude. Sediment production rates from erodible streambanks were estimated to be nearly 13 kg m-2 yr-1, while uprooting of trees along stream margins was estimated to deliver 0.17 kg yr-1 of sediment per meter of stream length. The St. John Erosion model (STJ-EROS) uses a series of empirical sediment production models and sediment delivery ratios to estimate watershed-scale sediment yields in a GIS-based system. Using this model, the estimated sediment yields for the highly-developed 6.0 km2 Fish Bay basin was 41 tons km-2 yr-1, while the estimated sediment yield for the less-developed 4.3 km2 Lameshur Bay basin was only 11 tons km-2 yr-1. The model simulations suggest that current sediment yields are seven and four times above undisturbed conditions in the Fish Bay and Lameshur Bay basins, respectively. The predicted sediment yields are consistent with measured sediment yields and sedimentation rates in both Fish Bay and Lameshur Bay. In both cases actively used unsurfaced roads were identified as the dominant source of sediment. Cutslopes and streambanks played a secondary role in total sediment yields, while undisturbed hillslopes and treethrow contributed only minimal amounts.

Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; MacDonald, L. H.



Effects of low-level dams on the distribution of sediment, trace metals, and organic substances in the lower Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Heavy use of the Schuylkill River for municipal water supplies and a history of accidental spills and discharges of trace metals and organic substances have been a concern of State and local officials for many years. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of their River Quality Assessment Program, developed a study to assess the occurrence and distribution of trace substances that pose a threat to human health and aquatic life. This report presents the results of the part of the study that evaluates the effects of low-level dams in the lower basin on the distribution and transport of sediment and trace substances. A combination of historical and current data were used in the assessment. Suspended-sediment data collected at several mainstem and tributary sites from 1954 to 1979 and sedimentation surveys of the six pools in the lower basin were used to define the sediment-transport characteristics of the river. These data provided a base for assessing the transport of trace substances, which are associated closely with riverbed sediments and suspended particles. Water and riverbed samples were collected for analyses of trace substances at numerous sites in the lower basin from 1978 to 1980. The six dams on the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia have had a significant effect on the transport of sediment and trace substances. Between 1954 and 1970, more than 4.7 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the pools formed by the dams. The quantity of sediment deposited in the pools ranged from 150,000 cubic yards in Plymouth Pool to 1.6 million cubic yards in Fairmount Pool. The rate of accumulation in the pools was a function of pool size and geometry and the frequency of storms. About 35 percent of the total sediment discharged by the river was stored in the six pools from 1954 to 1970. Since 1970, the net change in sediment accumulation has been minimal. More than 24 percent of the sediment in Fairmount Pool in 1970 was scoured from the pool during Hurricane Agnes in 1972; however, total sediment accumulation returned to the 1970 level within 2 years. Analyses of water samples showed that some trace substances are associated closely with particulate material transported by the river. The concentration of suspended and total cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc correlated well with the concentration of suspended sediment and suspended organic carbon. The average annual discharge of metals in suspension as a percentage of total average annual discharge ranged from 46 percent for nickel to 94 percent for lead for the Schuylkill River at Manayunk. The average annual discharge of each metal remained about the same or decreased between Pottstown and Philadelphia. Synoptic sampling of the inflow and outflow of several pools during storm runoff showed that the pools limit the transport of trace metals. More than 50 percent of the suspended copper transported by the river at Pottstown was deposited in Vincent Pool during the storm of May 12-15, 1980. Similar reductions were observed between Port Kennedy and Manayunk as the storm runoff passed through Norristown, Plymouth, and Flat Rock Pools. Analyses of riverbed sediments showed that concentrations of trace substances were higher in sediments that included all particles finer than 0.062 millimeter than in sediments that included only particles finer than 0.016 millimeter. This suggests that medium and coarse silt particles or conglomerates of finer particles sorb as much or more trace constituents as the individual fine silts and clay particles. Concentrations of trace metals were as much as 90 percent higher in the sediments that included coarse silt. Concentrations of trace organic substances were several times higher in the sediments that included coarse silt than in sediments consisting of only fine silt or clay. Surficial and core samples of riverbed sediments were used to define the present and historical distribution of trace substances in

Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, John K.; Pederson, Gary L.



Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.



Reservoir sedimentation  

SciTech Connect

Research on reservoir sedimentation in recent years has been aimed mainly at water resources projects in developing countries. These countries, especially in Africa, often have to cope with long droughts, flash floods and severe erosion problems. Large reservoir capacities are required to capture water provided by flash floods so as to ensure the supply of water in periods of drought. The problem arising however is that these floods, due to their tremendous stream power, carry enormous volumes of sediment which, due to the size of reservoirs, are virtually deposited into the reservoir basin, leading to fast deterioration of a costly investment. Accurate forecasting of reservoir behaviour is therefore of the utmost importance. The point of view in this book is that of the water resources engineer who predicts the effect of sediment deposition on a reservoir and its immediate environment. Practical procedures to estimate sediment yield, calculate sediment profiles and assess the influence sediment retention has on the river downstream of a reservoir are presented. Preventative measures are also discussed. The approach adopted in this book is through illustrating theory with examples. The recent theory presented regards processes involved in the deposition of sediment in reservoirs.

Annandale, G.W.



Effective discharge for suspended sediment transport of the Ganga River and its geomorphic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective discharge (Qe) for suspended sediment transport in the alluvial reaches of the Ganga River in the western Ganga plains (WGP) has been computed using ‘analytical' and an alternative ‘magnitude-frequency' approach. Thirty years of mean monthly discharge data from various sites of the Ganga River have been assessed, and the abundance of discharge occurrence has been determined. Our analysis shows that less than 40% of the flow causes effective sediment transport in the Ganga, and this can be considered as the effective discharge for suspended sediment transport. Alternatively, 50% of the sediment load for all studied sites is moved by a discharge varying between 14 and 40% of the total discharge. Effective discharges calculated over the period of record are well below the bankfull discharges (Qb). A few events are close to the bankfull level, but with a high return period (RI > 40 years), and therefore, not effective to transport most of the available sediments. Our computation shows that the mean annual discharge (RI = 2.33 yrs) can transport only 0 to 10% of the total available sediments. The computation of effective discharge also provided important insights to understand the linkage between hydrology and channel morphology. Sediment storage and removal processes, which are reflected in sediment budget, cause changes in cross-sectional area/channel bathymetry at various sites but the channel margins are not affected. A high ratio of bankfull to effective discharge (Qb/Qe) forces the flow lines to be concentrated to the thalweg position and channels are incised. Our study also implies that incision and aggradation of the river valley during a relatively long period are caused by changes in effective discharge. We argue that the valley incision and filling episodes in the western Ganga plains at Late Quaternary timescales in response to monsoonal fluctuations were primarily affected by changes in the effective discharges of the rivers.

Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.



A graphical method to study suspended sediment dynamics during flood events in the Wadi Sebdou, NW Algeria (1973-2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small sub-basins are numerous in Mediterranean area and global sedimentary budgets cannot be obtained without a detailed understanding of the hydroclimatic processes that govern sediment fluxes in these small river systems. In this study, the shape of the relationship between sediment concentration (C) and water discharge (Q) during flood events of a 31-years period (1973-2004) was analyzed at the outlet of the Wadi Sebdou basin (256 km2) in northwest Algeria, using a new graphical analysis method based on features of hysteresis loops. Each flood was decomposed as successive stages - each of which being characterized by a sediment rating curve - and used to quantify the contribution of diverse sediment sources within the basin. Seven common classes of hydrological events (single valued and six hysteresis loops: clockwise, counter-clockwise, eight-shaped, single valued plus one loop, either clockwise or counter-clockwise, and single valued plus at least two loops) were explored. Sediment supply from locally derived sources (or "base load") was high and reached 77% of total sediment yield for the study period, and was attributed to weathering of bed material or gullies. The remainder portion was derived from hill-slopes, re-suspension of fresh fine deposits in the river bed, or bank collapse. The ratio of suspended sediment load derived from active sediment source varies considerably from one flood to another depending on many factors, such as seasonality and antecedent type of flood. The simpler floods were the most frequent ones but produced less sediment. The most frequent floods were clockwise or anticlockwise (52% of floods) but brought only 34% of the total sediment flux. The 18% of the most complex floods (single valued plus at least two loops) produced more than 53% of the sediments, mainly supplied by base load (84%). Intra-annual variability was very high. Over 31-years, the five biggest floods cumulated 64% of the total sediment flux and were of three classes, the most complex floods being dominant. The largest contribution occurred during one single 33-days long hydrological event with complex form which represented 26% of the total sediment flux. Apart from the five biggest flood events, the base load represented 53%. The biggest floods favour base load as compared to the smallest ones.

Megnounif, Abdesselam; Terfous, Abdelali; Ouillon, Sylvain



Impacts of wildfire on runoff and sediment loads at Little Granite Creek, western Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baseline data on rates of sediment transport provide useful information on the inherent variability of stream processes and may be used to assess departure in channel form or process from disturbances. In August 2000, wildfire burned portions of the Little Granite Creek watershed near Bondurant, WY where bedload and suspended sediment measurements had been collected during 13 previous runoff seasons. This presented an opportunity to quantify increases in sediment loads associated with a large-scale natural disturbance. The first three years post-fire were warm and dry, with low snowpacks and few significant summer storms. Despite relatively low flows during the first runoff season, the estimated sediment load was about five times that predicted from regression of data from the pre-burn record. Increased sediment loading occurred during the rising limb and peak of snowmelt (54%) and during the few summer storms (44%). While high during the first post-fire year, total annual sediment yield decreased during the next two years, indicating an eventual return to baseline levels. The results from this sediment monitoring lacked some of the more dramatic responses that have been observed in other watersheds following fire. In other environments, moderate-to-high intensity rainstorms caused significant flooding, widespread debris flows and channel incision and aggradation. A few moderate intensity storms (< 2 year recurrence interval) occurred in the Little Granite Creek watershed, but they did not trigger this type of response. Instead, ash and charcoal rich discharges (herein described as "blackwater flows") and heavily sediment laden flows were observed without physical evidence of debris flows, as defined by channel incision into previously unchanneled areas. Speculatively, the sedimentation pattern and geomorphic response in Little Granite Creek may be fairly typical of stream responses to wildfire during times of continued drought and in the absence of widespread, significant rainfall, representing one type of response on a continuum of effects following wildfire.

Ryan, Sandra E.; Dwire, Kathleen A.; Dixon, Mark K.



Cosmogenic nuclide-derived sediment budget of the Amazon basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment gauging suggests that the annual sediment mass discharged into the main Amazon basin from the Andes and the cratonic shields is not in steady state with the mass discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. Here we use sediment production rates from cosmogenic 10Be in sediment to compare these with transport rates from river load gauging. About 1 million km2 or 95% of the total Andean area draining to the Amazon provide sediment to the central Amazon river with an averaged 10Be nuclide concentration of 5.0 +- 0.5x1e4 at/g(Qz). Average nuclide concentrations for Brazilian shield headwaters amount to 15.3 +- 1.2x1e4 at/g(Qz), and to 38.6 +- 2.4x1e4 at/g(Qz) for the Guyana shield headwaters, respectively. For the Andes, nuclide concentrations translate to an integrated Andean denudation rate of 0.35 ± 0.05 mm/yr. Sediment from the headwaters of the Brazilian and Guyana shields translate into very low denudation rates (0.02 and 0.01 mm/yr, respectively), as is expected for tectonically stable tropical highlands. These headwater 10Be nuclide concentrations and derived denudation rates can now be compared with those derived from central Amazon stream sediment including the main Amazon, which was sampled over ~1000 km from Manaus to Óbidos. Cosmogenic nuclide concentration analyses of several grain sizes (from 125 up to 800 µm) show large variations; we found that coarse-grained material records the nuclide signal of the cratonic shield areas, whereas the Andean signal is best represented by the fine sand fraction, which is preserved virtually unaltered over 1000s of km of sediment transport. In all central Amazon trunk stream samples and tributaries, the fine grain size fraction (125-250 µm) contains 10Be at 6.5 +- 1.2x1e4 at/g(Qz), which is similar to that of the Andean source areas. The integrated denudation rate from this fraction is 0.23 +- 0.04 mm/yr for the entire Amazon basin at Óbidos, which compares well with the mean Andean denudation rate of 0.35 +- 0.05 mm/yr. Coarse grain sizes (>500 µm) record the very low denudation rate of the cratonic shields. Given these low rates, the shields discharge only small amounts of sediment into the Amazon trunk stream. Multiplied with the area of the providing hinterland, we can use these erosion rates to calculate sediment mass budgets. The flux of sediment expected from cosmogenic nuclide-based denudation rates amounts to 540 Mt/yr at Óbidos. This flux compares to the total load of 1100 Mt/yr at Óbidos[1,2,3] as estimated from sediment gauging. This disparity is unexpected, as today at least 40% of the sediment discharged from the Andes is stored in floodplains[4]; a process not detected with cosmogenic 10Be. The longer denudation integration time scale of 8 kyr for cosmogenic nuclides possibly includes a period of drier climate than the wet conditions during the late Holocene, where a wetter modern climate possibly favors more rapid erosion in the Andes and more efficient sediment transport in the large rivers. 1 Gaillardet et al. (1997), Chemical Geology (142), 141-173. 2 Dunne et al. (1998), GSA Bulletin (110), 450-467. 3 Guyot et al. (2005), IAHS Publications (291), 1-8. 4 Guyot et al. (1996), IAHS Publications (236), 55-63.

Wittmann, Dr.; von Blanckenburg, Dr.; Guyot, Dr.; Maurice, Dr.; Kubik, Dr.



Quantifying the origin of different sediment types in a catchment of the Southern French Alps by combining hydro-sedimentary records and fingerprinting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion and subsequent sediment supply to rivers are particularly massive and episodic in mountainous environments, such as in the Southern French Alps. Those processes typically lead to an increase in water turbidity and a rapid filling of reservoirs in downstream areas. This situation is particularly problematic in regions where reservoirs are used to provide clear water to hydroelectric power plants. Sediment source areas must first be delineated and sediment fluxes between hillslopes and the river system must be better understood to implement efficient sediment management. We therefore combined traditional monitoring techniques (i.e., installation of river gauges and sediment samplers in several subcatchments) and sediment fingerprinting using elemental geochemistry and fallout radionuclides as potential discriminant properties to quantify the supply of sediment provided by different lithological sources (i.e., black marls, marly limestones, conglomerates, Quaternary deposits) to the River Bléone (905 km²). Those analyses were conducted on different material types collected within the catchment (i.e. suspended and riverbed sediment), and at the catchment outlet (i.e. on a sequence of sections of a 3-m long sediment core). Sediment exports at the river catchment outlet (330±100 t km-2 yr-1) were mainly driven (80%) by the occurrence of widespread rainfall events (long duration, low intensities). In contrast, heavy, local and short duration storms generated high peak discharges and suspended sediment concentrations, but they were restricted to small upstream torrents. Our study (2007-2009) confirmed the important contribution of black marls (up to 70% at the flood scale) to sediment transported in rivers, although this substrate only occupies c. 10% of the total catchment surface. However, the contribution of other lithological sources varied at both intra- and inter-flood scales. Sediment exports generated by local convective storms were dominated by black marls/marly limestones. In contrast, widespread flood events that generate the bulk of annual sediment supply at the outlet were characterized by a more stable lithologic composition and by a larger contribution of limestones, Quaternary deposits and conglomerates, which corroborated the analysis of riverbed sediment. Finally, we found that black marls and marly limestone sources provided the main fraction of sediment analysed throughout the outlet core sequence (40 and 22 %, respectively, for the period 1962-2009). However, we also found evidence for the occurrence of major floods carrying large quantities of sediment originating from Quaternary deposits and conglomerates (25 and 16 %, respectively). The variability of sediment sources throughout the sequence may reflect the spatial variability of rainfall within the catchment, which in turn reflects its origin. This study emphasizes the importance of using archival data to validate the results of sediment fingerprinting studies conducted during short contemporary monitoring programmes.

Evrard, Olivier; Navratil, Oldrich; Ayrault, Sophie; Esteves, Michel; Legout, Cédric; Némery, Julien; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe



Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully account for proximal small urbanized watersheds that may dominate sediment supply.

McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.



A Record of Extreme Sedimentation Events in Central Idaho: Fire, Climate, and Changing Sediment Yields Over the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central Idaho mountains, most of the annual runoff in small streams occurs with snowmelt, suggesting that most sediment transport would occur during high seasonal discharges with recurrence interval of perhaps a few years. A spate of recent major debris-flow events in small basins, however, implies that infrequent severe storms where mass movement threshold conditions are crossed are also be major contributors to sediment yields. This landscape is characterized by deeply weathered Idaho batholith granitic rocks, and slopes mantled by thick, poorly cohesive grussy sediment. An important control on debris-flow generation is fire, which dramatically lowers threshold conditions for surface runoff generation and also lowers the cohesive strength of slope sediment after roots decay. A series of storms culminating in intense rain on melting snow in January 1997 caused numerous colluvial failures, debris flows, and sediment-charged floods in South Fork Payette River tributaries, with the majority in either burned forested or unburned rangeland basins. This event produced sediment yields up to 44,000 Mg km-2 in ˜0.5 km2 basins, which equals several thousand years of background sediment yields (2.7-30 Mg km-2 yr-1) measured over a few decades of trapping and gauging in Idaho batholith watersheds, where major debris-flow events are not included (Clayton and Megahan, 1986). Recurrence intervals of ˜ 400 years for such extreme events would account for 10,000-yr average Idaho batholith sediment yields of ˜ 116 Mg km-2 yr-1 (Kirchner et al., Geology 29, 2001). Shaub (2001) found that of > 200 colluvial failures in the 1997 event in the South Fork Payette drainage, 75% occurred in burned areas. Over the last several decades, however, other large debris flows have been generated from unburned slopes by unusually intense summer convective storms and winter rain-on-snow events; we hypothesize that these events are more probable in warmer climates. Long-term effects on the main South Fork Payette channel are strongly dependent on sediment size transported as well as the total mass. Deposit characteristics from 10 alluvial fan sections in small basins show that of the total stratigraphic thickness, over 90% is probably or possibly related to fire. Of ˜ 54 depositional units within these fans, 5 fire-related debris-flow deposits account for ˜ 25% of the total stratigraphic thickness. Radiocarbon dating of these 5 large events show that all occurred between ˜ 750-1100 cal yr BP, corresponding to the "Medieval Warm Period", a time of increased fire-related sedimentation in Yellowstone and severe droughts in parts of the western USA. Most other large debris flows appear to occur during relatively warm episodes in Idaho. Event frequency reaches a maximum at other times corresponding to cooler climate (e.g., ˜ 300-500, 1100-1400, and 6600-7400 cal yr BP), but fan aggradation rates from these frequent small events are relatively low, and one well-preserved fan built over the earliest period provides a low average sediment yield comparable to modern background rates. These results suggest that infrequent large events account for the majority of sediment transport out of small mountain basins, and that sediment yields are strongly nonstationary over millennial timescales. Variations in climate and associated changes in fire regimes and storms exert a major control on the occurrence of extreme erosional events.

Meyer, G. A.; Pierce, J. L.



Aerobic respiration in pelagic marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses for dissolved oxygen, nitrate and total CO 2 in the interstitial water have been combined with solid phase sediment analyses of carbon and nitrogen to calculate the rates of reaction and stoichiometry of decomposing organic matter in central Equatorial Pacific pelagic sediments. The diagenesis is dominated by aerobic respiration and nitrification. Organic carbon and total nitrogen decrease exponentially with

Varis Grundmanis; James W. Murray




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Han River is the longest tributary of Yangtze River. It merges with the Yangtze at Wuhan city. It plays a critical role in promoting the socio-economic development of the Hanjiang River basin. With population increase and economic growth, the development of water resources and hydropower resources of the Hanjiang River has been intensified by dam building, and consequently the sediment regime of the Hanjiang River has been altered to some extent. To assess dam-induced alterations in the sediment regime of the Hanjiang River quantitatively, this paper selected three key hydrological stations as case study sites above and below the Danjiangkou reservoir respectively. The Danjiangkou reservoir is a seasonal-storage reservoir and was built in 1967. It is located at the end of the upper reach of the Hanjiang, and its catchment area accounts for 60% of the river basin total. The reservoir has a normal pool level of 157m and a capacity of 17.45 billion m3. It is also the water source of the central route of China’s South-North water transfer project. Currently the second-stage engineering works are underway with an aim of increasing the normal pool level to 170m and the storage capacity to 29.05 billion m3, and expected to be completed by 2010. Baihe station, above the Danjiangkou reservoir, is the upper controlling station for water and sediment discharges to the Danjiangkou reservoir, located at the upper reach of the Hanjiang River. Huangzhuang is located at the end point of the middle reach of the Hanjiang River, 223 km below the Danjiangkou reservoir. Xiantao, below the Danjiangkou, is the most downstream station on the Hanjiang River, and controls water and sediment discharges to the main stem of the Yangtze River from the Hanjiang River. The whole study period was divided into 2 subperiods by the year when the reservoirs started to store water. On the basis of 54-year long time series of daily sediment data from three stations, the alterations of their annual, seasonal, monthly and daily sediment load, and the relationships between water quantity and sediment load were analyzed and compared. The results revealed: the Danjiangkou reservoir imposed significant effects to the river sediment regime and the impacts varied with the distance between the target reservoir and the study site; deforestation resulted in an increase in annual, wet seasonal and dry seasonal sediment load; the trapping of sediment in reservoirs together with soil and water conservation caused a significant reduction in annual, seasonal, monthly and daily sediment load downstream; the reservoir operation mode of “retain high floods in wet seasons” altered the distribution of monthly and daily sediment load downstream, i.e. the percentages of sediment load in high flow months decreasing and the ones in low flow months increasing, and caused an reduction in the percentages of high daily sediment concentration and sediment load downstream; the relationship between water and sediment significantly changed. The output of this paper could provide reference for the assessment of the impacts of human activities on the long-term health and stability of the Hanjiang River ecosystem.

Wang, H.



A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), total metals, and pore-water metal concentrations were studied in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. In Serbia, there are no regulations concerning sediment quality standards and sediment management. Harmonization of legislation in the domain of environmental protection with EU requirements will increase the significance of the sediment issue. Sediment quality was assessed according to Dutch

M. Prica; B. Dalmacija; S. Ron?evi?; D. Kr?mar; M. Be?eli?



Annual Energy Review, 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.




Study of the sediment sources and fine-sediment storage in the Isábena River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluvial sediment transport interacts with different bio-physical processes of the river-bed and can cause severe socio-economic impacts. The Isábena River basin (445 km2) is a clear example of a fluvial system transporting huge amounts of sediment which has been proved as one of the main causes of the Barasona reservoir siltation. To improve the knowledge of the sediment transport of the basin, a pilot study on sediment sources and in-channel sediment storage using a fingerprinting approach has been started. Sample analyses are based on 3 main tracing properties: 1) radionuclides (137Cs and 210Pbex); 2) geochemistry (elementary metals); and 3) mineral-magnetics properties. It is foreseen that results provide information on the relative contributions of each sediment source over the total basin's sediment transport at flood and seasonal scales, and over the connectivity of the sources with the sediment transport which determine the sediment budget of the Barasona reservoir.

Andres Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Estrany, Joan; Smith, Hugh



50 Annual report 2011 Annual report 2011 51  

E-print Network

50 Annual report 2011 #12;Resources Annual report 2011 51 · 52 Human resources · 54 Financial resources · 56 The information system Parity at the IRD · 57 Platforms open to partners ALIS #12;RecRuITmenT the Institute. 52 Annual report 2011 Human resources The IRD employs 2,176 staff in total, including 837


Spatial variations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur in the salt marsh sediments of the Yangtze Estuary in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface sediments and three sediment vibrocores were collected from the salt marsh of the Yangtze Estuary in order to examine the C, N, P and S distributions. Marsh plants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the river were also sampled and analyzed in order to determine their elemental compositions. The levels of total organic carbon (0.1-0.7%) and C/N ratios (6-11) in the surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary salt marsh were relatively low compared with those reported for other salt marshes in European and North American coastal areas. The total organic carbon (TOC) level and C/N ratio of the surface sediments were similar to those of the SPM in the Yangtze Estuary, but were much lower than those of the marsh plant samples. These findings support the view that organic matter in the surface sediments is largely derived from SPM in the river, with minor contributions from the marsh vegetation. Total phosphorus (TP) showed irregular variation in its spatial distribution, whereas the TOC, total nitrogen (TN) and total sulfur (TS) concentrations were highest in the high marsh zones and lowest in the bare flat areas. This pattern was related to the spatial variability of the sediment grain size (i.e. clay-rich sediments in the high marsh zones resulted in elevated TOC, TN and TS contents). Some vibrocore sediments in the mid-depths of the high and low marsh zones, however, showed greater TOC contents than might have been predicted from the TOC-grain size relationship. This suggested the existence of additional organic inputs (i.e. marsh vegetation) for these vibrocore sediment sections, despite their original riverine source. After eliminating the effect of grain size, it was calculated that 22-55% of the TOC and 0.6-35% of the TN in the sediment samples were derived from the marsh vegetation. Considering both the vertical accretion rate and the ecosystem evolution of the salt marsh, it was estimated that the annual contributions of TOC and TN made by the marsh vegetation to the sediments in the Yangtze Estuary were 5.8 × 10 11 g C yr -1 and 2.3 × 10 10 g N yr -1, respectively, with corresponding accumulation rates of 1.1-1.5 × 10 10 g C yr -1 and 4.4-5.8 × 10 8 g N yr -1 at the present time.

