Science.gov

Sample records for total annual sediment

  1. Assessing the total uncertainty on average sediment export measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Sediment export measurements from rivers are usually subjected to large uncertainties. Although many case studies have focussed on specific aspects influencing these uncertainties (e.g. the sampling procedure, laboratory analyses, sampling frequency, load calculation method, duration of the measuring method), very few studies provide an integrated assessment of the total uncertainty resulting from these different sources of errors. Moreover, the findings of these studies are commonly difficult to apply, as they require specific details on the applied measuring method that are often unreported. As a result, the overall uncertainty on reported average sediment export measurements remains difficult to assess. This study aims to address this gap. Based on Monte Carlo simulations on a large dataset of daily sediment export measurements (> 100 catchments and > 2000 catchment-years of observations), the most dominant sources of uncertainties are explored. Results show that uncertainties on average sediment-export values (over multiple years) are mainly controlled by the sampling frequency and the duration of the measuring period. Measuring errors on individual sediment concentration or runoff discharge samples have an overall smaller influence. Depending on the sampling strategy used (e.g. uniform or flow-proportional), also the load calculation procedure can cause significant biases in the obtained results. A simple method is proposed that allows estimating the total uncertainty on sediment export values, based on commonly reported information (e.g. the catchment area, measuring period, number of samples taken, load calculation procedure used). An application of this method shows that total uncertainties on annual sediment export measurements can easily exceed 200%. It is shown that this has important consequences for the calibration and validation of sediment export models.

  2. SEDIMENT TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON: IS THIS A USEFUL INDICATOR OF SEDIMENT CONDITION FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) content of sediments has been used as an indicator of benthic community condition during multiple cycles of the EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA). Because percent TOC is generally positively correlated with sediment percent fines, previous analyses...

  3. Computations of total sediment discharge, Niobrara River near Cody, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Hembree, C.H.

    1955-01-01

    A natural chute in the Niobrara River near Cody, Nebr., constricts the flow of the river except at high stages to a narrow channel in which the turbulence is sufficient to suspend nearly the total sediment discharge. Because much of the flow originates in the sandhills area of Nebraska, the water discharge and sediment discharge are relatively uniform. Sediment discharges based on depth-integrated samples at a contracted section in the chute and on streamflow records at a recording gage about 1,900 feet upstream are available for the period from April 1948 to September 1953 but are not given directly as continuous records in this report. Sediment measurements have been made periodically near the gage and at other nearby relatively unconfined sections of the stream for comparison with measurements at the contracted section. Sediment discharge at these relatively unconfined sections was computed from formulas for comparison with measured sediment discharges at the contracted section. A form of the Du Boys formula gave computed tonnages of sediment that were unsatisfactory. Sediment discharges as computed from the Schoklitsch formula agreed well with measured sediment discharges that were low, but they were much too low at measured sediment discharges that were higher. The Straub formula gave computed discharges, presumably of bed material, that were several times larger than measured discharges of sediment coarser than 0.125 millimeter. All three of these formulas gave computed sediment discharges that increased with water discharges much less rapidly than the measured discharges of sediment coarser than 0.125 millimeter. The Einstein procedure when applied to a reach that included 10 defined cross sections gave much better agreement between computed sediment discharge and measured sediment discharge than did anyone of the three other formulas that were used. This procedure does not compute the discharge of sediment that is too small to be found in the stream bed in appreciable quantities. Hence, total sediment discharges were obtained by adding computed discharges of sediment larger than 0.125 millimeter to measured discharges of sediment smaller than 0.125 millimeter. The size distributions of the computed sediment discharge compared poorly with the size distributions of sediment discharge at the contracted section. Ten sediment discharges computed from the Einstein procedure as applied to a single section averaged several times the measured sediment discharge for the contracted section and gave size distributions that were unsatisfactory. The Einstein procedure was modified to compute total sediment discharge at an alluvial section from readily measurable field data. The modified procedure uses measurements of bed-material particle sizes, suspended-sediment concentrations and particle sizes from depth-integrated samples, streamflow, and water temperatures. Computations of total sediment discharge were made by using this modified procedure, some for the section at the gaging station and some for each of two other relatively unconfined sections. The size distributions of the computed and the measured sediment discharges agreed reasonably well. Major advantages of this modified procedure include applicability to a single section rather than to a reach of channel, use of measured velocity instead of water-surface slope, use of depth-integrated samples, and apparently fair accuracy for computing both total sediment discharge and approximate size distribution of the sediment. Because of these advantages this modified procedure is being further studied to increase its accuracy, to simplify the required computations, and to define its limitations. In the development of the modified procedure, some relationships concerning theories of sediment transport were reviewed and checked against field data. Vertical distributions of suspended sediment at relatively unconfined sections did not agree well with theoretical dist

  4. TOTAL AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT MARINA SEDIMENTS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total and bioavailable metals in sediments were measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during the fall of 2001. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in sediments were Ca (56811 mg/kg) and Al (31095 mg/kg), followed by Fe (19393 mg/kg), K (6089 mg/kg), and Mg...

  5. Sediment and Total Phosphorous Contributors in Rock River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total phosphorous (TP) and total suspended sediment (TSS) pollution is a problem in the US Midwest and is of particular concern in the Great Lakes region where many water bodies are already eutrophic. Increases in monoculture corn planting to feed ethanol based biofuel productio...

  6. Relationship between sediment clay minerals and total mercury.

    PubMed

    Kongchum, Manoch; Hudnall, Wayne H; DeLaune, R D

    2011-01-01

    A group of 262 sediment samples were collected from various lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and bayous of Louisiana. All samples were analyzed for total mercury. Twenty nine of the samples with total mercury content ranging from 11 to 401 ppb (?g/kg) were analyzed for clay minerals and other sediment physical and chemical properties. Clay content in sediments varied from 3 to 72%. Clay minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Identification of clay minerals was determined by MacDiff software and quantification of clay minerals was obtained by Peak Height Percentage (PHP) calculation. The dominant clay mineral was Hydrated Interlayer Vermiculite (HIV), which represented 51-83% of the total clay mineral. Significant linear correlations were observed between Hg and total clay content (r=0.538**). However Smectite was the only individual clay type correlated (r=0.465**) with mercury in sediment. Cation exchange capacity (r=0.404*), organic matter (r=0.577**), and sulfur (r=0.676**) were also correlated significantly with mercury level in sediment. PMID:21469014

  7. Process based modeling of total longshore sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Hanes, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Waves, currents, and longshore sand transport are calculated locally as a function of position in the nearshore region using process based numerical models. The resultant longshore sand transport is then integrated across the nearshore to provide predictions of the total longshore transport of sand due to waves and longshore currents. Model results are in close agreement with the I1-P1 correlation described by Komar and Inman (1970) and the CERC (1984) formula. Model results also indicate that the proportionality constant in the I1-P1 formula depends weakly upon the sediment size, the shape of the beach profile, and the particular local sediment flux formula that is employed. Model results indicate that the various effects and influences of sediment size tend to cancel out, resulting in little overall dependence on sediment size.

  8. The measurement of total sediment load in alluvial streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, P.C.; Matejka, D.Q.

    1953-01-01

    The measurement of the total sediment load transported by streams that flow in alluvial channels has been a perplexing problem to engineers and geologists for over a century. Until the last decade the development of equipment to measure bed load and suspended load was carried on almost independently, and without primary consideration of the fundamental laws governing the transportation of fluvial sediments. French investigators during the nineteenth century described methods of measurement and a mathematical approach for computing the rate of bed-load movement. The comprehensive laboratory investigations by Gilbert early in this century provided data that are still being used for studies of sediment transport. Detailed laboratory investigations of bed-load movement conducted during the last two decades by a number of investigators have resulted in the development of additional mathematical formulas for computing rates of bed-load movement. Likewise, studies of turbulent flow have provided the turbulence suspension theory for suspended sediment as it is known today.

  9. Concentrations, loads, and yields of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment and bacteria concentrations in the Wister Lake Basin, Oklahoma and Arkansas, 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buck, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    The Poteau Valley Improvement Authority uses Wister Lake in southeastern Oklahoma as a public water supply. Total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediments from agricultural runoff and discharges from wastewater treatment plants and other sources have degraded water quality in the lake. As lake-water quality has degraded, water-treatment cost, chemical usage, and sludge production have increased for the Poteau Valley Improvement Authority. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Poteau Valley Improvement Authority, investigated and summarized concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, suspended sediment, and bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp.) in surface water flowing to Wister Lake. Estimates of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment loads, yields, and flow-weighted mean concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were made for the Wister Lake Basin for a 3-year period from October 2010 through September 2013. Data from water samples collected at fixed time increments during base-flow conditions and during runoff conditions at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla. (USGS station 07247015), the Poteau River near Heavener, Okla. (USGS station 07247350), and the Fourche Maline near Leflore, Okla. (USGS station 07247650), water-quality stations were used to evaluate water quality over the range of streamflows in the basin. These data also were collected to estimate annual constituent loads and yields by using regression models. At the Poteau River stations, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment concentrations in surface-water samples were significantly larger in samples collected during runoff conditions than in samples collected during base-flow conditions. At the Fourche Maline station, in contrast, concentrations of these constituents in water samples collected during runoff conditions were not significantly larger than concentrations during base-flow conditions. Flow-weighted mean total phosphorus concentrations at all three stations from 2011 to 2013 were several times larger than the Oklahoma State Standard for Scenic Rivers (0.037 milligrams per liter [mg/L]), with the largest flow-weighted phosphorus concentrations typically being measured at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla., station. Flow-weighted mean total nitrogen concentrations did not vary substantially between the Poteau River stations and the Fourche Maline near Leflore, Okla., station. At all of the sampled water-quality stations, bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp.) concentrations were substantially larger in water samples collected during runoff conditions than in water samples collected during base-flow conditions from 2011 to 2013. Estimated annual loads of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment in the Poteau River stations during runoff conditions ranged from 82 to 98 percent of the total annual loads of those constituents. Estimated annual loads of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment in the Fourche Maline during runoff conditions ranged from 86 to nearly 100 percent of the total annual loads. Estimated seasonal total phosphorus loads generally were smallest during base-flow and runoff conditions in autumn. Estimated seasonal total phosphorus loads during base-flow conditions tended to be largest in winter and during runoff conditions tended to be largest in the spring. Estimated seasonal total nitrogen loads tended to be smallest in autumn during base-flow and runoff conditions and largest in winter during runoff conditions. Estimated seasonal suspended sediment loads tended to be smallest during base-flow conditions in the summer and smallest during runoff conditions in the autumn. The largest estimated seasonal suspended sediment loads during runoff conditions typically were in the spring. The estimated mean annual total phosphorus yield was largest at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla., water-quality station. The estimated mean annual total phosphorus yield was largest during base flow at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla., water-quality station and at both of the Poteau River water-quality stations during runoff conditions. The estimated mean annual total nitrogen yields were largest at the Poteau River water-quality stations. Estimated mean annual total nitrogen yields were largest during base-flow and runoff conditions at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla., water-quality station. The estimated mean annual suspended sediment yield was largest at the Poteau River near Heavener, Okla., water-quality station during base-flow and runoff conditions. Flow-weighted mean concentrations indicated that total phosphorus inputs from the Poteau River Basin in the Wister Lake Basin were larger than from the Fourche Maline Basin. Flow-weighted mean concentrations of total nitrogen did not vary spatially in a consistent manner. The Poteau River and the Fourche Maline contributed estimated annual total phosphorus loads of 137 to 278 tons per year (tons/yr) to Wister Lake. Between 89 and 95 percent of the annual total phosphorus loads were transported to Wister Lake during runoff conditions. The Poteau River and the Fourche Maline contributed estimated annual total nitrogen loads of 657 to 1,294 tons/yr, with 86 to 94 percent of the annual total nitrogen loads being transported to Wister Lake during runoff conditions. The Poteau River and the Fourche Maline contributed estimated annual total suspended sediment loads of 110,919 to 234,637 tons/yr, with 94 to 99 percent of the annual suspended sediment loads being transported to Wister Lake during runoff conditions. Most of the total phosphorus and suspended sediment were delivered to Wister Lake during runoff conditions in the spring. The majority of the total nitrogen was delivered to Wister Lake during runoff conditions in winter.

  10. A comparison of load estimates using total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentration data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G.D.; Gray, J.R.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results to-date from a continuing investigation into the differences between total suspended solids (TSS) and suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data and the ramifications of using each type of data to estimate sediment loads. It compares estimates of annual suspended-sediment loads that were made using regression equations developed from paired TSS and SSC data, to annual loads computed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) using traditional techniques and SSC data. Load estimates were compared for 10 stations where sufficient TSS and SSC paired data were available to develop sediment-transport curves for the same time period that daily suspended-sediment records were available. Results of these analyses indicate that as the time frame over which the estimates were made increases, the overall errors associated with the estimates decreases with respect to loads computed using traditional USGS techniques. Using SSC data to compute loads tends to produce estimates closer to those computed by traditional techniques than those computed from TSS data. Loads computed from TSS data tend to be negatively biased with respect to those computed by traditional USGS techniques.

  11. Annual Sediment Budgets for Newly Formed Point Bars on Powder River, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John; Meade, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Morphodynamic processes have been monitored for 37 years on Powder River, a large, unregulated meandering river that drains an area of about 35,000 km2 in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana, USA. Cross-sectional surveys of the channel and adjacent floodplains and terraces have been measured nearly annually (30 out of 37 years) by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at 24 locations along 90 kilometers of the river. This long-term data set has provided insights into the natural morphological and sedimentary processes; and most recently, into the annual sediment budgets for three point bars that were created when an extreme flood in 1978 cut new channels across the necks of two former meander bends and radically shifted the location of a third bend. Because our cross-sectional surveys are generally made only once a year (during the low-flow period, usually September-October), we record only the net change in thickness of the annual deposition and erosion because some areas on a point bar may be scoured and refilled during multiple floods in a year. Point-bar sediment budgets vary spatially as well as annually. The long-term average of the net annual sediment budgets during the post-1978 years (n=26 surveys) indicates that the average annual increment of new sediment deposited on the three point bars has been three to four times the average annual increment of old sediment eroded from the point bars. This annual deposition-to-erosion ratio has varied at one point bar from a minimum of 0.14 (1986) to maximum of 275 (1995). At the other two point-bar sites the ratio ranged from 0.18 (1991) to 265 (2008) and from 0.023 (1980) to 479 (1987). The lack of correlation from year to year or from one point bar to the next suggests the importance of differences in the planimetric configurations and hydraulic histories of each point bar in the evolutionary process. All the deposited sediment we measured during an annual survey represents the same sediment year class, whereas the eroded sediment we measured is composed of different proportions of previous sediment year classes. An index of the preservation (completeness) of these sediment year classes was defined for each point-bar as the percent of the initial deposit (older than 10 years) that was still remaining in 2011. The average (n=20 surveys) completeness was 59, 81, and 64%, and in general, deposits had better chances for being preserved if they were deposited higher on the point bar surface, or if they were covered by new deposition in the following year. Net annual deposition correlated only weakly with annual peak water discharge, and we found no correlation between annual peak water discharge and the amount of sediment eroded from the point bars. These low correlations may be the result of our using only net deposition and erosion values, and not the total deposition and erosion. These results illustrate the dynamic nature of point bars that adds an important component to earlier uniform, lateral accretion models of point bars. This dynamic nature produces a range of vegetation year classes, and thus, a rich diverse habitat for terrestrial and aquatic populations. This abstract has described one application of this unique long-term data set, and the authors will be pleased to provide the data set to anyone who might need long-term fluvial geomorphic data to address other research questions such as floodplain contaminant storage, river restoration, and environmental change.

  12. Further Evaluation of an Emperical Equation for Annual Total Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1999-01-01

    An empirical equation for annual total evaporation based on annual precipitation and net radiation was found to provide evaporation within 10% of the observed values at seven locations within temperate and tropical regions, but it overestimated evaporation by 90% at one location within the tundra region. A synthesis of observations at two other locations within the tundra region gives overestimates of about 65%. A general analysis of observed precipitation, net radiation, and runoff within the tundra region shows that the empirical equation is generally biased to overestimate annual evaporation within the tundra region. A theoretical analysis is being done to understand the reason behind this bias.

  13. A New Method for the Determination of Annual Sediment Fluxes from Varved Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francus, P.; Massa, C.; Lapointe, F.

    2013-12-01

    Calculation of sediment mass accumulation rates instead of thickness accumulation is preferable for paleoclimatic reconstruction as it eliminates the effects of dilution and compaction. Annually laminated lake sediment sequences (varved) theoretically allow for the estimation of sediment fluxes at annual scale, but the calculation is limited by discrete bulk density measurements, often carried out at a much lower resolution (usually 1 cm) than the varves (ranging from 0.07 to 27.3 mm, average 1.84 mm according to Ojala et al. 2012). Since many years the development of automated logging instruments made available continuous and high resolution sediment property data, in a non-destructive fashion. These techniques can easily be used to extract the physical and chemical parameters of sediments at the varve scale (down to 100 ?m). Here we present a robust method to calculate annual sediment fluxes from varved lake sediments by combining varves thickness measurements to core logging data, and provide an example for its applications. Several non-destructive densitometric methods applied to the Strathcona Lake sediment, northern Ellesmere Island, Canada (7833'N; 8205'W) were compared: Hounsfield Units from a CT-Scan, coherent/incoherent ratio and X-ray radiography (of both split core and sediment slabs, from an Itrax core Scanner), and gamma ray attenuation density. Core logging data were statistically compared to 400 discrete measurements of dry bulk density, wet bulk density and water content performed at 2 mm contiguous intervals. A very strong relationship was found between X-ray grey level on sediment slab and dry bulk density. Relative X-ray densities, at 100?m resolution, were then successfully calibrated against real densities. The final step consisted in binning the calibrated densities to the corresponding varve thickness and then to calculate the annual mass accumulation rates by multiplying the two parameters for each varve year. Strathcona Lake is located directly downstream of the Agassiz ice cap and contains laminated sediments whose accumulation is directly related to hydrological inputs generated by the melting of the ice cap. Over the last 65 years, annual sediment accumulation rates in Strathcona Lake documented an increase in high-energy hydrologic discharge events from 1990 to 2009. This timing is in agreement with evidence for an increase in the amount of melt on the adjacent Agassiz Ice Cap, as recorded in ice cores. A good correspondence was also found between annual mass accumulation rates and Eureka air temperature records, suggesting that temperature changes affected the extent of summer melting on the Agassiz Ice Cap, leading to high sediment yield to Strathcona Lake. Ojala, A.E.K., Francus, P., Zolitschka, B., Besonen, M. and Lamoureux, S.F. (2012) Characteristics of sedimentary varve chronologies - A review. Quaternary Science Reviews, 43, 45-60.

  14. 24 CFR 886.308 - Maximum total annual contract commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... developed in accordance with 24 CFR part 290, HUD shall determine the number of units to be assisted up to 100 percent of the units in the project. (b) Maximum assistance. The maximum total annual housing... family composition, or decreases in family incomes: (1) A project account shall be established...

  15. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grnzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  16. SEDIMENT TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON: IS IT TIME TO PULL THE PLUG ON THIS INDICATOR?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) content of sediments has been used as an indicator of benthic community condition during multiple cycles of the EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA). Because percent TOC is generally positively correlated with sediment percent fines, previous analyses...

  17. EVALUATION OF A FLUOROMETRIC SCREENING METHOD FOR PREDICTING TOTAL PAH CONCENTRATIONS IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flurorometric screening method was used to estimate total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments collected from the St. Louis River Area of Concern in northeastern Minnesota. Sediments were collected as part of a Regional Environmental Monitoring and Asses...

  18. River methane hot-spots: Continuous methane ebullition measurements over an annual cycle linked to river sediment production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy; Maeck, Andreas; Ashboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Hot spot methane ebullition from impounded river reaches matches high rates observed around the globe. Ebullition dominates total methane flux in the Saar River (Germany) and is largely determined by sediment deposition rate. Using automated bubble traps developed in-house, and deployed over a year at four sites, we collected high resolution data showing that hydrodynamic disturbances from shipping, lock operations and hydrograph events trigger ebullition episodes. Reverse smoothing was used to integrate the observed ebullition back in time, and helped in visualizing the data, and provides a time-series closer to methane accumulation in the sediments, whereas ebullition shows the triggering and release of the accumulated gas. One major hydrological disturbance of shallow-water sediment released around 13% of the total annual ebullition at that site, and ebullition generally followed the seasonal sediment temperature variations. The same event damped ebullition from deeper water sites. Total annual ebullition values ranged from 200 to 500 gCH4 m-2 yr-1. Ebullition from shallow water sediments in winter ceased for extended periods, but continued un-broken from deeper sites. With on-going measurements we believe these findings will help to improve estimates and the modelling of methane emissions from impounded river systems.

  19. Simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge with the modified Einstein procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, Bruce R.; Hubbell, David Wellington

    1961-01-01

    A procedure was presented in 1950 by H. A. Einstein for computing the total discharge of sediment particles of sizes that are in appreciable quantities in the stream bed. This procedure was modified by the U.S. Geological Survey and adapted to computing the total sediment discharge of a stream on the basis of samples of bed sediment, depth-integrated samples of suspended sediment, streamflow measurements, and water temperature. This paper gives simplified methods for computing total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure. Each of four homographs appreciably simplifies a major step in the computations. Within the stated limitations, use of the homographs introduces much less error than is present in either the basic data or the theories on which the computations of total sediment discharge are based. The results are nearly as accurate mathematically as those that could be obtained from the longer and more complex arithmetic and algebraic computations of the Einstein procedure.

  20. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  1. TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON IN LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS: COMPARISONS WITH HEMIPELAGIC AND PELAGIC MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seventeen box cores from Lake Superior were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), porosity, and (210)Pb activity. The data were used to determine relationships among bulk sedimentation rates, TOC sedimentation rates, and TOC degradation rates with depth in the core. Results ar...

  2. Quantitative PCR Enumeration of Total/Toxic Planktothrix rubescens and Total Cyanobacteria in Preserved DNA Isolated from Lake Sediments?

    PubMed Central

    Savichtcheva, Olga; Debroas, Didier; Kurmayer, Rainer; Villar, Clement; Jenny, Jean Philippe; Arnaud, Fabien; Perga, Marie Elodie; Domaizon, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The variability of spatial distribution and the determinism of cyanobacterial blooms, as well as their impact at the lake scale, are still not understood, partly due to the lack of long-term climatic and environmental monitoring data. The paucity of these data can be alleviated by the use of proxy data from high-resolution sampling of sediments. Coupling paleolimnological and molecular tools and using biomarkers such as preserved DNA are promising approaches, although they have not been performed often enough so far. In our study, a quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique was applied to enumerate total cyanobacterial and total and toxic Planktothrix communities in preserved DNA derived from sediments of three lakes located in the French Alps (Lake Geneva, Lake Bourget, and Lake Annecy), containing a wide range of cyanobacterial species. Preserved DNA from lake sediments was analyzed to assess its quality, quantity, and integrity, with further application for qPCR. We applied the qPCR assay to enumerate the total cyanobacterial community, and multiplex qPCR assays were applied to quantify total and microcystin-producing Planktothrix populations in a single reaction tube. These methods were optimized, calibrated, and applied to sediment samples, and the specificity and reproducibility of qPCR enumeration were tested. Accurate estimation of potential inhibition within sediment samples was performed to assess the sensitivity of such enumeration by qPCR. Some precautions needed for interpreting qPCR results in the context of paleolimnological approaches are discussed. We concluded that the qPCR assay can be used successfully for the analysis of lake sediments when DNA is well preserved in order to assess the presence and dominance of cyanobacterial and Planktothrix communities. PMID:21984244

  3. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual net sales and total assets. 801.11... sales and total assets. (a) The annual net sales and total assets of a person shall include all net sales and all assets held, whether foreign or domestic, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)...

  4. 16 CFR 801.11 - Annual net sales and total assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual net sales and total assets. 801.11... sales and total assets. (a) The annual net sales and total assets of a person shall include all net sales and all assets held, whether foreign or domestic, except as provided in paragraphs (d) and (e)...

  5. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steve M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  6. Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Smith, R.G., Jr.; Lee, R.F.; Windom, H.L.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Summers, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in sediment and fish collected from estuarine waters of Florida to understand their distribution and partitioning. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged from 1 to 219 ng/g dry wt. Methyl mercury accounted for, on average, 0.77% of total mercury in sediment. Methyl mercury concentrations were not correlated with total mercury or organic carbon content in sediments. The concentrations of total mercury in fish muscle were between 0.03 and 2.22 (mean: 0.31) ??g/g, wet wt, with methyl mercury contributing 83% of total mercury. Methyl mercury concentrations in fish muscle were directly proportional to total mercury concentrations. The relationship of total and methyl mercury concentrations in fish to those of sediments from corresponding locations was fish-species dependent, in addition to several abiotic factors. Among fish species analyzed, hardhead catfish, gafftopsail catfish, and sand seatrout contained the highest concentrations of mercury. Filtered water samples from canals and creeks that discharge into the Florida Bay showed mercury concentrations of 3-7.4 ng/L, with methyl mercury accounting for <0.03-52% of the total mercury. Consumption of fish containing 0.31 ??g mercury/g wet wt, the mean concentration found in this study, at rates greater than 70 g/day, was estimated to be hazardous to human health.