Zhou, Junli; Wu, Ying; Kang, Qinshu; Zhang, Jing



An evaluation of sediment rating curves for estimating suspended sediment concentrations for subsequent flux calculations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the absence of actual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements, hydrologists have used sediment rating (sediment transport) curves to estimate (predict) SSCs for subsequent flux calculations. Various evaluations of the sediment rating-curve method were made using data from long-term, daily sediment-measuring sites within large (>1 000 000 km2), medium ( 1000 km2), and small (<1000 km2) river basins in the USA and Europe relative to the estimation of suspended sediment fluxes. The evaluations address such issues as the accuracy of flux estimations for various levels of temporal resolution as well as the impact of sampling frequency on the magnitude of flux estimation errors. The sediment rating-curve method tends to underpredict high, and overpredict low SSCs. As such, the range of errors associated with concomitant flux estimates for relatively short time-frames (e.g. daily, weekly) are likely to be substantially larger than those associated with longer time-frames (e.g. quarterly, annually) because the over- and underpredictions do not have sufficient time to balance each other. Hence, when error limits must be kept under ??20%, temporal resolution probably should be limited to quarterly or greater. The evaluations indicate that over periods of 20 or more years, errors of <1% can be achieved using a single sediment rating curve based on data spanning the entire period. However, somewhat better estimates for the entire period, and markedly better annual estimates within the period, can be obtained if individual annual sediment rating curves are used instead. Relatively accurate (errors annual suspended sediment fluxes can be obtained from hydrologically based monthly measurements/samples. For 5-year periods or longer, similar results can be obtained from measurements/samples collected once every 2 months. In either case, hydrologically based sampling, as opposed to calendar-based sampling is likely to limit the magnitude of flux estimation errors. Published in 2003 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Horowitz, A.J.



Sedimentation survey of Lago Cerrillos, Ponce, Puerto Rico, April-May 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Cerrillos dam, located in the municipality of Ponce in southern Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1991 as part of the multipurpose Rio Portugues and Bucana Project. This project provides flood protection, water supply, and recreation facilities for the municipio of Ponce. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 38.03 million cubic meters at maximum conservation pool elevation of 174.65 meters above mean sea level and a drainage area of 45.32 square kilometers. Sedimentation in Lago Cerrillos reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 38.03 million cubic meters in 1991 to 37.26 million cubic meters in 2008, which represents a total storage loss of about 2 percent. During July 29 to August 23, 2002, 8,492 cubic meters of sediment were removed from the Rio Cerrillos mouth of the reservoir. Taking into account this removed material, the total water-storage loss as of 2008 is 778,492 cubic meters, and the long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate is about 45,794 cubic meters per year or about 0.12 percent per year. The Lago Cerrillos net sediment-contributing drainage area has an average sediment yield of about 1,069 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. Sediment accumulation in Lago Cerrillos is not uniformly distributed and averages about 3 meters in thickness. This represents a sediment deposition rate of about 18 centimeters per year. On the basis of the 2008 reservoir storage capacity of 37.26 million cubic meters per year and a long-term sedimentation rate of 45,794 cubic meters per year, Lago Cerrillos is estimated to have a useful life of about 814 years or until the year 2822.

Soler-López, Luis R.



Accurate estimates of sediment yield difficult to achieve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment yield, the total mass of sediment discharged at a basin outlet during a hydrologic event such as a flood, is difficult to estimate. Scientists have tried to accomplish this task by developing relationships between sediment yield and hydrologic characteristics such as flow volume and peak flow. However, these relationships have generally not been successful at predicting sediment yield because they suffer from nonuniqueness—that is, the same flow and hydrologic characteristics sometimes yield different sediment amounts.

Balcerak, Ernie



Water and sediment quality assessment of the Axios River and its coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Axios River (Axios R.) receives substantial loads of nutrients, heavy metals and other compounds, resulting from anthropogenic activities within its catchment. Long-term trends in nutrients were assessed. Dissolved and particulate fluxes of nutrients and selected metals to the Thermaikos Gulf were calculated and finally, data evaluation with water and sediment quality criteria was performed. Dissolved nutrient concentrations exhibited intra-annual variations related to the agricultural practices of the drainage area with elevated autumn-winter NO 3 concentrations (related to fertilizers applied early spring) and high levels of total phosphorous in the summer attributed to point source pollution. Long-term inter-annual variability showed a 2.5-fold increase in nitrate concentration, coupled with a 3-fold decrease in water discharge. Elevated concentrations of dissolved Pb and As have been observed in the Axios R., and freshwater quality criteria for Pb were exceeded. Stream sediments exhibited high contents for Zn, Cr, Pb, and As, mainly originating in tailings and industrial effluents. On the other hand, a considerable portion of the heavy metals is derived from the weathering of ultra-mafic ophiolite complexes. Similar patterns were observed in the Thermaikos Gulf sediment chemistry; the geochemical signatures of the Axios and Aliakmon Rivers (Aliakmon R.), in respect to their contribution in heavy metals, were identified, as well as the impact of the Thessaloniki city. Quality criteria for both river and marine sediments were violated for As and Cr. Overall, the water and sediment quality of the Axios R. and the Thermaikos Gulf have been impacted by anthropogenic activities in the hinterland. The coastal waters and sediments do not appear to pose any threat to human health and aquatic life, however, the need for regular monitoring is highly recommended.

Karageorgis, A. P.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Karamanos, H.; Skoulikidis, N.



Large-scale suspended sediment transport and sediment deposition in the Mekong Delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dynamics play a major role in the agricultural and fishery productivity of the Mekong Delta. However, the understanding of sediment dynamics in the delta, one of the most complex river deltas in the world, is very limited. This is a consequence of its large extent, the intricate system of rivers, channels and floodplains, and the scarcity of observations. This study quantifies, for the first time, the suspended sediment transport and sediment deposition in the whole Mekong Delta. To this end, a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model is combined with a cohesive sediment transport model. The combined model is calibrated using six objective functions to represent the different aspects of the hydraulic and sediment transport components. The model is calibrated for the extreme flood season in 2011 and shows good performance for 2 validation years with very different flood characteristics. It is shown how sediment transport and sediment deposition is differentiated from Kratie at the entrance of the delta on its way to the coast. The main factors influencing the spatial sediment dynamics are the river and channel system, dike rings, sluice gate operations, the magnitude of the floods, and tidal influences. The superposition of these factors leads to high spatial variability of sediment transport, in particular in the Vietnamese floodplains. Depending on the flood magnitude, annual sediment loads reaching the coast vary from 48 to 60% of the sediment load at Kratie. Deposited sediment varies from 19 to 23% of the annual load at Kratie in Cambodian floodplains, and from 1 to 6% in the compartmented and diked floodplains in Vietnam. Annual deposited nutrients (N, P, K), which are associated with the sediment deposition, provide on average more than 50% of mineral fertilizers typically applied for rice crops in non-flooded ring dike floodplains in Vietnam. Through the quantification of sediment and related nutrient input, the presented study provides a quantitative basis for estimating the benefits of annual Mekong floods for agriculture and fishery, and is an important piece of information with regard to the assessment of the impacts of deltaic subsidence and climate-change-related sea level rise on delta morphology.

Manh, N. V.; Dung, N. V.; Hung, N. N.; Merz, B.; Apel, H.



A detrital sediment budget of a Maldivian reef platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dynamics are an important control on the morphology and development of reef systems by actively removing and redistributing excess detrital sediment. This study presents quantitative data from direct point measurements of sediment transport on the platform surface and fore-reef slope of Vabbinfaru reef, North Malé Atoll, Maldives. A suite of sediment traps were used to construct actual rates of platform sediment fluxes and off-reef export over different spatial and temporal (seasonal) scales to establish key sediment transport pathways. Findings showed that high sediment fluxes occur on Vabbinfaru platform in the absence of major storm activity (up to 1905 g m- 1 d- 1), with 95% of annual transport occurring during the southwest monsoon as a result of increased wave energy. Climate-driven changes in the platform process regime caused a reversal of net sediment transport pathways between each monsoon season. Off-reef export rates were high, reaching a maximum of 12.58 kg m- 1 y- 1 for gravel and 407 g m- 1 d- 1 for sand-sized sediment. An estimated 127,120 kg is exported from the platform annually equating to a significant loss from the reef sediment budget and contributing to the long-term geomorphic development of the fore-reef slope and atoll basin. Detrital sediment reservoirs on Vabbinfaru are not purely depositional carbonate sinks, but rather temporary stores that are important in the transfer of sediment between reef zones.

Morgan, K. M.; Kench, P. S.



Two-dimensional sediment transport modeling for reservoir sediment management: Reventazón River, Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentation is an ongoing concern for reservoirs that may be addressed using a variety of sediment management options. Sedimentation in reservoirs reduces reservoir storage and alters the sediment supply downstream. The objective of this study is to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of deposited sediment in a proposed reservoir in the Reventazón River, Costa Rica over long-term operation (40 years) under different sediment management scenarios. The two-dimensional sediment transport model MIKE 21C by DHI is used to simulate sediment deposition for the base case (i.e., no sediment management) and assess the anticipated effectiveness of two sediment management strategies (i.e., full drawdown flushing and partial drawdown flushing). Incoming total sediment load is estimated using measured and estimated suspended sediment load combined with bed load estimated using the BAGS model with the Wilcock and Crowe (2003) equation. The base case simulation indicates that the anticipated storage loss in the absence of sediment management would amount to about 35% of the total and 33% of the active storage volume over a 40-year period. The predicted storage losses are significantly less when the performance of full drawdown flushing and partial drawdown flushing was simulated. In the case of full drawdown flushing the total anticipated storage loss is about 22%, while the loss in active storage is only 7%. In the case of partial drawdown flushing the predicted loss in total storage is 26%, while the anticipated loss in active storage is 8% after 40 years of operation. The simulations indicate that flushing is a viable and sustainable sediment management option for maintaining active storage in the proposed reservoir and passing through sediment.

Dubinski, I. M.



Sedimental Reasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can view satellite imagery and read an account of how remote sensing was employed to evaluate the extent of flooding and sediment load in rivers on the coastal plain of North Carolina as a result of Hurricane Floyd in September, 1999. This feature is part of NASA's Earth Observatory, a publication that focuses on Earth's climate and environmental change.


Sedimentation problem in water Conservancy in China  

SciTech Connect

The state-of-the-art of river sedimentation management in China is reviewed. Attention is focused on the sediment load carried by main rivers in China; the related sediment problems encountered in developing water resources; and the methods in dealing with those problems. There are 50 rivers with annual maximum sediment load exceeding 10 million tons in China. There are more than 400,000 sq km of loess plateaus and hills in the drainage basin of the Yellow River. Inadequate conservation of soil and water leads to erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment, giving rise to much trouble in water conservation works. These problems include flood control, navigational concerns, reservoir sedimentation, and sediment problems of lowhead diversion dams or hydroelectric projects. Methods for dealing with sediment problems include water and soil conservation and use of turbid water with emphasis on terracing, strip cropping, forestation, grass and crop rotation. Several types of structures may be built along a gully such as small reservoirs, check dams, drop structures, drainage ditches, and irrigation canal systems for diverting hyperconcentrated flow into farmland or to warp land. Processes for diverting water while preventing sediment from entering water intakes at hydroelectric plants are becoming more advanced. 4 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Wu, D.



Modern transport and deposition of settling particles in the northern South China Sea: Sediment trap evidence adjacent to Xisha Trough  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on modern sediment transport and deposition, especially studies analyzing settling particles collected with sediment traps, have rarely been carried out in the northern South China Sea. Using sediment trap time series data from Site XS1 (17°24.5?N, 110°55.0?E, water depth 1690 m) adjacent to the Xisha Trough, variations in sediment source through time have been reconstructed. These observations include total particle flux (TPF) and current data, grain size distributions, and clay mineral compositions obtained from two sediment traps deployed in 500 m and 1500 m water depth, respectively. Time series records at Site XS1 changed seasonally for both sampled layers. TPF in the lower layer (426 mg/m2/d) was several times that of the upper layer (113 mg/m2/d) and is affected by lateral transport. However, mean grain size (Mz) of the upper layer is greater that of the lower layer (29 vs10 ?m) due to contributions from biogenic materials. There are no clear seasonal changes in clay mineral assemblage in either the upper or lower layers. The annual percentages of four main clay minerals were 82-83% illite, 7-9% kaolinite, 6-8% chlorite and 1-3% smectite. Taiwan was the dominant sediment source (42-74%), while sediment contributions from the Red River and Annamite Chain account for 23-53% and 0-15%, respectively. Sediment supply from Taiwan could be explained by deep water current flow, while coastal currents may aid sediment transport from the Red River and small mountainous rivers of central Vietnam.

Liu, Jianguo; Clift, Peter D.; Yan, Wen; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Han; Xiang, Rong; Wang, Dongxiao



From deposition to erosion: Spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport in a small agricultural watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport were investigated in a small agricultural watershed draining the Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley in central California. Results of field, laboratory, and historical data analysis in the Willow Slough fluvial system document changes that transformed a transport-limited depositional system to an effective erosion and transport system, despite a large sediment supply. These changes were caused by a combination of factors: (i) an increase in transport capacity, and (ii) hydrologic alteration. Alteration of the riparian zone and drainage network pattern during the past ~ 150 years included a twofold increase in straightened channel segments along with a baselevel change from excavation that increased slope, and increased sediment transport capacity by ~ 7%. Hydrologic alteration from irrigation water contributions also increased transport capacity, by extending the period with potential for sediment transport and erosion by ~ 6 months/year. Field measurements document Quaternary Alluvium as a modern source of fine sediment with grain size distributions characterized by 5 to 40% fine material. About 60% of an upland and 30% of a lowland study reach incised into this deposit exhibit bank erosion. During this study, the wet 2006 and relatively dry 2007 water years exhibited a range of total annual suspended sediment load spanning two orders of magnitude: ~ 108,500 kg/km 2/year during 2006 and 5,950 kg/km 2/year during 2007, only 5% of that during the previous year. Regional implications of this work are illustrated by the potential for a small tributary such as Willow Slough to contribute sediment - whereas large dams limit sediment supply from larger tributaries - to the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay Delta and Estuary. This work is relevant to lowland agricultural river-floodplain systems globally in efforts to restore aquatic and riparian functions and where water quality management includes reducing fine sediment contributions that can couple with other pollutants.

Florsheim, J. L.; Pellerin, B. A.; Oh, N. H.; Ohara, N.; Bachand, P. A. M.; Bachand, S. M.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Hernes, P. J.; Kavvas, M. L.



Retention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain  

E-print Network

accumulated a very large amount of material compared to their annual river loads of sediment (median among floodplain inundation retained greater proportions of riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus, but systemsRetention of Riverine Sediment and Nutrient Loads by Coastal Plain Floodplains Gregory B. Noe



E-print Network

SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION WITHIN LOWLAND BOTTOMLAND ECOSYSTEMS: AN EXAMPLE FROM, and transformations are important environmental functions of riverine forested wetland ecosystems, yet documentation. This accumulated sediment contains a coarsely estimated 5% and 27% of the annual nitrogen and phosphorus loads


ORIGINAL PAPER Five thousand years of sediment transfer in a high arctic  

E-print Network

in annually laminated sediments from Lower Murray Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada Timothy L. Cook � Ellesmere Island, Nunavut Canada (81°210 N, 69°320 W) contain annual laminations (varves) that provide Á Arctic Á Lake sediments Á Ellesmere Island Introduction The High Arctic, surrounded by sea ice

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of


ORIGINAL PAPER Five thousand years of sediment transfer in a high arctic  

E-print Network

in annually laminated sediments from Lower Murray Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada Timothy L. Cook � in Lower Murray Lake, north- ern Ellesmere Island, Nunavut Canada (81°210 N, 69°320 W) contain annual Á Arctic Á Lake sediments Á Ellesmere Island Introduction The High Arctic, surrounded by sea ice

Long, Bernard


Temporal trends in fluvial-sediment discharge in Ohio, 1950-1987  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term fluvial-sediment records of annual suspended-sediment discharge data are available for eight daily suspended-sediment stations operated in Ohio. Graphical and statistical analyses of long-term sediment records indicate that, in general, no long-term (>3- to 5-year) trends are readily apparent in the relation between annual mean suspended-sediment discharge and water discharge in Ohio; however, some short-term, year-to-year changes in that relation occur for Ohio streams. Double-mass curves for five daily suspended-sediment stations and seasonal Kendall analysis of data from eight daily suspended-sediment stations clearly illustrate the lack of any discernible changes in the suspended-sediment-discharge/water-discharge relation or in suspended-sediment concentration for most Ohio streams over the past 36 years. -from Author

Hindall, S.M.



Carbon and nitrogen loss rates during aging of lake sediment: Changes over 27 years studied in varved lake sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a collection of ten freeze cores of annually laminated (varved) lake sediment from Nylandssjon in northern Sweden collected from 1979 to 2007 to follow the long-term loss of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) due to processes that occur in the lake bottom as sediment ages. We compared specific years in the different cores. For example, the loss of

Veronika Galman; Johan Rydberg; Richard Bindler; Ingemar Renberg



Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))



The application of semi-quantitative methods and reservoir sedimentation rates for the prediction of basin sediment yield in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the problems in predicting sediment yield at the basin scale are related to model's high data requirements, the focus on a limited amount of erosion and sediment transport processes and a general lack of systems knowledge. Here, we explore the performance of semi-quantitative approaches to predict mean annual area-specific sediment yield (SSY) at the scale of small to medium-sized

Joris de Vente; Jean Poesen; Gert Verstraeten



Erosion, storage, and transport of sediment in two subbasins of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arroyos in the American Southwest proceed through cut-and-fill cycles that operate at centennial to millennial time scales. The geomorphic community has put much effort into understanding the causes of arroyo cutting in the late Quaternary and in the modern record (late 1800s), while little effort has gone into understanding how arroyos fill and the sources of this fill. Here, we successfully develop a geographic information system (GIS)-modeled sediment budget that is based on detailed field measurements of hillslope and channel erosion and deposition. Field measurements were made in two arroyo basins draining different lithologies and undergoing different land disturbance (Volcano Hill Wash, 9.30 km2; Arroyo Chavez, 2.11 km2) over a 3 yr period. Both basins have incised channels that formed in response to the late nineteenth-century incision of the Rio Puerco. Large volumes of sediment were generated during arroyo incision, equal to more than 100 yr of the current annual total sediment load (bed load + suspended load) in each basin. Downstream reaches in both arroyos are presently aggrading, and the main source of the sediment is from channel erosion in upstream reaches and first- and second-order tributaries. The sediment budget shows that channel erosion is the largest source of sediment in the current stage of the arroyo cycle: 98% and 80% of the sediment exported out of Volcano Hill Wash and Arroyo Chavez, respectively. The geomorphic surface most affected by arroyo incision and one of the most important sediment sources is the valley alluvium, where channel erosion, gullying, soil piping, and grazing all occur. Erosion rates calculated for the entire Volcano Hill Wash (-0.26 mm/yr) and Arroyo Chavez (-0.53 mm/yr) basins are higher than the modeled upland erosion rates in each basin, reflecting the large contributions from channel erosion. Erosion rates in each basin are affected by a combination of land disturbance (grazing) and lithology--erodible sandstones and shales in Arroyo Chavez compared with basalt for Volcano Hill Wash. Despite these differences, hillslope sediment yields are similar to long-term denudation rates. As the arroyo fills over time from mouth to headwaters, hillslope sediment becomes a more significant sediment source.

Gellis, A. C.; Pavich, M. J.; Ellwein, A. L.; Aby, S.; Clark, I.; Wieczorek, M. E.; Viger, R.



Colorado River sediment transport: 1. Natural sediment supply limitation and the influence of Glen Canyon Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of flow, sediment-transport, bed-topographic, and sedimentologic data suggest that before the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons was annually supply-limited with respect to fine sediment (i.e., sand and finer material). Furthermore, these analyses suggest that the predam river in Glen Canyon was not supply-limited to the same degree and that

David J. Topping; David M. Rubin; L. E. Vierra



Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.



Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials  

E-print Network

1 Advanced Sediment Washing for Decontamination of New York/New Jersey Harbor Dredged Materials of contaminated sediments dredged from our nations waterways. More than 400 million cubic yards (CY) of sediments are dredged annually from U.S. waterways, and each year, close to 60 million CY of this material is disposed

Brookhaven National Laboratory


River regulation and sediment transport in a semiarid river: the Murrumbidgee River, New South Wales, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Murrumbidgee River is a major supplier of irrigation water, and flow is heavily regulated. This paper examines sediment transport in the regulated reach of the river between the water storages and the irrigation abstraction points. While approximately one third of the annual flow is abstracted, the impact on sediment transport is less, with only 20% of the sediment load



Demonstrating the appropriateness of developing sediment quality guidelines based on sediment geochemical properties.  


The pool of bioavailable metals in sediments is typically much smaller than the total metal concentration and is strongly influenced by metal-binding with acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), particulate organic carbon (OC), and iron and manganese oxide solid phases. We have investigated how the properties of relatively oxidized sediments influence the exposure and effects of copper on the survival and growth rate of the deposit-feeding benthic bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. Growth rate was a much more sensitive end point than survival. Toxic effects to growth were consistently observed in sediment where both pore water and overlying water copper concentrations were below the effect threshold for dissolved copper. Decreases in growth of the bivalve were largely attributable to dietary exposure to sediment-bound copper, as the organism was observed to actively feed on fine materials from the sediment surface. For sediments with the same total copper concentrations, effects were less for sediments with greater concentrations of fine particles (<63 ?m sediment) or particulate organic carbon (OC). Based on the concentration-response relationship, a no-effect value of 5.5 mg <63 ?m Cu g(-1) OC for growth of T. deltoidalis was calculated. The results confirm the appropriateness of using OC-normalized copper concentration in the <63 ?m sediment fraction to develop sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) that vary with sediment properties. For sediments where the amount of AVS is not sufficient to bind metals in non bioavailable forms, the metal-binding capacity provided by OC and iron and manganese oxyhydroxides associated with the fine sediments considerably reduced metal bioavailability. These sediment properties should be considered when assessing the risks posed by metal-contaminated sediments. PMID:23745797

Campana, Olivia; Blasco, Julián; Simpson, Stuart L



Colorado River sediment transport 1. Natural sediment supply limitation and the influence of Glen Canyon Dam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of flow, sediment-transport, bed-topographic, and sedimentologic data suggest that before the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons was annually supply-limited with respect to fine sediment (i.e., sand and finer material). Furthermore, these analyses suggest that the predam river in Glen Canyon was not supply-limited to the same degree and that the degree of annual supply limitation increased near the head of Marble Canyon. The predam Colorado River in Grand Canyon displays evidence of four effects of supply limitation: (1) seasonal hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) seasonal hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the seasonal hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Analyses of sediment budgets provide additional support for the interpretation that the predam river was annually supply-limited with respect to fine sediment, but it was not supply-limited with respect to fine sediment during all seasons. In the average predam year, sand would accumulate and be stored in Marble Canyon and upper Grand Canyon for 9 months of the year (from July through March) when flows were dominantly below 200-300 m3/s; this stored sand was then eroded during April through June when flows were typically higher. After closure of Glen Canyon Dam, because of the large magnitudes of the uncertainties in the sediment budget, no season of substantial sand accumulation is evident. Because most flows in the postdam river exceed 200-300 m3/s, substantial sand accumulation in the postdam river is unlikely.

Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Vierra, L.E., Jr.



Mercury Methylation Rates in Prairie Wetland Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems is likely produced through methylation of Hg(II) by sulfate-reducing and iron-reducing bacteria. Wetland sediments may be significant sites of MeHg production, due to the combination of anoxic conditions and availability of organic matter to support microbial activity. Methylmercury produced by methylation of inorganic mercury within wetland sediments may be transferred to the water column, allowing for bioaccumulation of neurotoxic MeHg in the aquatic food web. Little information is available on sediment MeHg and total mercury concentrations, mercury methylation rates, and MeHg flux to the water column in prairie wetlands. Sediment cores from the St. Denis National Wildlife Area (SDNWA), ~40 km east of Saskatoon in central Saskatchewan, Canada, will be collected to measure sediment mercury methylation rates, total mercury, and MeHg concentrations in prairie wetland sediments. The SDNWA has been a site of prairie wetland research since 1968 and is located near the northern boundary of the Prairie Pothole Region which supports 50-80% of North American waterfowl. Sediment MeHg production will be measured in 2011 through the injection of 201Hg stable isotope to sediment cores from 12 prairie wetlands located within and nearby the SDNWA. Amended sediment cores will be incubated in situ for four hours to allow methylation of a fraction of the inorganic mercury stable isotope to Me201Hg. Analysis of the incubated sediment cores will allow for measurement of MeHg production rates, MeHg, and total mercury concentrations. Additional sediment cores will be taken to determine sediment water content, organic content, and porosity. Water samples from sediment pore water and the wetland water column will be analyzed for MeHg, total mercury, DOC, sulphate, SUVA, and water chemistry. Methylmercury flux from sediment pore water to the overlying water column will be calculated. Sediment MeHg production rates in the 12 wetlands will be compared to pore water data to identify factors associated with variation in MeHg production of prairie wetland sediments.