  7. Total nutrient and sediment loads, trends, yields, and nontidal water-quality indicators for selected nontidal stations, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 19852011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth; Chanat, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 19852011 and for 32 stations in the years 20022011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 20062011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as improving water-quality trend and a low yield than degrading water-quality trend and a high yield for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.

  8. Annual replenishment of bed material by sediment transport in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smalley, M.L.; Emmett, W.W.; Wacker, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Transportation, conducted a study during 1985-87 to determine the annual replenishment of sand and gravel along a point bar in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming. Hydraulic- geometry relations determined from streamflow measurements; streamflow characteristics determined from 45 years of record at the study site; and analyses of suspended-sediment, bedload, and bed- material samples were used to describe river transport characteristics and to estimate the annual replenishment of sand and gravel. The Wind River is a perennial, snowmelt-fed stream. Average daily discharge at the study site is about 734 cubic feet per second, and bankfull discharge (recurrence interval about 1.5 years) is about 5,000 cubic feet per second. At bankfull discharge, the river is about 136 feet wide and has an average depth of about 5.5 feet and average velocity of about 6.7 feet per second. Streams slope is about 0.0010 foot per foot. Bed material sampled on the point bar before the 1986 high flows ranged from sand to cobbles, with a median diameter of about 22 millimeters. Data for sediment samples collected during water year 1986 were used to develop regression equations between suspended-sediment load and water discharge and between bedload and water discharge. Average annual suspended-sediment load was computed to be about 561,000 tons per year using the regression equation in combination with flow-duration data. The regression equation for estimating bedload was not used; instead, average annual bedload was computed as 1.5 percent of average annual suspended load about 8,410 tons per year. This amount of bedload material is estimated to be in temporary storage along a reach containing seven riffles--a length of approximately 1 river mile. On the basis of bedload material sampled during the 1986 high flows, about 75 percent (by weight) is sand (2 millimeters in diameter or finer); median particle size is about 0.5 milli- meter. About 20 percent (by weight) is medium gravel to small cobbles--12.7 millimeters (0.5 inch) or coarser. The bedload moves slowly (about 0.03 percent of the water speed) and briefly (about 10 percent of the time). The average travel distance of a median-sized particle is about 1 river mile per year. The study results indicate that the average replenishment rate of bedload material coarser than 12.7 millimeters is about 1,500 to 2,000 tons (less than 1,500 cubic yards) per year. Finer material (0.075 to 6.4 millimeters in diameter) is replen- ishment at about 4,500 to 5,000 cubic yards per year. The total volume of potentially usable material would average about 6,000 cubic yards per year.

  9. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  11. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more....

  12. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... volume. 779.253 Section 779.253 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale that move or have moved across State lines must amount in total annual volume to $250,000 or more....

  13. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale..., delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the...

  14. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale..., delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the...

  15. 29 CFR 779.253 - What is included in computing the total annual inflow volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is included in computing the total annual inflow... computing the total annual inflow volume. The goods which the establishment purchases or receives for resale..., delivery, storage and any other will be included in computing the $250,000. The dollar volume of the...

  16. Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes increase in the Mississippi and Columbia Basins, whereas fluxes markedly decrease in the Colorado Basin. No consistent pattern in trace element fluxes was detected in the Rio Grande Basin.

  17. Determining annual suspended sediment and sediment-associated trace element and nutrient fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Suspended sediment is a major factor in the biological and geochemical cycling of trace elements and nutrients in aquatic systems. The design of effective studies involving the collection, processing, and subsequent chemical analysis of suspended sediment requires a clear understanding of the problems associated with using this sample medium. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge relative to the various issues/problems associated with the collection of representative suspended sediment samples in fluvial systems. It also addresses issues associated with accurately determining the concentrations and fluxes of sediment-associated trace elements and nutrients.

  18. Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...

  19. Distribution of total and methyl mercury in sediments along Steamboat Creek (Nevada, USA).

    PubMed

    Stamenkovic, Jelena; Gustin, Mae S; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C; Thomas, Beth A; Agee, Jennifer L

    2004-04-25

    In the late 1800s, mills in the Washoe Lake area, Nevada, used elemental mercury to remove gold and silver from the ores of the Comstock deposit. Since that time, mercury contaminated waste has been distributed from Washoe Lake, down Steamboat Creek, and to the Truckee River. The creek has high mercury concentrations in both water and sediments, and continues to be a constant source of mercury to the Truckee River. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of total and methyl mercury (MeHg) in surface sediments and characterize their spatial distribution in the Steamboat Creek watershed. Total mercury concentrations measured in channel and bank sediments did not decrease downstream, indicating that mercury contamination has been distributed along the creek's length. Total mercury concentrations in sediments (0.01-21.43 microg/g) were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in pristine systems. At 14 out of 17 sites, MeHg concentrations in streambank sediments were higher than the concentrations in the channel, suggesting that low banks with wet sediments might be important sites of mercury methylation in this system. Both pond/wetland and channel sites exhibited high potential for mercury methylation (6.4-30.0 ng g(-1) day(-1)). Potential methylation rates were positively correlated with sulfate reduction rates, and decreased as a function of reduced sulfur and MeHg concentration in the sediments. Potential demethylation rate appeared not to be influenced by MeHg concentration, sulfur chemistry, DOC, sediment grain size or other parameters, and showed little variation across the sites (3.7-7.4 ng g(-1) day(-1)). PMID:15081746

  20. Distribution of total and methyl mercury in sediments along Steamboat Creek (Nevada, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamenkovic, J.; Gustin, M.S.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Thomas, B.A.; Agee, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the late 1800s, mills in the Washoe Lake area, Nevada, used elemental mercury to remove gold and silver from the ores of the Comstock deposit. Since that time, mercury contaminated waste has been distributed from Washoe Lake, down Steamboat Creek, and to the Truckee River. The creek has high mercury concentrations in both water and sediments, and continues to be a constant source of mercury to the Truckee River. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of total and methyl mercury (MeHg) in surface sediments and characterize their spatial distribution in the Steamboat Creek watershed. Total mercury concentrations measured in channel and bank sediments did not decrease downstream, indicating that mercury contamination has been distributed along the creek's length. Total mercury concentrations in sediments (0.01-21.43 ??g/g) were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in pristine systems. At 14 out of 17 sites, MeHg concentrations in streambank sediments were higher than the concentrations in the channel, suggesting that low banks with wet sediments might be important sites of mercury methylation in this system. Both pond/wetland and channel sites exhibited high potential for mercury methylation (6.4-30.0 ng g-1 day-1). Potential methylation rates were positively correlated with sulfate reduction rates, and decreased as a function of reduced sulfur and MeHg concentration in the sediments. Potential demethylation rate appeared not to be influenced by MeHg concentration, sulfur chemistry, DOC, sediment grain size or other parameters, and showed little variation across the sites (3.7-7.4 ng g-1 day-1). ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of surficial sediment in Long Island Sound and adjacent waters: Texture and total organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Knebel, H. J.; Mlodzinska, Z.J.; Hastings, M.E.; Seekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The surficial sediment distribution within Long Island Sound has been mapped and described using bottom samples, photography, and sidescan sonar, combined with information from the geologic literature. The distributions of sediment type and total organic carbon (TOC) reveal several broad trends that are largely related to the sea-floor geology, the bathymetry, and the effects of modern tidal- and wind-driven currents. Sediment types are most heterogeneous in bathymetrically complex and shallow nearshore areas; the heterogeneity diminishes and the texture fines with decreasing bottom-current energy. Lag deposits of gravel and gravelly sand dominate the surficial sediment texture in areas where bottom currents are the strongest (such as where tidal flow is constricted) and where glacial till crops out at the sea floor. Sand is the dominant sediment type in areas characterized by active sediment transport and in shallow areas affected by fine-grained winnowing. Silty sand and sand-silt-clay mark transitions within the basin from higher- to lower-energy environments, suggesting a diminished hydraulic ability to sort and transport sediment. Clayey silt and silty clay are the dominant sediment types accumulating in the central and western basins and in other areas characterized by long-term depositional environments. The amount of TOC in the sediments of Long Island Sound varies inversely with sediment grain size. Concentrations average more than 1.9% (dry weight) in clayey silt, but are less than 0.4% in sand. Generally, values for TOC increase both toward the west in the Sound and from the shallow margins to the deeper parts of the basin floor. Our data also suggest that TOC concentrations can vary seasonally.

  2. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines River at Jackson. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong relations with SSC at 10 of 14 sites and was superior to streamflow for estimating SSC at all sites. These results indicate that turbidity may be beneficial as a surrogate for SSC in many of Minnesotas rivers. Suspended-sediment loads and annual basin yields indicated that the Minnesota River had the largest average annual sediment load of 1.8 million tons per year and the largest mean annual sediment basin yield of 120 tons of sediment per year per square mile. Annual TSS loads were considerably lower than suspended-sediment loads. Overall, the largest suspended-sediment and TSS loads were transported during spring snowmelt runoff, although loads during the fall and summer seasons occasionally exceeded spring runoff at some sites. This study provided data from which to characterize suspended sediment across Minnesotas diverse geographical settings. The data analysis improves understanding of sediment transport relations, provides information for improving sediment budgets, and documents baseline data to aid in understanding the effects of future land use/land cover on water quality. Additionally, the data provides insight from which to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of best management practices at the watershed scale.

  3. Land2Sea database of river drainage basin sizes, annual water discharges, and suspended sediment fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2009-06-01

    The Land2Sea database contains data on the sizes of 1519 exorheic river drainage basins (79% of the exorheic land area), annual suspended sediment fluxes (593 rivers, 63% of the exorheic land area), and water discharges (1272 rivers, 76% of the exorheic land area) that have been compiled from a variety of sources. The database extends earlier compilations, such as GEMS/GLORI. The river basins are grouped into 19 large-scale drainage regions to investigate the regional variability in freshwater and sediment fluxes to various ocean basins. The annual suspended sediment flux to the coastal ocean (18.5 109 tons) is dominated by east Asia (6.1 109 tons); Arabia, India, and southeast Asia (4.3 109 tons); and eastern South America (2.4 109 tons). Small topical islands of Oceania support the highest annual sediment fluxes per drainage area (9650 t km-2 a-1). Annual freshwater discharge to the coastal ocean (38,857 km3) is dominated by runoff from eastern South America (11,199 km3); east Asia (7114 km3); and Arabia, India, and southeast Asia (4384 km3). The empirical data agree well with results from global models (ART and BQART) that have been trained on a subset of the data compiled here.

  4. The effects of sample scheduling and sample numbers on estimates of the annual fluxes of suspended sediment in fluvial systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Clarke, Robin T.; Merten, Gustavo Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, there has been both continuing and growing interest in developing accurate estimates of the annual fluvial transport (fluxes and loads) of suspended sediment and sediment-associated chemical constituents. This study provides an evaluation of the effects of manual sample numbers (from 4 to 12?year?1) and sample scheduling (random-based, calendar-based and hydrology-based) on the precision, bias and accuracy of annual suspended sediment flux estimates. The evaluation is based on data from selected US Geological Survey daily suspended sediment stations in the USA and covers basins ranging in area from just over 900?km2to nearly 2?million?km2and annual suspended sediment fluxes ranging from about 4?Kt?year?1to about 200?Mt?year?1. The results appear to indicate that there is a scale effect for random-based and calendar-based sampling schemes, with larger sample numbers required as basin size decreases. All the sampling schemes evaluated display some level of positive (overestimates) or negative (underestimates) bias. The study further indicates that hydrology-based sampling schemes are likely to generate the most accurate annual suspended sediment flux estimates with the fewest number of samples, regardless of basin size. This type of scheme seems most appropriate when the determination of suspended sediment concentrations, sediment-associated chemical concentrations, annual suspended sediment and annual suspended sediment-associated chemical fluxes only represent a few of the parameters of interest in multidisciplinary, multiparameter monitoring programmes. The results are just as applicable to the calibration of autosamplers/suspended sediment surrogates currently used to measure/estimate suspended sediment concentrations and ultimately, annual suspended sediment fluxes, because manual samples are required to adjust the sample data/measurements generated by these techniques so that they provide depth-integrated and cross-sectionally representative data.

  5. Regional variation of total microbial biomass in sediments of the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boetius, Antje; Lochte, Karin

    2000-01-01

    Eight different sites from 2300 to 4420 m water depth in the Arabian Sea were sampled for a biochemical quantification of phospholipid concentrations in the sediments. This method serves as a measure of microbial biomass in marine sediments comprising all small-sized organisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa and metazoa. Phospholipid concentrations can be converted to carbon units as an estimate of total microbial biomass in the sediments. The average phospholipid concentrations in the surface sediments (0-1 cm) of the 4 abyssal sites ranged from 7 nmol cm -3 at the southern site (SAST, 10N 65E, 4425 m) to 29 nmol cm -3 at the western site (WAST, 16N 60E, 4045 m). The high values detected at the abyssal station WAST exceeded those in the literature for other abyssal sites and were comparable to values from the upper continental slope of the NE-Atlantic and the Arctic. At the four continental slope sites in the Arabian Sea, average phospholipid concentrations ranged from 9 to 53 nmol cm -3 with the maximum values at stations A (2314 m) and D (3142 m) close to the Omani coast. Records of particulate organic carbon flux to the deep sea are available for four of the investigated locations, allowing a test of the hypothesis that the standing stock of benthic microorganisms in the deep sea is controlled by substrate availability, i.e. particle sedimentation. Total microbial biomass in the surface sediments of the Arabian Sea was positively correlated with sedimentation rates, consistent with previous studies of other oceans. The use of the measurement of phospholipid concentrations as a proxy for input of particulate organic matter is discussed.

  6. Temporal and vertical distribution of total ammonia nitrogen and un-ionized ammonia nitrogen in sediment pore water from the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazier, Bradley E.; Naimo, Teresa J.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the temporal and vertical distribution of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and un-ionized ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in sediment pore water and compared the temporal patterns of TAN and NH3-N concentrations in overlying surface water with those in pore water. Pore water was obtained by core extraction and subsequent centrifugation. We measured TAN concentrations and calculated NH3-N concentrations from February through October 1993 at four sites in Pool 8, upper Mississippi River, at depths of 0 to 4, 4 to 8, and 8 to 12 cm below the sediment-water interface. Total ammonia nitrogen and NH3-N concentrations were significantly different among sampling dates (p = 0.0001) and sediment depths (p = 0.0001). Concentrations of TAN and NH3-N in surface water were significantly less than those in pore water from all sediment depths (p < 0.05). Concentrations in pore water ranged from 0.07 to 4.0 mg TAN/L and less than 1 to 20 I?g NH3-N/L in winter, and from 0.07 to 10.0 mg TAN/L and 1 to 175 I?g NH3-N/L in summer; greatest concentrations were usually found in sediments 8 to 12 cm deep. Annual mean TAN concentrations were positively correlated with silt and volatile solids content and were negatively correlated with sand content. Because of the high variability of TAN and NH3-N concentrations in pore water, sediment toxicity studies should take into account the season and the depth at which sediments are obtained. The annual mean NH3-N concentration in pore water at one site (55 I?g/L) exceeded the concentration (30 I?g/L) demonstrated to inhibit growth of fingernail clams in laboratory studies. However, these concentrations apparently were not lethal, as evidenced by the presence of fingernail clams at this site.

  7. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4 times higher than in the associated sediments. Data from this study will contribute to a water quality risk assessment to the wetland fish and birds.

  8. Pluri-annual sediment budget in a navigated river system: the Seine River (France).

    PubMed

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; de Fouquet, Chantal; Poulin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at quantifying pluri-annual Total Suspended Matter (TSM) budgets, and notably the share of river navigation in total re-suspension at a long-term scale, in the Seine River along a 225 km stretch including the Paris area. Erosion is calculated based on the transport capacity concept with an additional term for the energy dissipated by river navigation. Erosion processes are fitted for the 2007-2011 period based on i) a hydrological typology of sedimentary processes and ii) a simultaneous calibration and retrospective validation procedure. The correlation between observed and simulated TSM concentrations is higher than 0.91 at all monitoring stations. A variographic analysis points out the possible sources of discrepancies between the variabilities of observed and simulated TSM concentrations at three time scales: sub-weekly, monthly and seasonally. Most of the error on the variability of simulated concentrations concerns sub-weekly variations and may be caused by boundary condition estimates rather than modeling of in-river processes. Once fitted, the model permits to quantify that only a small fraction of the TSM flux sediments onto the river bed (<0.3). The river navigation contributes significantly to TSM re-suspension in average (about 20%) and during low flow periods (over 50%). Given the significant impact that sedimentary processes can have on the water quality of rivers, these results highlight the importance of taking into account river navigation as a source of re-suspension, especially during low flow periods when biogeochemical processes are the most intense. PMID:25241208

  9. Sediment-porewater partitioning, total sulfur, and methylmercury production in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Schartup, Amina T; Balcom, Prentiss H; Mason, Robert P

    2014-01-21

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and the activity of Hg(II)-methylating bacteria are responsible for the rate of methylmercury production and thus bioaccumulation in marine foodwebs. Factors affecting porewater partitioning (Kd) and methylation of Hg(II) were examined at 11 sites in sediment of 4 biogeochemically diverse estuaries in the Northeast U.S. In Long Island Sound, 88% of total mercury (HgT) log Kd variability was described by porewater dissolved organic carbon concentration and sediment total sulfur (S) content. Whereas across all estuaries, regression analyses showed that S alone drives about 70% of Kd variability and 50% of changes in methylation rates; and the inclusion of DOC and sulfides did not improve the prediction. Thus, we demonstrated that S is a better predictor of HgT log Kd than the sediment organic matter across multiple estuaries, and while organic matter and S are interchangeable in small-scale studies, on a larger scale, sediment S content is the simplest and most effective variable to measure. PMID:24344684

  10. Sediment-Porewater Partitioning, Total Sulfur and Methylmercury Production in Estuaries

    PubMed Central

    Schartup, Amina T.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Mason, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) speciation and the activity of Hg(II)-methylating bacteria are responsible for the rate of methylmercury (MeHg) production and thus bioaccumulation in marine foodwebs. Factors affecting porewater partitioning (Kd) and methylation of Hg(II) were examined at 11 sites in sediment of 4 biogeochemically diverse estuaries in the Northeast U. S. In Long Island Sound, 88% of total mercury (HgT) log Kd variability was described by porewater dissolved organic carbon concentration and sediment total sulfur (S) content. Whereas across all estuaries, regression analyses showed that S alone drives about 70% of Kd variability and 50% of changes in methylation rates; and the inclusion of DOC and sulfides did not improve the prediction. Thus, we demonstrated that S is a better predictor of HgT log Kd than the sediment organic matter across multiple estuaries, and while organic matter and S are interchangeable in small-scale studies, on a larger scale, sediment S content is the simplest and most effective variable to measure. PMID:24344684

  11. Total mercury and methylmercury distributions in surface sediments from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Gao, Xiaofeng; Lu, Zhibo; Zhao, Youcai; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Minghong

    2015-06-01

    The total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) distributions in the surface sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, in the Norwegian Arctic were investigated in this study. The results showed that THg concentrations ranged from 9.11 to 86.73ngg(-1), whereas MeHg concentrations had an average of only 0.11ngg(-1). Factors that control the distribution and methylated transformation of mercury were examined, and the results suggested that the movements of ocean currents and glaciers affect the THg distribution. The total organic carbon (TOC) and N contents in the sediments were positively correlated with THg concentration, which indicated that the THg distribution at these stations was primarily controlled by organic matter in the sediments. A complex relationship was observed between the THg and S contents, possibly due to anthropogenic activities involved in the perennial scientific expedition. MeHg and THg exhibited similar correlations with the sediment chemical characteristics for all stations suggesting that MeHg may be produced locally through the microbial methylation of mercury. PMID:25563828

  12. Identifying the annual signal in laminated clastic sediments from a Late Pleistocene lake succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Samuel; Starnberger, Reinhard; Sptl, Christoph; Brauer, Achim; Dulski, Peter

    2014-05-01

    A thick (>250m) succession of laminated lacustrine sediments at the Baumkirchen site in the Inn Valley (Austria) indicates the presence of a lake or series of lake phases existing during Marine Isotope Stage 3. The laminations are highly complex, entirely clastic, and vary considerably in thickness and internal structure. Despite high sedimentation rates of 5-6 cm per year indicated by radiocarbon and pollen data, there is no systematic macroscopic annual pattern in the laminations which could be used to develop a high-resolution (varve) chronology. Microscopic investigations of thin sections revealed sub-mm to cm-scale silt layers punctuated by very thin (0.25-2 mm) clay-rich layers spaced semi-regularly between 2 and 8 cm where present. The spacing and small grain size of these thin layers suggests a possible annual process responsible for their formation: rain-out of the fine suspended sediment from the water column during winter, when fluvial discharge into the lake was negligible and its surface was frozen. These potentially annual layers are not reliably identifiable macroscopically, however, analysis of X-ray fluorescence core scan data revealed the layers to be enriched in several heavy metals: most strongly in Zn but also in Pb, Cu and Ni. Possible carrier minerals of these heavy metals are currently being investigated. The radiocarbon chronology (in the short upper section where it is available) and heavy metal peak counting agree within error suggesting the heavy metal enriched clay-rich layers are mostly annual. Available X-ray fluorescence data for 150 m of the section suggest no significant long-term changes in annual layer spacing (i.e. sedimentation rate) from the 5-6 cm average indicated by the radiocarbon data, although there is a high degree of small-scale variation. Preliminary optically stimulated luminescence dates point to the presence of several hiatuses in this succession suggesting a fragmented record containing several lake periods of high sedimentation rates, rather than a continuous record. Local, annually resolved chronologies will open the door to perform high-resolution investigations into rates of change of climate proxies (pollen and biomarkers) across stadial-to-interstadial transitions.

  13. Spatial and Habitat-Based Variations in Total and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Surficial Sediments in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    SciTech Connect

    Heim, Wesley A.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Stephenson, Mark; Choe, Key-Young; Gill, Gary A.; Foe, Chris

    2007-04-07

    Recent studies indicate significant amounts of mercury (Hg) are annually transported into the San Francisco Bay-Delta (Bay-Delta) as a result of historic gold and Hg mining activities. We examined temporal and spatial variation in concentrations of total Hg (HgT) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in surficial sediments of various ecosystem types in the Bay-Delta. We sampled surficial sediments across the Bay-Delta system and found HgT sediment concentrations in the central Delta were generally100-200 ng g-1 and increased westward through Suisun Bay to 250-350 ng g-1. MMHg concentrations in the central Delta were between 1 and 3 ng g-1, while those in sediments in the perimeter waterways and adjacent bays were less than 1 ng g-1. Six sites were monitored monthly for over a year to identify seasonal changes in Hg sediment concentrations. HgT sediment concentrations ranged from 48 to 382 ng g-1 and varied as a function of location not season. However, MMHg concentrations varied seasonally, increasing from 1 ng g-1 during winter months to 6 ng g-1 during spring and summer. Transects conducted at three marshes in the central Delta revealed MMHg sediment concentrations of 4-8 ng g-1at the interior and 2 ng g-1 at the exterior of the marshes. Habitat type was a major factor controlling MMHg concentration and the MMHg to HgT ratio in sediments of the Bay-Delta. MMHg was significantly correlated to HgT (r 2 = 0.49) in marsh sediments.

  14. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Colorado River near Cisco, Utah, 1930-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Colorado River upstream of gaging station 09180500 near Cisco, Utah, drains about 24,100 square miles in Utah and Colorado. Altitudes in the basin range from 12,480 feet near the headwaters to 4,090 feet at station 09180500. The average annual precipitation for 1894-1982 near the station was 7.94 inches. The average annual precipitation near the headwaters often exceeds 50 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the drainage basin upstream from station 09180500. Shale, limestone, siltstone, mudstone, and sandstone probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute large quantities of sediment to the Colorado River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 09180500. Based on these records, the mean annual suspended-sediment load was 11,390,000 tone, ranging from 2,038,000 tons in water year 1981 to 35,700,000 tons in water year 1938. The minimum daily load of 14 tons was on August 22, 1960, and the maximum daily load of 2,790,000 tons was on October 14, 1941. (USGS)

  15. Computer program for the computation of total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a computer program to compute total sediment discharge by the modified Einstein procedure are presented. The FORTRAN 77 language version is for use on the PRIME computer, and the BASIC language version is for use on most microcomputers. The program contains built-in limitations and input-output options that closely follow the original modified Einstein procedure. Program documentation and listings of both versions of the program are included. (USGS)

  16. Total and Methyl Mercury Distribution in Water, Sediment, and Fish tissue in New England Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, A. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    Conditions that are conducive to the methylation of mercury are of particular concern because methyl mercury (MeHg) is the most toxic mercury species and is rapidly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in wildlife and man. The New England Coastal Basins study unit, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment program, has evaluated relations between concentrations of total mercury (HgT) and MeHg in stream water and bed sediment, and HgT in fish tissue at sites with a variety of watershed characteristics. Fifty-five stream sites from Rhode Island to Maine were sampled for water and bed sediment during 1998 - 2000. A subset of 27 sites was sampled for fish tissue. Sediment, water, and fish tissue samples were collected during summer low flow conditions within a week of each other to show patterns of MeHg accumulation and partitioning relative to site and watershed conditions. Concentrations of HgT in water and bed sediment ranged from 1 to 13 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and from 7 to 3,100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of MeHg in water and sediment ranged from 0.04 to 1.8 ng/L and from 1 to 38 ng/g dry weight, respectively, and were positively correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. Methylation efficiency, as estimated by MeHg/HgT, ranged from 0.003 to 0.282 for sediment and water samples, with a median value of 0.071. Methylation efficiency was highest at sampling sites with low urbanization and high organic carbon concentrations. HgT concentrations in fish tissue (mixed sunfish species) ranged from 42 to 349 ng/g wet weight and were positively correlated with concentrations of MeHg in water and bed sediment. A positive relation was not observed between HgT concentrations in fish tissue and HgT concentrations in water and bed sediment. These preliminary results indicate a high potential for mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms in New England streams.

  17. Comparability of suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Glysson, G.D.; Turcios, L.M.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    Two laboratory analytical methods ? suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and total suspended solids (TSS) ? are predominantly used to quantify concentrations of suspended solid-phase material in surface waters of the United States. The analytical methods differ. SSC data are produced by measuring the dry weight of all the sediment from a known volume of a water-sediment mixture. TSS data are produced by several methods, most of which entail measuring the dry weight of sediment from a known volume of a subsample of the original. An evaluation of 3,235 paired SSC and TSS data, of which 860 SSC values include percentages of sand-size material, shows bias in the relation between SSC and TSS ?SSC values tend to increase at a greater rate than their corresponding paired TSS values. As sand-size material in samples exceeds about a quarter of the sediment dry weight, SSC values tend to exceed their corresponding paired TSS values. TSS analyses of three sets of quality-control samples (35 samples) showed unexpectedly small sediment recoveries and relatively large variances in the TSS data. Two quality-control data sets (18 samples) that were analyzed for SSC showed both slightly deficient sediment recoveries, and variances that are characteristic of most other quality-control data compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Sediment Laboratory Quality Assurance Program. The method for determining TSS, which was originally designed for analyses of wastewater samples, is shown to be fundamentally unreliable for the analysis of natural-water samples. In contrast, the method for determining SSC produces relatively reliable results for samples of natural water, regardless of the amount or percentage of sand-size material in the samples. SSC and TSS data collected from natural water are not comparable and should not be used interchangeably. The accuracy and comparability of suspended solid-phase concentrations of the Nation?s natural waters would be greatly enhanced if all these data were produced by the SSC analytical method.

  18. Atrazine, alachlor, and total inorganic nitrogen concentrations of winter wind-eroded sediment samples.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, T M; Clay, S A; Clay, D E

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine), alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide], or inorganic nitrogen was present on wind-eroded sediments collected from road ditch areas in mid to late winter. Sediment samples that had been deposited in ditches on top of snow were collected during the winters of 1994, 1995, and 1996 at randomly selected sites in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota. Atrazine, atrazine metabolites [deethylatrazine (DEA)(6-chloro-N-1-methylethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine], and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) (6-chloro-N-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and alachlor were determined by gas chromatography. Total inorganic N (NO(3-) + NH4+) concentration was determined with a nitrogen analyzer. In all years, atrazine was detected in at least 72% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 8.9 ug kg-1 and, while DEA was detected in at least 18% of the samples. Alachlor was detected in at least 27% of the soil samples for all three years with mean sediment concentration of > 5 ug kg-1. Inorganic N concentration of all samples averaged 33 mg kg-1. These data suggest that deposition of wind-eroded sediment contributes to nonpoint source contamination of nontarget areas by agrichemicals. PMID:9830132

  19. Statistical analysis and estimation of annual suspended sediments of major rivers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pingping; He, Bin; Chaffe, Pedro Luiz Borges; Nover, Daniel; Takara, Kaoru; Mohd Remy Rozainy, M A Z

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate the spatiotemporal trends of recent suspended sediment conditions in Japanese rivers. Statistical and spatiotemporal trend analysis is conducted on the 92 major rivers in Japan based on water quality monitoring data from 1992 to 2005. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric method was used to investigate the spatial and temporal trends for the suspended sediment indicator. Results show that the mean concentration of suspended sediments in Japanese rivers has generally declined in recent years, although there are still water quality problems at some monitoring sites (Kanto, Chubu, Kinki and Kyushu regions). A positive relationship between observed yearly discharge and suspended sediment load was found. Land use maps with 100 meter spatial resolution were used to apply an empirical model and develop a regression model for estimating annual suspended sediment loads directly from land use and hydrologic data. Rivers were assigned to three groups according to statistical cluster analysis of suspended sediment (SS) concentration. The correlation between the simulation result from the empirical model and the observed data had R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.71 for groups 2 and 3, and the correlation between the simulation result from the regression model and the observed data had R(2) values of 0.48 and 0.34 for groups 2 and 3. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads to river basins in Japan. Results also suggest prioritization methods and strategies that policy-makers can use to address suspended sediment pollution in rivers and water quality management in general. PMID:23563480

  20. Statistical power of detecting trends in total suspended sediment loads to the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Ross; Henderson, Brent; Kroon, Frederieke J; Kuhnert, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The export of pollutant loads from coastal catchments is of primary interest to natural resource management. For example, Reef Plan, a joint initiative by the Australian Government and the Queensland Government, has indicated that a 20% reduction in sediment is required by 2020. There is an obvious need to consider our ability to detect any trend if we are to set realistic targets or to reliably identify changes to catchment loads. We investigate the number of years of monitoring aquatic pollutant loads necessary to detect trends. Instead of modelling the trend in the annual loads directly, given their strong relationship to flow, we consider trends through the reduction in concentration for a given flow. Our simulations show very low power (<40%) of detecting changes of 20% over time periods of several decades, indicating that the chances of detecting trends of reasonable magnitudes over these time frames are very small. PMID:22551850

  1. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the coastline and mangroves of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Nozar, Seyedeh Laili; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Ismail, Wan Ruslan; Mortazawi, Mohammad Seddiq; Salimizadeh, Maryam; Momeni, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Gholamali

    2015-06-15

    To provide baseline information for the marine ecosystem of Hormozgan province, the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons was evaluated in 52 stations involved in the mangrove and coastline ecosystem. Coastline sampling sites included areas facing harbor, river, domestic and industrial discharge. Sediment samples were analyzed based on ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variations ranging from non-detectable (ND) to 1.71 and from 0.2 to 0.63?g/g dry weight for coastline and mangrove sediments, respectively. The detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than guideline values for ecological risk. Furthermore, the minimum environmental risk was confirmed by background levels for the Persian Gulf, the Sea of Oman, and detected values for reference areas. The results were regarded as background data in the studied area, and, considering the rapid expansion of activities related to the petroleum industry in Hormozgan province, the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended. PMID:25843439

  2. Annually laminated lake sediments as recorders of flood events: evidence from combining monitoring and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmpf, Lucas; Brauer, Achim; Mueller, Philip; Gntner, Andreas; Merz, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The relation of changing climate and the occurrence of strong flood events has been controversially debated over the last years. One major limitation in this respect is the temporal extension of instrumental flood time series, rarely exceeding 50-100 years, which is too short to reflect the full range of natural climate variability in a region. Therefore, geoarchives are increasingly explored as natural flood recorders far beyond the range of instrumental flood time series. Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments provide particularly valuable archives since (i) lakes form ideal traps in the landscape continuously recording sediment flux from the catchment and (ii) individual flood events are recorded as detrital layers and can be dated with seasonal precision by varve counting. Despite the great potential of varved lake sediments for reconstructing long flood time series, there are still some confinements with respect to their interpretation due to a lack in understanding processes controlling the formation of detrital layers. For this purpose, we investigated the formation of detrital flood layers in Lake Mondsee (Upper Austria) in great detail by monitoring flood-related sediment flux and comparing detrital layers in sub-recent sediments with river runoff data. Sediment flux at the lake bottom was trapped over a three-year period (2011-2013) at two locations in Lake Mondsee, one located 0.9 km off the main inflow (proximal) and one in a more distal position at a distance of 2.8 km. The monitoring data include 26 floods of different amplitude (max. hourly discharge=10-110 cbm/s) which triggered variable fluxes of catchment sediment to the lake floor (4-760 g/(sqm*d)). The comparison of runoff and sediment data revealed empiric runoff thresholds for triggering significant detrital sediment influx to the proximal (20 cbm/s) and distal lake basin (30 cbm/s) and an exponential relation between runoff amplitude and the amount of deposited sediment. A succession of 20 sub-millimetre to maximum 8 mm thick flood-triggered detrital layers, deposited between 1976 and 2005, was detected in two varved surface sediment cores from the same locations as the sediment traps. Calibration of the detrital layer record with river runoff data revealed empirical thresholds for flood layer deposition. These thresholds are higher than those for trapped sediment flux but, similarly to the trap results, increasing from the proximal (50-60 cbm/s; daily mean=40 cbm/s) to the distal lake basin (80 cbm/s, 2 days>40 cbm/s). Three flood events above the threshold for detrital layer formation in the proximal and one in the distal lake basin were also recorded in the monitoring period. These events resulted in exceptional sediment transfer to the lake of more than 400 g/sqm at both sites, which is therefore interpreted as the minimum sediment amount for producing a visible detrital layer.

  3. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23 C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (p<0.001) positive relationship between the experimentally determined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of brackish waters (p<0.001, n=23), southern, high-productivity freshwaters (p<0.001, n=20) as well as northern, low-productivity freshwater (p=0.048, n=6), the sum of neutral Hg-sulfides [Hg(SH)20 (aq)] and [HgS0 (aq)] in the sediment pore water was significantly, positively correlated with both the potential methylation rate constant (Km) and total MeHg concentrations (2). This indicates that methylating sulphate reducing bacteria passively take up neutral Hg-sulfides, which are transformed to MeHg. Differences in slopes of the relationships were explained by differences in primary productivity and availability of energy-rich organic matter to methylating bacteria. High primary productivity at southern freshwater sites, reflected by a low C/N ratio (large contribution from free living algae and bacteria) in the sediment and a high annual temperature sum, resulted in high methylation rates. In conclusion, concentrations of neutral Hg-sulfides and availability of energy rich organic matter, but also total Hg concentrations in sediments are important factors behind net production and accumulation of MeHg . References: (1) Drott et. al. submitted, (2) Drott, A.; Lambertsson, L.; Bjrn, E.; Skyllberg, U. Importance of dissolved neutral mercury sulfides for methyl mercury production in contaminated sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 2007, 41, 2270-2276.

  4. Can sediment total organic carbon and grain size be used to diagnose organic enrichment in estuaries?

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Marguerite C; Campbell, Daniel E; Ho, Kay T; Burgess, Robert M; Audette, Charles T; Detenbeck, Naomi E

    2011-03-01

    Eutrophication (i.e., nutrient enrichment, organic enrichment, and oxygen depletion) is one of the most common sources of impairment in Clean Water Act 303(d)-listed waters in the United States. Although eutrophication can eventually cause adverse effects to the benthos, it may be difficult to diagnose. Sediment organic carbon (OC) content has been used as an indicator of enrichment in sediments, but the amount of surface area available for carbon adsorption must be considered. We investigated the utility of the relationship between OC and sediment grain size as an indicator of eutrophication. Data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program was used to test this relationship. However, anthropogenic contaminants are also capable of causing adverse effects to the benthos and often co-occur with elevated levels of OC. Contaminant analysis and toxicity tests were not consistently related to enrichment status as defined by relationship between total OC and grain size. Although variability in response occurred, reflecting the variance in the water column factors (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and nutrients) and limited sample sizes, the data supported the hypothesis that sites designated as enriched were eutrophied. Dissolved oxygen levels were reduced at enriched sites, whereas chlorophyll a and nutrients were higher at enriched sites. This suggests that the relationship of OC to grain size can be used as a screening tool to diagnose eutrophication. PMID:21298700

  5. Total and leachable heavy metals in muddy and sandy sediments of Egyptian coast along Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed Moustafa; El Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2007-06-01

    The assessment of marine pollution due to metals was made for surficial sediments sampled from 20 sites along Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The samples were dried, acid digested and analyzed for leachable and total heavy metal contents (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (air-acetylene) with deuterium background correction. Evaluation of the heavy metals pollution status was carried out using enrichment factors (EFs), the effect range-low (ERL) and the effect range-median (ERM). The study showed high concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, Ni and moderate concentrations of Cr, Cu and Mn were contaminated in the sediments of studied sites. The results of Spearman correlation, factor and cluster analysis of the heavy metals analyzed in the collected sediment were discussed. The main source of contamination is the offshore oil field and industrial wastes, which arise due to the ineffective and inefficient operation equipments, illegal discharge and lack of supervision and prosecution of offenders. PMID:17057978

  6. Adjustment of total suspended solids data for use in sediment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G.D.; Gray, J.R.; Conge, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identifies fluvial sediment as the single most widespread pollutant in the Nation's rivers and streams, affecting aquatic habitat, drinking water treatment processes, and recreational uses of rivers, lakes, and estuaries. A significant amount of suspended-sediment data has been produced using the total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis method. An evaluation of data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey and others has shown that the variation in TSS analytical results is considerably larger than that for traditional suspended-sediment concentration analyses (SSC) and that the TSS data show a negative bias when compared to SSC data. This paper presents the initial results of a continuing investigation into the differences between TSS and SSC results. It explores possible relations between these differences and other hydrologic data collected at the same stations. A general equation was developed to relate TSS data to SSC data. However, this general equation is not applicable for data from individual stations. Based on these analyses, there appears to be no simple, straightforward way to relate TSS and SSC data unless pairs of TSS and SSC results are available for a station.

  7. Stability of the total and functional microbial communities in river sediment mesocosms exposed to anthropogenic disturbances.

    PubMed

    Van der Zaan, Bas; Smidt, Hauke; De Vos, Willem M; Rijnaarts, Huub; Gerritse, Jan

    2010-10-01

    River systems are exposed to anthropogenic disturbances, including chemical pollution and eutrophication. This may affect the phylogenetic diversity as well as the abundance of various functional groups within sediment-associated microbial communities. To address such potential effects, mesocosms filled with Ebro delta sediment covered with river water were exposed to chlorinated organic compounds or to a high nutrient concentration as used for fertilization. Changes in the abundance of selected functional microbial groups, i.e. total aerobes, nitrate, sulfate and iron reducers, organohalide-respiring microorganisms as well as methanogens, were examined using culture-dependent most probable number and culture-independent PCR methods targeting phylogenetic as well as functional gene markers. It was concluded that the abundance of functional groups was neither affected by pollution with 1,2-dichloroethane and tetrachloroethene nor by elevated nutrient loads, although changes in the bacterial community composition were observed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted fingerprint techniques. This study reinforced the notion that complementary culture-dependent and molecular methods, focusing on different fractions of the microbial community (cultivable, active or total), should be used in combination for a comprehensive description of phylogenetic diversity and functional potential. PMID:20618856

  8. Relations between total-sediment load and peak discharge for rainstorm runoff on five ephemeral streams in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Total-sediment loads transported by ephemeral flows are a function of rainstorm energy and peak discharge. Rainstorm energy, estimated by rainfall intensity, is the primary mechanism for soil-particle detachment. Vegetation, soil cohesiveness, and land slope also are related to the amount of sediment detached, but these factors remain nearly constant, except for seasonal or human-induced changes in vegetation. Thus, the largest variability in total-sediment loads is the result of variability in rainstorm energy. The magnitude of the peak discharge in a stream from a runoff-producing rainstorm is a function of the intensity and volume of rainfall. The greater the rainfall intensity for the same volume of rainfall, the larger the peak discharge. Therefore, for each drainage area a relation exists between the total-sediment load for a rainstorm and the peak discharge for the rainstorm, because both are a function of rainstorm energy. Total-sediment loads for runoff-producing rainstorms were computed from sample data collected at five ephemeral streams in semiarid areas of Wyoming. Regression analyses were used to develop equations relating total-sediment load to the peak discharge. Coefficients of determination ranged from 89 to 97 percent. Average standard errors ranged from 35 to 94 percent. The slopes of the lines defined by the equations were not different at the 95-percent level of significance, but the intercepts were significantly different for the five streams.

  9. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. K Appendix K to Part 226—Total Annual Loan...

  11. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  12. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  13. 50 CFR 648.231 - Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). 648.231 Section 648.231 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... dogfish Annual Catch Target (ACT) and Total Allowable Level of Landings (TAL). (a) The Spiny...

  14. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  15. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED..., App. L Appendix L to Part 226Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 1026 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. K Appendix K to Part 1026Total Annual Loan...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 1026 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions K Appendix K to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. K Appendix K to Part 1026Total Annual Loan...

  18. Total arsenic in water, fish, and sediments from Lake Xolotlan, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lacayo, M.L.; Cruz, A.; Calero, S.; Lacayo, J.; Fomsgaard, I. )

    1992-09-01

    In recent years there has been increasing concern over arsenic in aquatic environments from such sources as arsenical pesticides, smelters, coal-fired power plants and erosion caused by extensive land use. Another important contribution to As in the environment is the release associated with volcanic activity and hot springs. Lake Xolotlan has a surface area of 1000 km[sup 2]. The content of arsenic in Lake Xolotlan has different origins, such as volcanic activity in the area, waste water from a geothermal plant situated in the Momotombo Volcano on the northwest coast of the lake and a high number of hot springs. The objective of the present study was to determine total As in water, sediments and fish in Lake Xolotlan at different sampling sites. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Statistic analysis of annual total ozone extremes for the period 1964-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krzyscin, Janusz W.

    1994-01-01

    Annual extremes of total column amount of ozone (in the period 1964-1988) from a network of 29 Dobson stations have been examined using the extreme value analysis. The extremes have been calculated as the highest deviation of daily mean total ozone from its long-term monthly mean, normalized by the monthly standard deviations. The extremes have been selected from the direct-Sun total ozone observations only. The extremes resulting from abrupt changes in ozone (day to day changes greater than 20 percent) have not been considered. The ordered extremes (maxima in ascending way, minima in descending way) have been fitted to one of three forms of the Fisher-Tippet extreme value distribution by the nonlinear least square method (Levenberg-Marguard method). We have found that the ordered extremes from a majority of Dobson stations lie close to Fisher-Tippet type III. The extreme value analysis of the composite annual extremes (combined from averages of the annual extremes selected at individual stations) has shown that the composite maxima are fitted by the Fisher-Tippet type III and the composite minima by the Fisher-Tippet type I. The difference between the Fisher-Tippet types of the composite extremes seems to be related to the ozone downward trend. Extreme value prognoses for the period 1964-2014 (derived from the data taken at: all analyzed stations, the North American, and the European stations) have revealed that the prognostic extremes are close to the largest annual extremes in the period 1964-1988 and there are only small regional differences in the prognoses.

  20. Comparison of different methods to calculate total runoff and sediment yield based on aliquot sampling from rainfall simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresch, Simon; Fister, Wolfgang; Marzen, Miriam; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    The quality of data obtained by rainfall experiments depends mainly on the quality of the rainfall simulation itself. However, the best rainfall simulation cannot deliver valuable data, if runoff and sediment discharge from the plot are not sampled at a proper interval or if poor interpolation methods are being used. The safest way to get good results would be to collect all runoff and sediment amounts that come off the plot in the shortest possible intervals. Unfortunately, high rainfall amounts often coincide with limited transport and analysis capacities. Therefore, it is in most cases necessary to find a good compromise between sampling frequency, interpolation method, and available analysis capacities. The aim of this study was to compare different methods to calculate total sediment yield based on aliquot sampling intervals. The methods tested were (1) simple extrapolation of one sample until next sample was collected; (2) averaging between two successive samples; (3) extrapolation of the sediment concentration; (4) extrapolation using a regression function. The results indicate that all methods could, theoretically, be used to calculate total sediment yields, but errors between 10-25% would have to be taken into account for interpretation of the gained data. Highest deviations were always found for the first measurement interval, which shows that it is very important to capture the initial flush of sediment from the plot to be able to calculate reliable total values.

  1. Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-09-15

    Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms. PMID:25048730

  2. Solar cycles and depositional processes in annual 10Be from two varved lake sediment records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czymzik, Markus; Muscheler, Raimund; Brauer, Achim; Adolphi, Florian; Ott, Florian; Kienel, Ulrike; Dräger, Nadine; Słowiński, Michał; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2015-10-01

    Beryllium 10 concentrations (10Becon) were measured at annual resolution from varved sediment cores of Lakes Tiefer See (TSK) and Czechowskie (JC) for the period 1983-2009 (∼solar cycles 22 and 23). Calibrating the 10Becon time-series against complementing proxy records from the same archive as well as local precipitation and neutron monitor data, reflecting solar forced changes in atmospheric radionuclide production, allowed (i) identifying the main depositional processes and (ii) evaluating the potential for solar activity reconstruction. 10Becon in TSK and JC sediments are significantly correlated to varying neutron monitor counts (TSK: r = 0.5, p = 0.05, n = 16; JC: r = 0.46, p = 0.03, n = 22). However, the further correlations with changes in organic carbon contents in TSK as well as varying organic carbon and detrital matter contents in JC point to catchment specific biases in the 10Becon time-series. In an attempt to correct for these biases multiple regression analysis was applied to extract an atmospheric 10Be production signal (10Beatmosphere). To increase the signal to noise ratio a 10Be composite record (10Becomposite) was calculated from the TSK and JC 10Beatmosphere time-series. 10Becomposite is significantly correlated to variations in the neutron monitor record (r = 0.49, p = 0.01, n = 25) and matches the expected amplitude changes in 10Be production between solar cycle minima and maxima. This calibration study on 10Be from two sites indicates the large potential but also, partly site-specific, limitations of 10Be in varved lake sediments for solar activity reconstruction.

  3. Vertical distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in sediment of the Fugong mangrove area at Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Yuan, Dongxing; Chen, Yaojin; Liu, Xiyao

    2013-06-01

    The concentrations and vertical distributions of total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (methyl Hg) in the sediment of the Fugong mangrove area, located at the Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China, were investigated. The concentrations of total mercury were between 0.12-0.17 and 0.11-40.14 microg/g, while concentrations of methylmercury were between 0.15-1.8 and 0.081-0.58 ng/g (as mercury), in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The total mercury concentration was not correlated with the sampling depth. As the depth increased, methylmercury concentrations first increased to their maximum level at a depth of 10-25 cm, and then decreased; this was similar to the vertical distribution characteristics of methylmercury/total mercury ratios. The mangrove ecosystem was considered as a source of methylmercury for adjacent areas, due to the higher average methylmercury concentration in the mangrove sediment than other sediments nearby. Statistically significant logarithmic correlations, conic correlations, and negative correlations were observed for methylmercury and sulfide concentration, sediment organic matter, and sediment pH, respectively. PMID:23833815

  4. Inter- and intra-annual variability of fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weiseeferner, tztal Alps, Tyrol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weiseeferner" glacier (2.34 km in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weisee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra-annual timescale. In 2012, a larger amount of sediment was transported compared to 2013. A higher runoff during the snowmelt period 2012 and a heavy rain fall event in late August 2012 were the main reasons. Only 8 of 16 Q-SSC-relations show causal dependency. Thus, indicating that sediment transport strongly depends on the availability of sediment and the coupling of sediment sources to the fluvial system.

  5. The Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy of annually laminated sediments from Meerfelder Maar, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Christine S.; Brauer, Achim; Martín-Puertas, Celia; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Smith, Victoria C.; Tomlinson, Emma L.

    2015-08-01

    The record of Late Quaternary environmental change within the sediments of Meerfelder Maar in the Eifel region of Germany is renowned for its high precision chronology, which is annually laminated throughout the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT) and most of the Holocene. Two visible tephra layers are prominent within the floating varve chronology of Meerfelder Maar. An Early Holocene tephra layer, the Ulmener Maar Tephra (˜11,000 varve years BP), provides a tie-line of the Meerfelder Maar record to the varved Holocene record of nearby Lake Holzmaar. The Laacher See Tephra provides another prominent time marker for the late Allerød, ˜200 varve years before the transition into the Younger Dryas at 12,680 varve years BP. Further investigation has now shown that there are also 15 cryptotephra layers within the Meerfelder Maar LGIT-Holocene stratigraphy and these layers hold the potential to make direct comparisons between the Meerfelder Maar record and other palaeoenvironmental archives from across Europe and the North Atlantic. Most notable is the presence of the Vedde Ash, the most widespread Icelandic eruption known from the Late Quaternary, which occurred midway through the Younger Dryas. The Vedde Ash has also been found in the Greenland ice cores and can be used as an isochron around which the GICC05 and Meerfelder Maar annual chronologies can be compared. Near the base of the annual laminations in Meerfelder Maar a cryptotephra is found that correlates to the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, erupted from Campi Flegrei in southern Italy, 1200 km away. This is the furthest north that the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff has been found, highlighting its importance in the construction of a European-wide tephrostratigraphic framework. The co-location of cryptotephra layers from Italian, Icelandic and Eifel volcanic sources, within such a precise chronological record, makes Meerfelder Maar one of the most important tephrostratotype records for continental Europe during the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition.

  6. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates (a)...