Hoggarth, C.; Hall, B.



78 FR 68023 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...collect data covering annual sales, e- commerce sales, purchases, total operating...will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held...collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories...



76 FR 64894 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating...will collect data covering sales, e- commerce sales, year-end inventories held...collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories...



Cladoceran remains in lake sediments: a comparison between plankton counts and sediment records  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the comparability of neo- and paleo-limnology, we made year-to-year as well as seasonal comparisons of contemporary\\u000a zooplankton data and cladoceran remains in thick (9–42 mm) annual laminations in sediment of Lake Vesijärvi, southern Finland.\\u000a We calculated the expected annual exuviae production of nine planktonic taxa in the water column using contemporary zooplankton\\u000a records, and compared the value to the

Mirva Nykänen; Kirsi Vakkilainen; Mikko Liukkonen; Timo Kairesalo



Anthropogenic sediment resuspension mechanisms in a shallow microtidal estuary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mechanisms that resuspend bottom sediments in Hillsborough Bay, a shallow, microtidal, subtropical estuary in West-central Florida, were determined by analysing hydrodynamic and suspended-solids concentration data collected during several instrument deployments made in 1990 and 1991. Large vessels in a dredged ship channel can generate forced solitary long waves that cause large water velocities and sediment resuspension at the study sites. An experiment was conducted with a trawler that resuspended bottom sediments, and some of the resuspended sediments remained in suspension for at least 8 h. A secondary impact of vessel-generated long waves and trawling is that sediments that are resuspended and newly deposited are more susceptible to resuspension by tidal currents than undisturbed bottom sediments. Natural sediment resuspension by wind waves and tidal current is less frequent or of smaller magnitude than anthropogenic sediment resuspension. The annual mass of sediment resuspended by vessel-generated long waves is estimated to be one order of magnitude greater than the annual mass of sediment resuspended by wind waves generated by winter storms.

Schoellhamer, D.H.



Runoff and sediment production in a Mediterranean basin under two different land uses after forest maintenance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyses the influence of two different land uses on the hydrology of the Vernegà experimental basin between the years 1993 and 2012. The basin is located in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and it is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of 688 mm. The study of rainfall distribution shows that the majority occurs during autumn and spring, with a 34% and 25% of total annual rainfall respectively. Surface runoff flows from October to June. In this catchment, flash floods may represent 70% of the total water yield, though they only occur 6% of the time. It is important to emphasize that agricultural practices within the study area have been maintained, which is the contrary to the general trend in Mediterranean rural areas. The introduction of forest management practices between 2003 and 2005 has resulted in important hydrological changes in the watershed: Between 2005 and 2012 an increase of the runoff coefficient has been detected. In Bosc the increase represents 38% while in Campàs is 12% in relation with the 1993-2005 period. Campàs yields a greater total runoff than Bosc as a consequence of a greater catchment surface, greater agricultural surface and the existence of forest roads and forest management practices. Part of this phenomenon may be due to the decrease of interception of rainfall and plant biomass in the forested area of the basin. In relation to the sediment yield, it is concentrated during floods (more than 80%) and there is an increase of available sediment after extraordinary events, as it is the case of October 2005 flood, where the total sediment yield was 7 Tkm¯²yr¯¹ and in November 2005 it was 10 Tkm¯²yr¯¹.

Pacheco, Edinson; Rallo, Elena; Úbeda, Xavier; Farguell, Joaquim; Outeiro, Luís



Estimating selenium removal by sedimentation from the Great Salt Lake, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mass of Se deposited annually to sediment in the Great Salt Lake (GSL) was estimated to determine the significance of sedimentation as a permanent Se removal mechanism. Lake sediment cores were used to qualitatively delineate sedimentation regions (very high to very low), estimate mass accumulation rates (MARs) and determine sediment Se concentrations. Sedimentation regions were defined by comparison of isopach contours of Holocene sediment thicknesses to linear sedimentation rates determined via analysis of 210Pb, 226Ra, 7Be and 137Cs activity in 20 short cores (<5 cm), yielding quantifiable results in 13 cores. MARs were developed via analysis of the same radioisotopes in eight long cores (>10 cm). These MARs in the upper 1-2 cm of each long core ranged from 0.019 to 0.105 gsed/cm2/a. Surface sediment Se concentrations in the upper 1 or 2 cm of each long core ranged from 0.79 to 2.47 mg/kg. Representative MARs and Se concentrations were used to develop mean annual Se removal by sedimentation in the corresponding sedimentation region. The spatially integrated Se sedimentation rate was estimated to be 624 kg/a within a range of uncertainty between 285 and 960 kg/a. Comparison to annual Se loading and other potential removal processes suggests burial by sedimentation is not the primary removal process for Se from the GSL. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Oliver, W.; Fuller, C.; Naftz, D.L.; Johnson, W.P.; Diaz, X.



Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably spatially and temporally. Peak flow events during the warm period contribute largely to the total annual transport of sediments and also to the erosion of stored bed material. These results suggest that if the number of peak flow events will increase further due to climate change, there will be a significant increase in the annual sediment load and consequently in the load of contaminants that are attached to the sediments, in particular downstream of mining sites. The present results are furthermore consistent with parallel studies on sediment transport and climate change showing that increased water discharges and frequencies of rainfall/flow events can lead to enhanced erosion processes. Furthermore, in addition to climate change effects, human activates can change sediment loads in rivers to even greater extent, as pointed out in several studies. Thus, several different challenges can be expected to face the management of Central Asian rivers such as Tuul and their ecosystems in the future.

Pietro?, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker



Macrophytes and suspension-feeding invertebrates modify flows and fine sediments in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis research investigated the ecosystem engineering by in-stream macrophytes, dominated by Ranunculus spp., and associated suspension-feeding blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) for five reaches in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK) over one annual growth cycle (2003). This paper focuses on the modification of flow velocities and the trapping of fine sediment (particles <2 mm in diameter) by in-stream macrophytes and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) and fine inorganic particles into faecal pellets by blackfly larvae attached to the leaves of Ranunculus plants. In-stream macrophyte growth was extensive, with maximum percentage cover of 80% recorded in September and October 2003. The macrophyte cover significantly altered flow patterns and flow velocities within and between the macrophyte stands. The reduced flow velocities within the plants promoted sediment trapping, reaching volumes of 0.085 m 3 of fine sediment trapped per metre square of vegetation at one site. The effective particle sizes of the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands were dominated by the 250-500 ?m fraction from March to July 2003 whereas a higher proportion of smaller fractions occurred from October to December. Faecal pellets were highly abundant in the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands (up to 2.2 × 10 8 faecal pellets per m 2) and their dimensions (total size range 25-400 ?m) fall within the dominant size fraction of the trapped sediments. Our findings demonstrate the need to consider the biogenic component of the fine sediments in chalk streams in future studies of sediment and nutrient dynamics.

Wharton, Geraldene; Cotton, Jacqueline A.; Wotton, Roger S.; Bass, Jon A. B.; Heppell, Catherine M.; Trimmer, Mark; Sanders, Ian A.; Warren, Luke L.



Predicting reservoir sedimentation  

E-print Network

Sediments accumulate in reservoirs and significantly decrease storage capacity. Predicting sedimentation is an important consideration in the design of new reservoir projects and in the management of existing reservoirs. Sedimentation rates may vary...

Wooten, Stephanie



Sediment deposition and selected water-quality characteristics in Cedar Lake and Lake Olathe, Northeast Kansas, 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Lake Olathe watershed, located in northeast Kansas, was investigated using bathymetric survey data and reservoir bottom-sediment cores to determine sediment deposition, water-quality trends, and transport of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen species), selected trace elements, selected pesticides, and diatoms as indicators of eutrophic (organic-enriched and depleted oxygen supply) conditions. To determine sediment deposition and loads, bathymetric data from Cedar Lake and Lake Olathe, both located in the Lake Olathe watershed, were collected in 2000 and compared to historical topographic data collected when the lakes were built. Approximately 338 acre-feet of sediment deposition has occurred in Cedar Lake since dam closure in 1938, and 317 acre-feet has occurred at Lake Olathe since 1956. Mean annual sediment deposition was 5.45 acre-feet per year (0.89 acre-feet per year per square mile) for Cedar Lake and 7.0 acre-feet per year (0.42 acre-feet per year per square mile) for Lake Olathe. Mean annual sediment loads for the two reservoirs were 9.6 million pounds per year for Cedar Lake and 12.6 million pounds per year for Lake Olathe. Mean concentrations of total phosphorus in bottom-sediment samples from Cedar Lake ranged from 1,370 to 1,810 milligrams per kilogram, and concentrations in bottom-sediment samples from Lake Olathe ranged from 588 to 1,030 milligrams per kilogram. The implication of large total phosphorus concentrations in the bottom sediment of Cedar Lake is that inflow into Cedar Lake is rich in phosphorus and that adverse water-quality conditions could affect water quality in downstream Lake Olathe through discharge of water from Cedar Lake to Lake Olathe via Cedar Creek. Mean annual phosphorus loads transported from the Lake Olathe watershed were estimated to be 14,700 pounds per year for Cedar Lake and 9,720 pounds per year for Lake Olathe. The mean annual phosphorus yields were estimated to be 3.74 pounds per acre per year for Cedar Lake and 0.91 pound per acre per year for Lake Olathe. Phosphorus yields in the Cedar Lake watershed were largest of the six Kansas impoundment watersheds recently studied. Concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen in bottom sediment increased from upstream to downstream in both Cedar Lake and Lake Olathe. Mean concentrations of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen (N) ranged from 2,000 to 2,700 milligrams per kilogram in bottom-sediment samples from Cedar Lake and from 1,300 to 2,700 milligrams per kilogram in samples from Lake Olathe. There was no statistical significance between total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen and depth of bottom sediment. Concentrations of six trace elements in bottom sediment from Cedar Lake and Lake Olathe (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Threshold Effects Levels (TELs) sediment-quality guidelines for aquatic organisms in sediment except for one lead concentration. Probable Effects Levels (PELs) for trace elements, however, were not exceeded at either lake. Organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides were not detected in bottom-sediment samples from either Cedar Lake or Lake Olathe, but the acetanilide herbicides alachlor and metolachlor were detected in sediment from both lakes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not proposed TEL or PEL guideline concentrations for bottom sediment for any of the organophosphate, acetanilide, or triazine pesticides. The diatoms (microscopic, single-celled organisms) Cyclotella bodanica, an indicator of low organic-enriched water, and Cyclotella meneghiniana, an indicator of organic-enriched water, were both present in bottom sediment from Lake Olathe. The presence of both of these diatoms suggests varying periods of low and high eutrophication in Lake Olathe from 1956 to 2000. The concentrations of two species in bottom sediment from Cedar Lake, Aulacoseira cf alpigena and Cyclotella meneg

Mau, D.P.



Kinetics of organic matter degradation, microbial methane generation, and gas hydrate formation in anoxic marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven sediment cores were taken in the Sea of Okhotsk in a south-north transect along the slope of Sakhalin Island. The retrieved anoxic sediments and pore fluids were analyzed for particulate organic carbon (POC), total nitrogen, total sulfur, dissolved sulfate, sulfide, methane, ammonium, iodide, bromide, calcium, and total alkalinity. A novel method was developed to derive sedimentation rates from a

K. Wallmann; G. Aloisi; M. Haeckel; A. Obzhirov; G. Pavlova; P. Tishchenko



Hydrodynamic sorting and transport of terrestrially derived organic carbon in sediments of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of two years, four cruises were conducted at varying levels of discharge in the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers (MR and AR) where grab samples were collected from sand- and mud-dominated sediments. The tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis method was used to determine sources of terrestrially derived organic carbon (OC) in these two sediment types, to examine the effects of hydrodynamic sorting on lignin sources in river sediments. Average lignin concentrations in the lower MR were 1.4 ± 1.1 mg gOC -1 at English Turn (ET) and 10.4 ± 27.4 mg gOC -1 at Venice. Using these concentrations, annual lignin fluxes to the Gulf of Mexico, from tidal and estuarine mud remobilization at ET and Venice, were 3.1 ± 2.5 × 10 5 kg and 11.4 ± 30.0 × 10 5 kg, respectively. Much of the lignin-derived materials in muddy sediments appeared to be derived from non-woody grass-like sources - which should decay more quickly than the woody materials typically found in the sandy deposits. The average total OC% (1.93 ± 0.47) of English Turn sands yields an annual flux of 0.34 ± 0.09 × 10 9 kg. Lignin flux in the English Turn sands (3.6 ± 2.6 mg gC -1) using the numbers above would be 12.2 ± 9.4 × 10 5 kg. The extensive amounts of sand-sized woody materials (coffee-grinds) found in the sandy sediments in both the AR and MR are likely derived from woody plant materials. This is the first time it has been demonstrated that sandy sediments in the MR provide an equally important pathway (compared to muds) for the transport of terrestrially derived organic matter to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Using the AR average %OC in sand (1.16 ± 0.72), we estimated an annual flux of OC to the shelf of 0.13 ± 0.07 × 10 9 kg. Lignin flux for AR sands was estimated to be 12.4 ± 12.1 × 10 5 kg. Despite the high error associated with these numbers, we observe for the first time that the flux of lignin in sandy sediments in the AR to the northern Gulf of Mexico is comparable to that found in the MR. These results further support the likelihood of grain-size related hydrodynamic sorting of terrestrially derived organic carbon in the lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, suggesting that there is a distinct sandy sediment organic fraction contributed by major rivers to the global carbon cycle.

Bianchi, Thomas S.; Galler, John J.; Allison, Mead A.



Effect of algal bloom deposition on sediment respiration and fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using sediment cores collected in November 1989 from Aarhus Bight, Denmark, the fluxes of O2, SCO2 (total CO2), NH4+, NO3-+NO2-and DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) across the sediment-water interface were followed for 20 d in an experimental continous flow system. On day 7, phytoplankton was added to the sediment surface, to see the result of simulated algal bloom sedimentation. Benthic O2

L. S. Hansen; T. H. Blackburn



A Site-Specific Evaluation of Mercury Toxicity in Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A site-specific evaluation of mercury toxicity was conducted for sediments of the Calcasieu River estuary (Louisiana, USA).\\u000a Ten-day whole-sediment toxicity tests assessed survival and growth (dry weight) of the amphipods Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus under estuarine conditions (10 ppt salinity). A total of 32 sediment samples were tested for toxicity, including 14 undiluted\\u000a site sediment samples and 6

J. C. Sferra; P. C. Fuchsman; R. J. Wenning; T. R. Barber



Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay.  


Bohai Bay, the second largest bay of Bohai Sea, largely due to the huge amount of pollutants discharged into it annually and its geohydrologic condition, is considered to be one of the most polluted marine areas in China. To slow down, halt and finally reverse the environmental deterioration of Bohai Sea, some researchers have proposed to connect it with Jiaozhou Bay in the western coast of Southern Yellow Sea by digging an interbasin canal through Shandong Peninsula. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide background information for such a large geoengineering scheme, surface sediments from 42 stations covering both riverine and marine regions of the northwestern coast of Bohai Bay were analyzed for heavy metal content and fractionation (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Three empirically derived sediment quality guidelines were used to assess the pollution extent of these metals. The studied metals had low mobility except for Cd at all stations and Zn at some riverine stations. Although a high mobility of Cd was observed, it could hardly cause a bad effect on the environment owing to its low total concentrations. Anthropogenic influence on the accumulation of studied heavy metals in sediments of Bohai Bay was obvious, but their contents were relatively lower to date comparing with some other marine coastal areas that receive important anthropogenic inputs. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of northwestern Bohai Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient. PMID:22285040

Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur



Metal pollution in sediments of Jamaica Bay, New York, USA—An urban estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of the annual input of heavy metals to Jamaica Bay, New York, USA, reveal that sewage effluent carries the largest quantities of Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cd to the bay. Storm sewers and atmospheric fallout are the main sources of Pb. Atmospheric fallout of Zn, Cu, and Cd, although smaller than the combined input from sewers, contributes a significant fraction of these metals. The metal input from landfill leachate is far smaller than that from other sources. Analysis of available data shows that metal concentrations in the sediment of the bay correlate with each other and with percent total organic carbon (%TOC). This is consistent with the observation that the input of metals is predominantly associated with sewage. It is demonstrated that metal-TOC ratios, rather than metal concentrations, must be used in efforts to detect local intensive sources of metals in solution; metal-TOC ratios in intertidal sediment adjacent to these landfills are elevated by the adsorption of leachate metals, while metal concentrations are not. Subtidal sediment within a few hundred meters from two landfills shows no evidence of the addition of metals from that source, which is consistent with the small input of metals estimated for these landfills. The evidence cited in this study sharply contradicts the implication made in a widely publicized report issued by an environmental advocacy group that a significant link exists between metals found in subtidal sediment of Jamaica Bay and landfill leachate.

Seidemann, David E.



Surface sediment analysis and modern sedimentation rates in Flandres Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flandres Bay is located on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, where temperatures have risen more than the global average over the last century and where many glaciers have shown signs of retreat in recent decades. The Antarctic Ice Cap drains through tidewater glaciers that flow into bays around the peninsula. In this study, multibeam swath bathymetry data, seismic profiles, and sediment cores were used to determine the distribution of surface sediment types and modern sedimentation rates and compare these to the sediment accumulation down core. The bathymetry of the fjord includes small basins with flat bottoms, highly irregular seamounts, and deep channels in the bedrock as well as subglacial geomorphic features carved by the flow of glaciers. Results of sediment analysis show a variation in sediment type throughout the bay from pebbles with minor matrix close to the glacial calving margin to muddy diatomaceous ooze in the outer bay. Sediment accumulation rates were measured using 137 Cs counts on bulk sediment and 14 C on carbonate, usually forams, found after sieving bulk sediment. Samples for 137 Cs were taken on the top few centimeters of sediment cores and show a higher rate of sediment accumulation compared to rates calculated using 14 C, which measures millennial scale accumulation rates to the base of the core. Density logs of the sediment cores have relatively consistent values, indicating that the change in calculated accumulation rates is not simply due to compaction. As predicted, accumulation rates are higher close to the glaciers, where there is a high occurrence of ice rafted debris and dropstones; the sedimentation rates decrease away from the source and sediment analysis shows an increase in the biogenic component in the sediment, especially diatoms, in the outer bay. Other fjords adjacent to Flandres Bay, including Beascochea to the south, show similar trends of increasing rates of sediment accumulation in the upper portions of cores. In a simple model, sediment accumulation rate at any one location would decrease as the ice margin retreats, leaving the sample location more and more distal from the sediment source. However, as our results show increasing sediment accumulation during modern day ice-margin retreat in Flandres Bay, we interpret this to indicate increased sediment yield across the basin with ice is in a retreat phase, possibly undergoing faster flow, yielding a greater total volume of sediment.

Munoz, Y. P.; Wellner, J. S.; Mead, K. A.



River sediment and flow characteristics near a bank filtration water supply: Implications for riverbed clogging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryRiverbed clogging is an important issue related to the sustainable exploitation of riverbank filtration well fields. In this research, several complementary field techniques are employed to assess the current state and possible evolution of riverbed clogging at a site in the Saint John River, New Brunswick. The study is conducted in regions of the riverbed that have previously been identified as allowing recharge to the semi-confined aquifer that has been used since 1955 to supply water to the City of Fredericton. Flow velocity measurements, video imaging, and suspended sediment and bed sediment analyses conducted during the low flow (summer) period indicate that part of the recharge area closest to the well field, about 20% of the total area, is affected by bed armoring with cobbles and boulders. Consistent with previous studies, with increasing distance from the riverbank the sediment size decreases and the armor layer disappears. Previous research indicates that turbulent impacting of fine particles into the voids between the cobbles and boulders of the armor layer may reduce infiltration by up to 95%; however, the suspended sediment load in the river is mainly composed of organic matter, and the measured concentrations of suspended sediment (up to 3 mg/L) are not considered high enough to create such large reductions in infiltration. Additionally, the mineral fraction of the suspended sediment would not be expected to settle under the calculated average shear velocity of 0.012 m/s. Other sources of particulate matter, such as the degradation of aquatic vegetation on the riverbed, may be more significant with respect to riverbed clogging; however, annual peak flows may also create bed shear stresses that serve to limit long-term clogging effects.

Goldschneider, Alexandra A.; Haralampides, Katy A.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.



Spatial variations in archaeal lipids of surface water and core-top sediments in the South china sea and their implications for paleoclimate studies.  


The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, yet little is known about archaeal distributions and TEX??-based temperatures in this unique oceanic setting. Here we report findings of abundances in both core lipids (CL) and intact polar lipids (IPL) of Archaea from surface water (CL only) and core-top sediments from different regions of the SCS. TEX??-derived temperatures were also calculated for these samples. The surface water had extremely low abundances of CL (average of 0.05 ± 0.13 ng/liter; n = 75), with higher values present in regions where upwelling is known to occur. The core-top sediments had CL values of 0.1 to 0.9 ?g/g, which are on the low end of CL concentrations reported for other marine sediments and may reflect the oligotrophic nature of the open SCS. The IPL of Archaea accounted for 6 to 36.4% of total lipids (CL plus IPL), indicating that the majority of archaeal lipids in core-top sediments were derived from nonliving cells. The TEX??-based temperatures of surface water were overall lower than satellite-based sea surface temperatures or CTD-measured in situ temperatures. The core-top sediment samples, however, had TEX?? temperatures very close to the mean annual sea surface temperatures, except for samples with water depths of less than 100 m. Our results demonstrated low and heterogeneous distributions of archaeal lipids in surface water and core-top sediments of the SCS, which may reflect local or regional differences in productivity of Archaea. While TEX??-based temperatures for core-top marine sediments at deep water depths (>100 m) generally reflected mean annual sea surface temperatures, TEX?? temperatures in surface water varied basin wide and underestimated sea surface temperatures in most locations for the season when surface water samples were collected. PMID:21890672

Wei, Yuli; Wang, Jinxiang; Liu, Jie; Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Wang, Hui; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Meixun; Zhang, Chuanlun L



Seasonal and interannual changes of planktic foraminiferal fluxes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) and their implications for paleoceanographic studies: Two 12-year sediment trap records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of planktic foraminiferal fluxes in the NW Mediterranean, 266 samples from two 12-year-long sediment traps were analyzed. Two mooring lines were deployed at the east (Station Planier) and the west (Station Lacaze Duthiers) of the Gulf of Lions. The moorings were deployed at a water depth of around 1000 m and were equipped with sediment traps at 500 m above bottom (mab). In addition, an array of 13 core-tops recovered from different key areas of the Gulf of Lions is described. At Lacaze Duthiers, average foraminiferal fluxes were about double (411.8 shells m-2 d-1) those found at the Planier sampling site (225.4 shells m-2 d-1), probably due to the fertilizing effect of the Rhone river plume and the general oceanographic circulation. The annual total foraminiferal fluxes exhibited a unimodal trend, with maxima recorded during the winter-spring transition, i.e. the spring bloom, and minima during summer. Therefore, planktic foraminifers found in the sedimentary record in the Gulf of Lions may reflect the flux during the winter-spring period, rather than throughout the annual cycle. A total of eleven planktic foraminiferal species were identified in the sediment trap and core-top samples but only four species were dominant in the assemblages: Globigerina bulloides Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (dex.), Globorotalia inflata and Globorotalia truncatulinoides. The foraminiferal assemblages in the Gulf of Lions reflected the relatively cold conditions of the Northern Basin. No clear relationship between the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and planktic foraminiferal fluxes was found in the sediment trap records. The low planktic foraminiferal fluxes recorded during the spring of 1998 were probably related to the anomalous environmental conditions triggered by the 1997-98 El Niño event. Furthermore, sediment trap samples were compared with surficial sediments recovered from different environmental and sedimentary settings of the Gulf of Lions and the application of these results in paleoceanographic reconstructions is discussed.

Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Sierro, Francisco J.; Bárcena, María A.; Flores, José A.; Heussner, Serge



A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the Conterminous U.S.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended sediment has long been recognized as an important contaminant affecting water resources. Besides its direct role in determining water clarity, bridge scour and reservoir storage, sediment serves as a vehicle for the transport of many binding contaminants, including nutrients, trace metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, a nd numerous pesticides (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000a). Recent efforts to addr ess water-quality concerns through the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process have iden tified sediment as the single most prevalent cause of impairment in the Nation’s streams a nd rivers (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000b). Moreover, sediment has been identified as a medium for the tran sport and sequestration of organic carbon, playing a potentia lly important role in understa nding sources and sinks in the global carbon budget (Stallard, 1998). A comprehensive understanding of sediment fate a nd transport is considered essential to the design and implementation of effective plans for sediment management (Osterkamp and others, 1998, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990). An exte nsive literature addr essing the problem of quantifying sediment transport has produced a nu mber of methods for estimating its flux (see Cohn, 1995, and Robertson and Roerish, 1999, for us eful surveys). The accuracy of these methods is compromised by uncertainty in the concentration measurements and by the highly episodic nature of sediment movement, particul arly when the methods are applied to smaller basins. However, for annual or decadal flux es timates, the methods are generally reliable if calibrated with extended periods of data (Robertson and Roerish, 1999). A substantial literature also supports the Universal Soil Loss Equation (U SLE) (Soil Conservation Service, 1983), an engineering method for estimating sheet and rill erosion, although the empirical credentials of the USLE have recently been questioned (Tri mble and Crosson, 2000). Conversely, relatively little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment deliv ery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not artic ulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurement s , but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from th e streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000). This paper reports on recent progress made to a ddress empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model pres ented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attr ibutes (SPARROW) methodology, fi rst used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in str eams and rivers of the United Stat es, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakeb ill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughou t the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources I nventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over the landscape according to 30- meter resolution land-use information from th e National Land Cover Data set (NLCD) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2000a). More than 76,000 reservoirs from the National Inventory of Dams (NID) (U.S. Army Corps of Engin eers, 1996) are identified as pot ential sediment sinks. Other, non-anthropogenic sou

Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.



Turbidity-based sediment monitoring in northern Thailand: Hysteresis, variability, and uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual total suspended solid (TSS) loads in the Mae Sa Catchment in northern Thailand, determined with an automated, turbidity-based monitoring approach, were approximately 62,000, 33,000, and 14,000 Mg during the three years of observation. These loads were equivalent to basin yields of 839 (603-1170), 445 (217-462), and 192 (108-222) Mg km-2 for the 74.16-km2 catchment during 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. The yearly uncertainty ranges indicate our loads may be underestimated by 38-43% or overestimated by 28-33%. In determining the annual loads, discharge (Q) and turbidity (T) values were compared against 333 hand-sampled total suspended solid concentrations (TSS) measured during 18 runoff events and other flow conditions across the three-year period. Annual rainfall varied from 1632 to 1934 mm; and catchment runoff coefficients (annual runoff/annual rainfall) ranged from 0.25 to 0.41. Measured TSS ranged from 8 to 15,900 mg l-1; the low value was associated with dry-season base flow; the latter, a wet-season storm. Storm size and location played an important role in producing clockwise, anticlockwise, and complex hysteresis in the Q-TSS relationship. Turbidity alone was a good estimator for turbidity ranges of roughly 10-2800 NTU (or concentrations approximately 25-4000 mg l-1). However, owing to hysteresis and high sediment concentrations that surpass the detection limits of the turbidity sensor during many annual storms, TSS was estimated best using a complex multiple regression equation based on high/low ranges of turbidity and Q as independent variables. Turbidity was not a good predictor of TSS fractions >2000 ?m. Hysteresis in the monthly Q-TSS relationship was generally clockwise over the course of the monsoon season, but infrequent large dry-season storms disrupted the pattern in some years. The large decrease in annual loads during the study was believed to be related to depletion of fine sediment delivered to the stream by several landslides occurring the year prior to the study. The study indicated the importance of monitoring Q and turbidity at fine resolutions (e.g., sub-hourly) to capture the TSS dynamics and to make accurate load estimations in this flashy headwater stream where hysteresis in the Q-TSS signature varied at several time scales.

Ziegler, Alan D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Wood, Spencer H.; Sutherland, Ross A.; Sidle, Roy C.; Jachowski, Nicholas; Nullet, Mike A.; Xi, Lu Xi; Snidvongs, Anond; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Fox, Jefferson M.



A field study on phytoremediation of dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals and nutrients: the impacts of sediment aeration.  


Compared to traditional chemical or physical treatments, phytoremediation has proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally sound alternative for remediation of contaminated dredged sediment. A field study was conducted in a sediment disposal site predominantly colonized by Typha angustifolia under different sediment moisture conditions to estimate the phytoremediation effects of dredged sediment. The moisture content was 37.30 % and 48.27 % in aerated and waterlogged sediment, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) content was higher in the waterlogged sediment than in the aerated sediment. The total Cd contents were lower in aerated sediment, which was mainly resulted from the lower exchangeable fraction of Cd. The bioaccumulation of P, Cu and Pb in T. angustifolia was promoted by waterlogging, and the belowground tissue concentrations and accumulation factors (AFs) of Cu were higher than that of other metals, which can be explained by that Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants. Consistent with many previous studies, T. angustifolia showed higher metal levels in roots than in above-ground tissues at both the sediment conditions. Due to the improved biomass produced in the aerated sediment, the removals of nutrients and the metals by plant harvest were higher from aerated sediment than from waterlogged sediment. It was indicated that maintaining the dredged sediment aerated can avoid release risk and plant uptake of metals, while the opposite management option can promote phytoextraction of these contaminants. PMID:25012206

Wu, Juan; Yang, Lihua; Zhong, Fei; Cheng, Shuiping



The Ribagorda sand gully (east-central Spain): Sediment yield and human-induced origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gullies are developed under different climatic conditions and lithologies; however, those formed on sands have been scarcely described. This paper reports the study of the Ribagorda sand gully, 2.57 ha in area (east-central Spain). The main objectives were to characterize and quantify its geomorphic dynamics and to trace its origin. We described the landforms of the gully and measured the surface strength of the sand. We monitored, for six years, the filling of the storage areas of three check dams built downstream from the gully, and related it with rainfall characteristics. We also described the nature of the sediments trapped by the dams and estimated the amount of sediment eroded since the gully formation. Finally, we consulted historical records and maps to determine past land uses and transformations that may have affected the origin of the gully. The study shows a high diversity of landforms, denoting active processes, consistent with a measured mean annual sediment yield of 114 Mg ha- 1 yr- 1. A statistically significant relationship exists between the mass of sediment (Mg) and: 1) the total rainfall (mm) (P = 0.0007) or 2) the analysed rainfall intensities. Among five identified facies in the sedimentary wedge, the sandy ones are predominant. The total amount of sediment eroded by the Ribagorda gully since its origin was 962,800 Mg. The results are unequivocal signs of an intense geomorphic activity within the gully, with an alluvial-fan type deposition in the dams. We interpret that the Ribagorda gully was initiated by deforestation after the 13th century, when forests began to be intensively logged, and before the 18th century, when the gully was first indirectly described in print. The age, origin, evolution and dynamics of this gully indicate that this landscape is currently evolving towards a new steady state, after human disturbances over centuries. Given the gully evolution and local extent, we suggest that no correction measures are needed for its management.

Martín-Moreno, C.; Fidalgo Hijano, C.; Martín Duque, J. F.; González Martín, J. A.; Zapico Alonso, I.; Laronne, J. B.



Climate, Ice, and Mud: investigating the relationship between glacier activity and sediment flux using varved lake sediments, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide retreat of many glaciers during the 21st century is expected to have profound impacts on local and regional hydrologic cycles. Associated with the forecasted reductions in global ice volume are changes in meltwater runoff and sediment transport in glacially fed drainage systems. Alpine glaciers and small ice caps are particularly sensitive to climate change because their dimensions can respond quickly to changes in glacier mass balance. Records of past glacier fluctuations are important sources of paleoclimate data and also provide a context for current and future changes to glacier hydrologic systems. Annually laminated (varved) sediments from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, central Iceland, offer a continuous archive of Langjökull ice cap (~925 km2) activity through the late Holocene. A multi-proxy record from this site indicates that Langjökull's size was more variable during the past millennium than during any other multi-centennial interval of the Holocene. Ice growth culminated in the Little Ice Age (LIA), when Langjökull advanced into Hvítárvatn and reached its maximum aerial extent of the past 10 ka. At present, roughly one-third of the ice cap's discharge flows into the lake catchment, constituting ~70% of the total inflow, and lake sedimentation rates are governed by the production and delivery of glacially eroded clastic material transported to the lake by four primary meltwater streams. Glacier fluctuations of the past 1 ka are reconstructed from physical proxies contained in sediment cores retrieved from six locations throughout the main basin. Total sediment yield and distribution during this period are calculated from sediment accumulation rates and from > 100 km of seismic reflection profiles. A tephra-constrained varve chronology provides high chronologic control, with a maximum age uncertainty of ± 10 years. Low and constant sedimentation rates characterize the 11th and 12th centuries, reflecting minimal glacier activity during medieval times. The onset of LIA cooling is marked by the first of two major advances of Langjökull, which began ~1275 AD and increased in magnitude around 1400 AD. The start of the second major glacier advance occurred at ~1700 AD, with Langjökull reaching the lakeshore by 1760 AD and achieving its maximum extent between 1840 and 1890 AD. The empirical record of Langjökull's activity during the past millennium is compared to a time series of model simulated ice cap area to evaluate spatial patterns in ice growth/retreat, temporal changes in sediment yield, and the relative contribution of glacially eroded sediment from different sectors of the ice cap within the lake catchment. The evolution of modeled ice cap extent, which is driven by the NGRIP ?18O record, shows remarkable similarity to changes in varve thickness over the past millenium. This comparison suggests it may be possible to quantify the relationship between changes in glacier size and corresponding changes in the fluvial transport of ice erosional products.

Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Bjornsson, H.



Stream sediment and nutrient loads in the Tahoe Basin--estimated vs monitored loads for TMDL "crediting".  


Total maximum daily load (TMDL) programs utilize pollutant load reductions as the primary strategy to restore adversely affected waters of the USA. Accurate and defensible "crediting" for TMDL reductions of sediment and nutrients requires stream monitoring programs capable of quantitative assessment of soil erosivity and the "connectivity" between erosive areas and stream channels across the watershed. Using continuous (15-min) stream monitoring information from typical alpine, snowmelt-driven watersheds [Ward (2,521 ha), Blackwood (2,886 ha), and Homewood (260 ha, Homewood Mountain Resort--HMR) Creeks] on the west shore of the Lake Tahoe Basin, daily sediment (and nutrient for HMR) loads are determined and compared with those developed from estimated load-flow relationships developed from grab sampling data. Compared to the previously estimated sediment load-discharge relationships, measured curves were slightly below those estimated, though not significantly so at Blackwood and Ward Creeks in the period 1997-2002. Based on average daily flowrates determined from calibrated hydrologic modeling during the period 1994-2004, average daily flowrate frequency distributions per year are determined from which load reduction "crediting" towards TMDL targets can be evaluated. Despite seemingly similar estimated and measured sediment load-flow relationships, annual "estimated" loads exceeded those "measured" by about 40 % for Ward and Blackwood Creeks and over 300 times for HMR Creek. Similarly, though less dramatic, estimated annual nutrient loads at HMR Creek exceeded those measured by 1.7 and 6 times for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Such results indicate that actual measured load-flow relationships are likely necessary for realistic quantitative and defensible TMDL crediting. PMID:23435852

Grismer, M E



Scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping: A new tool for the study of laminated sediment records  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of elemental mapping by scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the study of annual laminated sedimentary records was investigated on eight annually laminated sediment types. The examples were chosen to illustrate the potential of this approach in environments dominated by terrigenous, biological and chemical deposition. Individual laminae were identifiable in elemental maps of all sediment types and were enhanced

T. M. Shanahan; J. T. Overpeck; J. B. Hubeny; J. King; F. S. Hu; K. Hughen; G. Miller; J. Black



Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.



Sedimentation in the northern Gulf of California after cessation of the Colorado River discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The almost total elimination of sediment supply from the Colorado River has produced a condition of sediment starvation in the entire northern Gulf of California (NGC). Textural and mineralogical analyses of 114 surface sediment samples collected in the area show that this situation has promoted alternate sediment sources to become more important in supplying and controlling the compositional characteristics of

José D Carriquiry; Alberto Sánchez; Victor F Camacho-Ibar



Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented ˜5-9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or C ox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a pelagic turbidite, PCHO remineralization (as a percentage of C ox) did not vary by more than a factor of ˜2-3 over a 3-4 order of magnitude range in C ox values. The causes of this are not well understood, but may be related to specific effects associated with the remineralization of highly altered organic matter mixtures under aerobic conditions. Dissolved carbohydrates (DCHOs) in these sediment pore waters ranged from ˜30 to 400 ?M, increased with depth in a manner similar to total DOC, and represented ˜10 to 55% of pore water DOC. In Chesapeake Bay sediments this percentage decreased with sediment depth, while in these continental margin sediments it was constant (upper 30 cm). Of the DCHOs in these pore waters ˜30 to 50% could be identified as individual aldoses (monomeric neutral sugars), and total aldose yields (individual aldoses as a percentage of total DOC) were higher in these continental margin sediment pore waters (>9%) than they were in the estuarine sediment pore waters (<5%). A comparison of DCHO and PCHO concentrations in these sediments indicates that their concentrations are uncoupled, and that pore water DCHO concentrations are primarily controlled by sediment remineralization processes. Pore water DCHOs appeared to be preferentially found in the high molecular weight (HMW) DOC pool, and likely occur as some of the initial HMW intermediates produced and consumed during sediment POC remineralization. These results also support past suggestions about the differing controls on carbon remineralization processes in continental margin versus estuarine sediments.

Burdige, D. J.; Skoog, A.; Gardner, K.



Nutrient retention in plant biomass and sediments from the salt marsh in Hangzhou Bay estuary, China.  


Nutrient load into the ocean can be retained during the process of plant uptake and sedimentation in marshes along the bay zone. Seasonal variations of biomass and nutrient concentration in three dominated plant assemblages and associated sediments were monitored in this study area to determine effects of salt marsh on nutrient retention. Results showed that plant aboveground biomass displayed a unimodal curve with nutrient concentration generally decreased from spring to winter. Belowground biomass was relatively low during the rapid growth period with nutrient concentration tending to decrease and then increase during this period. Plant total nitrogen (TN) pools are higher than total phosphorus (TP) pools, and both pools showed significant seasonal variations. Water purification coefficients (WPC) of nutrients by plant assimilation were 34.4/17.3, 19.3/24.0, and 5.14/6.04 t/(m(2) year) (TN/TP) for Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpus mariqueter, respectively. Overall, these results suggest that higher annual plant biomass and nutrient assimilation contribute to greater nutrient retention capacity and accumulation in sediments, thereby enabling reduced eutrophication in transitional waters. PMID:23589271

Shao, Xuexin; Wu, Ming; Gu, Binhe; Chen, Yinxu; Liang, Xinqiang



Geochemistry of Peruvian near-surface sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen short sediment cores were recovered from the upper edge (UEO), within (WO) and below (BO) the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru during cruise 147 of R/V Sonne. Solids were analyzed for major/trace elements, total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total sulfur, the stable sulfur isotope composition (? 34S) of pyrite, and sulfate reduction rates (SRR). Pore waters were analyzed for dissolved sulfate/sulfide and ? 34S of sulfate. In all cores highest SRR were observed in the top 5 cm where pore water sulfate concentrations varied little due to resupply of sulfate by sulfide oxidation and/or diffusion of sulfate from bottom water. ? 34S of dissolved sulfate showed only minor downcore increases. Strong 32S enrichments in sedimentary pyrite (to -48‰ vs. V-CDT) are due to processes in the oxidative part of the sulfur cycle in addition to sulfate reduction. Manganese and Co are significantly depleted in Peruvian upwelling sediments most likely due to mobilization from particles settling through the OMZ, whereas release of both elements from reducing sediments only seems to occur in near-coastal sites. Cadmium, Mo and Re are exceptionally enriched in WO sediments (<600 m water depth). High Re and moderate Cd and Mo enrichments are seen in BO sediments (>600 m water depth). Re/Mo ratios indicate anoxic and suboxic conditions for WO and BO sediments, respectively. Cadmium and Mo downcore profiles suggest considerable contribution to UEO/WO sediments by a biodetrital phase, whereas Re presumably accumulates via diffusion across the sediment-water interface to precipitation depth. Uranium is distinctly enriched in WO sediments (due to sulfidic conditions) and in some BO sediments (due to phosphorites). Silver transfer to suboxic BO sediments is likely governed by diatomaceous matter input, whereas in anoxic WO sediments Ag is presumably trapped due to sulfide precipitation. Cadmium, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Ag, and T1 predominantly accumulate via biogenic pre-concentration in plankton remains. Rhenium, Sb, As, V, U and Mo are enriched in accordance with seawater TE availability. Lead and Bi enrichment in UEO surface sediments is likely contributed by anthropogenic activity (mining). Accumulation rates of TOC, Cd, Mo, U, and V from Peruvian and Namibian sediments exceed those from the Oman Margin and Gulf of California due to enhanced preservation off Peru and Namibia.

Böning, Philipp; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Böttcher, Michael E.; Schnetger, Bernhard; Kriete, Cornelia; Kallmeyer, Jens; Borchers, Sven Lars



Sediment quality in Rivers and their estuaries of an olive oil production area, Messinia, Greece.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its outfall in the Messinian Gulf. A significant enrichment in phenolic content of sediments as well in organic carbon was observed in 2011 when compared to 2008, in most of the cases, indicating degradation of the study aquatic ecosystems of Messinia Prefecture.

Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis



Seasonal flux and assemblage composition of planktic foraminifers from a sediment-trap study in the northern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-trap samples from the northern Gulf of Mexico reveal that Globorotalia truncatulinoides, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina spp. (includes P. obliquiloculata and P. finalis), and the Globorotalia menardii group (includes Gt. menardii, Gt. tumida, and Gt. ungulata) generally occur in cold months. Globigerinoides ruber (white and pink varieties) and Globigennoides sacculifer occur throughout the year. The seasonal occurrence of individual taxa of planktic foraminifers in the Gulf of Mexico have important differences with the seasonal occurrence of the same taxa observed in a 6-year sediment-trap dataset from the western Sargasso Sea. Thus information on the ecologic preferences of individual taxa determined in one region cannot necessarily be applied directly to another area. In the northern Gulf of Mexico 90% of the total flux of Globorotalia truncatulinoides tests to sediments occurs in January and February. Mg/Ca and d18? measurements indicate that nonencrusted forms of Gt. truncatulinoides calcify in the upper-surface-mixed zone. Thus, analyses of nonencrusted Gt. truncatulinoides in sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico have potential for monitoring past conditions in the winter-surface-mixed layer. The relatively low overall abundance of Globigerinoides ruber (white) in sediment-trap samples is anomalous because Gs. ruber (white) is one of the most abundant foraminifers in>150 µm census data from northern Gulf of Mexico Holocene sediment core samples. Globigerinoides ruber (pink) is a relatively persistent and common component of the sediment-trap samples. Thus Gs. ruber (pink) has potential as a proxy for mean annual sea-surface temperature in the Gulf of Mexico

Poore, Richard Z.; Spear, Jessica W.; Tedesco, Kathy A.



Linking sediment transport and channel roughness in bedrock rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved understanding of sediment transport processes in bedrock rivers is needed for both upland management and for prediction of landscape evolution. Recent advances have focussed on the sediment processes in bedrock rivers that have implications for both sediment transfer and bedrock incision. A significant component of grain-scale transport dynamics is the difference in roughness between bedrock and alluvial surfaces. Although bedrock surfaces typically exhibit roughness at a range of scales, they are often locally smooth at the scale of individual grains; significant roughness can however also exist at this length scale. Grains on smooth bedrock surfaces are more easily entrained than grains on alluvial patches because of the higher grain exposure and lower pivoting angles. Recent laboratory and modelling work has demonstrated the effect of these differing entrainment thresholds on the development of sediment cover in a smooth channel. Here we model the effect of the spatial distribution of roughness in a bedrock river on the total sediment transport capacity of the channel. The model represents the channel as two parallel strips; an alluvial strip and a bedrock strip with sparse sediment cover. We evaluate the effect of sediment cover on the sediment flux conveyed by the entire channel, including the total sediment flux integrated over multiple flow events. A range of conditions between two end members are explored; sediment cover is increased either by widening the alluvial strip, and/or by increasing the density of sediment cover on the bedrock strip (subject to the condition that there is not significant interaction between grains). Depending on the exact conditions applied, increasing sediment cover can actually decrease the total sediment flux in the channel as a result of the decreased mobility of the alluvial sediment. However, laboratory experiments show that sediment accumulation alters the spatial pattern of roughness in bedrock channels, affecting local hydraulics and hence entrainment and deposition. To fully understand the interactions between hydraulics and sediment on bedrock surfaces, further components of the roughness also need to be taken into consideration. Another area for consideration is the initial roughness of the bedrock surface, and the impact that this has on sediment cover development, especially given the common assumption of smooth bedrock surfaces in both flume and modelling studies. We present some preliminary findings that show the partitioning of sediment cover into alluvial patches and sparse individual grains in channels with ranges of both bedrock roughness and total sediment cover, and consider the effect of these findings on total sediment flux.

Hodge, R. A.; Hoey, T.; Maniatis, G.



Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet. Sediment profile imaging report  

SciTech Connect

A Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) survey was conducted in July, 1997 in Shelikof Strait and Lower Cool Inlet as part of a larger study of sediment quality in relation to offshore oil development. The purpose of the SPI survey was to delineate sediment type, provide information on patterns of sediment deposition and erosion, and describe biological community characteristics in the region. A total of 57 stations were sampled during a nine-day cruise. Based on the reflectance contrast of the sediment profile, there were no areas suffering from excess carbon loading and no areas had indications of excess chemical contamination. All the data from the profile images point to both high sediment quality and benthic habitat values at depositional sites. In particular, the images from deep water (depositional) stations in Shelikof Strait indicate a largely undisturbed, low-energy depositional basin.




Little Ice Age recorded in summer temperature reconstruction from varved sediments of Donard Lake, Baffin Island, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clastic varved sediments from Donard Lake, in the Cape Dyer region of Baffin Island, provide a 1250 yr record of decadal-to-centennial scale climate variability. Donard Lake experiences strong seasonal fluctuations in runoff and sediment fluxes due to the summer melting of the Caribou Glacier, which presently dominates its catchment. The seasonal variation in sediment supply results in the annual deposition

J. J. Moore; K. A. Hughen; G. H. Miller



ANNUAL REPORT Annual Report  

E-print Network

students, with 50 supported as department GTA's, 1 as a start-up GTA, 6 as GRA's, 1 as a Hatcher Fellow, 1. The department's GTA training and mentoring program remains exceptionally strong. Discovery Total expenditures

Berkson, Jim


Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected and taken account for. The study showed that common fingerprint elements and practices would have led to misinterpretations in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment and calls for a sound knowledge on catchment characteristics before the implementation of such a method.

Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg



Elwha River Restoration: Sediment Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1 to 2-year removal of Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams on the Elwha River relies on controlled reservoir drawdown increments and natural river flows to erode and redistribute the reservoir sediment, estimated to be a total of 18 million m3. To mitigate for the predicted sediment effects, facilities have been constructed for water quality and flood protection, including water treatment plants, new wells, a new surface water intake, raising the height of existing levees, and the construction of new levees. A sediment monitoring program is being implemented by an interdisciplinary team from Reclamation and National Park Service to integrate real-time measurements with continually updated numerical model predictions. The most recent numerical reservoir modeling and monitoring results indicate about 50 percent of the reservoir sediment will remain in the reservoir while another 50 percent is predicted to be released downstream during dam removal and a few high flood periods following the completion of dam removal. Early monitoring results confirm that lowering the reservoir pool in a controlled increment, and then holding the reservoir pool at constant elevation, is inducing sufficient vertical and lateral erosion of the exposed delta surface. Predam channel and floodplain surface has been exposed in numerous portions of Lake Aldwell. The first major coarse sediment released from Lake Aldwell occurred in mid-April. This sediment release along with continued erosion during spring snowmelt of 2012 has resulted in deposition of the first few river pools below Elwha Dam. Deposition on riffles, where velocities are higher, has not occurred. Therefore, no major change to flood stage is predicted from the initial sediment release. The material released from Lake Aldwell has included organic material. About half of Glines Canyon Dam has been removal and Lake Mills is about one-quarter of its original size. Future monitoring will focus on continued tracking of the lateral erosion and progression of the delta front in Lake Mills, and the upcoming release of the coarse sediment from Lake Mills once the delta reaches the dam. The first wave of coarse bedload sediment is expected to be released in late fall of 2012.NPS web camera photograph of the Lake Mills delta upstream from Glines Canyon Dam.

Randle, T. J.; Bountry, J.; Ritchie, A.; Hugunin, H.; Torrence, A.



Development of an Electrohydraulic Total Artificial Heart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The third annual report on the development of an implantable untethered Total Artificial Heart (TAH) is presented. The system consists of (1) two blood chambers, and four trileaflet valves fabricated from Angioflex(R), a polyetherurethane, resulting in se...

A. R. Millner, B. Ochs, D. Menn, R. Cumming, R. T. V. Kung



Sedimentation survey of Lago de Matrullas, Puerto Rico, December 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago de Matrullas reservoir, constructed in 1934, is located at an altitude of approximately 730 meters above mean sea level in the municipality of Orocovis in central Puerto Rico, and has a drainage area of 11.45 square kilometers. The reservoir is part of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority Toro Negro Hydroelectric Project, which also includes the Lago El Guineo reservoir and a hydroelectric plant to the south of the insular hydrographic divide. Historically, the drainage area had been protected from soil erosion by dense vegetation and the lack of basin development. However, transportation, potable water, and electric power infrastructure construction has facilitated development in rural areas resulting in the clearing of land. This trend in land-use changes is impacting the useful life of Lago de Matrullas. The reservoir storage capacity has been reduced from 3.71 million cubic meters in 1934 to 3.08 million cubic meters in 2001. This represents a total storage-capacity loss of 0.63 million cubic meters by 2001 (17 percent), or a long-term annual storage loss of 0.25 percent per year. The sediment trapping efficiency of Lago de Matrullas has been estimated at approximately 90 percent. If the current long-term sedimentation rate continues, Lago de Matrullas would fill by the year 2328. However, this life expectancy could be reduced at a faster than predicted rate as a result of rural development in the Lago de Matrullas basin and the high sediment trapping efficiency of the reservoir.