  7. Comparisons between thorium isotopes in seawater and marine sediments for reconstructing dissolved and total detrital inputs to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y.; Henderson, G. M.; Williams, R. H.; McGee, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thorium-232, the most abundant Th isotope in the continental crust, has been widely used in seawater and marine sediments to evaluate continental inputs to the ocean. Seawater 232Th concentrations combined with estimates of Th residence time in the surface ocean derived from measurements of 230Th (or 234Th or 228Th) have been used to assess the dissolved 232Th removal flux. Assuming a constant 232Th concentration in detritus and dust Th solubility in seawater, 232Th removal flux can be converted to atmospheric dust input to the ocean. In marine sediments, 232Th concentrations have been normalized by 230Th to estimate total 232Th sinking flux to the seafloor. Similarly, this flux can also be used to estimate dust input to the ocean. Comparisons between dissolved 232Th removal flux in seawater and total 232Th sinking flux in sediments are crucial, because the discrepancy between these two fluxes could provide insights into several important issues, including uncertain dust Th solubility, potential advective Th inputs, inaccurate 230Th-derived sediment accumulation rates, and unknown lateral sediment transport. However, comparisons between these two fluxes have rarely been made in the same core-top sediments and water columns above. In this study, we compile several seawater and marine sediment Th data from different regions of the ocean, with a focus on the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The data are used to estimate 232Th removal and sinking fluxes, and hence the dissolved and total detrital inputs to the ocean. The results are also compared with other dust tracers (e.g. Al and Ti) and modeled dust deposition to improve our understanding of Th and dust in the ocean. This work offers an important test for the use of Th isotopes in reconstructing paleo dust input to the ocean and the impacts of dust flux changes on marine productivity and climate change in the past.

  8. 7th Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership' provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processess, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission. The conference was highlighted by the announcement of the first recipients of the George M. Low Trophy: NASA's Quality and Excellence Award. My congratulations go out to all nine finalist organizations and to the two recipients of this prestigious honor: Rockwell Space Systems Division and Marotta Scientific Controls, Inc. (the first small business to achieve this honor). These organizations have demonstrated a commitment to quality that is unsurpassed in the aerospace industry. This report summarizes the presentations and is not intended to be a verbatim proceedings document. You are encouraged to contact the speakers with any requests for further information.

  9. 12 CFR Appendix K to Part 226 - Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Computations for Reverse Mortgage Transactions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sample form(1) Model form. Total Annual Loan Cost Rate Loan Terms Age of youngest borrower: Appraised... Age of youngest borrower: 75 Appraised property value: $100,000 Interest rate: 9% Monthly...

  10. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...

  11. Microscopic observation of laminated sediment in thin section using diatom assemblages to reconstruct annual paleoenvironmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Kaoru, K.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern Hokkaido is a severe earthquake and tsunami district. Lake Harutori, located in eastern Hokkaido, records 22 traces of huge tsunamis in lake sediment since 9500 years ago. The latest event was occurred in 17th century (e.g. Nanayama et al., 2003). However, the strict age is still unknown, because the autochthon Ainu culture did not have literature. In lake sediment, there is laminated structure between tsunami deposits, and also on the 17th huge tsunami deposit. If this laminated structure was recognized as annual varve, it will be able to decide the strict age and reconstruct the paleoenvironment in high resolution. Large thin section 165 mm length was made included 17th tsunami deposits, laminated silt layer and age known tephra and observed lithofacies and diatoms with 1,000 magnification light microscope. The thin section comprised from 80 mm thick tsunami deposit in bottom, 60 mm thick laminated silt layer, 15 mm tephra as known as Ta-b fallen in 1667A.D. and 10 mm laminated silt layer at the top. As the result of optical observation to laminated silt layer, 31 laminated structures were recognized. Inferred from diatom assemblages, 37 cyclic productions were recognized. Diatom components were apparently changed from bottom to top and were seemed to influence by the changes of lake water conditions after tsunami inundation. These results indicate that the start of accumulation of laminated silt layer and/or the end of confusion of lake water by tsunami current was around 1630 A.D.; 37 years before 1667 A.D.. This earthquake was separated from the 1611 Keicho Sanriku earthquake was well known in this era and the hypocenters of these earthquakes need to reexam.

  12. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of total suspended sediment and organic carbon species in the Congo River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Seyler, Patrick; Etcheber, Henri; Meybeck, Michel; Orange, Didier

    2005-12-01

    The Congo (Zaire) River, the world's second largest river in terms both of water discharges and of drainage area after the Amazon River, has remained to date in a near-pristine state. For a period between 2 and 6 years, the mainstream near the river mouth (Brazzaville/Kinshasa station) and some of the major and minor tributaries (the Oubangui, Mpoko, and Ngoko-Sangha) were monitored every month for total suspended sediment (TSS), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this large but relatively flat equatorial basin, TSS levels are very low and organic carbon is essentially exported as DOC: from 74% of TOC for the tributaries flowing in savannah regions and 86% for those flowing in the rain forest. The seasonal patterns of TSS, POC, and DOC show clockwise hysteresis in relation to river discharges, with maximum levels recorded 2 to 4 months before peak flows. At the Kinshasa/Brazzaville station, the DOC distribution is largely influenced by the input from the tributaries draining the large marshy forest area located in the center of the basin. There is a marked difference between specific fluxes, threefold higher in the forest basins than in the savannah basins. The computation of inputs to the Atlantic Ocean demonstrates that the Congo is responsible for 14.4 106 t/yr of TOC of which 12.4 106 t/yr is DOC and 2 106 t/yr is POC. The three biggest tropical rivers (the Amazon, the Congo, and the Orinoco), with only 10% of the exoreic world area drained to world oceans, contribute 4% of its TSS inputs but 15-18% of its organic carbon inputs. These proportions may double when considering only world rivers discharging into the open ocean.

  13. DIATOM INDICATORS OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS, SEDIMENTS, AND WATERSHED FOREST COVER IN LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL, RIVERINE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatom assemblages are being investigated as response and diagnostic indicators as part of our Great Lakes coastal wetlands research designed to support the development of nutrient, habitat, and sediment criteria and to develop community- and landscape-level diagnostic indicator ...

  14. Longitudinal dependence of annual cycle of total ozone in the Northern mid-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinevsky, Gennadi; Evtushevsky, Oleksandr; Grytsai, Asen

    2015-04-01

    In the Northern mid-latitudes, annual change of the total ozone content (TOC) in terms of zonal means is mainly determined by stratospheric ozone accumulation in winter and spring due to the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and following photochemical relaxation continuing to autumn. It is known from previous studies that annual TOC cycle in some regions could be close to or differ from the zonal mean one. For example, annual TOC minimum over Eastern Asia is observed two months earlier (August) than over Europe (October). In this work, a consecutive analysis of the TOC seasonality along the latitudinal belt 50-55°N in 36 segments (10°-step in longitude) is analyzed. The latitude range includes northern Ukraine and Kyiv-Goloseyev Dobson station. Analysis is based on the Merged Ozone Data Set (MOD) reanalysis 1979-2011 (http://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/). We use also the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/composites/printpage.pl) to estimate seasonal changes in geopotential heights and tropopause heights. It is shown that the seasonal TOC cycle over the cyclonic anomalies (high mean TOC level) is shifted to the beginning of year in comparison with that over the anticyclonic anomalies (low mean TOC level). The largest TOC values over the Aleutian low (around 150°E) are characterized by the earliest seasonal maximum (February-March) and minimum (August). Here, the tropospheric dynamics (winter/summer extremes in the planetary wave activity and stationary pressure anomaly formation/disappearance) and related tropopause effects seem to have dominant influence on the earliest development of the annual TOC cycle. Zonal asymmetry in stratospheric ozone accumulation influences rather the maximum TOC levels in this region than timing of the TOC extremes. In the opposite longitude range (zonal TOC minimum in region of the Azores high influence, 20-30°W), the annual TOC cycle lags by 2-3 months reaching a TOC maximum in May and a TOC minimum in November. Seasonal changes in this subtropical anomaly (pressure and tropopause height) are weak. Hence, troposphere influence on the TOC seasonality here is small in comparison with Aleutian low region. Slow accumulation of the stratospheric ozone during winter and spring leads to the latest occurrence of seasonal TOC maximum. Photochemical ozone relaxation lasts also longer up to beginning of the next BDC intensification since December. The results of this analysis could be useful for explanation of the interannual variations in the local annual TOC cycles considering the climatological ones in neighboring segments of the northern midlatitudes. Possible effects of the TOC seasonality in regional climate changes could also be analyzed in future studies. Acknowledgments. This work was partly supported by the Polar FORCeS project no. 4012 of the Australian Antarctic Science Program.

  15. Episodic Fan Dissection: Insights from Total Mercury Concentrations on Transport and Storage of Legacy Gold Mining Sediments in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.; James, L.; Aalto, R.

    2008-12-01

    Nineteenth century hydraulic mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California displaced ~ 1.0 x 109 m3 of sediment, much of which constructed large tailings fans that linked up into valley-scale fans (e.g. Yuba fan) and graded into the Central Valley more than 50 km downstream. Additionally, ~4.0 x 106 kg of mercury used in gold separation was lost, leading to widespread contamination of mined sediments and the potential for tracing the evolution of the tailings fans over the last century. We conducted total mercury analysis on sediments from a range of geomorphic units spanning the region from the gold mining districts to the Central Valley to investigate aspects of the basin-scale adjustment to this extreme sediment loading. Samples were primarily extracted from bank exposures along vertical sections and from floodplain sediment cores, enabling determination of various phases of deposition and erosion. They were subsequently sieved to 63 microns to normalize samples from different geomorphic units containing a wide range of grain sizes and analyzed for total mercury on a Tekran cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry detector. The resulting data show good discrimination in total mercury between the various sedimentary units ranging over two orders of magnitude, wherein prehistoric soils have values ~50 ppb and primary mining tailings contain concentrations up to ~7000 ppb. The data from the Yuba fan, which are corroborated by radionuclides and other geochemistry, support a conceptual model of transport and storage that resembles glacial outwash analogues, wherein successive phases of fan development and dissection can be identified. More importantly, the data suggest ongoing, episodic transport of hydraulic mining sediment from the Sierra piedmont to the lowland valley areas and delta, where conditions are favorable for mercury methylation (conversion of mercury from inorganic to organic forms). This sediment remobilization occurs largely during major flooding episodes, where the Yuba River migrates laterally into high (e.g. up to 20 m) terraces of highly contaminated mining sediments. These fan terraces pose a sobering risk to downstream ecosystems.

  16. Anomalous South Pacific lithosphere dynamics derived from new total sediment thickness estimates off the West Antarctic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobbe, Florian; Lindeque, Ansa; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopographic models of the West Antarctic margin, which are essential for robust simulations of paleoclimate scenarios, lack information on sediment thickness and geodynamic conditions, resulting in large uncertainties. A new total sediment thickness grid spanning the Ross Sea-Amundsen Sea-Bellingshausen Sea basins is presented and is based on all the available seismic reflection, borehole, and gravity modeling data offshore West Antarctica. This grid was combined with NGDC's global 5 arc minute grid of ocean sediment thickness (Whittaker et al., 2013) and extends the NGDC grid further to the south. Sediment thickness along the West Antarctic margin tends to be 3-4 km larger than previously assumed. The sediment volume in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Sea basins amounts to 3.61, 3.58, and 2.78 million km3, respectively. The residual basement topography of the South Pacific has been revised and the new data show an asymmetric trend over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Values are anomalously high south of the spreading ridge and in the Ross Sea area, where the topography seems to be affected by persistent mantle processes. In contrast, the basement topography offshore Marie Byrd Land cannot be attributed to dynamic topography, but rather to crustal thickening due to intraplate volcanism. Present-day dynamic topography models disagree with the presented revised basement topography of the South Pacific, rendering paleotopographic reconstructions with such a limited dataset still fairly uncertain.

  17. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    PubMed

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (<63??m) from clean and contaminated field sites to create 4 treatments of increasing metal concentrations. Sydney rock oysters were then exposed to sediment treatments at different TSS concentrations for 4 d, and cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. PMID:25677686

  18. Patterns of floodplain sediment deposition along the regulated lower Roanoke River, North Carolina: annual, decadal, centennial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Cliff R.; Schenk, Edward R.; Kroes, Daniel; Willard, Debra A.; Townsend, Phil A.; Peet, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Roanoke River on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina is not embayed and maintains a floodplain that is among the largest on the mid-Atlantic Coast. This floodplain has been impacted by substantial aggradation in response to upstream colonial and post-colonial agriculture between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries. Additionally, since the mid-twentieth century stream flow has been regulated by a series of high dams. We used artificial markers (clay pads), tree-ring (dendrogeomorphic) techniques, and pollen analyses to document sedimentation rates/amounts over short-, intermediate-, and long-term temporal scales, respectively. These analyses occurred along 58 transects at 378 stations throughout the lower river floodplain from near the Fall Line to the Albemarle Sound. Present sediment deposition rates ranged from 0.5 to 3.4mm/y and 0.3 to 5.9mm/y from clay pad and dendrogeomorphic analyses, respectively. Deposition rates systematically increased from upstream (high banks and floodplain) to downstream (low banks) reaches, except the lowest reaches. Conversely, legacy sediment deposition (A.D. 1725 to 1850) ranged from 5 to about 40mm/y, downstream to upstream, respectively, and is apparently responsible for high banks upstream and large/wide levees along some of the middle stream reaches. Dam operations have selectively reduced levee deposition while facilitating continued backswamp deposition. A GIS-based model predicts 453,000Mg of sediment is trapped annually on the floodplain and that little watershed-derived sediment reaches the Albemarle Sound. Nearly all sediment in transport and deposited is derived from the channel bed and banks. Legacy deposits (sources) and regulated discharges affect most aspects of present fluvial sedimentation dynamics. The lower river reflects complex relaxation conditions following both major human alterations, yet continues to provide the ecosystem service of sediment trapping.

  19. Patterns of floodplain sediment deposition along the regulated lower Roanoke River, North Carolina: Annual, decadal, centennial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupp, C. R.; Schenk, E. R.; Kroes, D. E.; Willard, D. A.; Townsend, P. A.; Peet, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Roanoke River on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina is not embayed and maintains a floodplain that is among the largest on the mid-Atlantic Coast. This floodplain has been impacted by substantial aggradation in response to upstream colonial and post-colonial agriculture between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries. Additionally, since the mid-twentieth century stream flow has been regulated by a series of high dams. We used artificial markers (clay pads), tree-ring (dendrogeomorphic) techniques, and pollen analyses to document sedimentation rates/amounts over short-, intermediate-, and long-term temporal scales, respectively. These analyses occurred along 58 transects at 378 stations throughout the lower river floodplain from near the Fall Line to the Albemarle Sound. Present sediment deposition rates ranged from 0.5 to 3.4 mm/y and 0.3 to 5.9 mm/y from clay pad and dendrogeomorphic analyses, respectively. Deposition rates systematically increased from upstream (high banks and floodplain) to downstream (low banks) reaches, except the lowest reaches. Conversely, legacy sediment deposition (A.D. 1725 to 1850) ranged from 5 to about 40 mm/y, downstream to upstream, respectively, and is apparently responsible for high banks upstream and large/wide levees along some of the middle stream reaches. Dam operations have selectively reduced levee deposition while facilitating continued backswamp deposition. A GIS-based model predicts 453,000 Mg of sediment is trapped annually on the floodplain and that little watershed-derived sediment reaches the Albemarle Sound. Nearly all sediment in transport and deposited is derived from the channel bed and banks. Legacy deposits (sources) and regulated discharges affect most aspects of present fluvial sedimentation dynamics. The lower river reflects complex relaxation conditions following both major human alterations, yet continues to provide the ecosystem service of sediment trapping.

  20. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    This project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Folk John Day and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years.

  1. Total mercury loadings in sediment from gold mining and conservation areas in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Howard, Joniqua; Trotz, Maya A; Thomas, Ken; Omisca, Erlande; Chiu, Hong Ting; Halfhide, Trina; Akiwumi, Fenda; Michael, Ryan; Stuart, Amy L

    2011-08-01

    The Low Carbon Development Strategy proposed in June 2009 by the government of Guyana in response to the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries program has triggered evaluation of forest-related activities, thereby acting as a catalyst for improvements in Guyana's small- to medium-scale gold mining industry. This has also shed light on areas committed to conservation, something that has also been handled by Non Governmental Organizations. This paper compares water quality and mercury concentrations in sediment from four main areas in Guyana, two that are heavily mined for gold using mercury amalgamation methods (Arakaka and Mahdia) and two that are considered conservation areas (Iwokrama and Konashen). Fifty-three sediment and soil mercury loadings ranged from 29 to 1,200 ng/g and averaged 215 187 ng/g for all sites with similar averages in conservation and mining areas. Sediment loadings are within the range seen in French Guiana and Suriname, but conservation area samples had higher loadings than the corresponding uncontaminated baselines. Type of ore and location in the mining process seemed to influence mercury loadings. Mercury sediment loadings were slightly positively correlated with pH (correlation coefficient = 0.2; p value < 0.001) whereas no significant correlations were found with dissolved oxygen or turbidity. PMID:21076999

  2. NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOADS FOR FIVE NORTH DAKOTA RESERVOIRS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...

  3. The Record of Extreme Hydrologic Events in Annually-laminated (Varved) Lake Sediments, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menounos, B.; Gilbert, R.; Clague, J.; Crookshanks, S.; Hodder, K.

    2005-12-01

    Long hydro-climatic records are required to detect changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events, but are often absent in mountain environments. Varve chronologies from five proglacial lake basins detail changes in the regional hydro-climate of southern British Columbia over the past 400 years. This region is ideally suited to assess the relation between hydro-meteorology and sediment transport given the quality and length of parallel instrumental records. Lake sedimentation documents snowmelt and glacier runoff, and floods. Despite significant differences in lake basin size and contributing watershed character, substantial correspondence is observed among the records. Thickest varves are produced in years with significant floods. However, the strength of the relation between flood magnitude and lake sedimentation varies within a given lake and between lake basins. Flood deposits consisting of graded laminae and beds can be identified and measured in thick (> 5 mm) varves and clarify the relation between hydrologic forcing and sediment response. A pronounced change in the nature of lake sedimentation, accompanied by higher inter-annual variability, occurred in 1980. The change coincides with an increase in the frequency and magnitude of autumn flooding and is coincident with a re-organization of the North Pacific climate system. These results highlight new directions for paleo-environmental research using varve records to study the magnitude and spatial extent of past hydro-climatic events and to distinguish them from other catastrophic events such as landslides and glacier surges unrelated to hydro-climatic forcing.

  4. Summary Report of the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity: "Total Quality Leadership"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity on October 12-13, 1990, in Grenelefe, Florida. The panel presentations and keynote speeches revolving around the theme of 'Total Quality Leadership" provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management. The implementation of these strategies is critical if we are to effectively pursue our mission of continuous quality improvement and reliability in our products, processes, and services. The annual NASA/contractors conferences serve as catalysts for achieving success in this mission.

  5. Estimation of suspended-sediment concentration from total suspended solids and turbidity data for Kentucky, 1978-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, T.N.; Crawford, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Suspended sediment is a constituent of water quality that is monitored because of concerns about accelerated erosion, nonpoint contamination of water resources, and degradation of aquatic environments. In order to quantify the relationship among different sediment parameters for Kentucky streams, long-term records were obtained from the National Water Information System of the U.S. Geological Survey. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), the parameter traditionally measured and reported by the U.S. Geological Survey, was statistically compared to turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS), two parameters that are considered surrogate data. A linear regression of log-transformed observations was used to estimate SSC from TSS; 72% of TSS observations were less than coincident SSC observations; however, the estimated SSC values were almost as likely to be overestimated as underestimated. The SSC-turbidity relationship also used log-transformed observations, but required a nonlinear, breakpoint regression that separated turbidity observations ???6nephelometric turbidity units. The slope for these low turbidity values was not significantly different than zero, indicating that low turbidity observations provide no real information about SSC; in the case of the Kentucky sediment record, this accounts for 30% of the turbidity observations. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  7. Annual Pollen and Spore Sedimentation Record off South Java in Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliakova, Anastasia; Rixen, Tim; Behling, Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Marine sediments are excellent archives recording environmental changes in the ocean as well as on land. In particular pollen and spores preserved in marine sediments could provide crucial information on land use and climate changes in the past. However, in order to better understand and interpret sedimentary records studies on modern pollen and spore transportation and sedimentation is needed. Therefore a sediment trap was deployed for about one year (December 2001 - November 2002) off South Java in the Indian Ocean at a water-depth of about 2000 m. Abundance and taxa composition of pollen and spores collected by the sediment trap reflect climatic (monsoon conditions and ocean currents) as well as biological (flowering periods, migration ability of pollen) factors controlling their sedimentation. Pollen and, at a lower rate, pteridophyta spore concentration tends to increase during non-monsoon period.

  8. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Purser, Michael D.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.

    1999-01-01

    Fine sediment levels in spawning substrate have a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Assessments have consistently concluded that fine sediment is a major problem for salmon in the Grande Ronde and, to a lesser extent, the John Day rivers. It is likely that fine sediment levels in these rivers must be reduced if salmon survival from egg to smolt is to be increased.

  9. Total microbial activity and microbial composition of a mangrove sediment are reduced by oil pollution at a site in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabily, Khaled A

    2002-02-01

    In a study carried out to determine the effect of oil pollution on the microbiota of sediment associated with mangroves in the United Arab Emirates, sediment samples were collected from oil-polluted and nonpolluted mangrove sites. The levels of the total recoverable hydrocarbons and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assayed were noticeably higher in the polluted sediment. Microbial activity as measured by the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate and by the total populations of the culturable aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, streptomycete and non-streptomycete actinomycetes, and filamentous fungi and yeasts was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the polluted than in the nonpolluted sediment. The estimated total aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the polluted than in the nonpolluted sediments. Four days after the addition of the water-soluble fractions of the light Arabian crude oil to the nonpolluted sediment, at 10 different concentrations, there was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction (65%) in the microbial activity of the sediment compared with that of nonamended sediment. Concentrations of water-soluble fractions at 0.1% and above significantly and progressively reduced microbial activity, with total cessation of activity recorded at levels >50%. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of oil pollution on aerobic and anaerobic microbial flora of sediment of mangrove communities. PMID:11958571

  10. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluvial sediment, a vital surface water resource, is hazardous in excess. Suspended sediment, the most prevalent source of impairment of river systems, can adversely affect flood control, navigation, fisheries and aquatic ecosystems, recreation, and water supply (e.g., Rasmussen et al., 2009; Qu, 2014). Monitoring programs typically focus on suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge (SSQ). These time-series data are used to study changes to basin hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology caused by disturbances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has traditionally used physical sediment sample-based methods (Edwards and Glysson, 1999; Nolan et al., 2005; Gray et al., 2008) to compute SSC and SSQ from continuous streamflow data using a sediment transport-curve (e.g., Walling, 1977) or hydrologic interpretation (Porterfield, 1972). Accuracy of these data is typically constrained by the resources required to collect and analyze intermittent physical samples. Quantifying SSC using continuous instream turbidity is rapidly becoming common practice among sediment monitoring programs. Estimations of SSC and SSQ are modeled from linear regression analysis of concurrent turbidity and physical samples. Sediment-surrogate technologies such as turbidity promise near real-time information, increased accuracy, and reduced cost compared to traditional physical sample-based methods (Walling, 1977; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003; Gray and Gartner, 2009; Rasmussen et al., 2009; Landers et al., 2012; Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). Statistical comparisons among SSQ computation methods show that turbidity-SSC regression models can have much less uncertainty than streamflow-based sediment transport-curves or hydrologic interpretation (Walling, 1977; Lewis, 1996; Glysson et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2008). However, computation of SSC and SSQ records from continuous instream turbidity data is not without challenges; some of these include environmental fouling, calibration, and data range among sensors. Of greatest interest to many programs is a hysteresis in the relationship between turbidity and SSC, attributed to temporal variation of particle size distribution (Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). This phenomenon causes increased uncertainty in regression-estimated values of SSC, due to changes in nephelometric reflectance off the varying grain sizes in suspension (Uhrich et al., 2014). Here, we assess the feasibility and application of close-range remote sensing to quantify SSC and particle size distribution of a disturbed, and highly-turbid, river system. We use a consumer-grade digital camera to acquire imagery of the river surface and a depth-integrating sampler to collect concurrent suspended-sediment samples. We then develop two empirical linear regression models to relate image spectral information to concentrations of fine sediment (clay to silt) and total suspended sediment. Before presenting our regression model development, we briefly summarize each data-acquisition method.

  11. Relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to grain size and total organic carbon in California waterbodies: implications for ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    A summary analysis of data sets from six California waterbodies was conducted to determine the relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to: % sand/gravel; % silt; % clay; % silt/clay and % total organic carbon (TOC). The relationship of TOC to % sand/gravel, % silt, % clay, and % silt/clay was also analyzed. Statistically significant and meaningful direct relationships were reported between bifenthrin and % TOC, % silt, % clay and % silt/clay while a significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between bifenthrin and % sand/gravel. A significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between % TOC and % sand/gravel, while a significant and meaningful direct relationship was reported between % TOC and % silt, % clay and % silt/clay. Significant bifenthrin sediment concentrations would not be expected in non-depositional (sand/gravel) areas which have been reported to be dominant in various streams in California's Central Valley and are also the preferred habitat for many benthic macroinvertebrate taxa. PMID:25120259

  12. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026Assumed Loan Periods...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 1026 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 1026 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 1026, App. L Appendix L to Part 1026Assumed Loan Periods...

  14. 78 FR 19262 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  15. Annual fluxes of sediment-associated trace/major elements, carbon, nutrients and sulfur from US coastal rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlon C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    About 260–270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; approximately 69% derives from Gulf rivers (n = 36), 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges: Atlantic rivers (49%) > Pacific rivers (40%) > Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Zn) tend to occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast “blackwater” streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K and Na levels appear to reflect local petrology whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have both natural and anthropogenic sources. Almost all the elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations/fluxes are lower than worldwide averages.