Soler-López, Luis R.



The effect of manipulations of freshwater sediments on responses of benthic invertebrates in whole-sediment toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

Manipulations of freshwater sediment were performed to remove indigenous organisms prior to conducting toxicity tests with three species of benthic invertebrates. The effects of these treatments on end points in bioassays were compared within and between two sediments, i.e., a ``clean`` sediment and a ``contaminated`` sediment. In addition, the effects of manipulations on the physicochemical structure of the two sediments and the presence of metals, PAHs, and PCBs in the contaminated sediment were examined. The amphipod Hyalella azteca was most sensitive to the manipulations and had low survival in sediment that was sterilized. Growth (milligrams dry weight per individual) was affected by the presence of contaminants. Survival of Chironomus riparius was not affected by any manipulation but was reduced by contaminants as well as indigenous organisms. Growth of C. riparius was higher in autoclaved sediment but lower in sediment containing endemic tubificid worms. Production of young by Tubifex tubifex increased in sediment that was irradiated, possibly due to increased detrital material. Particle size distribution, metals, nutrients, and PAHs varied little as a function of manipulation; however, sieving of sediment through 250-{micro}m mesh did reduce percent total organic carbon (TOC), percent loss on ignition (LOI), and concentrations of some PCBs in either clean or contaminated sediment. Manipulation of sediments to remove endemic species should be determined on a case-by-case basis and is specific to the organisms used in toxicity tests.

Day, K.E.; Kirby, R.S.; Reynoldson, T.B. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of the Environment



Hydrodynamic forcing and sediment character in Boston Harbor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Calculated annual excess skin friction stress at various locations in Quincy Bay (outer Boston Harbor) was found to be correlated positively with sediment sand content. The correlation was optimized when a critical shear stress (??c) of 0.085 Pa was assumed for the bay. The excess shear stress was correlated negatively with sediment lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. These correlations suggest that area surveys of properties like sand content may be sufficient to estimate ??C.

Ravens, T. M.; Madsen, O. S.; Signell, R. P.; Adams, E. E.; Gschwend, P. M.



The prediction of sediment yields from small blackland watersheds  

E-print Network

SC-ninute intensity. . . . . . . . . . Relationship betueon mean peakedness ratio and matershed area. . . , . . . . , . . . . LIST OF' TABLES Table Page Description oi' L'~atershed Chcractoristics. 19 'Jatershed Land Use and Tre tment. 19...'or predicting sediment yields have been developed. I;boost of these procedures attempt to predict ths average annual sediment yield in tons or tons por acre These procedures consider matershsd characteristics and land use and treatment, but do not consider...

Williams, Jimmy Ray



Roles and Patterns of Hurricane Sedimentation in an Estuarine Marsh Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passage of hurricane Andrew across the Louisiana coastal zone in 1992 was used to study the effects of hurricane sedimentation on estuarine marshes. (1) The thickness and nutrient content of hurricane sediments, (2) the composition of hurricane sediments relative to pre-existing sediments, and (3) the relationship between hurricane sedimentation and small-scale heterogeneity in the emergent plant community were investigated. Vertical accretion resulting from the hurricane was 4-11 times greater than the long-term (30 year) annual rate. The hurricane sediments will be within the root zone of emergent vegetation for 35-50 years, depending on the local marsh vertical accretion rate. Element concentration, organic matter content, and texture of hurricane sediments varied over a wide area, which suggested that hurricane sediments did not originate from a common sediment pool. The concentration of most elements analysed did not differ between hurricane sediments and pre-existing sediments, which suggested that hurricane sediments originated primarily from the same local bays and lakes that provide material for other sedimentation events. Hurricane sediments were thicker in Juncus roemerianusstands than in surrounding Spartina alterniflorastands. Greater hurricane sedimentation in J. roemerianusstands was attributed to greater stem density there and may help maintain plant community heterogeneity if J. roemerianusis less flood-tolerant than S. alterniflora, as previous work suggests. Previous studies have noted the effect of environmental gradients on plant species distribution, but our data indicate that plant species can also generate different environmental conditions associated with their distribution.

Nyman, J. A.; Crozier, C. R.; DeLaune, R. D.



Evaluation of sediment yield and sediment data-collection network in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Statistical relationships were developed between suspended-sediment discharge and several regional factors of climate, physiography, and land use in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the existing sediment collection network, especially in regard to detecting changes in suspended-sediment discharge due to the development in the basin. Spatial- and time variability were examined using multiple linear regression techniques. Because of the short period of record, monthly mean sediment loads were used to determine shifts or changes in trends due to mining and related activities in the basin. Dummy variable analysis was used to detect these premining and postmining differences in the regression lines and also to detect seasonal differences in the sediment discharge. Differences did exist in the sediment discharge from season to season and before and after mining; however, due to the variability and short period of record the cause of these differences could not be adequately determined. Part of the high variability in sediment discharge was due to variability in the water discharge. Therefore, if the network is to be improved, the emphasis needs to be on improvement of the water-discharge. The results of the monthly mean regression analysis were used in the mean monthly and mean annual analysis for determination of initial network design equations. These were only preliminary in nature and could be improved with additional data. (USGS)

Kircher, J.E.; Von Guerard, Paul



ANNUAL REPORT Annual Report  

E-print Network

. The Mathematics Department has 69 graduate students, with 46 supported as department GTA's, 6 as GRA's, 1. The department's GTA training and mentoring program remains exceptionally strong. The Graduate School recognized Math GTA Rachel Arnold as Virginia Tech GTA of the Year. Discovery Total expenditures for Math and ICAM

Berkson, Jim


Global Overview On Delivery Of Sediment To The Coast From Tropical River Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depending on definition, the tropics occupy between 16% and 19% of the earth's land surface, and discharge ~18.5% of the earth's fluvial water runoff. These flow regimes are driven by three types of sub-regional climate: rainforest, monsoon, and savannah. Even though the tropics include extreme precipitation events, particularly for the SE Asian islands, the general rainfall pattern alternates between wet and dry seasons as the ITCZ follows the sun and where annual monsoonal rain occurs. ITCZ convective rainfall is the dominant style of precipitation but this can be influenced by rare intra-tropical cyclone events, and by atmospheric river events set up by strong monsoonal conditions. Though a rainy season is normal (for example, portions of India discharge in summer may reach 50 times that of winter), the actual rainfall events are in the form of short bursts of precipitation (hours to days) separated by periods of dry (hours to weeks). Some areas of the tropics receive more than 100 thunderstorms per year. Rivers respond to this punctuated weather by seasonal flooding. For the smaller island nations and locales (e.g. Indonesia, Philippines, Borneo, Hainan, PNG, Madagascar, Hawaii, Taiwan) flash floods are common. Larger tropical river systems (Niger, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Congo, Amazon, Orinoco, Magdalena) show typical seasonally modulated discharges. The sediment flux from tropical rivers is approximately 17% to 19% of the global total - however individual river basins offer a wide range in sediment yields reflecting highly variable differences in their hinterland lithology, tectonic activity and volcanism, land-sliding, and relief. Human influences also greatly influence the range for tropical river sediment yield. Some SE Asian Rivers continue to be greatly affected by deforestation, road construction, and monoculture plantations. Sediment flux is more than twice the pre-Anthropocene flux in many of these SE Asian countries, especially where dams and reservoir emplacements do not impact sediment delivery, as is the case in most temperate regions.

Syvitski, J. P.; Kettner, A. J.; Brakenridge, G. R.



Activities about Sediments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of activities will allow students to learn more about sediments and develop their skills in using a variety of strategies to study our planet. The activities include using a stereomicroscope to view tiny sediment grains, finding their actual sizes by comparing them with the scope's field of view, separating a sediment sample using a set of sieves, and preparing bar graphs representing the grain size distribution of the sediment. The site also includes instructions for a proper lab write-up.

Passow, Michael


Monsoon sedimentation on the 'abandoned' tide-influenced Ganges-Brahmaputra delta plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Annual sediment delivery by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers to the Bengal margin has kept pace with sea level rise since the mid Holocene, sustaining subaerial growth of the delta. However, the Sundarbans region of the tidal delta is disconnected from major distributary sources of sediment and is often thought to be sediment starved, eroding, and susceptible to the meter of sea level rise predicted for the 21st century. Despite these assumptions, direct sedimentation measurements on the tidal delta plain reveal widespread mean annualized accretion rates of ˜1.1 cm yr-1, although heterogeneous depositional patterns indicate that topography and internal creek networks influence local sediment distribution. Short-lived radioisotope inventories (7Be: t1/2 = 53.3 days) measured on the freshly accumulated sediments indicate that about ½ of the mass deposited on the lower delta was sourced directly from the seasonal flood pulse of the river; the remaining ½ is derived from older (?1 yr) reworked sediments. Net sedimentation on this part of the delta traps ˜10% of annual Ganges-Brahmaputra sediment load, with accretion rates roughly equivalent to the mean regional rate of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) of ˜1.0 cm yr-1. If these sedimentation rates are representative of longer-term trends and subsidence rates remain stable over the next century, the lower delta plain may continue to maintain its elevation and stability despite documented mangrove retreat around its seaward edges.

Rogers, Kimberly G.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Mondal, Dhiman R.



A reconnaissance of stream sediment in the Erie-Niagara basin, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This reconnaissance study of erosion and deposition of sediment in the Erie-Niagara basin indicates that the highest sediment yields, on the order of 1,000 tons per square mile per year, occur in streams that drain upland areas. In contrast, for example, from the lowland part of the Tonawanda Creek basin, the annual sediment yields are on the order of 100 tons per square mile per year. The estimated average annual sediment yields of streams in the basin range from 50 tons per square mile for Little Tonawanda Creek at Linden, to 1,500 tons per square mile for Cazenovia Creek at Ebenezer. These estimates are based on measured instantaneous sediment discharge at selected stream stations, the sediment loads of which ranged from 1,100 tons per year for Little Tonawanda Creek at Linden to 610,000 tons per year for Cattaraugus Creek at Gowanda. The accuracy of the estimates of average annual sediment discharge could be considerably improved by the collection of additional data. Nevertheless, the estimates are believed to be indicative of the magnitude of sediment yields and provide a general description of stream-sediment movement in the study area. Peak suspended-sediment concentrations in the range of 2,600 to 5,300 ppm (parts per million) were observed at three stations in the Cattaraugus Creek basin, as well as at Buffalo Creek at Gardenville, Cazenovia Creek at Ebenezer, and Cayuga Creek near Lancaster.

Archer, R.J.; La Sala, A.M., Jr.



Assessing upper Mississippi River sediments using benthic invertebrates and the sediment quality triad  

SciTech Connect

Benthic invertebrate samples were collected from 23 pools in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and from one station in the Saint Croix River (SCR) as part of study to assess the effects of the extensive flooding of 1993 on sediment contamination in the UMR system. Sediment contamination consists of organic and inorganic contaminants. Samples were collected with a petite ponar grab sampler Oligochaete and Chironomid abundance constituted over 80% of the community in samples from 18 of 23 pools in the UMR and in the SCR sample. Fingernail clams comprised a large portion of the community in 5 of 23 UMR pools. Total abundance values ranged from 333/m{sup 2} at pool 1 to 25,000/m{sup 2} at pool 19. Overall frequency of chironomid mouth part deformities was 3%, which is comparable to literature values for incidence of deformities in uncontaminated sediments. Occurrence of mouth part deformities ranged 0 to 13% at the UMR pools. Sediment contamination was generally low in the UMR pools and the SCR site. The degree of sediment contamination will be evaluated with data from laboratory toxicity exposures, sediment chemistry analyses and benthic community analyses using the Sediment Quality Triad approach. Preliminary evaluations show the sediments from the UMR and SCR are relatively uncontaminated and the flooding of `93 did not adversely effect sediment quality in the UMR system.

Canfield, T.J.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center



Use of hydroacoustic measurements to characterize bottom sediments and guide sampling and remediation of organic contaminants in lake sediments.  


Sampling of bed sediment for contamination characterization is often limited by the heterogeneity in sediment properties and distribution. In this study, we explored the use of hydroacoustic measurements to characterize sediment properties and guide sediment sampling in a small lake contaminated by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PCBs. A dual frequency hydroacoustic survey was conducted to characterize sediment properties, distribution, and thickness in McGrath Lake, near Ventura, CA. Based upon these results, sediment core samples were collected from 15 sites on the lake, and sectioned into 20 cm intervals for sediment characterization and analysis of OCPs and PCBs. Very high concentrations of total DDT and total chlordane were found in the sediments, with mean values of 919 and 34.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of OCPs were highest at 60-80 cm depth near the inflow at the north end of the lake. Total PCB concentrations were much lower (mean concentration of 4.5 ng g(-1)). Using the hydroacoustic and chemical data, it was estimated that nearly 30,000 m(3) of DDT- and chlordane-contaminated sediment (above effects range median values) was present in the uppermost 1.2 m of sediment in the lake. A hydroacoustic survey can be a valuable tool used to delineate sediment distribution in a lake, identify areas with deeper organic sediment where hydrophobic contaminants would likely be found, and guide sampling. Sampling and chemical analyses are nonetheless needed to quantify contaminant levels in bottom sediments. When combined with hydroacoustic measurements, this approach can reasonably estimate the distributions and volumes of contaminated sediment important in the development of remediation strategies. PMID:23644565

Anderson, Michael A; Conkle, Jeremy L; Pacheco, Porfirio; Gan, Jay




Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the computation of sedimentation by suspended sediments and bed load of the projected reservoirs are given, or the first year Of the reservoir operation computation is made according to the balance of sediments computed by the difference between the transport capacity and the hydraulic parameters of the current at the upper pool (transient region) and at the dan

A. V. Karaushev; I. V. Bogoliubova


Sediment transport due to extreme events: The Hudson River estuary after tropical storms Irene and Lee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Storms Irene and Lee in 2011 produced intense precipitation and flooding in the U.S. Northeast, including the Hudson River watershed. Sediment input to the Hudson River was approximately 2.7 megaton, about 5 times the long-term annual average. Rather than the common assumption that sediment is predominantly trapped in the estuary, observations and model results indicate that approximately two thirds of the new sediment remained trapped in the tidal freshwater river more than 1 month after the storms and only about one fifth of the new sediment reached the saline estuary. High sediment concentrations were observed in the estuary, but the model results suggest that this was predominantly due to remobilization of bed sediment. Spatially localized deposits of new and remobilized sediment were consistent with longer term depositional records. The results indicate that tidal rivers can intercept (at least temporarily) delivery of terrigenous sediment to the marine environment during major flow events.

Ralston, David K.; Warner, John C.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Wall, Gary R.



Impact of a large tropical reservoir on riverine transport of sediment, carbon, and nutrients to downstream wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large dams can have major ecological and biogeochemical impacts on downstream ecosystems such as wetlands and riparian habitats. We examined sediment removal and carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling in Itezhi-Tezhi Reservoir (ITT; area = 364 km2, hydraulic residence time = 0.7 yr), which is located directly upstream of a high ecological value floodplain ecosystem (Kafue Flats) in the Zambezi River Basin. Field investigations (sediment cores, sediment traps, water column samples), mass balance estimates, and a numerical biogeochemical reservoir model were combined to estimate N, P, C, and sediment removal, organic C mineralization, primary production, and N fixation. Since dam completion in 1978, 330 × 103 tons (t) of sediment and 16 × 103, 1.5 × 103, 200 t of C, N, and P, respectively, have accumulated annually in ITT sediments. Approximately 50% of N inputs and 60% of P inputs are removed by the reservoir, illustrating its potential in decreasing nutrients to the downstream Kafue Flats floodplain. The biogeochemical model predicted substantial primary production in ITT (˜280 g C m-2 yr-1), and significant N-fixation (˜30% for the total primary production) was required to support primary production due to marginal inputs of inorganic N. Model simulations indicate that future hydropower development in the reservoir, involving the installation of turbines driven by hypolimnetic water, will likely result in the delivery of low-oxygen waters to downstream ecosystems and increased outputs of dissolved inorganic N and P by a factor of ˜4 and ˜2 compared to current dam management, respectively.

Kunz, Manuel J.; Wüest, Alfred; Wehrli, Bernhard; Landert, Jan; Senn, David B.



CAPS Annual 2010 Annual Report  

E-print Network

CAPS Annual 2010 1 Annual Report 2010 Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science School those with research interests in Astrophysics and Planetary Science, (b) to advance the Frontiers and planetary science research that crosses disciplinary borders, and to construct a larger coherent grouping. 2

Banaji,. Murad


Linking spatio-temporal variation of crop response with sediment deposition along paddy rice terraces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tropical mountainous regions of South East Asia, intensive cultivation of annual crops on steep slopes makes the area prone to erosion resulting in decreasing soil fertility. Sediment deposition in the valleys, however, can enhance soil fertility, depending on the quality of the sediments, and influence crop productivity. The aim of the study was to assess (i) the spatio-temporal variation

P. Schmitter; G. Dercon; T. Hilger; M. Hertel; J. Treffner; N. Lam; T. Duc Vien; G. Cadisch



Mixed Sediment Modeling for Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas , M. Ferro1  

E-print Network

Mixed Sediment Modeling for Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas L. Lin1 , H. Li1 , M. Ferro1 , and C of Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas, in recent years has resulted in the need for annual dredging. The channel shoaling in the Ship channel is complicated as it involves the mixed sediment in the surrounding area

US Army Corps of Engineers


Recent changes of water discharge and sediment load in the Zhujiang (Pearl River) Basin, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with identifying changes in the time series of water and sediment discharge of the Zhujiang (Pearl River), China. The gradual trend test (Mann–Kendall test), and abrupt change test (Pettitt test), have been employed on annual water discharge and sediment load series (from the 1950s–2004) at nine stations in the main channels and main tributaries of the

Shurong Zhang; Xi Xi Lu; David L. Higgitt; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Jingtai Han; Huiguo Sun



Mercury and methylmercury in Hudson River sediment: impact of tidal resuspension on partitioning and methylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hudson River estuary is highly polluted with heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PAHs. The sediment of the estuary is subjected to substantial erosion and redeposition resulting in a complex redistribution of sediment annually. Understanding the fate of heavy metals during tidal resuspension is crucial to assessing the long-term fate of pollutants in the estuary. We examined the impact

Andrew Heyes; Carrie Miller; Robert P. Mason



Modeling decadal bed material sediment flux based on stochastic Michael Bliss Singer and Thomas Dunne  

E-print Network

-annual variation. Dunne et al. [1998] applied error propagation to sediment rating curve analyses of bed material. A procedure for calibrating a fractional sediment transport equation of a commonly used form to bed material of bed load in a large gravel bed river with error analyses of measurements and rating curves. However

California at Santa Barbara, University of


Evaluation of PCB and hexachlorobenzene biota-sediment accumulation factors based on ingested sediment in a deposit-feeding clam  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment exposure experiments were conducted using a marine deposit-feeding clam (Macoma nasuta) to determine biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) based on ingested sediment and fecal organic carbon. Internal, or gut, BSAFs were determined for hexachlorobenzene and 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and were compared to those found with the standard method of calculating BSAFs, which uses the organic carbon and contaminant concentration of the whole or external sediment. The results of these experiments indicated that gut BSAFs were consistently smaller and less variable across sediment types than the corresponding standard BSAFs. Although these results indicate that using ingested sediment concentrations and fecal total organic carbon to calculate gut BSAFs might improve the predictive ability of the standard BSAF model, the benefit is small when compared to the difficulty in measuring the contaminant concentration on ingested sediment and the organic carbon content of feces.

Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Specht, D.T.; Randall, R. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Newport, OR (United States); Pelletier, J. [Dyncorp, Newport, OR (United States)



A new approach for estimation suspended sediment yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-distributed conceptual model, HBV-SED, for estimation of total suspended sediment concentration and yield at the outlet of a catchment was developed and tested through a case study. The base of the suspended sediment model is a dynamic hydrological model, which produces daily series of areal runoff and rainfall for each sub-basin as input to the sediment routine. A lumped

R. Lidén



Effects of sedimentation on the storage capacity of the High Aswan Dam reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Nile receives most of its sediment load from the Atbara and Blue Nile rivers, which carry eroded sediments north\\u000a from the Ethiopian mountains during the seasonal flood period between August and October.\\u000a \\u000a Prior to the construction and operation of the High Aswan Dam, in 1964, 9–10 106 metric tons of suspended sediment were deposited annually in the flood

S. Shalash



Acoustic Detection of Organic Enrichment in Sediments at a Salmon Farm Is Confirmed by Independent Groundtruthing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic backscatter contrast in depositional sediments under salmon farm cages in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, was correlated with localized changes in (unknown) sediment geotechnical properties, as indicated by 4 independent measures of organic enrichment. Sediment total sulfides and redox potentials, enzyme hydrolyzable amino acids, sediment profile imaging and macrofaunal samples, taken at mid-cage positions, each rejected the null hypothesis

D. J. Wildish; J. E. Hughes-Clarke; G. W. Pohle; B. T. Hargrave; Lawrence Mayer



Fluvial sediment in Salem Fork watershed, West Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Suspended sediment discharged from the 8.32-square-mile Salem Fork study area in Harrison County, W. Va., averaged 3,500 tons per year during the first 4-year period of investigation and 1,770 tons per year during the second 4-year period. The difference as attributed to increased flow control, effected by the completion of detention structures and other conservation measures, the absence of appreciable sediment-producing construction activities, and a reduction of the amounts of rainfall and runoff during the second 4-year period. Particle-size distribution of the suspended sediment discharged from the watershed remained unchanged during the two 4-year periods. Although sand and some silt were deposited in upstream reservoirs, sands and other sediments were evidently entrained in the flow below the reservoirs. During the 7.75-year period, reservoir 11A had a trap efficiency of 88 percent. The average annual sediment yield of subwatershed 11A was 1.31 tons per acre, or 837 tons per square mile. Outflow from reservoir 11A occurred during 81 percent of the investigation 'period, October 1954 to June 1962, and 78 percent of the sediment discharge from the reservoir occurred during less than 6 percent of the investigation period. A comparison of particle-size distribution of inflow sediment with that of outflow sediment revealed that practically all sands and some silts entering reservoir 11A were deposited in the reservoir. Chemical analyses of inflow water and the particle-size analyses suggested that flocculation of fine sediments occurred in the reservoir. Analysis of the sediment data collected at the outflow of reservoir 9 during 1956-62 revealed that the average annual sediment discharge was 128,000 pounds per year. Limited particle-size data suggested that practically no sand was discharged from reservoir 9, even though the inflow contained sand. Average annual inflow to reservoirs 11A and 9 compared favorably with average annual runoff for the entire watershed-study area.

Flint, R.F.



Natural or controlled experiment? Disentangling anthropogenic and geologic contributions to the sediment load of the Le Sueur River, MN, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catastrophic draining of glacial Lake Agassiz at the end of the Pleistocene triggered a pulse of incision along the Minnesota River, MN, USA, that is currently propagating into tributary channels and elevating channel incision rates far above regional background levels. At the same time, installation of artificial drainage to remove excess soil water (tiling) in tributaries of the Minnesota has resulted in shorter and higher amplitude hydrographs during spring snow melt and storm events. Thus both natural and anthropogenic explanations exist for high sediment loads from tributaries to the Minnesota River, among them the Le Sueur River, which is currently impaired for turbidity under EPA Clean Water Act standards. Here we investigate the transient incision history of the Le Sueur River to aid in the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for sediment in the Le Sueur. Establishing TMDLs for the Le Sueur requires separation of anthropogenic and geologic contributions to current sediment loads. Towards this end, we ran a series of numerical simulations of the excavation of the Le Sueur River valley over the Holocene in order to constrain pre-settlement rates of sediment export. Our approach relies on coupling (with varying strength) a 2D numerical model for river meandering to various 1D numerical models for river incision. Fortuitously, both the initial profile of the Le Sueur (prior to the flood from Lake Agassiz) as well as the timing of the flood itself can be reasonably constrained from LiDAR data and previous Quaternary studies, respectively. Additionally, LiDAR-mapping of discontinuous, unpaired strath terraces combined with OSL and/or 14C dates on 18 strath terrace deposits pin pieces of the long profile of the Le Sueur River in time and space. By minimizing the model misfit for strath terrace ages, the current river elevation long profile, and the width between bluffs along the Le Sueur River valley, we identify a preferred valley excavation history. We converted the modeled pre-settlement erosion rate into an annual mass of silt and clay to compare with average annual total suspended solid load measurements at the mouth of the river. Results show that modern fine sediment loads from all sediment sources combined are approximately 4-5 times higher than predicted pre-settlement erosion rates. Additionally, modeling efforts provide insight into the nature of erosion and incision into glacial till. The Le Sueur River is best modeled as a detachment-limited bedrock channel where downstream coarsening from incision into the till is a critical factor in developing the longitudinal profile of the river.

Finnegan, N. J.; Gran, K. B.



Sediment Mobilization in Ravines Draining Minnesota Cropland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, studies have found that Lake Pepin, a naturally-dammed lake on the Mississippi River on the border of Minnesota and Wisconsin, is filling in with sediment at an alarming rate. Most of this sediment comes from the Minnesota River, which contributes about 80% of all the sediment being deposited in Lake Pepin, even though it contains only 35% of the upstream area. This study focuses on understanding sediment derived from ravine erosion in a tributary of the Minnesota River basin through event monitoring of two ravines in the Le Sueur River watershed. Ravines represent one of the key sediment sources in the Le Sueur watershed, with sediment mobilized through ravine widening and headcutting. In addition, sediment may be mobilized through riverbank and bluff erosion and erosion of the topsoil. A major effort is underway to reduce the amount of sediment in the Minnesota River and Lake Pepin, so we must discover what is causing the sediment to be mobilized and when. Dominant land use in the area is agricultural with over 90% of the crops consisting of row crops. Field drainage in these agricultural areas is heavily influenced by the installation of drainage ditches and drain tile. While this has increased crop yield, it has altered the natural drainage of the area. Southern Minnesota is covered by a thick layer of glacial till allowing the landscape to rapidly respond to hydrologic conditions within a relatively short amount of time, and those changes could include ravine widening or elongation. To better understand how ravines respond to different hydrologic events, we monitored ravines over the course of one monitoring season. From April-October 2013, three Sigma 930 automated samplers measured discharge and collected water samples for total suspended sediment analysis at three sites in two ravines. We tested whether the volume, intensity or seasonality of precipitation events is most important in mobilizing sediment in the ravines. Data are being analyzed to calculate sediment budgets and identify key hydrologic factors that control sediment movement out of these ravines and into the river.

Choquette, A. W.; Triplett, L.; Gran, K. B.



The role of cornice fall avalanche sedimentation in the valley Longyeardalen, Central Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arctic and alpine high relief landscapes snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass wasting processes of rock slopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in Central Svalbard. Both slope systems are situated on NW-facing lee slopes underneath large summit plateau, where cornices form annually, and high frequency and magnitude cornice fall avalanching is observed by daily automatic time-lapse photography. In addition, rock debris sedimentation by these cornice fall avalanches was measured directly in either permanent sediment traps or by snow inventories. The results from a maximum of 7 yr of measurements in a total of 13 catchments show maximum avalanche sedimentation rates ranging from 8.2 to 38.7 kg m-2 at Nybyen and from 0.8 to 55.4 kg m-2 at Larsbreen. Correspondingly, the avalanche fan-surfaces accreted annually in a~maximum range from 3.7 to 13 mm yr-1 at Nybyen and from 0.3 to 21.4 mm yr-1 at Larsbreen. This comparably efficient rock slope mass wasting is due to collapsing cornices producing cornice fall avalanche with high rock debris content throughout the entire winter. The rock debris of different origin stems from the plateau crests, the adjacent free rock face and the transport pathway, accumulating distinct avalanche fans at both slope systems and contributing to the development of a rock glacier at the Larsbreen slope system.

Eckerstorfer, M.; Christiansen, H. H.; Rubensdotter, L.; Vogel, S.



Error and Uncertainty in High-resolution Quantitative Sediment Budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment budgets are a fundamental tool in fluvial geomorphology. The power of the sediment budget is in the explicit coupling of sediment flux and sediment storage through the Exner equation for bed sediment conservation. Thus, sediment budgets may be calculated either from the divergence of the sediment flux or from measurements of morphologic change. Until recently, sediment budgets were typically calculated using just one of these methods, and often with sparse data. Recent advances in measurement methods for sediment transport have made it possible to measure sediment flux at much higher temporal resolution, while advanced methods for high-resolution topographic and bathymetric mapping have made it possible to measure morphologic change with much greater spatial resolution. Thus, it is now possible to measure all terms of a sediment budget and more thoroughly evaluate uncertainties in measurement methods and sampling strategies. However, measurements of sediment flux and morphologic change involve different types of uncertainty that are encountered over different time and space scales. Three major factors contribute uncertainty to sediment budgets computed from measurements of sediment flux. These are measurement error, the accumulation of error over time, and physical processes that cause systematic bias. In the absence of bias, uncertainty is proportional to measurement error and the ratio of fluxes at the two measurement stations. For example, if the ratio between measured sediment fluxes is more than 0.8, measurement uncertainty must be less than 10 percent in order to calculate a meaningful sediment budget. Systematic bias in measurements of flux can introduce much larger uncertainty. The uncertainties in sediment budgets computed from morphologic measurements fall into three similar categories. These are measurement error, the spatial and temporal propagation of error, and physical processes that cause bias when measurements are interpolated or extrapolated. Unlike measurements of sediment flux, measurements of topographic change are independent of the total flux. In the absence of bias, uncertainty in a morphologic sediment budget is proportional only to the measurement error and the change in average elevation over the budget area. The greatest potential source of uncertainty is introduced by sampling design and the extrapolation of a budget from short to longer reaches. We illustrate these sources of uncertainty and their effect on sediment budget computations with examples from the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, where we have high-resolution measurements of both sediment flux and morphologic change.

Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.; Yackulic, C. B.



Evaluation of the AnnAGNPS model for predicting runoff and sediment yield in a small Mediterranean agricultural watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four experimental watersheds with contrasting land uses located in Navarre (Spain), and maintained by the local government have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). As a result, a detailed description and a general characterization of the hydrological and erosion behaviour of these watersheds were published recently by the same authors of this current research. This information is of great utility for evaluation of modelling tools; however, we have been done few efforts until now in this research line. The Annualized Agricultural Non Point Source Pollution Model (AnnAGNPS) is a well known and widely used model developed by the USDA-ARS and the USDA- NRCS, to assess the hydrologic and water quality responses of watersheds. More precisely, it is a distributed parameter, physically based, continuous simulation, and daily time step model. The purpose of this study is then to evaluate the AnnAGNPS model capability to simulate runoff and sediment yield with data sets from one of our agricultural watershed: Latxaga. Latxaga watershed covers an area of 207 ha and is located in the central eastern part of Navarre. Its climate is humid Sub-Mediterranean, with an average annual precipitation of 835 mm, and an average annual temperature of 12.8 °C. Geologically, the area is underlined by clay marls and sandstones. Prevailing soils are alkaline with a fine texture top-layer. Regarding land use, 80-90% of the total area is cultivated with winter grain crops. The model was calibrated using two years (2003 and 2004) of continuous 10-min/daily data, whereas another whole year (2005) was used for model validation. The calibration process was carried out by modifying Curve Number (CN) values obtained by standard procedure. CN represents a key factor in obtaining accurate prediction of runoff and sediment yield; besides it is the most important input parameter to which the runoff is sensitive. The target variable was total annual runoff and its temporal evolution during each year. Model performance assessment after calibration was carried out by qualitative (by visual comparison of graphics) and quantitative approaches (using Nash and Sutcliffe's coefficient of efficiency E for monthly values, coefficient of determination R2 and coefficient of residual mass CRM). The initial values of CN, unique for each land use, were modified; in spite of achieving a satisfactory capability in simulating runoff/sediment yield, CN was anyway splitted up, adjusting the values to the main different stages of each crop. In that way, the model performance dramatically improved. Then, the predicted and measured annual average runoff after calibration were respectively 70.17 and 70.78 mm/ha/year, with R2= 0.78 and E = 0.77. However, annual sediment yields and peak flows were over predicted respectively by 42% and 26%. Sediment yield were over estimated especially during dry season and the beginning of wet season where (sometimes) some runoff was predicted even though none was in fact recorded. This suggests that during summer/autumn period the hydrologic component of the model was not able to satisfactorily reproduce the interaction between the drier antecedent conditions/high water holding capacity of soils before any event and the small total volume -though high intensity- of the rainfalls. Regarding model validation, a satisfactory estimation of runoff with E> 0.57 was also obtained. Finally, it can be stated that AnnAGNPS arises as a promising management tool for our agricultural watersheds.

Chahor, Youssef; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel; Giménez, Rafael; Campo, Miguel A.; Del Valle de Lersundi, Jokin



Integrating the Chemical Fluxes of Transported Sediments in Large Rivers: AN Attempt on the Ganga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large rivers are the main conveyors of continental material to the oceans through sediment and dissolved fluxes. The redistribution of elements is fundamental in Earth surface processes and central in various biogeochemical cycles. The nature of the exported continental material is a function of the processes operating in the river’s catchment. From external forcings such as climate, tectonics or anthropogenic activity, having a strong control on erosion and weathering, to transport dynamics and sediment storage in flood plain, chemical elements are segregated from source to sink. Evaluating the composition of the exported sediments is thus essential in our understanding of large scale processes. This raises the problem of integrating the sediments chemical composition both spatially in a river section and temporally during the hydrogram. Efforts have been made to precisely determine de total flux of transported material of major world rivers but the determination of associated chemical solid fluxes is still limited. Also it is now recognized that surface sediments composition does not reflect in most cases the average sediment composition (Galy et al. 2007; Bouchez et al. in press). Nevertheless, global chemical budgets still rely on simple averaging of the available data counting mainly on surface sediment samples. Hydrodynamic sorting of minerals exerts a first order control on the chemistry of sediments in the water column, segregating elements according to the flow dynamics and the water depth. This has to be accounted for in order to derive accurate chemical fluxes. This work is an attempt to integrate the chemical flux of the sediments transported by the Ganga. The river was sampled at various stages of the monsoon at the same location in Bangladesh between 2004 and 2010 using a point sampler to collect sediments throughout the water column. Sediments were analyzed for major elements and grain-size. The systematic use of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) surveys during sampling allows us to document the hydrodynamic conditions at the sampling location. Building upon a Rousean model we are able to predict the grain size of the vertical water column and extrapolate it through the river section. Then, using the strong correlation between grain size parameters and major element composition (Al, Si, Fe) we infer the chemical flux associated with the river section. Extrapolating these fluxes through the annual hydrologic cycle we attempt to constrain the chemical flux of the sediments exported by the Ganga. The chemical composition of this exported material is finally compared to the composition of the Himalayan crust. The significant difference between these two compositions is principally interpreted as the result of the sequestration of coarse silicic material in the flood plain. J. Bouchez et al. in press, Hydrological Processes V. Galy et al., 2007, Nature 450 : 407-411

France-Lanord, C.; Lupker, M.; Lavé, J.; Bouchez, J.; Galy, V.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.



ORIGINAL PAPER How well do sediment indicators record past climate?  

E-print Network

is correlated with mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and the index of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO-AET and low PDSI. d18 Oc also exhibits striking correspondence with the index of Pacific Decadal Oscillation sediment Á Climate reconstruction Á Pacific Decadal Oscillation Á Oxygen isotopes Á Biogenic silica Á Varve

Hu, Feng Sheng


RIVER3: Simulation of river discharge and sediment transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIVER3 is an ANSI standard FORTRAN-77 numerical model that simulates the discharge and sediment load of rivers. From basic data on climate, hinterland geometry, and river characteristics, the model predicts four contributions to river flow (nival melt, ice melt, rainfall, and groundwater). Input parameters include annual rainfall and snowfall, seasonal evaporation, days per month with measurable rainfall, days per month

J. P. M. Syvitski; J. M. Alcott




EPA Science Inventory

Sediments and/or fish were collected from Sardis, Enid and Grenada Lakes, which are located in three different watersheds in North Mississippi, in order to assess mercury contamination. The mean total mercury concentration in sediments from Enid Lake in 1997 was 0.154 mg Hg/kg, w...


Glacial marine sedimentation: Paleoclimatic significance  

SciTech Connect

This publication resulted from a symposium held during the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America. Many, but not all, contributors to the symposium have papers in this volume. This Special Paper consists of 14 chapters and a Subject/Geographic index. Each chapter has is own list of references. The papers cover a wide range of modem climate/ ocean environments, including papers on glacial marine sediments from Antarctica, the fiords of Alaska, and sediments from the Canadian High Arctic. In addition, three papers discuss [open quote]old[close quotes] glacial marine records (i.e., pre-Tertiary), and one paper discusses the Yakataga Formation of the Gulf of Alaska which is a Miocene-to-late-Pleistocene sequence. The last chapter in the book includes a survey and summary of the evidence for the paleoclimatic significance of glacial marine sediments by the two editors, John Anderson and Gail Ashley. It is worth noting that Anderson and Domack state in the Foreword that there is a considerable variation in terminology; hence they employ a series of definitions which they urge the other authors to employ. They define and explain what they mean by [open quotes]polar ice cap,[close quotes] [open quote]polar tundra (subpolar),[close quotes] and [open quotes]temperate oceanic and boreal[close quotes] in terms of the dominant glacial and glacial marine processes. Although one might quarrel with the terminology, the broad differences between these three glaciological regimes are indeed fundamental and need to be sought in the geological record. The flavor of the volume can be judged by some of the chapter titles. Contributions on Antarctica include a paper by Anderson and other entitled [open quote]Sedimentary facies associated with Antarctica's floating ice masses[close quotes] and a companion paper by Anderson and Domack which deals with the extremely complex glacial marine facies (13 facies are delimited) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

Anderson, J.B.; Ashley, G.M. (eds.)



Sedimentation survey of Lago Loíza, Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico, July 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lago Loíza is a reservoir formed at the confluence of Río Gurabo and Río Grande de Loíza in the municipality of Trujillo Alto in central Puerto Rico, about 10 kilometers (km) north of the town of Caguas, about 9 km northwest of Gurabo, and about 3 km south of Trujillo Alto (fig. 1). The Carraizo Dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), and was constructed in 1953 as a water-supply reservoir for the San Juan Metropolitan area. The dam is a concrete gravity structure that is located in a shallow valley and has a gently sloping left abutment and steep right abutment. Non-overflow sections flank the spillway section. Waterways include an intake structure for the pumping station and power plant, sluiceways, a trash sluice, and a spillway. The reservoir was built to provide a storage capacity of 26.8 million cubic meters (Mm3) of water at the maximum pool elevation of 41.14 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl) for the Sergio Cuevas Filtration Plant that serves the San Juan metropolitan area. The reservoir has a drainage area of 538 square kilometers (km2) and receives an annual mean rainfall that ranges from 1,600 to 5,000 millimeters per year (mm/yr). The principal streams that drain into Lago Loíza are the Río Grande de Loíza, Río Gurabo, and Río Cañas. Two other rivers, the Río Bairoa and Río Cagüitas, discharge into the Río Grande de Loíza just before it enters the reservoir. The combined mean annual runoff of the Río Grande de Loíza and the Río Gurabo for the 1960–2009 period of record is 323 Mm3. Flow from these streams constitutes about 89 percent of the total mean annual inflow of 364 Mm3 to the reservoir (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009). Detailed information about Lago Loíza reservoir structures, historical sediment accumulation, and a dredge conducted in 1999 are available in Soler-López and Gómez-Gómez (2005). During July 8–15, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center (CWSC), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Loíza to update the reservoir storage capacity and estimate the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2009 data with the previous 2004 bathymetric survey data. The purpose of this report is to document the methods used to update and present the results of the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 2004.

Soler-López, Luis R.; Licha-Soler, N.A.



Predictings Sediment Loading into Masinga Reservoir and its Storage Capacity Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that the annual loss in storage capacity of the world's reservoirs due to sedimentation is around 0.5 - 1.0%. For many reservoirs, however, annual depletion rates are much higher and can go up to 4% or 5%, such that they lose the majority of their capacity after only 25 - 30 years. The Masinga reservoir, one of

Benedict M. Mutua; Andreas Klik; Willibald Loiskandl


Sedimentation and particle dynamics in the seasonal ice zone of the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barents Sea seasonal ice zone (SIZ) is one of the most dynamic areas in the world ocean. This biologically productive area undergoes extreme intra- and inter-annual variabilities in sea ice and water mass transport properties. Here, we investigate seafloor burial processes in three regions of the SIZ with different ice-cover frequencies: predominantly open water (POW), marginally ice-covered (MIC), and predominantly ice-covered (PIC) with approximately 0, 10 and 50% sea ice cover, respectively, in 2002-2003. Down-core sediment profiles of the radionuclides 234Th, 210Pb, and 137Cs, along with sediment carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are examined in two to three cores from each region. Sedimentation rates and velocities using 210Pb ex (excess 210Pb) profiles and assuming negligible mixing below a surface mixed layer are relatively uniform throughout the study area, averaging 558 ± 154 g m - 2 y - 1 and 1.1 ± 0.4 mm y - 1 ( n = 7). These sedimentation velocities are confirmed using 137Cs (1.0 ± 0.4 mm y - 1 , n = 7). 234Th ex (excess 234Th) derived bioturbation rates are positively correlated with number of benthic individuals per 0.5 m 2 ( R2 = 0.83) and exhibit a pattern of higher rates in the MIC (14.5 ± 2.1 cm - 2 y - 1) relative to both the POW (6.3 ± 2.2 cm - 2 y - 1) and PIC (5.3 ± 1.2 cm - 2 y - 1) ( p < 0.01). 234Th ex inventories are also significantly higher ( p = 0.026) within the MIC, while both 210Pb ex and 137Cs sediment inventories are more regionally uniform. Furthermore, organic carbon (C org) and total nitrogen (N tot) concentrations are relatively high in both the MIC and PIC compared to POW. For this limited data set, higher bioturbation rate coefficients and higher 234Th ex sediment inventories in the MIC relative to the other sampled regions, suggest that the MIC exhibits a greater predominance of marine versus terrestrial sediment sources that support enhanced scavenging and benthic biological activity. These results suggest that a climate-driven northward shift in sea ice will result in a corresponding shift in benthic communities that currently depend upon surface derived fluxes of organic matter associated with the present-day location of the ice edge in the Barents Sea.

Maiti, Kanchan; Carroll, JoLynn; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.



Sediment storage dam: A structural gully erosion control and sediment trapping measure, northern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy, productive land, Ethiopia

Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen



Partitioning of Heavy Metals In Estuarine Sediments Cores and Implications For The Use of Sediment Quality Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total metal concentrations and partitioning behaviour of metal contaminants in sedi- ment cores collected from three estuaries (Thames, Medway and Blackwater) in south east England were examined with respect to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Metal data from surface sediments were compared with historically contaminated sed- iments at depth to determine whether vertical contaminant profiles should be consid- ered when applying

K. Spencer; C. MacLeod



Global carbon cycles: A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sediment model  

SciTech Connect

A simple one-dimensional advective-diffusive ocean model with a polar outcrop is developed and calibrated to fit modern ocean temperature, phosphorus, oxygen, total carbon, and total alkalinity data. The ocean model includes an atmospheric box which predicts atmospheric P[sub CO2] and oxygen concentrations. In addition, a sediment model is designed to reproduce modern sediment profiles of solid organic carbon and calcite, and pore water oxygen, sulfate, carbonate bicarbonate and carbon dioxide. The organic matter sediment model is used to investigate the interplay of sedimentation rate, bioturbation and microbial kinetics on the total rates of organic carbon and phosphorus regeneration and accumulation in marine sediments. This is done for sediments ranging from coastal to deep ocean. The model is sensitive to the organic carbon flux, sedimentation rate, bottom water oxygen concentration, degradation kinetics and bioturbation rate. The type of diagenetic environment and the extent of remineralization is very dependent on these variables which are currently poorly constrained. The carbonate model uses organic carbon, oxygen and sulfate profiles from the organic sediment as input in addition to the total carbon and alkalinity of the overlying water. It predicts the carbonate, bicarbonate and carbon dioxide pore water concentrations and the sedimentary carbonate fraction. The lysocline and carbonate compensation depth are sensitive to the calcite dissolution rate, the organic to inorganic carbon ratio and organic matter degradation. The sediment and ocean models are combined to form an atmosphere-ocean-sediment model which is used to test the hypothesis that decreased polar surface nutrients and carbon is the cause of the 80 ppm reduction in atmospheric P[sub CO2] observed during the last ice age. The coupled model suggests that sediments play an important role in the global carbon budget.

Tromp, T.K.



Remineralization Uptake Sediment Release  

E-print Network

Mortality Egestion Egestion Grazing Mortality Decomp. Silicate Large Phytoplankton Small Phytoplankton Large Sediment Release Photosynthesis Mortality Grazing Grazing Grazing Mortality Mortality Egestion Egestion

NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events


Uncertainty Analysis of Reservoir Sedimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances have been made in understanding the importance of the factors involved in reservoir sedimentation. However, predicting the accumulation of sediment in a reservoir is still a complex problem. In estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation, a number of uncertainties arise. These are related to quantity of streamflow, sediment load, sediment particle size, and specific weight, trap efficiency, and reservoir

Jose D. Salas; Hyun-Suk Shin



Reservoir Sedimentation Management in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce and remove reservoir sedimentation for sustainable use, different sediment control measures have been developed and used in Asia. This paper is to review the reservoir sedimentation status in the Asian nations and also to describe the sedimentation management experience in China, India and Japan. The sedimentation control measures at the Dujiangyan, Three Gorge Project and Tianjiawan

Jian Liu; Bingyi Liu; Kazuo Ashida


Spatial distribution of gamma radioactivity levels and radiological hazard indices in the East Coastal sediments of Tamilnadu, India with statistical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural and artificial radionuclide pollutants of the marine environment have been recognized as a serious environmental concern. The natural radioactivity levels in beach sediment samples collected from Thazhankuda (Cuddalore) to Kodiyakkarai along East Coast of Tamilnadu have been determined. Sediment sample were collected by a Peterson grab sampler from 10 m water depths parallel to the shore line. The grab sampler collects 10 cm thick bottom sediment layer from the seabed along the 20 stations. The radioactivities of 20 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The average specific activities for 238U, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 3.67, 37.23 and 387.17 Bq kg-1 respectively. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different countries. It shows that the average activity of 238U and 40K is lower whereas 232Th is slightly greater than the compared worldwide average value. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the study area was estimated by different approaches such as the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), absorbed dose rate (DR), hazard indices, the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) are compared with the international recommended values. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from the radioactivity to know the existing relations and to study the spatial distribution of radionuclide.

Ravisankar, R.; Sivakumar, S.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Prince Prakash Jebakumar, J.; Vijayalakshmi, I.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.



Quantifying fluvial sediment transport in a mountain catchment (Schöttlbach, Styria) using sediment impact sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment transport in river systems, being the output of geomorphic processes in the catchment, is a recurrent problem for geomorphological sediment budget studies, natural hazard assessment and river engineering. Sediment budgets of alpine catchments are likely to be modified by changing total precipitation and the probability of heavy precipitation events in the context of climate change, even if projections of precipitation change for Austria and the entire Alpine region are still very uncertain. Effective sediment management requires profound knowledge on the sediment cascade in the head-waters. However, bedload measurements at alpine rivers or torrents are rare; in Styria, they are altogether missing. Due to a three hour heavy rainfall event on 07-Jul 2011, which caused cata-strophic flooding with massive damage in the city of Oberwölz and its surrounding, we chose the catchment area of the Schöttlbach in the upper Mur river valley in Styria (Austria) as our study area. In the framework of the ClimCatch project, we intend to develop a conceptual model of coupled and decoupled sediment routing to quantify the most prominent sediment fluxes and sediment sinks, combining up-to-date geomorphological and river engineering techniques. Repeated Airborne Laser Scans will provide an overview of ongoing processes, diachronous TLS surveys (cut-and-fill analysis), ground-penetrating radar and 2D-geoelectric surveys should quantity the most important mass fluxes on the slopes and in the channels and derive a quantitative sediment budget, including the volume of temporary sediment stores. Besides quantifying slope processes, sediment sinks and total sediment output, the sediment trans-port in the torrents is of particular interest. We use sediment impact sensors (SIS) which were in-stalled in several river sections in the main stretch of the Schöttlbach and in its tributaries. The SIS mainly consists of two parts connected by a coated cable, the steel shell with the sensor mounted in the riverbed and the logger-case nearby the river. The number of clast impacts is recorded through an acceleration sensor installed underneath a steel plate. This type of sensor was developed by Richardson et al. and later applied e.g. by Raven et al. and Rickenmann & Fritschi. However, this device does not supply volumetric information of sediment flux. For data on sediment volumes we are monitoring the sediment retention dam at the outlet of the Schöttlbach using repeated TLS sur-veys. Our measurements focus on the representative sub-catchments and will deliver values on the in- and output of river sections. Tests and calibration are carried out in an artificial channel at the Water Engineering laboratory of the TU Graz; the sensors are sensitive enough to record impacts of parti-cles > 5 mm. Further calibrations are carried out in the field using mobile basket samplers. The SIS were installed in winter 2012/13. First results allow us to derive the start of sediment transport in dependence of precipitation or water level, respectively. ClimCatch should find out where the sediments of the Schöttlbach catchment actually derive from, which geomorphic processes are the most important in our study area and which catchment areas are significant for the overall sediment output.

Stangl, Johannes; Sass, Oliver; Schneider, Josef; Harb, Gabriele



Annual cycle in co-located in situ, total-column, and height-resolved aerosol observations in the Po Valley (Italy): Implications for ground-level particulate matter mass concentration estimation from remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing represents a prospective tool to complement in situ measurements for monitoring particulate matter air pollution. The remotely sensed aerosol metric which is generally related to the in situ measured particulate matter mass concentration (PM) is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), the vertically integrated aerosol extinction that optically quantifies the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Annual variations in AOT and PM can follow very different patterns, indicating that the AOT-to-PM conversion is not straightforward. In the Po Valley, northern Italy, AOT and PM seasonal cycles exhibit a marked phase shift. Making use of aerosol extinction vertical profiles derived from continuous aerosol lidar measurements, we further searched through the AOT-to-PM10 relationship in this region. On the basis of a 2-year (2006-2007) multisensor database, including remote sensing observations from ground and space and in situ measurements, this study: (1) discloses for the first time the height-resolved seasonal variability of the aerosol optical properties in the Po Valley, (2) demonstrates and quantifies the crucial role of the aerosol vertical distribution in the AOT-to-PM relationship in this region, (3) suggests a methodology to rescale AOT to ground-level aerosol extinction values that correlate with PM concentration and from which PM10 annual average and exceedances frequency of daily limit value can be retrieved within a few percentage points, and (4) highlights that the hygroscopic growth of the particles in the atmosphere is a critical factor for comparing in situ-measured to remotely sensed aerosol properties.