  16. Estimation of annual suspended-sediment fluxes, 1931-95, and evaluation of geomorphic changes, 1950-2010, in the Arkansas River near Tulsa, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jason M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Buck, Stephanie D.; Strong, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of fluvial sediment transport and changing channel morphology can assist planners in making responsible decisions with future riverine development or restoration projects. Sediment rating curves can serve as simple models and can provide predictive tools to estimate annual sediment fluxes. Sediment flux models can aid in the design of river projects by providing insight to past and potential future sediment fluxes. Historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data were evaluated to estimate annual suspended-sediment fluxes for two stations on the Arkansas River located downstream from Keystone Dam in Tulsa County. Annual suspended-sediment fluxes were estimated from 1931-95 for the Arkansas River at Tulsa streamflow-gaging station (07164500) and from 1973-82 for the Arkansas River near Haskell streamflow-gaging station (07165570). The annual flow-weighted suspended-sediment concentration decreased from 1,970 milligrams per liter to 350 milligrams per liter after the completion of Keystone Dam at the Tulsa station. The streambed elevation at the Arkansas River at Tulsa station has changed less than 1 foot from 1970 to 2005, but the thalweg has shifted from a location near the right bank to a position near the left bank. There was little change in the position of most of the banks of the Arkansas River channel from 1950 to 2009. The most substantial change evident from visual inspection of aerial photographs was an apparent decrease in sediment storage in the form of mid-channel and meander bars. The Arkansas River channel between Keystone Dam and the Tulsa-Wagoner County line showed a narrowing and lengthening (increase in sinuosity) over the transition period 1950-77 followed by a steady widening and shortening of the river channel (decrease in sinuosity) during the post-dam (Keystone) periods 1977-85, 1985-2003, and 2003-10.

  17. Statistical modelling and power analysis for detecting trends in total suspended sediment loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, You-Gan; Wang, Shen S. J.; Dunlop, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The export of sediments from coastal catchments can have detrimental impacts on estuaries and near shore reef ecosystems such as the Great Barrier Reef. Catchment management approaches aimed at reducing sediment loads require monitoring to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing loads over time. However, load estimation is not a trivial task due to the complex behaviour of constituents in natural streams, the variability of water flows and often a limited amount of data. Regression is commonly used for load estimation and provides a fundamental tool for trend estimation by standardising the other time specific covariates such as flow. This study investigates whether load estimates and resultant power to detect trends can be enhanced by (i) modelling the error structure so that temporal correlation can be better quantified, (ii) making use of predictive variables, and (iii) by identifying an efficient and feasible sampling strategy that may be used to reduce sampling error. To achieve this, we propose a new regression model that includes an innovative compounding errors model structure and uses two additional predictive variables (average discounted flow and turbidity). By combining this modelling approach with a new, regularly optimised, sampling strategy, which adds uniformity to the event sampling strategy, the predictive power was increased to 90%. Using the enhanced regression model proposed here, it was possible to detect a trend of 20% over 20 years. This result is in stark contrast to previous conclusions presented in the literature.

  18. Mediterranean (Annually?) Laminated Sediments of Miocene to Pleistocene age; a Study of Seasonal Variability During Precession Minima.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huiskamp, F. P.; Hilgen, F. J.; Lourens, L. J.

    2001-05-01

    Laminated sediments are increasingly sought as an excellent archive of paleo-environmental change at a very high temporal resolution comparable to that of ice cores, tree rings and corals. They are found in widely different settings ranging from lacustrine and shallow to deep marine depositional environments. Laminated sediments dominantly reflect the annual cycle, but they can also have a daily or interannual origin or record episodic events such as storm floods. In the Mediterranean Neogene the most conspicuous type of sedimentary cycles is the alternation of homogeneous marls and brown to black coloured, often well-laminated beds enriched in organic carbon, termed sapropels. Sapropels are not distributed evenly or randomly in the stratigraphic succession but display characteristic cycle patterns which reflect the influence of the three orbital parameters (precession, obliquity, and eccentricity). Individual sapropels are related to precession minima and sapropel clusters to eccentricity maxima. Besides sapropels, several other types of laminites are found throughout the Mediterranean. We intend to study diatomites and diatomitic sapropels of Messinian to Pleistocene age which are present in several land sections in Southern Italy. Initial research focuses on the description and classification of laminations found in two Late Pliocene sapropels from the Vrica section of southern Italy. They may provide considerable insight into the biological and sedimentation responses to climate forcing at times of maximum seasonal contrast (i.e. precession minima). In this respect, it is of crucial importance to determine whether the laminations are of annual origin. At a later stage research will also focus on diatomites of various ages in order to compare the different types of laminations present. Such laminated sapropels and diatomites may be used as an excellent geochronometer to detect multi-annual to centennial periodicities in the Mediterranean paleoclimate. Image analysis of the Vrica d and e sapropels will further provide a clearer insight into the duration of sapropel formation. Back scattered electron microscopy has been used extensively by several workers for the analyses of fine laminations, e.g. Dean et al. (1999). Images produced using this method may provide valuable information regarding sedimentological and oceanographical processes at the the time of depositioning. A major problem in this study is the impregnation of the sediment due to the very low porosity of the clays (i.e. poor penetration). First results, however, show that impregnation with Synolite resin is fairly successful. Other types of resin are currently being tested for the impregnation of diatomites. Dean, J. M., A. E. S. Kemp, et al. (1999). "Taking varves to bits: Scanning electron microscopy in the study of laminated sediments and varves." Journal of Paleolimnology 22: pp. 121-136.

  19. Annual 18O/16O composition of authigenic calcite in varved lake sediments reflects regional air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Stefanie; Gilli, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (18O/16O) of authigenic calcite in lake sediments reflects the temperature and the isotopic composition of the lake water from which the calcite is precipitated and thus contains information about the climatic conditions at the time of calcite formation. Varved lake sediments containing laminae of authigenically precipitated calcite provide the possibility to analyze the 18O/16O composition at an annual resolution, thus yielding high-resolution climatic information. Yet, despite this high potential the number of studies having used this approach is relatively low. Reasons for this are probably sampling challenges, the scarceness of suitable varved sediments, missing instrumental records to compare with, as well as uncertainties regarding the factors influencing the calcite isotopic composition (water/air temperature, precipitation, lake-internal factors). Still, annually resolved data of the 18O/16O composition of calcite seems a promising climate proxy and we therefore investigated the 18O/16O pattern of the authigenic calcite in the varved sediments of Lake Zurich. Lake Zurich is a pre-alpine lake with a surface area of 88 km2, a maximal water depth of 137 m and a theoretical water residence time of 1.4 years. Sediments are varved since the late 19th century due to anthropogenic lake eutrophication. For this calibration study, we analyzed the 18O/16O composition of the authigenic calcite for the time period 1960-2010 at annual resolution. The δ18O values range from -10.8 to -13.4 o; and the pattern is dominated by a conspicuous shift to more enriched values between 1985 and 1987. The same shift has been observed for local to large-scale climatic parameters such as lake, river, and groundwater temperatures throughout Switzerland, the mean air temperature for Switzerland, and the NAO index. The consistency of the instrumental temperature data sets with the 18O/16O composition of the authigenic calcite emphasizes the high potential of this proxy, even in a setting that is strongly influenced by human activities and infrastructure such as Lake Zurich. Our results also indicate that the 18O/16O signal of a lake with the size and the hydrology of Lake Zurich potentially reflects climatic changes not only at a local but also at a regional scale.

  20. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and Maximum Signal Depth (Z90_max) for Monitoring the Evolution of Sediment Resuspension Process in Shallow Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipponi, Federico; Zucca, Francesco; Taramelli, Andrea; Valentini, Emiliana

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring sediment fluxes patterns in coastal area, like dispersion, sedimentation and resuspension processes, is a relevant topic for scientists, decision makers and natural resources management. Time series analysis of Earth Observation (EO) data may contribute to the understanding and the monitoring of processes in sedimentary depositional marine environment, especially for shallow coastal areas. This research study show the ability of optical medium resolution imagery to interpret the evolution of sediment resuspension from seafloor in coastal areas during intense wind forcings. Intense bora wind events in northern Adriatic Sea basin during winter season provoke considerable wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product has been selected as proxy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of resuspended sediments. In addition, maximum signal depth (Z90_max), has been used to evaluate the evolution of sediment concentration in the water column.

  1. Millenial long near-annual summer temperature reconstruction from abiotic sediment characterstics of varved Lake Silvaplana (eastern Swiss Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachsel, M.; Kamenik, C.; Grosjean, M.; Larocque, I.; Blass, A.; Sturm, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we present a summer temperature reconstruction based on multiple geochemical and sedimentological climate proxies from annually laminated Lake Silvaplana (eastern Swiss Alps), covering the last millennium. These proxies, including mass accumulation rate, biogenic silica flux, XRD peak intensity ratios and in situ reflectance spectroscopy reflect summer temperature. Individually they show excellent calibration statistics on subdecadal time scales (Blass et al. 2007, Trachsel et al. 2008) and compare well with alpine tree-ring reconstructions and climate field reconstructions. The combined response of the proxies to climate state variables was assessed using redundancy analysis (RDA). After evaluating different regression and calibration models such as principle components regression, ordinary least squares regression and partial least squares regression the most parsimonious model was used to infer summer temperature. Our multi-proxy reconstruction does not show a distinct summer temperature cooling during Little Ice Age, whereas a climate amelioration was reconstructed during medieval times. References: Blass, A., Grosjean, M., Troxler, A., and Sturm, M. (2007). How stable are twentieth-century calibration models? A high-resolution summer temperature reconstruction for the eastern Swiss Alps back to AD 1580 derived from proglacial varved sediments. The Holocene. Trachsel, M., Eggenberger, U., Grosjean, M., Blass, A., and Sturm, M. (2008). Mineralogy-based quantitative precipitation and temperature reconstructions from annually laminated lake sediments (Swiss Alps) since AD 1580. Geoph. Res. Let.

  2. Distribution and transport of total mercury and methylmercury in mercury-contaminated sediments in reservoirs and wetlands of the Sudbury River, east-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Breault, Robert F.; Lent, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Total mercury and methylmercury were measured in 4 reservoir cores and 12 wetland cores from Sudbury River. The distribution of total mercury and methylmercury in these cores was evaluated to determine the potential for total mercury and methylmercury transport from reservoir and wetlands sediments to the water column. Concentrations of methylmercury were corrected for an analytical artifact introduced during the separation distillation used in the analysis procedure. Corrected methylmercury concentrations correlated with total mercury concentrations in bulk sediment from below the top layers of reservoir and wetland cores; methylmercury concentrations at the top layers of cores were relatively high, however, and were not correlated with total mercury concentrations. Concentrations of methylmercury in pore water were positively correlated with methylmercury concentrations in the bulk sediment. High concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury in sediment (73 and 0.047 micrograms per gram dry-weight basis, respectively) contributed less to the water column in the reservoir than in the wetlands probably because of burial by low concentration sediment and differences in the processes available to transport mercury from the sediments to the water in the reservoirs, as compared to the wetlands .

  3. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS AT LAKE MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Escherichia coli, a fecal coliform, and total coliforms were monitored between September 1999 to October 2001 in five marinas on Lake Texoma, located on the Oklahoma and Texas border. General trend was that densities of E. coli were lower in the summer season due to the lower ...

  4. TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR SEDIMENT IN WILDHORSE CREEK, NORTHEAST OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1998 over 40 stream segments in the Umatilla River Basin were listed as water quality limited on Oregon Department of Environmental Qualitys (ODEQ) 303(d) list under the Clean Water Act. A unique multi-agency cooperative effort led to the Umatilla River Basin Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) a...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix L to Part 226 - Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumed Loan Periods for Computations of Total Annual Loan Cost Rates L Appendix L to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. L Appendix L to Part 226—Assumed Loan Periods...

  6. Annual cycle and long-term trend of the methane total column in the atmosphere over the St. Petersburg region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, M. V.; Kirner, O.; Timofeev, Yu. M.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Imkhasin, Kh. Kh.; Osipov, S. I.; Makarov, B. K.

    2015-07-01

    The annual cycle and long-term trend of the methane total column in the atmosphere over the Petergof station (St. Petersburg State University) are analyzed on the basis of data obtained from Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and EMAC-model calculations. The amplitude of the annual cycle of the total column of CH4 amounts to 2.1 and 1.5% according to experimental and model data, respectively. For the atmospheric column-averaged mole fraction of CH4, the amplitude of its annual cycle is smaller than that for its total column and amounts to 1.1 and 0.6% according to experimental and model data, respectively. The results of local continuous measurements of surface CH4 concentrations showed that, in 2013, the atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions of CH4 and the amplitudes of diurnal variations in its local concentration were characterized by the same dynamics of seasonal variations. An analysis made on the basis of simulation results showed that atmospheric conditions (under which Fourier-transform IR measurements were performed) could increase the amplitude of the annual cycle of the total column of CH4 2.5 times when compared to the true one. The results of Fourier-transform IR measurements and EMAC-model calculations showed that, during 2009-2012, the atmospheric concentration of CH4 increased at a rate of ~0.2% per year. If measurement data obtained in 2013 are added, this rate decreases to ~0.13% per year.

  7. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2)=0.6067) and total length (R(2)=0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735

  8. 24 CFR 884.104 - Maximum total annual contract commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum total annual contract commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects). 884.104 Section 884.104 Housing and... commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects). (a) Maximum total annual...

  9. ANNUAL REPORT. THE INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE GRAIN COATINGS ON CONTAMINANT REACTIVITY IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this project is to investigate the role of calcium carbonate grain coatings on adsorption and heterogeneous reduction reactions of key chemical and radioactive contaminants in sediments on the Hanford Site. Research will ascertain whether these coatings p...

  10. Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 8,500 years recorded in annually laminated sediments from Lake Szurpi?y, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinder, Ma?gorzata; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bubak, Iwona; Enters, Dirk; Kupryjanowicz, Miros?awa; Mayr, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Christian; Piotrowska, Natalia; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments provide a precise time scale for high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstructions of climatic change and human impact. We reconstructed the environmental changes from Lake Szurpi?y (NE Poland) using varve chronology and multi-proxy interdisciplinary approach. Our reconstruction is one of the few for NE Poland and extends the geographical network of laminated lacustrine sediments. This research was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grants (N N306 275635, N N306 009337, N N306 291639). It is a contribution to the bilateral scientific program "Northern Polish Lake Research" (NORPOLAR). Parallel overlapping sediment cores with total length of 12.38 m and extending back to the Late Glacial were retrieved in 2007. The geochemical (X-ray Fluorescence, CNS, stable isotopes), microscopic (varve thickness and structure), biological (diatoms, pollen) and statistical analyses were applied and combined in an annual scale based on the varve chronology, which was verified by independent radiometric dating (Pb-210, Cs-137 and AMS radiocarbon dating). Due to the large slump, this study focuses on the almost continuously varved uppermost 7.58-m long section of the profile, covering the last 8,500 years. The climate fluctuations were the main cause of the environmental changes during the first 6,000 years. The geochemical record is mainly driven by the lake productivity, oxic conditions and minerogenic input. Although the first evidence of the anthropogenic impact is documented in pollen record at 8,000 BP, the environmental conditions were relatively stable until 2,500 BP, when the human activity increased significantly. Since that time the climatic and human influence are combined and more difficult to disentangle. Three settlement phases separated by natural regeneration of the environment occurred between 2,500-400 BP. The variation of geochemical and pollen data at 400-100 BP reflects climate fluctuations during Little Ice Age. The synchronous distinct change in the variability of ?13C, lithogenic elements, C/N ratio and pollen (high percentage of Bryales) may be interpreted as the allochtonous organic matter enrichment related to forest clearing and soil erosion. The lake productivity increased possibly due to the peat bogs drainage and agriculture development. The lake become eutrophic in the last period (since 150 BP).

  11. Suspended sediment and sediment-source areas in the Fountain Creek drainage basin upstream from Widefield, southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Guerard, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Suspended-sediment samples were collected from synoptic-sampling sites to determine suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, yields, and sediment-source areas in the Fountain Creek drainage basin upstream from Widefield, Colorado. Suspended-sediment yields ranged from 0.004 to 278 tons/sq mi/day. Twenty-four sites were sampled that represent urban and rural land use. The median suspended-sediment yield from urban drainage basins was 7.7 tons/sq mi/day and the median suspended-sediment yield from rural drainage basins was 0.46 ton/sq mi/day. Sediment-transport equations were derived for total suspended-sediment discharge and suspended-sand discharge at seven periodic-sampling sites. Annual suspended-sediment loads and yields were computed for the 1985 water year. Urbanization in the downstream parts of the Monument Creek drainage basin, the main tributary to Fountain Creek, affected sediment loads. The downstream 14% of the Monument Creek drainage basin contributed about 61% of the annual suspended-sediment load transported at the mouth of Monument Creek. About 73% of the annual suspended-sediment load for Fountain Creek at Colorado Springs was contributed by Monument Creek. Abandoned mill tailings along Fountain Creek contributed little to total suspended sediment load. Contributions of streambank erosion to basin sediment yields were not quantified. However, the measured rate of streambank erosion at a site on Fountain Creek has increased during a 37-year period. (USGS)

  12. Using Total Quality To Better Manage an Institutional Research Office. AIR 1991 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heverly, Mary Ann

    Responding to the call for higher education to adopt a new paradigm in managing its administrative processes, an Institutional Research Office at Delaware County Community College (DCCC) in Pennsylvania made a two-year effort to use a Total Quality approach in its management. Total Quality Management is a Japanese movement based on the teachings…

  13. Annually-layered lake sediments reveal strongly increased release of persistent chemicals due to accelerated glacier melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Blthgen, Nancy; Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Melting glaciers may represent a secondary source of chemical pollutants that have previously been incorporated and stored in the ice. Of particular concern are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and industrial chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are hazardous environmental contaminants due to their persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. They were introduced in the 1930s and eventually banned in the 1970s. After release into the environment these chemicals were atmospherically transported to even remote areas such as the Alps and were deposited and stored in glaciers. Ongoing drastic glacier melting due to global warming, which is expected to further accelerate, implies the significance of studying the fate of these 'legacy pollutants'. Proglacial lake sediments provide well-dated and high-resolution archives to reconstruct timing and quantities of such a potentially hazardous remobilization. The goal of this study is to reconstruct the historical inputs of POPs into remote alpine lakes and to investigate the accelerated release of POPs from melting glaciers. Due to their lipophilic character, these chemicals exhibit a high tendency to adsorb to particles whereas concentrations in water are expected to be low. Therefore, quantitative determination in annually-layered lake sediment provides an excellent way to investigate the temporal trend of inputs into lakes that act as particle sinks. For this purpose, sediment cores were sampled from proglacial lakes in the Bernese Alps (Switzerland), which are exclusively fed by glacial melt waters. For comparison, cores were also taken from nearby high-alpine lakes located in non-glaciated catchments, which only should record the initial atmospheric fall-out. Sediment layers were dated by annual varve counting and radionuclide measurements; they cover the time period from the mid 20th century to today. The measured time series of POPs indicate indeed different patterns in proglacial and non-glacial lakes. Similar to lowland Swiss plateau lakes [1,2], high-alpine lakes show a historic maximum of POP-concentrations some decades ago, which is synchronous with their primary use at that time. However, only proglacial lakes exhibit a dramatic re-increase in POP-input during the last years, thus confirming the crucial role of glaciers as reservoir and secondary source of these pollutants. The burden of pollutants in these sediments due to glacier melting is already in the same range as the earlier accumulations from direct atmospheric fall-out. Furthermore, the undiminished increase of the fluxes of many POPs into the sediment of proglacial lakes does not yet indicate an exhaust of the glacial inventory of these contaminants. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive glacier melting predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for significant environmental hazards due to pollutants delivered into such remote mountainous areas. [3] [1] Zennegg M. et al., Chemosphere 2007, 67, 1754. [2] Bogdal C. et al., Env. Sci. & Technol. 2008, 47, 6817. [3] Bogdal C. et al., Env. Sci. & Technol. 2009, 43, 8173.

  14. High-resolution past environmental reconstruction in East Asia using annually laminated lake sediments of Lake Megata in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Gotanda, K.; Yonenobu, H.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kitagawa, J.; Makohonienko, M.; Schwab, M.; Haraguchi, T.; Yasuda, Y.

    2007-12-01

    37 m-long non-glacial varved sequences were taken from Ichi-no-Megata maar in Oga Peninsula, Akita, northern part of Japan. Ichi-no-Megata maar occupies 0.25 km2 with a maximum water depth of ca. 45.1 m. The shape of lake is a kettle-type basin and the deepest bottom basin is very flat. We took core samples (named IMG06 core) at the center of the lake in November to December in 2006. In order to take completely continuous maar sediment, we drilled three holes and take every sample from each hole which apart only few meters. In this drilling campaign, we can 37 m-long continuous maar sediment except thick volcanic deposits from 26.5 to 31.7m in core. The sedimentological feature of IMG06 core is dominated by thin lamination clay/silt from most top part up to 37 m with turbidites characterized upward fining structure. The SEM image observation of lamination reveals that sponge-like lamina consists of diatom assemblage against dark colored lamina consists of mixture of detritus minerals, clay minerals, and diatom. It means sponge-like lamina deposits during spring season, and later one deposits during another three seasons, and then these thin lamination of IMG06 core could be identified as annual lamination (varves). This interpretation is supported by the correlation of historic event as earthquake and tunnel construction. In this IMG06 core, six volcanic ashes are found and we have also analyzed radiocarbon dating from 38 horizons of the core to use leaf and seeds inter-bedded varves. As the results, the IMG06 core covers from 25,000 to 4,000 14C yr BP with stable sedimentation rates (0.71mm/year).

  15. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  16. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  17. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  18. 15 CFR 303.3 - Determination of the total annual duty-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements 303.3 Determination of the total... the territorial watch industry and the economic interests of the territories, the...

  19. Annually resolved grain-size distributions in varved sediments using image analysis - application to Paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francus, Pierre; Lapointe, Franois; Lamoureux, Scott

    2013-04-01

    Varved sediments are unique archives because they contain continuous and undisturbed records of past climatic conditions with an internal robust chronology. In many case, conceptual models for the varve formation can be established linking processes occurring in the watershed, such as river floods or snow melt, to specific lamina within the varve structure. However, the physical properties of such layers, including grain-size, are seldom measured despite their intrinsic value as indicators of hydrological processes. This paper reviews the development and improvements of an image analysis methodology to extract grain-size data from finely laminated sediments. The technique uses thin-sections from sediment cores, scanning electron microscope images of carefully selected regions of interest from the thin-sections, and an image analysis routine to extract semi-automatically grain-size data. An example from Cape Bounty in the Canadian High Arctic is presented: grain-size data within each varve was measured for the last 2845 years. Several particle size distribution indices for each individual facies were calculated and combined to identify each type of sedimentary facies encountered within the sequence. For instance, high standard deviation and 98th percentile index values are interpreted as high-energy events such as turbidites and debris flows. Moreover, some grain-size indicators from the most recent varves correlate well with instrumental climate data. For instance, the 98th percentile grain size has a strong correlation (R2=0.71) with summer rainfall. This kind of relationship allows for the calibration of the image-analysis generated grain-size data set in terms of hydroclimatic parameters. The rainfall reconstruction suggests that Cape Bounty recently experienced an unprecedented increase since ~1920 AD. These results contrast to other common varve measurements. For instance, varve thickness is not significantly correlated with the particle size distribution, and is poorly linked to the instrumental record. Indeed, sediment accumulation can result from the accumulation of different successive hydroclimatic and geomorphic mechanisms such as spring snowmelt, rain events and landslides, as well as by changes in lake circulation and stratification. Therefore, a detailed grain-size obtained using image analysis appears to be a better approach to reconstruct past hydroclimatic conditions in this clastic sedimentary setting and holds tremendous potential to improve paleoclimatic reconstructions.

  20. Annually resolved lake and shallow marine sediment records of global climate change of the past 16,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Brauer, A.; Yancheva, G.; Dulski, P.; Negendank, J. F.; Peterson, L. C.; Sigman, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal to annual resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, during the Younger Dryas, and during the middle and late Holocene, when cave stalagmite oxygen isotope data indicate a weaker summer monsoon. The anti-correlation between winter and summer monsoon strength is best explained by migrations in the ITCZ that occurred simultaneously in central America and Africa. Drought associated with southward ITCZ migration may have played a role in the termination of several Chinese dynasties. A remarkable similarity of ITCZ migration in east Asia and the Americas from 700 to 900 AD raises the possibility that the coincident declines of the important Tang Dynasty in China and the Classic Maya in Central America were catalyzed by the same ITCZ migrations. The mechanisms behind these decadal-scale ITCZ-monsoon swings can be further exoplored at major climate transitions such as the onset of Younger Dryas cooling at ~12.7 ka, one of the most abrupt climate changes observed in ice core, lake and marine records in the North Atlantic realm and much of the Northern Hemisphere. Annually laminated lake sediments ideally record the dynamics of abrupt climate changes since seasonal deposition immediately responds to climate and varve counts accurately estimate the time of change. We report new sub-annual geochemical and varve microfacies data from a lake in Western Germany, which provides one of the best-dated records currently available for this climate transition, which we compare to the Cariaco Basin and Lake Huguang Maar records. The Lake Meerfelder Maar record indicates an abrupt increase in storminess, occurring from one year to the next at 12,678 ka BP, coincident with other observed climate changes in the region. We interpret this shift of the wintertime winds to signify an abrupt change in the North Atlantic westerlies to a stronger and more zonal jet. Given that oceanic heat transport associated with North Atlantic meridional overturning, in its own right, does not appear to greatly impact European climate, the observed wind shift provides the atmospheric mechanism for the strong temporal link between North Atlantic overturning and European climate during the last deglaciation, tightly coupled to ITCZ migrations.

  1. Polluted harbor sediment and the annual reproductive cycle of the female flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, P.A.H.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Goos, H.J.T.; Wezel, A.P. van; Opperhuizen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),and pesticides are metabolized by enzyme systems, which are also involved in steroid metabolism. Disturbances of reproduction may therefore occur through the interference of these compounds with the endocrine system. Several aspects of reproduction were studied in the flounder, Platichthys fiesus (L.), an euryhaline flatfish which inhabits coastal waters and is therefore a suitable biomonitor for the effects of chemical pollutants. Fish were kept during three years in mesocosm systems of which the first provided a control, while the second one contained polluted sediment, derived from the Rotterdam harbor. In November, all ovaries from both mesocosms contained vitellogenic oocytes. In May, all the control fish were previtellogenic, while the ovaries of fish from the polluted mesocosm contained, besides previtellogenic oocytes, a large number of vitellogenic oocytes, indicating that an estrogenic induction had occurred. The in vitro tissue incubations with androstenedione as precursor revealed that the ovarian capacity to synthesize testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 2}) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) didn`t differ between both mesocosms. In May, however, the levels of T and E{sub 2} as well as the level of the yolk-precursor vitellogenin were significantly higher in the polluted mesocosm. The conclusion from this study was that polluted harbor sediment contains compounds that effect normal reproductive development, i.e. the induction of premature vitellogenesis.

  2. A comparative study of metal pollution and potential eco-risk in the sediment of Chaohu Lake (China) based on total concentration and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji

    2014-06-01

    Total and extractable concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in surface sediments of west Chaohu Lake (China) by HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4 digestion and an optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure, respectively. The metal pollution was evaluated by the enrichment factor approach, and the potential eco-risk was evaluated by the sediment quality guideline (SQG) and risk assessment code (RAC) assessments. The results indicated that both total and extractable metal concentrations were highly variable and were affected by sediment properties, even though the sediments were predominantly composed of <63-?m particles (>89%). Enrichment factors of the metals based on the total and extractable concentrations all showed higher values in the northern lake area and decreasing values towards the south. This distribution indicated an input of anthropogenic metals via the Nanfei River. Anthropogenic Cu, Pb, and Zn in surface sediments showed comparable values for each metal based on the total and extractable concentrations, suggesting that anthropogenic Cu, Pb, and Zn resided predominantly in the extractable fractions. Sediment Cu had low eco-risk, and Pb and Zn had medium eco-risk by the SQG assessment, whereas the eco-risk rankings of Cu, Pb, and Zn were medium, low, and low-high, respectively, by the RAC assessment. Referencing to the labile (dilute acid soluble) metal concentrations, we deduced that the eco-risk of Cu may be largely overestimated by the RAC assessment, and the eco-risk of Pb may be largely overestimated by the SQG assessment. Overall, sediments Cu and Pb may pose low eco-risk, and Zn may pose low-high eco-risk. PMID:24566968

  3. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and... organization's operations throughout periods of stress.\\4\\ The Board and the other federal banking agencies... total consolidated assets of more than $10 billion and for which the Board is the primary...

  4. Total Quality Management on Campus: Pipe Dream or New Paradigm? AIR 1994 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jann E.; And Others

    This study looked at how Total Quality Management (TQM) is being adopted in institutions of higher education. A questionnaire was developed seeking information on: (1) leadership of the TQM movement and timing of events; (2) the training, educating, and informing of employees; (3) specific areas using TQM and the specific statistical tools being

  5. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics II-Control Charts. AIR 1992 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherland, Ryan M.

    An examination was conducted of the control chart as a quality improvement statistical method often used by Total Quality Management (TQM) practitioners in higher education. The examination used an example based on actual requests for information gathered for the Director of Human Resources at a medical center at a midwestern university. The

  6. Paonia Reservoir Sediment Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrel, S.; Collins, K.; Williams, C.

    2014-12-01

    Paonia Dam and Reservoir are located on Muddy Creek, a tributary of the North Fork Gunnison River in western Colorado. Since dam closure in 1962, the 2002 survey estimates an annual sedimentation rate of 153,000 m3/y, resulting in a 25% loss of total reservoir capacity. Long before sediment levels completely fill the reservoir, the outlet works have recently plugged with sediment and debris, adversely impacting operations, and emphasizing the urgency of formulating an effective sediment management plan. Starting in 2010-2011, operations were changed to lower the reservoir and flush sediment through the outlet works in early spring before filling the pool for irrigation. Even though the flushing strategy through the long, narrow reservoir (~5 km long and 0.3 km wide) has prevented outlet works plugging, a long term plan is needed to manage inflowing and deposited sediment more efficiently. Reclamation's Sedimentation and River Hydraulics Group is leading an effort to study the past and current sediment issues at Paonia Dam and Reservoir, evaluate feasible sediment management alternatives, and formulate a plan for future operations and monitoring. The study is building on previously collected data and the existing knowledge base to develop a comprehensive, sustainable sediment management plan. The study is being executed in three phases: Phase 1 consisted of an initial site visit to map and sample existing reservoir bottom sediments, a preliminary site evaluation upstream and downstream of the dam, and establishment of time-lapse photo sites and taking initial ground-based photos. Phase 2 includes a bathymetric survey of entire reservoir and 11 km of the river downstream of the dam, continuous suspended sediment monitoring upstream and downstream of the reservoir, and collection of additional core samples of reservoir bottom sediments. Phase 3 involves the evaluation of current and past operations and sediment management practices, evaluate feasible sediment management methods, and providing recommendations for future monitoring and sediment management operations. Data collected during Phases 1 and 2 are used in a one-dimensional numerical sediment transport model for evaluating past, current, and potential future sediment management options.

  7. Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; Moreira, Icaro T A; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Garcia, Karina S; Falco, Brunno A; Escobar, Narayana F C; Rios, Mariana Cruz

    2014-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, to assess the distribution and degree of contamination by TPHs, measure the level of TPH degradation in the surface sediment, and identify the organic matter sources. The surface sediment used in this study was collected in 50 stations, and TPHs, isoprenoid alkanes (pristane and phytane), and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The total concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 40,101?gg(-1) dry weight and showed a strong correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The highest TPH concentrations were observed in samples from the mangrove sediments of a river located near a petroleum refinery. Compared with other studies in the world, the TPH concentrations in the intertidal surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay were below average in certain stations and above average in others. An analysis of the magnitude of UCM (0.11 to 17,323?gg(-1) dry weight) and the ratios nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph suggest that an advanced state of oil weathering, which indicates previous contamination. The molar C/N ratios varied between 5 and 43, which indicate organic matter with a mixed origin comprising marine and continental contributions. PMID:24100798

  8. The impact of hydroelectricity development on natural flow discharge and total suspended sediment in the Huong River basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, T. B.; Sharif, H. O.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of hydroelectricity dams on discharge and TSS (Total Suspended Sediment) concentration of the Huong River basin in Vietnam. The study is based on the simulation of the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model using the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B42 and APHRODITE Water Resources (Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observation Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources) V1003R1 Monsoon Asia rainfall products. Study period is eight years, from January, 2003 to December, 2010. A sub-basin upstream of the Huong River basin that receives zero impact from the hydroelectricity dams is used to calibrate the model. Calibrated model for discharge and TSS simulation is then applied for another major sub-basin and the whole Huong River basin. Preliminary results indicate acceptable correlation coefficients between simulated and observed data (R2 ~ 0.5 - 0.7). Results also show that the operation of a hydroelectricity dam in 2010 has significantly decreased 80% - 85% of Huong River discharge during the rainy season of 2010. TSS concentration is also affected by the presence of the dam, but not clearly demonstrated in study results because other factors such as sand and gravel exploitation is also major in adjusting TSS.

  9. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, A.; Siegel, V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Jessopp, M. J.; Loeb, V.

    2009-05-01

    Despite much research on Euphausia superba, estimates of their total biomass and production are still very uncertain. Recently, circumpolar krill databases, combined with growth models and revisions in acoustics have made it possible to refine previous estimates. Net-based databases of density and length frequency (KRILLBASE) yield a summer distributional range of ˜19×10 6 km 2 and a mean total abundance of 8×10 14 post-larvae with biomass of 379 million tonnes (Mt). These values are based on a standardised net sampling method but they average over the period 1926-2004, during which krill abundance has fluctuated. To estimate krill biomass at the end of last century we combined the KRILLBASE map of relative krill density around Antarctica with an acoustics-derived biomass estimate of 37.3 Mt derived for the Scotia Sea area in 2000 by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). Thus the CCAMLR 2000 survey area contains 28% of the total stock, with total biomass of ˜133 Mt in January-February 2000. Gross postlarval production is estimated conservatively at 342-536 Mt yr -1, based on three independent methods. These are high values, within the upper range of recent estimates, but consistent with the concept of high energy throughput for a species of this size. The similarity between the three production estimates reflects a broad agreement between the three growth models used, plus the fact that, for a given population size, production is relatively insensitive to the size distribution of krill at the start of the growth season. These production values lie within the envelope of what can be supported from the Southern Ocean primary production system and what is required to support an estimated predator consumption of 128-470 Mt yr -1. Given the range of recent acoustics estimates, plus the need for precautionary management of the developing krill fishery, our net-based data provide an alternative estimate of total krill biomass.

  10. Measurement of the seasonal and annual variability of total column aerosol in a northeastern U.S. network

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Schlemmer, J.A.; Harrison, L.C.; Berkheiser, W.E. III; Larson, N.R.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1994-09-01

    A network of multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometers has operated since late 1991 in the northeastern US. The data acquired are simultaneous measurements of total and diffuse horizontal irradiances in six narrowband filtered detectors and one broadband shortwave detector. The direct normal irradiances are calculated from these measurements. These direct data are corrected for cosine response and used to calculate extraterrestrial irradiance (I{sub o}) using the Langley method of regressing the natural logarithm of direct irradiance versus air mass. With frequent determinations of I{sub o}, changes in I{sub o} caused by soiling and filter degradation, for example, can be tracked. Using these I{sub o}`s, total optical depth is calculated for every clear 30-minute period in the record. Consequently, total optical depth may be obtained on a fair number of days throughout the year. Using daily average total optical depth the authors have calculated aerosol optical depths for five wavelengths by subtracting Rayleigh scattering optical depths and Chappuis ozone absorption optical depths at each wavelength. The aerosol pattern at nearly every site is an annual cycle superimposed on a decaying stratospheric loading associated with the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption. An attempt is made to remove the volcanic signal using data from another site.

  11. Spatiotemporal climatic, hydrological, and environmental variations based on records of annually laminated lake sediments from northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, W.; Blanke, L.; Kinder, M.; Loewe, T.; Mayr, C.; Ohlendorf, C.; Zolitschka, B.

    2009-12-01

    In northern Poland there is the unique opportunity to compare varved lake sediment records with distinct climatic trends along a 700 km long W-E transect. Annually laminated Holocene sediment sequences from Lake Lubinskie, Lake Suminko, Lake Lazduny, and Lake Szurpily were cored for high-resolution multiproxy climate and environmental reconstruction in the framework of the Polish-German project Northern Polish Lake Research (NORPOLAR). First results from a 139 cm long gravity core of Lake Lazduny (5351.4N, 2157.3E) document deposition of an organic (mean organic matter: 13.9%; mean biogenic opal: 9.8%) and highly carbonaceous gyttja (mean calcite content: 61.6%). The finely laminated sediment consists of biochemical varves. Pale spring/summer layers composed of autochthonous carbonates alternate with dark fall/winter layers made of organic and minerogenic detritus. The established chronology for the last 1500 calendar-years is based on thin section analysis supported by independent radiometric dating (C-14, Pb-210). Sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses were carried out with a decadal temporal resolution. Additionally, non-destructive and high-resolution XRF scanning data reveal a rhythmic variation in the Ca content that reflects seasonal calcite deposition. Redox-sensitive elements like Fe, Mn and S are interpreted to be the response to mean winter temperatures: colder winter temperatures ? extended lake ice cover ? intensification of meromixis ? increased Fe/Mn ratio. In turn, these parameters can be linked to NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) variability, because a negative NAO is related to colder and drier conditions in northeastern Europe. Climate variability is also mirrored by the ?13C record of the endogenic calcite fraction. In mid-latitude lakes calcite precipitation is dominated by productivity-controlled consumption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool. Thus the ?13C record potentially provides a proxy for lacustrine primary production related to seasonal water temperature. As human land use considerably increased and modified the nutrient availability since the 19th century, this relationship is not applicable for the upper part of the record. Main future goals of NORPOLAR will be to (1) establish absolute chronologies for all available records covering the entire Holocene; (2) provide high-resolution data sets of paleoredox conditions, paleoproductivity, lake water balance, lacustrine carbon cycles and soil erosion in the catchment areas; (3) link paleodata with modern instrumental and monitoring data to improve the understanding of signal generation from forcing factors via processes to proxy records; and (4) provide regional data sets of reconstructed and quantified climate parameters to be compared with the output of regional climate models.

  12. Dioxin Chronology and Fluxes in Sediments of the Houston Ship Channel, Texas: Influences of Non-steady State Sediment Transport and Total Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeager, K.; Santschi, P.; Raifai, H.; Suarez, M.; Brinkmeyer, R.; Hung, C.; Schindler, K.; Andres, M.; Weaver, E.

    2007-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are persistent contaminants that bio-accumulate and pose serious risks to biota and humans. The primary objective of this study was to determine the history and mechanisms of dioxin accumulation in sediments of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) using analytical data on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb) and dioxins. Results showed that present-day sedimentary dioxin accumulation rates are orders of magnitude higher than atmospheric inputs to the HSC, as determined from a wetland sediment core (FW1) and direct measurements. Most stations showed dioxin peaks in the near surface, indicating continuing inputs despite federal regulations. Stations with high dioxin inventories (11270 > 11193 > 16499 > 15979 > 11261) reflect accentuated accumulation in the HSC as one moves west towards Buffalo Bayou (11270, 15979), at the confluence of the HSC and the San Jacinto River (11261) and upstream in the San Jacinto River (11193). While station 11270 had the highest dioxin inventory, and nearby station 11261 had the highest sediment accumulation rates and dioxin fluxes, present-day dioxin fluxes at 11270 are less than average fluxes and inventories for station 11261 are less than average inventories, for all sites. These results support the interpretation that the HSC is influenced by episodic sediment resuspension, erosion and lateral transport processes driven by tides, wind, shipping and dredging, which can cause intermittently high accumulations of dioxins.

  13. Effect of policy-induced measures on suspended sediments and total phosphorus concentrations from three Norwegian agricultural catchments.

    PubMed

    Bechmann, Marianne; Stålnacke, Per

    2005-05-15

    In Norway, agricultural subsidies have, since the late 1980s, been targeted to reduce soil erosion, transfer of soil particles and phosphorus (P) losses. The subsidies led to, e.g., a fourfold increase in the area not ploughed from 1991 to 2001 and a reduced P fertiliser consumption by 60%, especially in areas with high livestock density. Moreover, in the late 1980s agricultural point sources of P from storage facilities of manure and fodder were reduced. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of these policy-induced measures and changed agricultural practices on suspended sediment (SS) and total P (TP) concentrations in three agricultural catchments (1, 3 and 87 km2). Results from the statistical trend analyses for the study period (14-17 years) showed weak, but statistically significant (p<0.05), downward trends in concentrations of TP and SS in the two streams with a high initial TP or SS concentration. In the stream with low initial concentrations of TP and SS, however, no statistically significant trends were shown. The stream with the highest initial concentration of SS showed a statistically significant downward trend in both TP and SS concentrations. The catchment with low initial concentration of SS and medium livestock density showed no detectable trends, while the catchment with high livestock density and low concentrations of SS in the stream showed a statistically significant downward trend in TP concentrations. The results from this study suggest that subsidies and mitigation measures can reduce concentrations of TP and SS in streamwater in highly polluted catchments, although the reduction is small compared to the variations between catchments. PMID:15907514

  14. Solar Total Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual report, July 1979-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar total energy system for a Georgia knitwear plant. In conjunction with Sandia and others, a pier test of the design for the parabolic dishes was carried out at the solar field site. The access road to the site and the new Construction Monitoring and Visitor's Center facility have been provided. Operation of the Meteorology Station proceeded throughout the entire reporting period without significant perturbation. The major event occurred near the end of the period when the station was moved to the southeast corner of the solar field, adjacent to and just south of the trailer facilities. Efforts are described for bringing the entire data collection and energy system in the Bleyle Plant into fine tuned order. Problems with the flow channels, humidity channels and the Bleyle economizer system were traced to basic design and installation deficiencies. All associated vendors were contacted on at least one occasion throughout the period. Reasonable confidence is reported that all systems were performing to the best of their design ability, and the data system was removed in preparation for the facility move to the southeast corner of the solar site. Nominal data collection by monthly reading of the watt-hour meters in the Bleyle boiler room is reported. The Site Team continued to interface with the design teams and updated the interface drawings.The major effort involved the finalization of the power systems interface sizing design and location. Effort was also exerted in the following: support to pier testing; interconnection piping design; new trailer design and location. A large number of requests were answered in providing presentations, design data, public information and technical magazines. It is expected that when construction commences early next period, the activity will become even more intense.

  15. The Impact of HbA1c Testing on Total Annual Healthcare Expenditures Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes also imposes a huge financial burden on the US economy. In 2009, the American Diabetes Association International Expert Committee recommended the use of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test as a uniform diagnostic measure to identify patients with diabetes. Although HbA1c is a convenient diagnostic test, it is also more expensive than older tests and could, therefore, have an impact on patients’ healthcare expenditures. Objectives To determine if HbA1c testing has an impact on total annual healthcare expenditures among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and to analyze the factors that are associated with the total healthcare expenditures among diabetic patients before and after HbA1c was implemented as a standard diagnostic factor. Methods This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Household Component 2009 and 2011 databases were used to form the study cohort of patients with diabetes. The total mean healthcare expenditures among patients with diabetes formed the dependent variable. A proxy variable representing a diagnosis of diabetes with and without the use of HbA1c testing in 2009 and in 2011, respectively, formed the main independent variable along with demographic factors, comorbidities, and healthcare services utilization in both years. A generalized linear regression was conducted to determine the association of HbA1c testing with total diabetes-related healthcare expenditures. Results The mean total healthcare expenditure decreased in 2011 compared with 2009. The HbA1c test did not show an association with the total healthcare expenditures versus earlier diabetes-related diagnostic factors. The total expenditures were associated with private insurance, the incidence of a previous heart attack, prescription drug refills, inpatient hospital stays, home care, hospital discharges, and visits to outpatient providers and physicians in both years. Conclusions The HbA1c diagnostic factor did not yield any association with diabetes healthcare expenditures. Although the total healthcare expenditures were reduced in 2011 compared with 2009, it cannot be established that the reduction in costs is solely attributed to the implementation of the HbA1c diagnostic criteria. Further research on healthcare expenditures for diabetic patients diagnosed with and without the use of HbA1c testing is warranted to establish any possible association. PMID:26557226

  16. Relationships among total recoverable and reactive metals and metalloid in St. Lawrence River sediment: bioaccumulation by chironomids and implications for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mlanie; Gagnon, Christian; Masson, Stphane; Martel, Louis; Babut, Marc P

    2008-01-15

    The availability and bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and the geochemical interactions among them, are essential to developing an ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework and determining threshold concentrations for these elements. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among total recoverable and reactive metals and metalloid in sediment and their bioaccumulation by chironomids. In the fall of 2004 and 2005, 58 stations located in the three fluvial lakes of the St. Lawrence River and its largest harbour area in Montreal, Canada, were sampled. Nine total recoverable and reactive metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and one metalloid (As) were measured in whole sediment using two extraction methods: HCl/HNO(3) and HCl 1N, respectively. The bioaccumulation of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and As by chironomids was evaluated in a subset of 22 stations. Strong collinearities were observed between some total recoverable or reactive metal concentrations in sediment; two principal clusters, including collinear metals, were obtained. The first one included metals of mainly geological origin (Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni), while the second one included As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, which likely derive mainly from point sources of anthropogenic contamination. Each element also showed strong collinearity between their total recoverable and reactive forms (0.65< or =r < or =0.97). We can conclude that both chemical forms are equivalent for use in statistical models needed to explain biological responses and also in screening risk assessment. However, these relationships are not always proportional. Lower availability percentages were observed for Cd, Cu and Zn in the highly mixed-contaminated area of the Montreal Harbour, even though concentrations in sediment were higher. We observed a significant correlation (0.50< or =r < or =0.56) between concentrations in chironomids and concentrations of both total recoverable and reactive Cr and Pb in sediment. Arsenic was an exception, with accumulation by chironomids being highly related to reactive sediment concentrations. Finally, we observed variable influences of explanatory factors (e.g. sediment grain size, Al, Fe, Mn, S, TOC), depending on which metal or metalloid was being predicted in chironomids. In this context, it is difficult to choose a universal predictive method to explain the bioaccumulation of specific metals, and more research is still needed into normalization procedures that consider a combination of explanatory factors. PMID:17900660

  17. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  18. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Sisman, S. Lara

    2015-07-20

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  19. Bioprospecting from Marine Sediments of New Brunswick, Canada: Exploring the Relationship between Total Bacterial Diversity and Actinobacteria Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Katherine; Haltli, Bradley; Gill, Krista A.; Kerr, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes are an important resource for the discovery of natural products with therapeutic properties. Bioprospecting for actinomycetes typically proceeds without a priori knowledge of the bacterial diversity present in sampled habitats. In this study, we endeavored to determine if overall bacterial diversity in marine sediments, as determined by 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing, could be correlated with culturable actinomycete diversity, and thus serve as a powerful tool in guiding future bioprospecting efforts. Overall bacterial diversity was investigated in eight marine sediments from four sites in New Brunswick, Canada, resulting in over 44,000 high quality sequences (x = 5610 per sample). Analysis revealed all sites exhibited significant diversity (H = 5.4 to 6.7). Furthermore, statistical analysis of species level bacterial communities (D = 0.03) indicated community composition varied according to site and was strongly influenced by sediment physiochemical composition. In contrast, cultured actinomycetes (n = 466, 98.3% Streptomyces) were ubiquitously distributed among all sites and distribution was not influenced by sediment composition, suggesting that the biogeography of culturable actinomycetes does not correlate with overall bacterial diversity in the samples examined. These actinomycetes provide a resource for future secondary metabolite discovery, as exemplified by the antimicrobial activity observed from preliminary investigation. PMID:24531187

  20. Effects of soil and precipitation dataset resolution on SWAT2005 sediment and total phosphorus simulation accuracy and outputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir, which is within the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed (FCREW) in Oklahoma, is on the Oklahoma 303(d) list (list of water bodies that do not meet the water quality standards as given in the Clean Water Act) based on sedimentation and trophic level of the lake associa...

  1. Quantitative Estimation of Chemical Weathering versus Total Denudation Ratio within Tributaries of Yangtze River Basin Based on Size Dependent Chemical Composition Ratio of River Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboki, Y.; Chao, L.; Tada, R.; Saito, K.; Zheng, H.; Irino, T.; He, M.; Ke, W.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative estimation of chemical weathering rate and evaluation of its controlling factors are critical to understand its role on landscape evolution and carbon cycle on a long time scale. In order to reconstruct the past changes in intensities of chemical weathering and erosion, it is necessary to establish a proxy for chemical versus physical weathering intensities based on chemical composition of sediments. However, the chemical composition of sediments is controlled not only by chemical weathering, but by type of source rock and grain size, too. This study aims to develop a method to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of chemical weathering relative to total denudation in the entire Yangtze River basin based on chemical composition of three different grain size fractions of river sediments. Chemical compositions of three different grain size fractions, and grain size distribution of suspended particles and river bed sediments as well as chemical composition of dissolved materials of water samples are analyzed. The result revealed that suspended particles and river bed sediments are composed of three components, aluminosilicate, quartz, and carbonate. K/Al is smaller in the smallest size fraction. We preliminary interpret that original composition of aluminosilcates within different size fractions of the same sample is the same, and the decrease in K/Al with decreasing grain size would reflect increasing influence of chemical weathering. If correct, K/Al of fine to coarse fraction can be used as an index of chemical weathering intensity. To test this idea, we examined the relationship between K/Al of fine to coarse fraction and the ratio of chemical weathering contribution to total denudation rate based on observational data. The result will be presented and its implication will be discussed.

  2. Runoff losses of suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from a small watershed in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to develop annual and seasonal load-discharge relationships for Suspended Sediment (SS), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) losses in runoff from a small mixed land use watershed, and to use these relationships to explicate the annual and monthly pattern...