Barnaba, F.; Putaud, J. P.; Gruening, C.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dos Santos, S.



Characteristics of suspended sediment in the San Juan River near Bluff, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluvial-sediment data were collected for the San Juan River near Bluff beginning in 1914 and terminating in 1980. A double-mass curve showed a change in relationship between annual suspended-sediment discharge and annual stream discharge between the water years 1941-44 and 73. Possible causes for these changes in laboratory procedures, and unusually large runoff that occurred in 1941 and 1972. An unknown or unidentified factor may also be involved. The actual reason for this change in relationship may never be fully understood. Navajo Dam apparently has had no significant effect on fluvial sediment at the sampling site. Mean annual suspended sediment discharge in the San Juan River near Bluff was about 25,410,000 tons ranging from 3,234,000 tons in 1978 to 112,400,000 tons in 1941. The use of annual stream discharge to predict annual suspended-sediment discharge at the site will produce poor results because of size and diversity of the basin and the quality of records available. A positive correlation exists between sand concentration and stream discharge at this site, however, considerable variability is evident. This relationship does not exist when stream discharge exceeds 6,000 cubic feet per second. It is recommended that if collection of suspended-sediment records be resumed in this reach of the river an alternative sampling site should be selected and the use of pumping samplers considered because of the remoteness of the area. (USGS)

Thompson, K. R.; Mundorff, J. C.



Seasonal Dynamics of Sublittoral Meiobenthos in Relation to Phytoplankton Sedimentation in the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meiobenthic metazoans (40-500) ?m were sampled monthly at a 37 m deep station in the north-western Baltic Sea proper. Nematodes dominated the meiofauna, ranging from 67% of total abundance in February to 91% in September. Harpacticoid copepods were the second most common group, ranging from 2% in September to 15% in February. Total meiofauna shell-free dry weight biomass was lowest in winter (0·9 mg 10 cm -2in January), and increased rapidly following the spring bloom, to high values in May-July (peak 1·7 mg 10 cm -2in July). As an annual average, ostracods contributed most to biomass, 38%, while nematodes and harpacticoids made up 24 and 15%, respectively. Only nematodes were common below 2 cm depth in the sediment, and few nematodes penetrated below 4 cm. Of Wieser's morphologically based nematode feeding groups, epistrate feeders dominated the surface sediment, and non-selective deposit feeders dominated the deeper layer in May. Total nematode abundance was significantly different among dates, with lowest numbers in winter and spring (October-April), and almost doubled within about 2 months after the spring phytoplankton bloom in March. There was a significant increase in selective deposit feeders and epistrate feeders after the spring bloom. Harpacticoid copepods were almost all of two species, Pseudobradyasp. and Microarthridion littorale, both of which differed significantly in abundance among months, and displayed continuous reproduction throughout the year, with a peak in pairs in precopula in winter for Pseudobradyasp. and in ovigerous females in M. littoraleafter the spring bloom. Pseudobradyawas significantly more numerous in winter than in other seasons. Microarthridion littoralehad its highest abundance from July to October. Three species of ostracods were common throughout the year and all differed significantly in numbers among months. Turbellaria, Kinorhyncha were found in lowest numbers during winter and peaked in summer. The peak of newly settled Macoma balthicaspat in June disappeared rapidly, as predicted from laboratory experiments showing they are eaten by amphipods. The results support the hypothesis that meiobenthic animals react in two ways to phytoplankton sedimentation, with surface feeders directly assimilating sedimented phytoplankton, and increasing markedly following the spring bloom, while subsurface feeders experience a more stable food supply, and rely only indirectly on sedimented phytoplankton.

Ólafsson, E.; Elmgren, R.



Sediment Sources and Storage in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically and chemically, sediment is a pollutant of concern in many waterbodies. In the Chesapeake Bay, sediment is having an adverse effect on the living resources and habitat of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. Identifying significant sources of watershed sediment is important in reducing sediment loads. In the Chesapeake Bay, several approaches were used to understand the sources, transport, and storage of watershed-derived sediment. From 1985 through 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey collected suspended sediment at 35 stations draining portions of the 103,000 km2 Chesapeake Bay. Of the 35 sites, 4 of the 6 highest sediment yields were in the Conestoga River Basin, Pennsylvania, which drains to the Susquehanna River. In the Susquehanna River Basin (43,600 km2), erosion rates were determined using atmospheric 10Be at 92 river outlets and confirmed that the highest rates of erosion were in the Conestoga River Basin. In three small watersheds draining to the Chesapeake Bay -- the Pocomoke River (157 km2), Little Conestoga Creek (68.1 km2), and Mattawoman Creek (92.8 km2) -- sediment sources were identified using a sediment-source identification approach. In this approach, the sources of fine-grained suspended sediment in transport can be established by comparing physical and chemical properties of the suspended sediment to potential sources. In this study, suspended sediment (< 0.062 mm) collected during storm runoff was compared to upland sediment sources (cropland, construction sites, and forest) and channel corridor sources (channel banks and bed) using radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs), stable isotopes (13C, 15N), and total C, N, and P. Preliminary results are available for two of the three watersheds. In the Pocomoke River watershed, which drains the Coastal Plain physiographic province, ditch beds which were dug to drain cropland were a significant source of sediment. In the Little Conestoga Creek watershed, which drains the Piedmont physiographic province, river banks and cropland were significant sources.

Gellis, A. C.; Landwehr, J. M.; Pavich, M.; Hupp, C. R.; Ritchie, J. C.



Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and early summer (June through July), with fall (October through November) and early winter (December through January) contributing the smallest loadings. The Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region had some substantial loading in September. There was a similar pattern for total phosphorus loading in all regions, with the pattern somewhat less pronounced in urban watersheds. As with the loading results, average monthly streamflow values were greatest in late winter, spring, and early summer, with the lowest values typically in fall and early winter. Loading contributions were greater from stormflow than from base flow in all instances, except total phosphorus in the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region, which had equal or greater base-flow contribution for several months. Base flow constituted a greater percentage of the total streamflow than stormflow in all rural watersheds for all regions. Only a few storms each year dominated the annual loading totals for solids and total phosphorus. When daily loading values were ranked for the year, all regions reached 50 percent of the annual solids loading in the 5 highest loading days and nearly 50 percent of the annual total phosphorus loading in the 14 highest loading days.

Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.



Determining the Sediment Budget of the Lower Hudson River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment is a major component of the Hudson River Estuary, constantly being resuspended and deposited. The Lower Hudson River is heavily dredged due to its use as a shipping lane for large vessels traversing through the harbor. A detailed sediment budget is key for management of the estuary including development, optimizing dredging, restoration, and mitigating future sea-level changes. However, it has been difficult to produce a detailed sediment budget due to the large amounts of data required to obtain a reputable value and account for spatial variability. Thus, previous budget estimates were based on approximations of input and output of material The Hudson River Benthic Mapping Project, which was funded by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, resulted in a comprehensive data set that includes a dense network of subbottom profiles and over 400 sediment cores from the Hudson River Estuary. Using industrial seismic interpretation software and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, we identified the thickness and distribution of 20th century sediment deposition by mapping the sediment layer with elevated levels of anthropogenic lead, which is a characteristic for sediment deposition since 1920/1930. This 20th century sediment are of special concern because of the high amounts of contaminants that were being introduced into the estuary during this time. By combining analysis of different sections of the estuary, we are able to quantify the amount of 20th century deposition between Poughkeepsie and the New York Harbor and demonstrate that a detailed sediment budget can be obtained. This analysis reveals that ~35,000,000 cubic meters of sediment has been deposited in the study area during the last 70-80 years, which corresponds to an annual deposition of 450,000 - 500,000 cubic meters. Following this analysis, we aim to obtain a sediment mass and compare our results with other estimates that were taken in the past.

Prugue, R.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.




EPA Science Inventory

Two freshwater sediments containing 3 and 11% total organic carbon (TOC) were spiked with DDT and endrin to compare the effects of cold (4C) and frozen (-20C) storage of the sediment on toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca in lO-d tests. oxicity of the DDT-spiked sediment was...


Bioturbation: minimal effects on the magnetic fabric of some natural and experimental sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic fabric measurements have been performed on three suites of sediment samples to contrast biologically disturbed and undisturbed sediments. The first of these analyses includes samples from laminated, relatively undisturbed and bioturbated, totally disturbed horizons found in an Athabasca Oil Sand core. The second includes samples from biologically undisturbed sediments from Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. The third includes evaluation of

Brooks B. Ellwood



Sediment yield in eastern Montana; summary of data and proposed techniques for estimating sediment yields from small, ungaged watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment-yield data for 121 sites in eastern Montana have been compiled from results of studies conducted by various Federal, State, and private agencies. Methods used to determine mean annual sediment yields included reservoir sedimentation surveys, suspended-sediment sampling in streams, and estimates of gross erosion and indirect estimation based on physical characteristics of the basin. Multiple-regression equations were developed and evaluated for their adequacy in estimating mean annual sediment yields from small, ungaged watersheds in eastern Montana. Sediment yields determined from reservoir surveys were used as the dependent variable because they were considered the most representative of long-term yields. Independent variables consisted of basin characteristics which could be measured from maps or obtained from published sources. Consequently, equations developed in this study do not require onsite data. Evaluation of equations indicated that the best prediction capability was obtained when reservoir basins were segregated into classes of similar vegetation/soil complex. The predictive capability of regression equations developed for each of three classes of vegetation/soil complex, as indicated by the coefficient of determination (R2), ranged from 0.59 to 0.96. Corresponding standard errors ranged from 95 to 20 percent. The equations are applicable for small drainage basins of 2 square miles or less within the study area. (USGS)

Lambing, J. H.



Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Yield With Probability Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

ment record. The tested combinations of estimation technique and data collection method ranged from 70% below to 40% above the true value. Most of the estimates were less than 60% of the correct value. The variance of the estimators tended to increase as the accuracy improved, thus cancelling the benefits, and no approach emerged as the ideal choice for all

Robert B. Thomas



Micro-facies of Dead Sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lacustrine sediments infilling the Dead Sea basin (DSB) provide a rare opportunity to trace changing climates in the eastern Mediterranean-Levant region throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. In this context, high-resolution investigation of changes in sediment micro- facies allow deciphering short-term climatic fluctuations and changing environmental conditions in the Levant. The Dead Sea is a terminal lake with one of the largest drainage areas in the Levant, located in the Mediterranean climate zone and influenced also by the Saharo-Arabian deserts. Due to drastic climatic changes in this region, an exceptionally large variety of lacustrine sediments has been deposited in the DSB. These sediments, partially the results of changing lake levels, primarily represent changes in precipitation (e.g. Enzel et al., 2008). Evaporites (halite and gypsum) reflect dry climatic conditions during interglacials, while alternated aragonite-detritus (AAD) is deposited during glacial lake level high-stands. Here we present the first micro-facies inventory of a ~450 m long sediment profile from the deepest part of the northern DSB (ICDP site 5017-1, ~300 m water depth). The sediment record comprises the last two glacial-interglacial cycles, with mainly AAD facies in the upper part of the Amora Formation (penultimate glacial) and the last glacial Lisan Formation. The last interglacial Samra and the Holocene Zeelim Formations are predominantly characterized by thick bedded halite deposits, intercalated by partly laminated detrital marl sequences. Representative sections of the different facies types have been analyzed for micro-facies on petrographic thin sections, supported by high-resolution µXRF element scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements and microscopic fluorescence analysis. Furthermore, Holocene sediments retrieved at the deep basin core site have been compared to their shallow-water counterpart at the western margin of the lake (core DSEn; Migowski et al., 2004, 2006). Combining micro-facies analyses of these shallow and deep basin environments allows depicting sedimentation processes and is a key for understanding climatically-induced sediment formation in the DSB at sub-annual timescales. Enzel et al., 2008. Global and Planetary Change 60, 165-192. Migowski et al., 2004. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222, 301-314. Migowski et al., 2006. Quaternary Research 66 (3), 421-431.

Neugebauer, Ina; Schwab, Markus J.; Brauer, Achim; Frank, Ute; Dulski, Peter; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Enzel, Yehouda; Waldmann, Nicolas; Ariztegui, Daniel; Drilling Party, Dsddp



Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Ghar El Melh lagoon, Tunisia.  


The concentrations of 20 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 12 superficial sediments collected from The Ghar El Melh lagoon. Sediment samples were extracted by Soxhlet and analyzed by Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The concentrations of PCBs, as sum of the 20 congeners, ranged from not detected to 3.987 ng/g on a dry weight basis, with a predominance of highly chlorinated (penta- and hepta-chlorobiphenyls) congeners. No significant correlation was found between the total PCB concentrations and organic carbon content suggesting that sediment organic carbon content did not play an important role in controlling the PCBs levels in the sediments. PCB levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism. The PCBs concentrations were lower than ERM and ERL values for all the collected samples. PMID:21465108

Ameur, W Ben; Trabelsi, S; El Bedoui, B; Driss, M R



Globorotalia truncatulinoides (dextral) Mg/Ca as a proxy for Gulf of Mexico winter mixed-layer temperature: evidence from a sediment trap in the northern Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three years of weekly- to biweekly-resolved sediment-trap data show that almost 90% of the total flux of tests of the planktic foraminifer Globorotalia truncatulinoides to sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurs in January and February. Comparison of ?18O from tests of non-encrusted Gl. truncatulinoides in sediment-trap samples with calculated calcification depths indicates that the non-encrusted individuals secrete their test in the winter surface-mixed layer, most likely at the bottom of the surface mixed zone. Mg/Ca-temperature estimates from non-encrusted Gl. truncatulinoides in sediment-trap samples are consistent with observed temperatures at the calcification depths inferred from the ?18O data. In contrast, Mg/Ca-temperature estimates from encrusted Gl. truncatulinoides in sediment-trap samples indicate the crust is formed in cooler (deeper) waters. A preliminary study in a core recovered near the sediment-trap site demonstrates that non-encrusted and encrusted forms of Gl. truncatulinoides in sediment samples show a similar offset in Mg/Ca values as observed in sediment-trap samples. A short (~ 100 years) Mg/Ca record from non-encrusted Gl. truncatulinoides indicates a warming trend that coincides with a warming trend in mean-annual sea-surface temperature recorded by Mg/Ca in Globigerinoides ruber (white) from the same core. These findings suggest Mg/Ca from non-encrusted Gl. truncatulinoides has clear potential as a proxy for past winter mixed-layer temperature.

Spear, Jessica W.; Poore, Richard Z.; Quinn, Terrence M.



Lake acidification: it's effect on lead in the sediment of two Adirondack lakes  

SciTech Connect

Sediment cores from two remote lakes, Sagamore and Woods (Adirondack State Park, New York), were analyzed for lead. A marked increase was found in the top 10 cm of the sediment of both lakes. The effect of lake acidification on the release of lead from the sediments was determined in laboratory studies. Significant lead desorption (>5% of the total) only occurred at a pH <3.0 in sediment from Woods Lake and <2.0 in sediment from Lake Sagamore. Since the pH of the two lakes is always >4.4, lead is not being released from the sediments.

Davis, A.O.; Galloway, J.N.; Nordstrom, D.K.



Global carbon cycles: A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sediment model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple one-dimensional advective-diffusive ocean model with a polar outcrop is developed and calibrated to fit modern ocean temperature, phosphorus, oxygen, total carbon, and total alkalinity data. The ocean model includes an atmospheric box which predicts atmospheric P[sub CO2] and oxygen concentrations. In addition, a sediment model is designed to reproduce modern sediment profiles of solid organic carbon and calcite,




Sediment characteristics in iceberg dominated fjords, Kangerlussuaq region, East Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores from three East Greenland fjords contain sediment lithofacies and depositional processes in an iceberg dominated glacial marine setting. Three major lithofacies, diamicton, fine-grained mud, and sand, are deposited by two processes, sediment rain-out and sediment gravity flows. The sediments in Kangerlussuaq Fjord are predominately fine-grained muds deposited by rain-out from icebergs and glacier meltwater, with sediment gravity flows acting as secondary agents of deposition. Miki Fjord records rain-out of fine-grained muds from a river plume emanating from a proglacial delta at the fjord head. Alternating units of diamicton and fine-grained mud in Nansen Fjord are deposited by sediment rain-out from icebergs; particle size is governed by the oceanographic conditions in the fjord at the time of deposition. Despite their proximity to each other, each fjord is distinguished by a distinct sedimentological signature: Kangerlussuaq Fjord has low total organic carbon contact, Miki Fjord has high mass magnetic susceptibility, and Nansen Fjord has high amounts of ice-rafted debris. Comparison of the East Greenland iceberg dominated and Alaska glacial meltwater dominated environments indicates few major differences between sediments deposited in these two settings. This similarity raises doubt as to how well glacial marine sedimentary sequences can be used to interpret and reconstruct differences between glacial marine environments in the past without knowledge of sediment accumulation rates, environmental conditions at the time of sediment deposition, and comparable sedimentological data between studies.

Smith, L. Micaela; Andrews, John T.



Diploptene in antarctic sediments  

SciTech Connect

The presence of diploptene (17..beta..(H),21..beta..(H)-hop-22(20)-ene) in sediment cores from Bransfield Strait and McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, is reported. The organic geochemical data for these sediments provide evidence for the authigenic marine origin of this hopene.

Venkatesan, M.I.



Establishment of total cavopulmonary connection without use of cardiopulmonary bypass 1 Presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery, Copenhagen, Denmark, September 28 – October 1, 1997. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To minimize deleterious postoperative influences of cardiopulmonary bypass on the pulmonary circulation immediately after the Fontan type procedure, total cavopulmonary connection was achieved without use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: Since April 1996, 15 patients including five patients with visceral heterotaxy, in whom no intracardiac procedure was needed, have undergone this operative maneuver. Age at operation ranged from 1.2 to

Hideki Uemura; Toshikatsu Yagihara; Katsushi Yamashita; Toru Ishizaka; Ko Yoshizumi; Youichi Kawahira



Recent Changes of Sediment Yield in the Upper Yangtze, China  


/ Reservoir sedimentation is one of the many environmental problems associated with the Three Gorges Project in China. The rate and characteristics of sedimentation that directly affect the operating life of the reservoir are closely related to soil erosion and sediment transport dynamics in the upstream catchment and to the ability to manage the throughput of sediment-laden waters. The recent changes in sediment yield were examined using gauging data from 187 stations of varying sizes from less than 100 km2 to larger than 1,000,000 km2 in the Upper Yangtze basin between 1956 and 1987. Whereas many previous studies have concentrated on the trends in the main channel of the Yangtze, the distributed pattern of changes across the whole catchment is complex. Results from time series analysis indicate ten stations, mainly located in the Dadu and Wu tributaries (with a total incremental catchment area of 78,963 km2) have shown increasing trajectories of sediment yield, and six stations, located in the upper Jialing and Tuo tributaries (with a total incremental area of 27,816 km2) have experienced decreasing trajectories. By dividing the time series into three components, it is possible to map significant decadal changes in sediment yields that can be related to phases of deforestation and the construction of water conservancy projects. Most of the observed decreases in sediment yield are associated with large reservoir schemes on tributary rivers. The lack of evidence for increasing sediment input to the Three Gorges area masks a considerable variation in sediment conveyance and storage within the Upper Yangtze catchment.KEY WORDS: Sediment yield; Reservoir sedimentation; Three Gorges Project; Time series analysis; China PMID:9680538

Lu; Higgitt



Estimating floodplain sedimentation in the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We present a conceptual and analytical framework for predicting the spatial distribution of floodplain sedimentation for the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA. We assess the role of the floodplain as a sink for fine-grained sediment and investigate concerns regarding the potential loss of flood storage capacity due to historic sedimentation. We characterized the spatial distribution of sedimentation during a post-flood survey and developed a spatially distributed sediment deposition potential map that highlights zones of floodplain sedimentation. The sediment deposition potential map, built using raster files that describe the spatial distribution of relevant hydrologic and landscape variables, was calibrated using 2 years of measured overbank sedimentation data and verified using longer-term rates determined using dendrochronology. The calibrated floodplain deposition potential relation was used to estimate an average annual floodplain sedimentation rate (3.6 mm/year) for the ~11 km2 floodplain. This study documents the development of a conceptual model of overbank sedimentation, describes a methodology to estimate the potential for various parts of a floodplain complex to accumulate sediment over time, and provides estimates of short and long-term overbank sedimentation rates that can be used for ecosystem management and prioritization of restoration activities.

Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hupp, Cliff R.



Comparison of mercury emission flux from the land surface to the atmosphere via water column, vegetative, and sediment column pathways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of mercury from the land surface can follow three pathways: 1) emission from the water column, 2) emission from exposed wetland sediments, and 3) transpiration through plants. In this poster, we present a comparison of all three emission pathways in Berry’s Creek, a tidal tributary to the Hackensack River, NJ USA. The Berry’s Creek watershed was historically subjected to discharges of mercury from a number of industrial facilities. Emission of mercury from the water column measured using a dynamic flux chamber ranged from -0.64 to 34 ng/m2-h a result of complex biogeochemical reactions between photoreactive dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet light, and dissolved aqueous mercury. Solar radiation and DOC spectral slope appear to exert the strongest control on mercury emission, with solar radiation alone accounting for up to 98% of the diel changes in mercury emission. Emission of mercury from the common reed Phragmites australis measured using a whole-leaf, low dead-volume chamber ranged from -0.64 to 0.17 ng/m2-h. Solar radiation drives photosynthesis, transpiration, and mercury emission, though decreases in emission late in the day may reflect a more complex process. Mercury emission from mudflat sediments ranged from -0.37 to 11.3 ng/m2-h. Experiments blocking UV wavelengths indicate PAR wavelengths may play a significant role in promoting emission. Disturbance of sediment surface decreased emission, suggesting that the emission pathway is dependent on biological activity at the sediment surface or a chemical gradient established in the upper portion of the sediment column. Annual and diel cycles are considered in an estimation of the magnitude of total mercury emitted through each pathway over the duration of 1 year.

Peters, S. C.; Wollenberg, J.; Bubb, M. L.



Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 2. inventories of transuranium elements in surface sediments  

SciTech Connect

This is the second of three reports on Bikini sediment studies, which discusses the concentrations and inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in sediments from the lagoon. Surface sediment samples were collected from 87 locations over the entire lagoon at Bikini Atoll during 1979. The collections were made to map the distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred in the composition of the sediment as a result of the testing program. Present inventories for {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu in the surface 2 cm of sediment are estimated to be 14 and 17 TBq, respectively. These values are estimated to represent only 14% of the total inventory in the sediment column. Sediment inventories of {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are changing only slowly with time through chemical- physical processes that continuously mobilize small amounts of the transuranics to the water column. The lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with deposits logoonward of the eastern reef.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Robison, W.L.



Comparison of Mercury in Water, Bottom Sediment, and Zooplankton in Two Front Range Reservoirs in Colorado, 2008-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, conducted a study to investigate environmental factors that may contribute to the bioaccumulation of mercury in two Front Range reservoirs. One of the reservoirs, Brush Hollow Reservoir, currently (2009) has a fish-consumption advisory for mercury in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and the other, Pueblo Reservoir, which is nearby, does not. Water, bottom sediment, and zooplankton samples were collected during 2008 and 2009, and a sediment-incubation experiment was conducted in 2009. Total mercury concentrations were low in midlake water samples and were not substantially different between the two reservoirs. The only water samples with detectable methylmercury were collected in shallow areas of Brush Hollow Reservoir during spring. Mercury concentrations in reservoir bottom sediments were similar to those reported for stream sediments from unmined basins across the United States. Despite higher concentrations of fish-tissue mercury in Brush Hollow Reservoir, concentrations of methylmercury in sediment were as much as 3 times higher in Pueblo Reservoir. Mercury concentrations in zooplankton were at the low end of concentrations reported for temperate lakes in the Northeastern United States and were similar between sites, which may reflect the seasonal timing of sampling. Factors affecting bioaccumulation of mercury were assessed, including mercury sources, water quality, and reservoir characteristics. Atmospheric deposition was determined to be the dominant source of mercury; however, due to the proximity of the reservoirs, atmospheric inputs likely are similar in both study areas. Water-quality constituents commonly associated with elevated concentrations of mercury in fish (pH, alkalinity, sulfate, nutrients, and dissolved organic carbon) did not appear to explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Low methylmercury concentrations in hypolimnetic water indicate low potential for increased methylmercury production following the development of anoxic conditions in summer. Based on the limited dataset, water-level fluctuations and shoreline characteristics appear to best explain differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the reservoirs. Due to the shallow depth and the large annual water-level fluctuations at Brush Hollow Reservoir, proportionally larger areas of shoreline at Brush Hollow Reservoir are subjected to annual reflooding compared to Pueblo Reservoir. Moreover, presence of macrophyte beds and regrowth of terrestrial vegetation likely increase the organic content of near-shore sediments in Brush Hollow Reservoir, which may stimulate methylmercury production in littoral areas subject to reflooding. Results of a laboratory incubation experiment were consistent with this hypothesis.