  3. Rates of total oxygen uptake of sediments and benthic nutrient fluxes measured using an in situ autonomous benthic chamber in the sediment of the slope off the southwestern part of Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; An, Sung-Uk; Park, Young-Gyu; Kim, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongseon; Kwon, Jung No; Kang, Dong-Jin; Noh, Jae-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a new autonomous benthic lander for deep-sea research, the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) Belc II and Belp II. The benthic lander was successfully tested at 950 and 1450 m water depths on the slope off the southwestern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea of Korea. The ex situ measurements of the total oxygen uptake (TOU) rates at all the stations exceeded the in situ measurement values, and may indicate artificial effects from onboard incubation. The TOU rates were estimated to be 5.80 mmol m-2 d-1 and 3.77 mmol m-2 d-1 at water depths of 950 m and 1450 m, respectively. The benthic nutrient fluxes were also higher at water depths of 950 m, which indicates a partitioning of organic degradation with water depth. In addition, the negative phosphate and nitrogen benthic flux ratios and the higher nitrate removal flux via the sediment-water interface at the slope imply that the nitrogen in the bottom water may be preferentially removed via microbial respiration processes in the sediments, and may be coupled with the low nitrogen-to-phosphate ratio found in the deep water. Although our measurements comprised just two experiments in the slope sediment, the robust in situ measurement of the benthic fluxes in the slope sediment is a forerunner for new research into the biogeochemical cycles across the shelf edge-slope-basin system in the East Sea.

  4. Wind erosion from a sagebrush steppe burned by wildfire: Measurements of PM10 and total horizontal sediment flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Foltz, Randy B.

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are under studied compared to rainfall-induced erosion and sediment transport on burned landscapes. Post-fire wind erosion studies have predominantly focused on near-surface sediment transport and associated impacts such as on-site soil loss and site fertility. Downwind impacts, including air quality degradation and deposition of dust or contaminants, are also likely post-fire effects; however, quantitative field measurements of post-fire dust emissions are needed for assessment of these downwind risks. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a desert sagebrush and grass wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned landscape. This paper presents measurements of horizontal sediment flux and PM10 vertical flux from the burned area. We determined threshold wind speeds and corresponding threshold friction velocities to be 6.0 and 0.20 m s-1, respectively, for the 4 months immediately following the fire and 10 and 0.55 m s-1 for the following spring months. Several major wind erosion events were measured in the months following the July 2010 Jefferson Fire. The largest wind erosion event occurred in early September 2010 and produced 1495 kg m-1 of horizontal sediment transport within the first 2 m above the soil surface, had a maximum PM10 vertical flux of 100 mg m-2 s-1, and generated a large dust plume that was visible in satellite imagery. The peak PM10 concentration measured on-site at a height of 2 m in the downwind portion of the burned area was 690 mg m-3. Our results indicate that wildfire can convert a relatively stable landscape into one that is a major dust source.

  5. 17 CFR 270.30b1-2 - Semi-annual report for totally-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Semi-annual report for totally-owned registered management investment company subsidiary of registered management investment company. 270.30b1-2 Section 270.30b1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS,...

  6. Sediment calibration strategies of Phase 5 Chesapeake Bay watershed model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, J.; Shenk, G.W.; Raffensperger, J.; Moyer, D.; Linker, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment is a primary constituent of concern for Chesapeake Bay due to its effect on water clarity. Accurate representation of sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed model is critical for developing sound load reduction strategies. Sediment calibration remains one of the most difficult components of watershed-scale assessment. This is especially true for Chesapeake Bay watershed model given the size of the watershed being modeled and complexity involved in land and stream simulation processes. To obtain the best calibration, the Chesapeake Bay program has developed four different strategies for sediment calibration of Phase 5 watershed model, including 1) comparing observed and simulated sediment rating curves for different parts of the hydrograph; 2) analyzing change of bed depth over time; 3) relating deposition/scour to total annual sediment loads; and 4) calculating "goodness-of-fit' statistics. These strategies allow a more accurate sediment calibration, and also provide some insightful information on sediment processes and behavior in Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  7. Compilation of mean annual suspended-sediment yields for selected streams draining basins within and adjacent to coal fields in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Mean annual suspended-sediment yields are listed for 481 selected stations on streams draining basins within and adjacent to the coal fields of the Eastern Coal Province and the eastern region of the Interior Coal Province of the Eastern United States. The drainage basin of each of these stations has an area of 100 and 10,000 sq km; one third or less of the basin drains to a manmade impoundment. Also listed are the percentage of the basin covered by forest, the mean stream-channel gradient of the basin, and any coal-mining activity in the basin. (USGS)

  8. Estimation of historic flows and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay, 1849-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari, H. R.; Jay, D. A.; Talke, S. A.; Schoellhamer, D. H.

    2015-10-01

    River flow and sediment transport in estuaries influence morphological development over decadal and century time scales, but hydrological and sedimentological records are typically too short to adequately characterize long-term trends. In this study, we recover archival records and apply a rating curve approach to develop the first instrumental estimates of daily delta inflow and sediment loads to San Francisco Bay (1849-1929). The total sediment load is constrained using sedimentation/erosion estimated from bathymetric survey data to produce continuous daily sediment transport estimates from 1849 to 1955, the time period prior to sediment load measurements. We estimate that ?55% (45-75%) of the ?1500 400 million tons (Mt) of sediment delivered to the estuary between 1849 and 2011 was the result of anthropogenic alteration in the watershed that increased sediment supply. Also, the seasonal timing of sediment flux events has shifted because significant spring-melt floods have decreased, causing estimated springtime transport (April 1st to June 30th) to decrease from ?25% to ?15% of the annual total. By contrast, wintertime sediment loads (December 1st to March 31st) have increased from ?70% to ?80%. A ?35% reduction of annual flow since the 19th century along with decreased sediment supply has resulted in a ?50% reduction in annual sediment delivery. The methods developed in this study can be applied to other systems for which unanalyzed historic data exist.

  9. Timescales of lateral sediment transport in the Panama Basin as revealed by radiocarbon ages of alkenones, total organic carbon and foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Mix, Alan C.; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2010-02-01

    Paired radiocarbon measurements on haptophyte biomarkers (alkenones) and on co-occurring tests of planktic foraminifera ( Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Globogerinoides sacculifer) from late glacial to Holocene sediments at core locations ME0005-24JC, Y69-71P, and MC16 from the south-western and central Panama Basin indicate no significant addition of pre-aged alkenones by lateral advection. The strong temporal correspondence between alkenones, foraminifera and total organic carbon (TOC) also implies negligible contributions of aged terrigenous material. Considering controversial evidence for sediment redistribution in previous studies of these sites, our data imply that the laterally supplied material cannot stem from remobilization of substantially aged sediments. Transport, if any, requires syn-depositional nepheloid layer transport and redistribution of low-density or fine-grained components within decades of particle formation. Such rapid and local transport minimizes the potential for temporal decoupling of proxies residing in different grain-size fractions and thus facilitates comparison of various proxies for paleoceanographic reconstructions in this study area. Anomalously old foraminiferal tests from a glacial depth interval of core Y69-71P may result from episodic spillover of fast bottom currents across the Carnegie Ridge transporting foraminiferal sands towards the north.

  10. Annual water, sediment, nutrient, and organic carbon fluxes in river basins: A global meta-analysis as a function of scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutema, M.; Chaplot, V.; Jewitt, G.; Chivenge, P.; Blöschl, G.

    2015-11-01

    Process controls on water, sediment, nutrient, and organic carbon exports from the landscape through runoff are not fully understood. This paper provides analyses from 446 sites worldwide to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (MAP and MAT: mean annual precipitation and temperature; CLAY and BD: soil clay content and bulk density; S: slope gradient; LU: land use) on annual exports (RC: runoff coefficients; SL: sediment loads; TOCL: organic carbon losses; TNL: nitrogen losses; TPL: phosphorus losses) from different spatial scales. RC was found to increase, on average, from 18% at local scale (in headwaters), 25% at microcatchment and subcatchment scale (midreaches) to 41% at catchment scale (lower reaches of river basins) in response to multiple factors. SL increased from microplots (468 g m-2 yr-1) to plots (901 g m-2 yr-1), accompanied by decreasing TOCL and TNL. Climate was a major control masking the effects of other factors. For example, RC, SL, TOCL, TNL, and TPL tended to increase with MAP at all spatial scales. These variables, however, decreased with MAT. The impact of CLAY, BD, LU, and S on erosion variables was largely confined to the hillslope scale, where RC, SL, and TOCL decreased with CLAY, while TNL and TPL increased. The results contribute to better understanding of water, nutrient, and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and should inform river basin modeling and ecosystem management. The important role of spatial climate variability points to a need for comparative research in specific environments at nested spatiotemporal scales.

  11. Analysis of bottom sediment to estimate nonpoint-source phosphorus loads for 1981-96 in Hillsdale Lake, northeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Bottom sediment in Hillsdale Lake, northeast Kansas, was analyzed as a means of estimating the annual load of total phosphorus deposited in the lake from nonpoint sources. Topographic, bathymetric, and sediment-core data were used to estimate the total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment. Available streamflow and water-quality data were used to compute the mean annual mass of phosphorus (dissolved plus suspended) exiting the lake as well as the mean annual load of phosphorus added to the lake from point sources. A simple mass balance then was used to compute the mean annual load of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. Mean annual sediment deposition from 1981 through 1996 was estimated to be 265 million pounds (120 million kilograms). The total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment was estimated to be 924,000 kilograms, with a mean annual load of 62,000 kilograms. The mean annual mass of phosphorus exiting in the lake out-flow was estimated to be about 8,000 kilograms. The mean annual loads of phosphorus added to the lake from point and nonpoint sources were estimated to be 5,000 and 65,000 kilograms, respectively. Thus, the contribution to the total mean annual phosphorus load in Hillsdale Lake from point sources is about 7 percent and from nonpoint sources, about 93 percent.

  12. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of floating macrophytes accumulated behind bridge constrictions and dams; in 2008, high flows during the early part of the growing season carried floating macrophytes past bridges and over dams, minimizing accumulations. Samples of Lemna were collected and weighed to provide an estimate of Lemna biomass based on areal coverage during the summer growing seasons at eight sites in the five impoundments. Average estimated biomass during 2007 was approximately twice the 2008 biomass in each of the areas monitored. In 2007, in situ hyperspectral and high-resolution, multispectral data from the IKONOS satellite were obtained to evaluate the feasibility of using remote sensing to monitor the extent of aquatic plant growth in Assabet River impoundments. Three vegetation indices based on light reflectance were used to develop metrics with which the hyperspectral and satellite data were compared. The results of the comparisons confirmed that the high-resolution satellite imagery could differentiate among the common aquatic-plant associations found in the impoundments. The use of satellite imagery could counterbalance emphasis on the subjective judgment of a human observer, and airborne hyperspectral data can provide higher resolution imagery than multispectral satellite data. In 2007 and 2008, the potential for sediment flux of phosphorus was examined in free-flowing reaches of the river and in the two largest impoundments-Hudson and Ben Smith. These studies were undertaken to determine in situ flux rates prior to the implementation of the Assabet River Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for phosphorus and to compare these rates with those used in the development and evaluation of the TMDL. Water samples collected from a chamber placed on the river bottom were analyzed for total phosphorus and orthophosphorus. Ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations and seasonal temperature differences appeared to affect the rates of sequestration and sediment release of phosphorus. When dissolved oxygen concentrations remained relatively high in the chambers and when the temperature was relatively low, the tendency was for phosphorus concentrations to decrease in the chambers, indicating sediment sequestration of phosphorus; when dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped to near zero and temperatures were warmest, phosphorus concentrations increased in the chambers, indicating phosphorus flux from the sediment. The rates of release and sequestration in the in situ studies were generally comparable with the rates determined in laboratory studies of Assabet River sediment cores for State and Federal agencies. Sediment-core and chamber studies produced substantial sediment fluxes to the water column only under extremely low-DO or anaerobic conditions rarely found in the Assabet River impoundments; thus, sediment is not likely to be a major phosphorus source, especially when compared to the wastewater effluent, which sustains higher ambient concentrations. The regulatory agencies now (2011) have substantial laboratory and field data with which to determine the required 90-percent reduction in phosphorus flux after the completion of upgrades to the wastewater-treatment plants that discharge to the Assabet River.

  13. Suspended-sediment loads and reservoir sediment trap efficiency for Clinton Lake, Kansas, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012, at a site upstream and downstream from Clinton Lake, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from the reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is inhibiting the ability of Clinton Lake to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The inflow suspended-sediment load was substantially larger than the outflow load and most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. Respectively, the total 2-year inflow and outflow suspended-sediment loads were computed to be 44.4 and 1.49 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 97 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 60,500 pounds per square mile. Because this study was completed during a drought, the estimated inflow suspended-sediment load and suspended-sediment yield likely are substantially less than what would occur during a period of average or above average precipitation and runoff.

  14. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  15. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  16. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT® recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  17. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  18. Estimating the Contributions of Surface Wash-off and Channel Erosion to Total Sediment and Solute Loads in a Small Mixed Land Use Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipper, J.; Bowden, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed sediment and solute loads originate from many different sources. These can include point sources, soil erosion, impervious surface wash-off, channel bank and bed erosion, and other sources depending on the land use activities within the watershed. However, the difficulties encountered in quantifying the contributions of specific nonpoint sources to watershed loads magnifies the uncertainty in watershed management efforts aimed at mitigating the pollutants. The goal of this research is to quantify the contribution of wash-off from residentially developed land and stream channel erosion to total watershed sediment and solute loadings within a 103 ha tributary watershed of Potash Brook, in Chittenden County, Vermont. To do so we deployed autosamplers at two stream cross sections and within two representative storm drain outfalls to sample TSS, TN, NO3-, TKN, TP, and Cl-. Samples were collected during storm events on a flow weighted composite basis, and by periodic base flow sampling. In stream sampling was conducted over a total 5 years and storm drain sampling covered a total of 2 years. Preliminary analysis of these data suggests that surface wash-off from developed portions of the watershed can generate greater than 90% of the TSS and greater than 50% of the Cl- loads measured at the watershed outlet sampling location. Currently, these data are being incorporated into an EPA-SWMM model of the watershed coupled with an evolutionary strategies parameter search algorithm. The model generated and measured wash-off data will be used with the measured load data at the watershed outlet to estimate the contribution of the stream channel by difference over all sampled events.

  19. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed-sediment patterns were similar to those observed in water. Concentrations of tHg were higher in samples from the urbanized areas. In the more forested areas, MeHg concentrations were higher than in other land-use areas. Concentrations of tHg in bed sediment were positively correlated with urbanization factors (population, urban land cover, and impervious land surface) and negatively correlated with forested land cover and elevation. Forested land cover and latitude were positively correlated with concentrations of MeHg. The methylation efficiency was higher in samples from the forested areas and was negatively correlated with urbanization. Analyses within land-use groups showed that tHg concentrations in fish fillets from the urban sites were positively correlated with forested land cover and wetland cover. Urbanization factors within the agricultural group were positively correlated with tHg in fish; concentrations of tHg in fish from sites in the low intensity-agricultural group were negatively correlated with urbanization factors. Within the agricultural land-use group, tHg concentrations in water were negatively correlated with septic density, and MeHg concentrations were negatively correlated with elevation. In the forested and low intensity-agricultural groups, MeHg in water was negatively correlated with forested and agricultural land cover. Methylation efficiency in water also was negatively correlated with forested land cover but positively correlated with agricultural land cover. Bed sediment concentrations of tHg in the forested and low-agricultural groups were positively correlated with agricultural land cover and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Concentrations of MeHg in bed sediment were positively correlated with septic density and drainage area and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency was negatively correlated with population density, a

  20. Analysis of lake-bottom sediment to estimate historical nonpoint-source phosphorus loads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    Bottom sediment in Hillsdale Lake, Kansas, was analyzed to estimate the annual load of total phosphorus deposited in the lake from nonpoint sources. Topographic, bathymetric, and sediment-core data were used to estimate the total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment. Available streamflow and water-quality data were used to compute the mean annual mass of phosphorus (dissolved plus suspended) exiting the lake. The mean annual load of phosphorus added to the lake from point sources was estimated from previous studies. A simple mass balance then was used to compute the mean annual load of phosphorus from nonpoint sources. The total mass of phosphorus in the lake-bottom sediment was estimated to be 924,000 kg, with a mean annual load of 62,000 kg. The mean annual mass of phosphorus exiting in the lake outflow was estimated to be about 8,000 kg. The mean annual loads of phosphorus added to the lake from point and nonpoint sources were estimated to be 5,000 and 65,000 kg, respectively. Thus, the contribution to the total mean annual phosphorus load in Hillsdale Lake is about 7 percent from point sources and about 93 percent from nonpoint sources.

  1. Biotic drivers of fluvial sediment transport: Aggregate effects of sediment mobilisation by crayfish on catchment-scale sediment yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Stephen; Mathers, Kate; Reeds, Jake; Extence, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Small but prolific organisms may be significant zoogeomorphic agents that make cumulative contributions to the large-scale terrestrial sediment cascade in, as yet, unknown and unquantified ways. One such organism is the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), which has invaded many European rivers. The geographical extent and abundance of this animal ensure innumerable local, small-scale interactions with the fluvial sediment system that have the potential to yield a substantial effect when aggregated across larger spatial and temporal scales. Here we estimate, for the first time, the proportion of the total annual sediment yield associated with crayfish activity in an infested river and examine the variability in crayfish-driven sediment flux integrated across daily, monthly and seasonal time scales. We focused on one of several mechanisms by which crayfish activities affect sediment dynamics: the mobilisation of fine sediments by foraging, fighting and burrowing under hydraulic conditions that are otherwise insufficient to entrain sediment. On the Brampton Branch of the River Nene, UK, a 12-month record of suspended sediment concentration (derived from a calibration of turbidity data against measured SSC) allowed calculation of sediment fluxes and integrated sediment loads at ten-minute intervals. Concurrent measurements of water depth and crayfish movements (using PIT tagging) confirmed that night-time crayfish activity was often associated with increased sediment fluxes in the absence of any change in hydraulic conditions. Sediment loads calculated for these periods of crayfish activity were compared with total loads to estimate the contribution made to sediment mobilisation by crayfish. Crayfish-induced fluxes were most significant during summer low-flows, becoming less important during winter when the crayfish were inactive and competent high flows dominated sediment transport. Nevertheless, the seasonal cumulative effect of crayfish was substantial and implies that crayfish can be important drivers of sediment movement in infested rivers. Moreover, observations suggest that a large proportion of the sediment available for transport during winter floods is introduced by bank retreat caused by crayfish burrowing. This implies that the total effect of crayfish on sediment yield is substantially greater than estimates based on entrainment effects alone.

  2. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT. SPECTROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTAMINANT UPTAKE AND RETENTION BY CARBONATES IN SOILS AND VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work completed after 21 months of a 36-month project. In a previous annual report we described results of contaminant uptake by natural caliche from the Pasco Basin area. The new results described here relate to studies of metal coprecipitation with calcite...

  3. Heart rate, respiration and total oxyradical scavenging capacity of the Arctic spider crab, Hyas araneus, following exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds via sediment and injection.

    PubMed

    Camus, L; Jones, M B; Brseth, J F; Regoli, F; Depledge, M H

    2002-11-13

    Increasing industrial activity in the European Arctic has raised concerns of the potential anthropogenic impact of chemicals on this polar marine ecosystem. For the past 20 years or so, biomarkers have been developed to provide early-warning signals of detrimental impacts of chemicals on the marine ecosystem, however, most biomarker methods have been established for organisms living in temperate rather than polar waters. Little is known about biomarker responses in organisms living within the temperature range of -1.88 to +5 degrees C. In this study, established biomarkers from temperate studies were tested on the Arctic spider crab Hyas araneus to validate their use in polar ecosystems. H. araneus is common in Svalbard fjord (Norway), although it is a temperate water species occurring from northern Spain to Svalbard at depths from 10 to 1200 m. In this paper, the effects of oil were investigated at 2 degrees C via two routes: (i) injection and (ii) contaminated sediment. After 2 weeks of exposure, heart rate, oxygen consumption and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) were measured in the same individuals. In both methods of contaminant exposure, heart rate showed a significant increase compared with the control (P < 0.0001, n = 7); mean heart rate values (+/- S.D.) of H. araneus were 49.06 (+/- 13.72), 57.56 (+/- 7.28) and 63.30 (+/- 6.57) beats per minute in control, injected and sediment-treated groups, respectively. Respiration of H. araneus was not affected significantly by either oil treatment (P > 0.05), but two individuals (n = 8) showed a marked increase in oxygen uptake in the sediment-exposed group. The basal oxygen consumption of control H. araneus was lower (0.025 mg O(2) g wet wt.(-1) h(-1)) than reported for H. araneus living in temperate water. Although TOSC of H. araneus was not affected significantly by either exposure treatment (P > 0.05) the mean TOSC value in the sediment-exposed group was lower than the control, indicating some saturation of the oxyradical scavenging system. Results indicate that although low temperature appears to be the main factor reducing the bioavailability of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons, the relatively low metabolic rate of Arctic H. araneus is also implicated in decreased uptake and metabolism of oil compounds into reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:12297367

  4. Challenges in Measuring and Predicting Medium Term (Weeks to Annual) Aeolian Sediment Transport in Beach-Dune Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Fernandez, I.

    2009-05-01

    Coastal dune budgets depend on sediment input by wind from the beach. Calculation of aeolian transport is thus a primary factor to understand coastal dune evolution and beach-dune coupled dynamics. However, measuring aeolian sediment transport in coastal areas presents fundamental technical and conceptual limitations that make numerical modeling difficult. Wind tunnel experiments isolate and reduce the number of variables to study, which is a necessary procedure to clearly manifest mechanistic relationships between cause and effect. But even with refinement and inclusion of new variables, traditional sediment transport formulas derived from wind tunnel experiments do not usually work well in natural areas. Short-term experiments may include precise instrumentation to obtain high frequency, detail time series of variables involved in aeolian transport, but inferring information at larger scales is problematic without knowledge of the timing and magnitude of particular transport events. There are two primary problems in attempting to predict sediment inputs to coastal dunes over periods of weeks, months or years: 1) to determine an appropriate set of predictive equations that incorporate complexities such as surface moisture content, beach width and the presence of vegetation; and 2) to provide quantitative data on these variables for input into the model at this time scale. Remote sensing techniques and the use of GIS software open the possibility to monitor key parameters regulating sediment transport dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution over time scales beyond short-term experiments. These were applied at Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island National Park (Canada), in an attempt to measure factors affecting aeolian sediment input to the foredune at a medium scale. Three digital cameras covering different sections of the beach and foredune provide time series on shoreline position, fetch distances, vegetation cover, ice/snow presence, or superficial moisture content. The rectification of oblique images to UTM maps allows to keep the spatial variability of these factors, and thus to perform detailed analysis on their complex evolution. Auxiliary instrumentation such as anemometers, safires, or erosion-deposition pins completes the basic set up. Data is processed using ArcGIS 9.2 and PCI Geomatica 9.1, and managed by an ArcCatalog Geodatabase. The coupling of new technologies (digital imagery) with traditional instrumentation (e.g. anemometers), and the extensive GIS capabilities both in the spatial and temporal domain, permits a new set of questions in aeolian coastal research. The overall goal is to obtain information on what is the frequency and magnitude of transport events at the beach or what are the key parameters regulating them. Challenges remain in improving methodologies to measure sediment transport rates. Ironically enough, we are able to obtain high quality time series on the factors affecting aeolian transport at the beach, but actual transport rates are measured with rather rudimentary techniques or instrumentation not adapted to meso-scale monitoring. This information is needed to test new approaches in modeling and understanding aeolian sediment input from the beach to the foredunes.

  5. Quasi-biennial oscillation and quasi-biennial oscillation-annual beat in the tropical total column ozone: A two-dimensional model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xun; Camp, Charles D.; Shia, Runlie; Noone, David; Walker, Christopher; Yung, Yuk L.

    2004-08-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 data are used to calculate the monthly mean meridional circulation and eddy diffusivity from 1979 to 2002 for use in the California Institute of Technology-Jet Propulsion Laboratory two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry and transport model (CTM). This allows for an investigation of the impact of dynamics on the interannual variability of the tropical total column ozone for all years for which the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet merged total ozone data are available. The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the deseasonalized and detrended stratospheric stream function capture 88% of the total variance on interannual timescales. The first EOF, accounting for over 70% of the interannual variance, is related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and its interaction with annual cycles, the QBO-annual beat (QBO-AB). The 2-D CTM provides realistic simulations of the seasonal and interannual variability of ozone in the tropics. The equatorial ozone anomaly from the model is close to that derived from the observations. The phase and amplitude of the QBO are well captured by the model. The magnitude of the QBO signal is somewhat larger in the model than it is in the data. The QBO-AB found in the simulated ozone agrees well with that in the observed data.

  6. Historical eutrophication in Lake Taihu: evidence from biogenic silica and total phosphorus accumulation in sediments from northern part of Lake Taihu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Zhu, Zhaozhou

    2008-10-01

    Sediment and water from the Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were analyzed to examine the historical relation between the accumulation of biogenic silica (BSi) and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicate that BSi accumulation in the northern part of Lake Taihu had been controlled by diatom production and phosphorus loading since the 1950s. BSi accumulation increased with the growing agricultural activity since the 1950s, up to a maximum level in the 1960s. After that, BSi accumulation decreased due to the diatom dissolution till the 1980s, and then the diatom biomass decreased with BSi accumulation increased. Lake Taihu came into an accelerated eutrophication periods since the 1990s, while BSi accumulation began to increase but the proportion of diatom decreased. Although the onset of silica depletion cannot be confirmed in the present work, it is clear that BSi accumulation was restrained by the input of TP.