Mast, M. Alisa; Krabbenhoft, David P.



75 FR 63805 - Annual Wholesale Trade Survey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will collect data on annual sales, e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating...will collect data covering sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held...collect data covering annual sales, e-commerce sales, year-end inventories...



Estimating Sediment Transport Conditions in the Cosumnes River Drainage Basin From Suspended Sediment Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to monitor and assess the variability of suspended load with respect to discharge and stream dynamics within the Cosumnes River drainage basin. Examination of suspended loads in river systems helps to characterize both the erosion and deposition mechanisms acting within the sediment delivery system. The suspended sediment load is dominated by material eroded from a variety of sources within the upstream basin, and the nature and location of the source influences the character and behavior of the load. Over a ten-month period, water samples were collected from sites along the Cosumnes River in the Sierra Nevada foothills and in Rancho Murieta, California. Samples were processed for suspended sediments and correlated with discharge at the Michigan Bar gaging station. In the foothills east of Sacramento, precipitation usually occurs from late fall through the spring. The amount of water in the channel is affected by infiltration capacity of the ground, and runoff related to frequent precipitation events. Suspended load varies with respect to stream discharge dynamics and sediment supply within the Cosumnes River drainage basin. Histograms show the modal average annual discharge for the Cosumnes River at the Michigan Bar gaging station to be 200-400 cfs, moving 1-3 tons of suspended sediment per day. Discharges of 200-400 cfs produce a modern denudation rate of .01-.03 cm/1000 years for the Cosumnes River drainage basin. Based on slip rates of faults along the Frontal Fault System, the present uplift rate of the Sierra Nevada mountain range is 0.5-3 mm/year. Historical records show that the discharge during the sampling period was significantly lower than average. Suspended sediment yields increase with increased discharge, yet remain quite variable. High discharge events are responsible for most of the erosion and transport of suspended sediments within the Cosumnes drainage basin.

Burns, R. G.; Cornwell, K.



Quantitative Generalizations for Catchment Sediment Yield Following Plantation Logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a reasonably clear qualitative understanding of the impact of forest plantations on sediment yield, there is a lack of quantitative generalizations. Such generalizations would be helpful for estimating the impacts of proposed forestry operations and would aid the spread of knowledge amongst both relevant professionals and new students. This study therefore analyzed data from the literature to determine the extent to which quantitative statements can be established. The research was restricted to the impact of plantation logging on catchment sediment yield as a function of ground disturbance in the years immediately following logging, in temperate countries, and does not consider landslides consequent upon tree root decay. Twelve paired catchment studies incorporating pre- and post-logging measurements of sediment yield were identified, resulting in forty-three test catchments (including 14 control catchments). Analysis yielded the following principal conclusions: 1) Logging generally provokes maximum annual sediment yields of less than a few hundred t km-2 yr-1; best management practice can reduce this below 100 t km-2 yr-1. 2) At both the annual and event scales, the sediment yield excess of a logged catchment over a control catchment is within one order of magnitude, except with severe ground disturbance. 3) There is no apparent relationship between sediment yield impact and the proportion of catchment logged. The effect depends on which part of the catchment is altered and on its connectivity to the stream network. 4) The majority of catchments delivered their maximum sediment yield in the first two years after logging. The logging impacts were classified in terms of the absolute values of specific sediment yield, the values relative to those in the control catchments for the same period and the values relative both to the control catchment and the pre-logging period. Most studies have been for small catchments (< 10 km2) and temperate regions; the impact at large catchment scales and in tropical regions requires further research.

Bathurst, James; Iroume, Andres



High Suspended Sediment Yields of the Conestoga River Watershed to the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay are the Result of Ubiquitous Post-Settlement Mill Dams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conestoga River watershed of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania constitutes 1.7% of the total area of the Susquehanna River basin and drains mostly Piedmont Province with very low relief and hillslope gradients, yet it contributes the largest annual suspended sediment yield of any tributary in the basin. Nearly one-third of the Susquehanna's sediment is deposited in the northern Chesapeake Bay, causing significant impairment to water quality. Poor farming practices (60% agricultural land) and late 20th Century suburban sprawl have been blamed for the anomalously high sediment yields observed in the Conestoga watershed. Our study indicates, however, that the main cause of these high sediment yields is sediment trapped behind ~500 post-settlement mill dams. On average, there was one mill dam every 2.5 km of stream length. We calculate that a minimum of 27 x 106 m3 of post-settlement legacy sediment was stored in Conestoga watershed valleys. This estimate is based on field mapping and coring and on analysis of historical records, air photos, and maps. We compiled a GIS database for all known mill dams and constructed stream profiles showing the location and height of each dam. Average dam height was 2.4 m (range 1-9 m) and average stream gradient is 0.001, so the average reservoir extended ~2.4 km upstream. Field measurements show that the average stream valley bottom is 100-m wide and coring reveals a broad, planar bedrock valley floor beneath post-settlement alluvium. The legacy sediments overly a thin veneer of organic-rich sediments (peats and leaf mats) and tree stumps (some cut), which yield late 17th century and older 14C ages. These organic layers overly ca. 20 cm of pebbly-sands, which together represent the pre-settlement to early-settlement valley floor. From these findings, we calculate that the average mill reservoir could trap 0.3 x 106 m3 of sediment. Field surveys and air photographs taken in the 1930s and 40s reveal that all reservoirs were filled to capacity with sediment. Numerous factors contributed to the storage of such large volumes of sand, silt, and clay along Conestoga stream corridors: 1) parent material of thick saprolites developed on Paleozoic silty limestone; 2) widespread soil erosion with land clearing for agriculture from ~1700 to 1800 AD; 3) intense deforestation and industrial charcoaling from ~1850-1910; and 4) the advent of the mechanized plow in the late 1800s that initiated widespread gullying and associated downslope deposition of sediment. Pennsylvania leads the nation in the removal of low-head dams. Once these dams are removed, however, the streams quickly incise through the stored mill pond sediments to the level of their former valley floors, reaching gravels that are eroded more easily and undercutting steep banks of finer-grained, slightly cohesive legacy sediments. Bank erosion occurs along at least 80% of the 1036 km of stream channels in the watershed. We estimate that 10% of the sediment stored along valley floors since 1710 has been removed in the past several decades by channel incision and widening that closely resemble arroyo-cutting (lateral bank erosion rates of >0.5 m/yr measured at multiple sites). The large volume of legacy sediment has become a major source of suspended sediment load to the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay in the past 35 yrs, and will remain so unless substantial remediation efforts are made.

Merritts, D.; Walter, R.; Lippincott, C.; Siddiqui, S.



Sedimentation survey of Lago Yahuecas, Puerto Rico, March 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sediment is filling Lago Yahuecas, a reservoir built to divert water to Lago Guayo for power generation, at an average rate of 2 percent per year. During March 10 to 13, 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Yahuecas to determine the amount of sediment deposited and sedimentation rate in the reservoir. Also, reservoir sediments were cored and sampled to determine the dry bulk density. Over the last 41 years, the storage capacity of the reservoir has been reduced by approximately 81 percent from 1.76 million cubic meters in 1956 to 0.33 million cubic meters in 1997. The average annual storage capacity loss to sediment deposition in the reservoir us 34,878 cubic meters per year. The average dry bulk density of the sediment samples was 0.98 gram per cubic centimeter. Based on the contributing drainage area of 45.17 square kilometers, the average sediment yield of the basin was estimated to be 757 megagrams per square kilometer per year.

Soler-López, Luis R.; Webb, Richard M.T.; Perez-Blair, Francisco



CN/2011/SC/IHP/PI/2 Sediment Issues & Sediment  

E-print Network

of siltation in large reservoirs. The changing nature of sediment issues, due to increasing human populations-made structures such as dams, weirs and barrages and recognition of the important role of sedimentCN/2011/SC/IHP/PI/2 #12;Sediment Issues & Sediment Management in Large River Basins Interim Case

Julien, Pierre Y.


Particle fluxes, south central Black Sea: 1982-1985 (Black Sea sedimentation data file, volume 1). Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Annual particle fluxes were measured by sediment traps deployed at a station about 40 km north of Amasra, Southern Black Sea, by an international team of oceanographers from Germany, Turkey, and the United States. This experiment continuously monitored oceanic particle flux for two and a half years at approximately two-week intervals at 250 m and 1200 m below the surface using 1.2sq.m Mark 5-12 time-series sediment traps. The water depth at this station was about 2,000 m and both traps were situated within the anoxic layer of the Black Sea. The collected flux samples were analyzed at the Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution to document the basic sedimentary characteristics using a quarter of each sample split. In the first data file from this experiment, total mass, carbonate, noncombustible, combustible, opal (biogenic silica), organic carbon, and organic nitrogen fluxes data are presented in bar graphs and detailed tables, in unit samples covering a two-week period at each depth. The Black Sea Sedimentation Data File is intended to provide source data on particle fluxes from this unique ocean environment for further investigation and for planning advanced research programs.

Honjo, S.; Manganini, S.J.; Asper, V.L.; Hay, B.J.; Karowe, A.



Shore erosion as a sediment source to the tidal Potomac River, Maryland and Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shoreline of the tidal Potomac River attained its present form as a result of the Holocene episode of sea-level rise; the drowned margins of the system are modified by wave activity in the shore zone and by slope processes on banks steepened by basal-wave erosion. Shore erosion leaves residual sand and gravel in shallow water and transports silt and clay offshore to form a measurable component of the suspended-sediment load of the tidal Potomac River. Erosion rates were measured by comparing digitized historical shoreline maps and modern maps, and by comparing stereopairs of aerial photographs taken at different points in time, with the aid of an interactive computer-graphics system and a digitizing stereoplotter. Cartographic comparisons encompassed 90 percent of the study reach and spanned periods of 38 to 109 years, with most measurements spanning at least 84 years. Photogrammetric comparisons encompassed 49 percent of the study reach and spanned 16 to 40 years. Field monitoring of erosion rates and processes at two sites, Swan Point Neck, Maryland, and Mason Neck, Virginia, spanned periods of 10 to 18 months. Estimated average recession rates of shoreline in the estuary, based on cartographic and photogrammetric measurements, were 0.42 to 0.52 meter per annum (Virginia shore) and 0.31 to 0.41 meter per annum (Maryland shore). Average recession rates of shoreline in the tidal river and transition zone were close to 0.15 meter per annum. Estimated average volume-erosion rates along the estuary were 1.20 to 1.87 cubic meters per meter of shoreline per annum (Virginia shore) and 0.56 to 0.73 cubic meter per meter of shoreline per annum (Maryland shore); estimated average volume-erosion rates along the shores of the tidal river and transition zone were 0.55 to 0.74 cubic meter per meter of shoreline per annum. Estimated total sediment contributed to the tidal Potomac River by shore erosion was 0.375 x 10 6 to 0.565 x 10 6 metric tons per annum; of this, the estimated amount of silt and clay ranged from 0.153x10 6 to 0.226x10 6 metric tons per annum. Between 49 and 60 percent of the sediment was derived from the Virginia shore of the estuary; 14 to 18 percent was derived from the Maryland shore of the estuary; and 23 to 36 percent was derived from the shores of the tidal river and transition zone. The adjusted modern estimate of sediment eroded from the shoreline of the estuary is about 55 percent of the historical estimate. Sediment eroded from the shoreline accounted for about 6 to 9 percent of the estimated total suspended load for the tidal Potomac River during water years 1979 through 1981 and for about 11 to 18 percent of the suspended load delivered to the estuary during the same period. Annual suspended-sediment loads derived from upland source areas fluctuated by about an order of magnitude during the 3 years of record (1979-81); shore erosion may have been a more important component of the sediment budget during periods of low flow than during periods of higher discharges. Prior to massive land clearance during the historical period of intensive agriculture in the 18th and 19th centuries, annual sediment loads from upland sources probably were smaller than they are at present; under these circumstances shore erosion would have been an important component of the sediment budget. At current rates of sediment supply, relative sea-level rise, and shoreline recession, the landward parts of the tidal Potomac River are rapidly being filled by sediment. If these rates were to remain constant over time, and no sediment were to escape into Chesapeake Bay, the tidal river and transition zone would be filled within 600 years, and the total system would be filled in less than 4,000 years. Given a slower rate of sediment supply, comparable to the measured rate during the low-flow 1981 water year, the volume of the tidal Potomac River might remain relatively stable or even increase over time. Changes in rates

Miller, Andrew J.



Morphology and Sediment Transport Dynamics of the Selenga River Delta, Lake Baikal, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Selenga River fan delta is a lacustrine system located in southeastern Siberia, Russia, where Selenga River flows into Lake Baikal. The Selenga River is the largest source of sediment and water entering Lake Baikal. Covering ~550 km2, the Selenga delta is one of the largest freshwater deltas in the world. Evaluating the Selenga delta and its morphology is very important for local residents who rely upon the delta for both ecological and agricultural welfare. However, a sediment budget remains poorly constrained, as do estimates for the partitioning of water and sediment amongst the numerous bifurcating delta channels. This information is critical for addressing how the delta morphology evolves and influences the stratigraphic composition of the delta. To investigate the morphological characteristics of the delta, a field expedition was undertaken during July 2013 in collaboration with Russian scientists. The overall goal of the field work was to constrain delta dynamics through data collection. Field measurements included single-beam bathymetry data and sidescan sonar data to characterize: 1) channel geometries of the delta; 2) bedform sizes and distribution; and 3) grain-size composition of the channel bed. Flow velocity measurements were collected within the bifurcating channels to measure water discharge. Bedload samples were obtained within the active distributary channels to measure downstream sediment fining. Additionally, channel island cores were collected in order to analyze the internal architecture of the delta. The data reveal a systematic downstream sediment fining, from a predominantly gravel bed near the delta apex, to a fine-sand bed at the delta-lake interface (~40 km total distance). Bathymetry data document how width-to-depth ratios systematically decrease downstream in association with increasing channel bifurcations and decreasing channel-bed grain size. Furthermore, the investigations reveal that the delta is actively terraced, with the elevation for ~60% of the delta above the modern flood stage. Progressing down the delta axis, however, there is a steady lowering of the terraces, and the downstream portion of the delta (~40% of the delta proximal to the lake) is regularly inundated by flood water. This portion of the delta therefore defines where modern development and aggradation is occurring. Using field measurements, a simple 1-D morphodynamic model is developed to calculate an annual sediment budget for the Selenga River, thus estimating sediment delivery to the delta. This model also helps define where important sediment grain size transition regions occur in relation to channel bifurcations. Overall, the Selenga delta represents a unique end-member compared to other delta systems worldwide, because the Selenga delta is undergoing an active phase of regression, occurring as a result of either a relative base level fall, or perhaps reduced sediment supply relative to transport capacity. This delta phase produces substantial local sediment sourcing through erosion of relict (terraced) delta deposits, and this cannibalization process exerts important morphological controls on the modern morphology and stratigraphy.

Dong, T. Y.; Il'icheva, L.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Pavolv, M.



Effect of erosion-control structures on sediment and nutrient transport, Edgewood Creek drainage, Lake Tahoe basin, Nevada, 1981-83  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three sites in the Edgewood Creek basin with a combined drainage area of about 1.2 sq mi were selected to assess the effect of erosion-control structures along Nevada State Highway 207, on sediment and nutrient transport. The flow at site one is thought to have been largely unaffected by urban development, and was completely unaffected by erosion control structures. The flow at site two was from a basin affected by urban development and erosion control structures. Site three was downstream from the confluence of streams measured at sites one and two. Most data on streamflow and water quality were collected between June 1981 and May 1983 to assess the hydrologic characteristics of the three sites. As a result of the erosion control structures, mean annual concentrations of total sediment were reduced from about 24,000 to about 410 mg/l at site two and from about 1,900 to about 190 ml/l at site three. Sediment loads were reduced from about 240 to about 10 tons/year at site two and from about 550 to about 110 tons/year at site three. At site one, in contrast, mean concentrations and loads remained low throughout the study period. At site two, sediment particle size changed from predominately coarse prior to construction, to predominately fine thereafter; at site three, it changed from about half coarse sediments to predominately fine. Mean concentration and loads of total iron also were significantly reduced after construction at sites two and three, whereas mean concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species did not change appreciably. (Author 's abstract)

Garcia, K. T.



A review of concurrent ambient water column and sediment toxicity testing in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: 1990--1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to identify toxic ambient areas in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by using a battery of water column and sediment toxicity tests. Twenty-five ambient stations in nine river\\/harbors were tested during 1990 through 1994. Seasonal and annual comparisons were conducted at selected stations. Inorganic and organic contaminants were evaluated in ambient water and sediment concurrently

Lenwood W. Hall Jr.; Raymond W. Alden III



Suspended sediment and carbonate transport in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Fluxes and potential future responses to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loads and yields of suspended sediment and carbonate were measured and modeled at three locations on the Yukon, Tanana, and Porcupine Rivers in Alaska during water years 2001–2005 (1 October 2000 to 30 September 2005). Annual export of suspended sediment and carbonate upstream from the Yukon Delta averaged 68 Mt a?1 and 387 Gg a?1, respectively, with 50% of the

Mark M. Dornblaser; Robert G. Striegl



Suspended sediment and carbonate transport in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Fluxes and potential future responses to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loads and yields of suspended sediment and carbonate were measured and modeled at three locations on the Yukon, Tanana, and Porcupine Rivers in Alaska during water years 2001-2005 (1 October 2000 to 30 September 2005). Annual export of suspended sediment and carbonate upstream from the Yukon Delta averaged 68 Mt a-1 and 387 Gg a-1, respectively, with 50% of the

Mark M. Dornblaser; Robert G. Striegl



Chemical contamination and physical characteristics of sediments in the upper Great Lakes connecting channels 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Contamination of sediments by toxic organic substances and heavy metals was widespread throughout the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes in 1985. Sediments at 250 stations in the connecting channels were analyzed for total PCBs, oil and grease, phenols, total cyanide, total volatile solids, mercury, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, and the results were evaluated according to U.S. EPA guidelines for polluted sediments. Sediments were most heavily contaminated near industrialized areas, although some areas more than 40 km downstream from known point sources of pollution were moderately contaminated by oil and metals.

Bertram, Paul E.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Nichols, Susan J.; Schloesser, Donald W.




EPA Science Inventory

Sediment assessments may be performed for a variety of purposes; these include: dredging and dredged sediment disposal, for evaluations of sediments as a capping material, to determine sediment quality, to assess biological impairment and to assess the status of environment monit...


Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: their relations to environmental factors.  


This work investigated heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China. Sediment samples were collected at 19 sites along the river in connection with field surveys and the total concentrations were determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Sediment samples with higher metal concentrations were collected from the upper reach of the river, while sediments in the middle and lower reaches had relatively lower metal concentrations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson correlation, hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis were used to evaluate the metal sources. The ecological risk associated with the heavy metals in sediments was rated as moderate based on the assessments using methods of consensus-based Sediment Quality Guidelines, Potential Ecological Risk Index and Geo-accumulation Index. The relations between heavy metals and various environmental factors (i.e., chemical properties of sediments, water quality indices and aquatic organism indices) were also studied. Nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in sediments showed a co-release behavior with heavy metals. Ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, total phosphate and permanganate index in water were found to be related to metal sedimentation. Heavy metals in sediments posed a potential impact on the benthos community. PMID:24561322

Fu, Jie; Zhao, Changpo; Luo, Yupeng; Liu, Chunsheng; Kyzas, George Z; Luo, Yin; Zhao, Dongye; An, Shuqing; Zhu, Hailiang



A new sampler design for measuring sedimentation in streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentation alters aquatic habitats and negatively affects fish and invertebrate communities but is difficult to quantify. To monitor bed load sedimentation, we designed a sampler with a 10.16-cm polyvinyl chloride coupling and removable sediment trap. We conducted a trial study of our samplers in riffle and pool habitats upstream and downstream of highway construction on a first-order Appalachian stream. Sediment samples were collected over three 6-week intervals, dried, and separated into five size-classes by means of nested sieves (U.S. standard sieve numbers 4, 8, 14, and 20). Downstream sediment accumulated in size-classes 1 and 2, and the total amount accumulated was significantly greater during all three sampling periods. Size-classes 3 and 4 had significantly greater amounts of sediment for the first two sampling periods at the downstream site. Differences between upstream and downstream sites narrowed during the 5-month sampling period. This probably reflects changes in site conditions, including the addition of more effective sediment control measures after the first 6-week period of the study. The sediment sampler design allowed for long-term placement of traps without continual disturbance of the streambed and was successful at providing repeat measures of sediment at paired sites. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Hedrick, L.B.; Welsh, S.A.; Hedrick, J.D.




EPA Science Inventory

Until recently, sediment geochemical models (diagenetic models) have been only able to explain sedimentary flux and concentration profiles for a few simplified geochemical cycles (e.g., nitrogen, carbon and sulfur). However with advances in numerical methods, increased accuracy ...


Tribal Training -- Sediment Devices  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Research Hydrologist Art Horowitz and USGS Oklahoma Water Science Center Hydrologic Technician Ernie Smith describe streambed sediment collection devices for a Tribal training class at the Canadian River, Norman, Oklahoma....



Assessment of sediment monitoring at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

Three separate sediment monitoring studies have been conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore site. ``Sediment`` is defined here as finely divided solid materials that have settled out of an active stream or standing water. Sediment samples from all three studies were analyzed for a number of contaminants including {sup 239}pu, {sup 3}H, gamma emitting radionuclides, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and pesticides. The analytical results for metals and organic compounds were compared to limits for disposal of hazardous waste, the tritium values were compared to drinking water standards, and the other radionuclides were compared to soils monitoring values. No tritium values were above (or were greater than 55% of drinking water standards), and no other radionuclides in sediments were above soils values. In all of the studies, only two metals, lead and mercury, and six organic compounds, benzo(a)-pyrene, Dieldrin, p,p{prime}-DDT, Endosulfan L endosulfan sulfate, and vinyl chloride were above waste disposal limits. Three of the high contaminants, mercury, benzo(a)-pyrene, and vinyl chloride, were found at one sampling location; the others were not connected by drainage channels or physical proximity to each other. Overall, a total of 247 samples were analyzed, and the sporadic identification of materials over disposal limits demonstrates that there is negligible contamination of sediment.

Gallegos, G.



Chromium geochemistry and bioaccumulation in sediments from the lower Hackensack River, New Jersey.  


Total and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were measured in sediment and sediment porewater in the lower Hackensack River (NJ) to assess the relationship between sediment geochemistry and chromium speciation, which in turn controls the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of chromium. Between 2003 and 2005, >100 surface (0 to 15 cm) sediment samples were tested for total chromium and Cr(VI), acid-volatile sulfides (AVS), ferrous iron (Fe(II)), divalent manganese (Mn(II)), ammonia, and organic carbon. Sediment porewater samples were collected by centrifugation or using in situ samplers colocated with the collection of sediments. In whole sediments, total chromium and Cr(VI) concentrations ranged from 5 to 9190 mg/kg dry weight (dw) and from <0.47 to 31 mg/kg dw, respectively. Sediment porewater concentrations ranged from <10 to 83 microg/l for total chromium; Cr(VI) was not detected in sediment porewater (n = 78). Concentrations of AVS (ranging between <10.6 to 4178 mg/kg) and other geochemistry measurements indicated anoxic, reducing conditions in the majority of sediment samples. In polychaetes (Nereis virens) and clams (Macoma nasuta) exposed in the laboratory for 28 days to sediments contained between 135 and 1780 mg/kg dw total chromium, concentrations in whole tissues after 24-hour depuration ranged between 1.2 and 14.8 mg/kg wet weight (ww; median 1.6 mg/kg ww) total chromium. In whole tissues of indigenous polychaetes collected from the sediment, tissue concentrations of total chromium ranged between 1.0 and 37.5 mg/kg ww (median = 2.1 mg/kg ww). Chromium concentrations in whole tissues of animals exposed in the field or in the laboratory showed no relationship with total chromium or Cr(VI) concentrations in the sediment. There were no statistical differences among animals exposed to sediments from site and reference locations. The results of this study are consistent with sediment studies conducted elsewhere indicating low chromium bioavailability in sediment under reducing conditions. This study also highlights the importance of sediment geochemistry and in situ porewater measurements to understand the ecological significance of chromium in sediment and the potential for human health and ecological exposures. PMID:17657462

Martello, L; Fuchsman, P; Sorensen, M; Magar, V; Wenning, R J



Productivity of ephemeral headwater riparian forests impacted by sedimentation in the southeastern United States coastal plain.  


Riparian forests serve an essential function in improving water quality through the filtering of sediments and nutrients from surface runoff. However, little is known about the impact of sediment deposition on productivity of riparian forests. Sediment inputs may act as a subsidy to forest productivity by providing additional nutrients for plant uptake or may act as a stress by creating anoxic soil conditions. This study determined how sediment deposition affected riparian forests along ephemeral headwater streams at Ft. Benning, Georgia, USA. Above- and belowground productivity, leaf-area index (LAI), and standing crop biomass for fine roots, shrubs, and trees were compared along a gradient of present sedimentation rates in 17 riparian forests. Annual litterfall production was determined from monthly collections using 0.25- m(2) traps; woody biomass was determined from annual diameter at breast hei