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    ?This study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (?m) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-?m particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-?m. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 ?m) and the fine particle-size fraction (<63 ?m) were approximately equal in samples at depths greater than 10 cm below the sediment water interface. Chemical analyses included both size fractions of freeze-dried samples. Chemical analyses included determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-?m particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-?m particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P associated with mineral phases. The difference between the concentration of total P and sum of the concentrations of inorganic forms of P is referred to as residual P. Residual P was the largest fraction of P in all of the sediment samples. In UKL, the correlation between concentrations of total P and total Fe in sediment is poor (R2<0.1). The correlation between the concentrations of total P and P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides is good (R2=0.43) in surface sediment (0.5-4.5 cm below the sediment water interface) but poor (R2<0.1) in sediments at depths between 10 cm and 30 cm. Phosphorus associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides is considered bioavailable because it is released when sediment conditions change from oxidizing to reducing, which causes dissolution of Fe oxides.

  8. Late Quaternary climates of East Asia deduced from the total organic carbon contents of cored sediments (MD179-3304, 3312) off Joetsu City, Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Tasuku; Kuriyama, Manato; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kumon, Fujio

    2014-08-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations are analyzed with high temporal resolution (ca. 100 years) for cores MD179-3304 and MD179-3312 taken from the Japan Sea off Joetsu City. The temporal changes in TOC and TN concentrations vary quasi-regularly in similar patterns. The age models are formed on the basis of the dates of 14C dating, marker tephra beds, TL layers, and marine isotope events with depth. TOC concentration is high in MIS 1 and 5, low in MIS 2 and 4, and slightly elevated in MIS 3 with frequent short fluctuations. This general trend is very similar to LR04 curve, except for the reduced dominance of TOC around the MIS 5.5 substage. As shown typically in MIS 3, there are many peaks of TOC in a short interval. The details of these TOC peaks can be correlated with the warm interstadials of the Greenland ice core. We can identify a sawtooth-like decreasing trend of TOC in MIS 3. In contrast, the decreasing trend of ?18O in the ice core corresponds to an increasing trend of TOC in MIS 5. The most plausible explanation for the correlation of climate changes between East Asia and the North Atlantic is oscillation of the Arctic polar front through time. The detailed correspondence of TOC concentrations of the Japan Sea sediments to other common paleoclimate proxies means that the TOC concentrations of these sediments is an excellent paleoclimate record in Far East Asia, although the genetic relationship between air temperature and biological productivity in the Japan Sea is as yet unknown.

  9. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-07-28

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  10. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-07-28

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  11. Status report and FY95 plans -- Re-evaluation of NOAA Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project was to re-evaluate NOAA/CMDL Dobson spectrophotometer total ozone data during FY94 from the stations Haute Provence, France; Lauder, New Zealand; Perth, Australia; and Poker Flat, Alaska and the Umkehr data from Boulder, Colorado and Mauna Loa, Hawaii. During the second year the authors planned to re-evaluate total ozone data from Byrd, Hallett and South Pole, Antarctica; Fairbanks, Alaska; Puerto Montt, Chile; Huancayo, Peru and Umkehr data from Huancayo.

  12. Discharge, suspended sediment, bedload, and water quality in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Savard, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    During this study, total annual sediment loads ranged from 355 tons per year in 2010 to 1,768 tons per year in 2011 and were significantly lower than the previous study (water years 200407). Bedload represented between 29 and 38 percent of total sediment load in water years 201012, and between 72 and 90 percent of the total sediment load in water years 200407, which indicates a decrease in bedload between study periods. Annual suspended-sediment loads in water years 201012 indicated no significant change from water years 200407. Mean daily discharge was significantly lower in water years 201012 than in waters years 200407 and may be the reason for the decrease in bedload that resulted in a lower total sediment load.

  13. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  14. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-02-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30–40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period.

  15. Local Algorithm for Monitoring Total Suspended Sediments in Micro-Watersheds Usin Drones and Remote Sensing Applications. Case Study: TEUSACÁ River, la Calera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáenz, N. A.; Paez, D. E.; Arango, C.

    2015-08-01

    An empirical relationship of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) concentrations and reflectance values obtained with Drones' aerial photos and processed using remote sensing tools was set up as the main objective of this research. A local mathematic algorithm for the micro-watershed of the Teusacá River at La Calera, Colombia, was developed based on the computing of four component of bands from consumed-grade cameras obtaining from each their corresponding reflectance values from procedures for correcting digital camera imagery and using statistical analysis for study the fit and RMSE of 25 regressions. The assessment was characterized by the comparison of reflectance values and 34 in-situ data measurements concentrations between 1.6 and 33 mg L-1 taken from the superficial layer of the river in two campaigns. A large data set of empirical and referenced algorithm from literature were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the relationship. For estimation of TSS, a higher accuracy was achieved using the Tassan's algorithm with the BAND X/ BANDX ratio. The correlation coefficient with R2 = X demonstrate the feasibility of use remote sensed data with consumed-grade cameras as an effective tool for a frequent monitoring and controlling of water quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids of watersheds, these being the most vulnerable and less compliance with environmental regulations.

  16. Five-year changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in coastal wetlands affected by flow-sediment regulation in a Chinese delta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Xia, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the sources and sinks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in wetland soils as indicators of soil quality and climate change have received attention worldwide. Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2012 in the coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta and the SOC and TN were determined to investigate a five-year change in their content and stock in these wetlands as affected by flow-sediment regulation. Our results revealed that the soils in 2007 exhibited greater electrical conductivities, SOC content and density, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) levels in the top 10 cm soils (p < 0.05) compared with the soils in 2012. In general, the SOC and TN contents decreased with increasing soil depth. However, the highest ratios of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen (molar C/N ratios) were observed in the 30-40 cm soil layer. A significant SOC loss occurred (p < 0.05) in top 10 cm soils, but only a small change in SOC in the top 50 cm soils. Comparatively, TN levels did not show significant differences in the study period. PMID:26879008

  17. Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Dan

    1999-05-28

    The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

  18. Solar Total-Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A solar total energy system is used at a knitwear manufacturing facility to supply electric power to a utility grid and process steam and air conditioning to the facility. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system with parabolic dish solar collectors and steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW output with process steam extraction. A detailed chronological record of activities at the facility is presented. Progress is reported in the areas of site preparation and construction support, meteorology, and information dissemination/technology transfer. Cost summaries and future plans are also given. (LEW)

  19. Total Quality Management: Statistics and Graphics III - Experimental Design and Taguchi Methods. AIR 1993 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwabe, Robert A.

    Interest in Total Quality Management (TQM) at institutions of higher education has been stressed in recent years as an important area of activity for institutional researchers. Two previous AIR Forum papers have presented some of the statistical and graphical methods used for TQM. This paper, the third in the series, first discusses some of the

  20. Total and methylmercury partitioning between colloids and true solution: From case studies in sediment overlying and porewaters to a generalized model.

    PubMed

    Guédron, Stéphane; Devin, Simon; Vignati, Davide A L

    2016-02-01

    Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to determine the partitioning of total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) between colloids and true solution in sediment overlying and porewaters collected in Lake Geneva (Switzerland and France), Venice Lagoon (Italy), and Baihua Reservoir (China). Overlying water and porewater spanned different ranges of THg and MMHg concentrations, redox conditions, and salinity. Total Hg, MMHg, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured in filter-passing (<0.45 μm), colloidal (3 kDa-0.45 μm), and truly dissolved (<3 kDa) fractions. The percentages of filterable Hg and MMHg associated with colloids (arithmetic means ±1 standard deviation [SD]) were 29 ± 11% for THg (range, 4-60%) and 44 ± 17% for MMHg (range, 15-65%). Ultrafiltration DOC mass balances were often not satisfactory. However, this was apparently without consequences on THg/MMHg fractionation, suggesting that only a part of total DOC controlled THg/MMHg partitioning in overlying water and porewater. Linear relationships existed between filter passing and truly dissolved concentrations of THg and MMHg, suggesting that mechanisms controlling their partitioning are, at least partly, similar across aquatic systems. These linear relationships could be extended to data from published studies and ultrafilterable concentrations often could be predicted, within a factor of 2, from the measurement of filter-passing ones. The possibility to easily model THg/MMHg partitioning across aquatic systems will facilitate its consideration in general biogeochemical THg/MMHg models. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:330-339. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26241033

  1. Solar Total Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A part of the National Solar Thermal Energy Program, initially funded by DOE, the Shenandoah Project, is the world's largest industrial application of the solar total energy concept. The objective of the Project is to evaluate a solar total energy system that provides electrical power, process steam, and air conditioning for a knit-wear factory (operated by Bleyle of America, Inc.). During normal operation, solar energy generates a large part of the electricity and displaces part of the fossil fuels normally used to run the factory and produce the clothing. Construction of the system was completed early in 1982, when operations were initiated. Solution of unexpected electrical and mechanical problems produced significant information for subsequent system designs. An overview of the Project and a brief System Description is presented following a chronological summary of progress. A discussion of varius anomalies, together with subsequent high quality solar and thermodynamic system performance results, is then discussed.

  2. Solar Total Energy Project, Shenandoah, Georgia site. Annual technical progress report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Ney, E.J.

    1984-10-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) at Shenandoah, Georgia, is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Georgia Power Company to further the search for new sources of energy. A part of the National Solar Thermal Energy Program, initially funded by DOE, the Shenandoah Project, is the world's largest industrial application of the solar total energy concept. The objective of the Project is to evaluate a solar total energy system that provides electrical power, process steam, and air conditioning for a knit-wear factory (operated by Bleyle of America, Inc.). During normal operation, solar energy generates a large part of the electricity and displaces part of the fossil fuels normally used to run the factory and produce the clothing. Construction of the system was completed early in 1982, when operations were initiated. Solution of unexpected electrical and mechanical problems produced significant information for subsequent system designs. A discussion of various anomalies, together with subsequent high quality solar and thermodynamic system performance results, is included.

  3. [Ecosystem service valuation of Ertan Reservoir watershed in mitigating reservoir sand sedimentation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Gao, Ji-xi; Sudebilige; Ennaanay, Driss; Mendoza, Guillermo F; Luo, Zun-lan; Li, Dai-qing; Tian, Mei-rong

    2009-09-01

    By using software ArcGIS 9.2, an evaluation model was established to simulate the ecosystem service of Ertan Reservoir watershed in mitigating the sand sedimentation in the reservoir. In the meantime, sediment delivery ratio and universal soil loss equation were used to simulate the spatial patterns of the annual sediment yield and sediment retention in the watershed as well as the value during the service life period. In 2000, the total quantity of soil retention in the watershed was 12. 1 x 10(8) t x a(-1). The region with higher soil retention was near the main and branch streams of Yalong River, and that with higher sediment delivery ratio was near the streams and the Ertan Reservoir. The region with higher sediment yield and sediment retention was around the reservoir. The actual sediment yield in the study area was 629.3 x 10(4) t x a(-1), occupying 12.7% of the actual soil erosion volume. Farmland was the most important source of sediment yield, with its sediment yield occupying 62.9% of the total. The contribution of forestland to the mitigation of reservoir sand sedimentation was higher than that of the other lands on a per unit area basis. For the reservoir's designed operating life (100 a), the total value of the watershed in the service of mitigating Ertan Reservoir sand sedimentation was 2.75 billion yuan. PMID:20030147

  4. Modelling the contribution of individual radionuclides to the total gamma air kerma rate for the sediments of the Ribble Estuary, NW England.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; McDonald, P; Williams, M; Parker, A; Rae, J E

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the performance of a published dose-rate model, investigate the contribution of individual radionuclides to the total gamma air kerma rate (GAKR) and derive external doses to man in the Ribble Estuary, NW England. GAKRs were measured and sediment cores were collected in order to determine radionuclide specific activities with depth. The latter values were used as input data for the external dose-rate model. The model has a slight tendency to over-predict the GAKR, but, on average, the model predictions fall within +/-26% of the measured value. Improvements, in the present case, might be made by accounting for core shortening and variations in soil density in the input data. The model predicted that, for exposed intertidal mud sites, a range of GAKRs between 0.011 and 0.022 microGy h(-1) was attributable to Springfields discharges alone. The contribution due to 234mPa and 234Th ranged between 20 and 60%. An excess GAKR (GAKR arising from anthropogenic emissions alone) of 0.139-0.150 microGy h(-1), used in conjunction with relevant habit-survey data (for a potential critical group) and conversion factors, yielded a dose to man of 0.029-0.031 mSv year(-1). PMID:10616780

  5. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    PubMed

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important role in modifying the cycles of water and sediment yields in Mediterranean mountain catchments. PMID:26286127

  6. The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity: Extending the boundaries of total quality management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, Geoffrey B. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor); Still, William T. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Eighth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference and 1991 National Symposium on Quality and Productivity provided a forum to exchange knowledge and experiences in these areas of continuous improvement. The more than 1,100 attendees from government, industry, academia, community groups, and the international arena had a chance to learn about methods, tools, and strategies for excellence and to discuss continuous improvement strategies, successes, and failures. This event, linked via satellite to concurrent conferences hosted by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado, also explored extending the boundaries of Total Quality Management to include partnerships for quality within communities and encouraged examination, evaluation, and change to incorporate the principles of continuous improvement.

  7. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Nutrients, Other Chemical Constituents, and Diatoms in Bottom Sediment, Fall River Lake, Southeast Kansas, 1948-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sedimentation and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, diatoms, and the radionuclide cesium-137 in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake, southeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1948 through 2006 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was 470 million cubic feet and 18.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 36 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1948 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 324 million pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the Fall River Lake Basin was estimated to be 585,000 pounds per square mile per year. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake were estimated to be 648,000 pounds per year and 267,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Fall River Lake Basin were 1,170 pounds per square mile per year and 480 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Throughout the history of Fall River Lake, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were relatively uniform. Trace element concentrations in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake generally were uniform over time. Arsenic, chromium, nickel, and zinc concentrations typically exceeded the threshold-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Trace element concentrations did not exceed the probable-effects guidelines (available for eight trace elements), which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Diatom occurrence in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake was dominated by the species Aulacoseira granulata, which is an indicator of eutrophic (nutrient-rich) conditions. The abundance of the diatom Aulacoseira granulata, combined with cyanobacteria evidence and historical water-quality data, indicated that Fall River Lake likely has been eutrophic throughout much of its history.

  8. Determination of total arsenic using a novel Zn-ferrite binding gel for DGT techniques: Application to the redox speciation of arsenic in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Gorny, Josselin; Lesven, Ludovic; Billon, Gabriel; Dumoulin, David; Noiriel, Catherine; Pirovano, Caroline; Mad, Benot

    2015-11-01

    A new laboratory-made Zn-ferrite (ZnFe2O4) binding gel is fully tested using Diffusive Gradient in Thin films (DGT) probes to measure total As [including inorganic As(III) and As(V), as well as MonoMethyl Arsenic Acid (MMAA(V)) and DiMethyl Arsenic Acid (DMAA(V))] in river waters and sediment pore waters. The synthesis of the binding gel is easy, cheap and its insertion into the acrylamide gel is not problematic. An important series of triplicate tests have been carried out to validate the use of the Zn-ferrite binding gel in routine for several environmental matrixes studies, in order to test: (i) the effect of pH on the accumulation efficiency of inorganic As species; (ii) the reproducibility of the results; (iii) the accumulation efficiency of As species; (iv) the effects of the ionic strength and possible competitive anions; and (v) the uptake and the elution efficiency of As species after accumulation in the binding gel. All experimental conditions have been reproduced using two other existing binding gels for comparison: ferrihydrite and Metsorb HMRP 50. We clearly demonstrate that the Zn-ferrite binding gel is at least as good as the two other binding gels, especially for pH values higher than 8. In addition, by taking into consideration the diffusion rates of As(III) and As(V) in the gel, combining the 3-mercaptopropyl [accumulating only As(III)] with the Zn-ferrite binding gels allows for performing speciation studies. An environmental study along the Marque River finally illustrates the ability of the new binding gel to be used for field studies. PMID:26452905

  9. Temporal distribution of suspended sediment transport in a Mediterranean basin: The Lower Tordera (NE SPAIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, Albert; Batalla, Ramon J.

    2006-09-01

    Suspended sediment dynamics are still imperfectly understood, especially in areas of Mediterranean climate with strong seasonal contrasts, where few studies have been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the variability in the suspended sediment load at different temporal scales (within-flood variability, monthly-seasonal and annual) in the Tordera River (894 km 2), located in northeastern Spain. Suspended sediment samples were obtained during base flows ( Q ? 3.5 m 3 s - 1 ) and flood events ( Q > 3.5 m 3 s - 1 ). The analysis of the variability in the suspended sediment is structured in two consecutive steps: (i) the construction of statistical relations between suspended sediment concentrations ( C) and discharge ( Q) and (ii) the application of those relations to assess the suspended sediment yield. The results show that, in a single event, the sediment peak generally precedes the peak discharge, following a clockwise hysteretic loop. Furthermore, it was observed that the reduction in the suspended sediment concentrations in a sequence of events can be mainly associated with a phenomenon of sediment exhaustion. The total amount of suspended sediment transported during a single flood is thus related to its duration and time (during the year) as well as to its magnitude. At a seasonal scale, the export of suspended sediment takes place in two phases: (i) sediment preparation and, (ii) sediment transfer and exhaustion. During the latter phase, the exhaustion of the sediment load is primarily related to the sequence of flood events. At the annual scale, the results show high inter-annual variability according to the number of floods recorded yearly, since almost all the suspended load is transported during those events.

  10. Suspended sediment transport in the freshwater reach of the Hudson river estuary in eastern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wall, G.R.; Nystrom, E.A.; Litten, S.

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of Hudson River sediment into New York Harbor interferes with navigation lanes and requires continuous dredging. Sediment dynamics at the Hudson estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) have received considerable study, but delivery of sediment to the ETM through the freshwater reach of the estuary has received relatively little attention and few direct measurements. An acoustic Doppler current profiler was positioned at the approximate limit of continuous freshwater to develop a 4-year time series of water velocity, discharge, suspended sediment concentration, and suspended sediment discharge. This data set was compared with suspended sediment discharge data collected during the same period at two sites just above the Hudson head-of-tide (the Federal Dam at Troy) that together represent the single largest source of sediment entering the estuary. The mean annual suspended sediment-discharge from the freshwater reach of the estuary was 737,000 metric tons. Unexpectedly, the total suspended sediment discharge at the study site in November and December slightly exceeded that observed during March and April, the months during which rain and snowmelt typically result in the largest sediment discharge to the estuary. Suspended sediment discharge at the study site exceeded that from the Federal Dam, even though the intervening reach appears to store significant amounts of sediment, suggesting that 30-40% of sediment discharge observed at the study site is derived from tributaries to the estuary between the Federal Dam and study site. A simple model of sediment entering and passing through the freshwater reach on a timescale of weeks appears reasonable during normal hydrologic conditions in adjoining watersheds; however, this simple model may dramatically overestimate sediment delivery during extreme tributary high flows, especially those at the end of, or after, the "flushing season" (October through April). Previous estimates of annual or seasonal sediment delivery from tributaries and the Federal Dam to the ETM and harbor may be high for those years with extreme tributary high-flow events. ?? 2008 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

  11. Late Quaternary environmental and climatic changes in central Europe as inferred from the composition of organic matter in annually laminated maar lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Andreas; Fischer, Thomas; Lcke, Andreas; Brauer, Achim; Zolitschka, Bernd; Horsfield, Brian; Negendank, JRg F. W.; Schleser, Gerhard H.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2004-11-01

    Geochemical (elemental analysis, bulk ?13CTOC, thermal degradation techniques, molecular analysis of n-alkanes) and microscopic investigations (maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance) were performed (1) to characterize the organic matter (OM) in sediments from two maar lakes in the Westeifel volcanic field, Germany, and (2) to discuss paleoenvironmental processes which have controlled the accumulation and preservation of OM. The annually laminated sediments show a wide range of organic carbon contents between 0.3 and 21.4% TOC and Hydrogen Index values between 80 and 501 mg HC/g TOC. Well-developed laminations mirror suboxic to anoxic bottom waters. Diagnostic compounds in the pyrolysates and microscopic analysis permit discrimination between the principal OM sources, and their variations over time provide important evidence for the reconstruction of the environmental histories of the lakes and their watershed. The significance of terrigenous OM is reflected by the occurrence of methoxyphenols in the insoluble as well as mid- and long-chain n-alkanes in the soluble OM which are indicative of land plant or macrophyte input to the lakes. The relative abundance of certain homologues together with the amount of terrigenous macerals can be used to show differences in higher plant input and vegetation changes through time. During the Pleniglacial and Younger Dryas period, high-reflecting reworked OM was introduced by soil erosion in an environment with relatively open vegetation. The alkylphenols in the pyrolysates originate partly from the microbial reworking of proteinaceous tyrosine moieties and/or reflect a direct contribution from cyanobacteria. We assume that variations in the carbon isotopic composition of OM are mainly due to changes in the lake's primary productivity with the exception of the Pleniglacial. Various forms of land use are reflected by increasing amounts of terrigenous particles as well as chemical plant markers from 500 varve years B.P. until present. The organic geochemical and microscopic data correlate well with other proxy information about climate-dependent fluctuations in the ecosystem of the studied sites.

  12. Erosion, sediment discharge, and channel morphology in the Upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, Robert E.; Carey, W.R.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Average annual rates of sheet erosion and sediment discharge were computed for several watersheds in the Upper Chattahoochee River basin in Georgia. Erosion yields ranged from about 900 to 6,000 tons per year per square mile in nine watersheds and were greatest where land use is largely agricultural or transitional. Suspended sediment yields from the same watershed ranged from about 300 to 800 tons per year per square mile and were greatest from urban areas and least from mostly forested watersheds. The impact of suspended sediment on stream quality was evaluated for 14 watersheds. In general, 60 percent or more of the total annual discharge of trace metals and phosphorus was contributed by suspended sediment. Yields of trace metals and nutrients in suspension were consistently greater in urban watersheds. Turbidity in basin streams increased geometrically with increasing concentrations of suspended sediment. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    PubMed

    Menp, Kimmo; Leppnen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allu, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ?Sed ) or water (CLip ?W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2463-2474. 2015 SETAC. PMID:26053463

  14. Sediment contributions from floodplains and legacy sediments to Piedmont streams of Baltimore County, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    Disparity between watershed erosion rates and downstream sediment delivery has remained an important theme in geomorphology for many decades, with the role of floodplains in sediment storage as a common focus. In the Piedmont Province of the eastern USA, upland deforestation and agricultural land use following European settlement led to accumulation of thick packages of overbank sediment in valley bottoms, commonly referred to as legacy deposits. Previous authors have argued that legacy deposits represent a potentially important source of modern sediment loads following remobilization by lateral migration and progressive channel widening. This paper seeks to quantify (1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, (2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and (3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We calculated measurable gross erosion and deposition rates within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 in Baltimore County, Maryland. We compared stream channel and floodplain morphology from lidar-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400 scale topographic maps from 1959-1961 in order to quantify 44-46 years of channel change. Sediment bulk density and particle size distributions were characterized from streambank and channel deposit samples and used for volume to mass conversions and for comparison with other sediment sources. Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 m/y, which represented an annual migration of 2.5% (0.9-4.4%) channel width across all study segments, suggesting that channel dimensions may be used as reasonable predictors of bank erosion rates. Gross bank erosion rates varied from 43 to 310 Mg/km/y (median = 114) and were positively correlated with drainage area. Measured deposition within channels accounted for an average of 46% (28-75%) of gross erosion, with deposition increasingly important in larger drainages. Legacy sediments accounted for 6-90% of bank erosion at individual study segments, represented about 60% of bank height at most exposures, and accounted for 57% (± 16%) of the measured gross erosion. Extrapolated results indicated that first- and second-order streams accounted for 62% (± 38%) of total streambank erosion from 1005 km2 of northern Baltimore County. After accounting for estimated redeposition, extrapolated net streambank sediment yields (72 Mg/km2/y) constituted 70% of estimated average Piedmont watershed yields (104 Mg/km2/y). The results suggest that streambank sediments are a relatively large source of sediment from Piedmont tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay.

  15. Sedimentation and occurrence and trends of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and cyanobacteria in bottom sediment, Clinton Lake, northeast Kansas, 1977-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sedimentation and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, cyanobacterial akinetes, and the radionuclide cesium-137 in the bottom sediment of Clinton Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1977 through 2009 in the conservation (multi-purpose) pool of the reservoir was 438 million cubic feet and 18 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 8 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Sedimentation in the conservation pool has occurred about 70 percent faster than originally projected at the time the reservoir was completed. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 0.25 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1977 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 563 million pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the Clinton Lake Basin was estimated to be 1.5 million pounds per square mile per year. Typically, the bottom sediment sampled in Clinton Lake was at least 99 percent silt and clay. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Clinton Lake were estimated to be 1.29 million pounds per year and 556,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Clinton Lake Basin were 3,510 pounds per square mile per year and 1,510 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Throughout the history of Clinton Lake, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform and indicated consistent inputs to the reservoir over time. Likewise, total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform. Although, for two of three coring sites, a possible positive trend in phosphorus deposition was indicated. The Wakarusa River possibly was a larger contributor of nitrogen and phosphorus to Clinton Lake than was Rock Creek. As a principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. Trace-element concentrations in the bottom sediment of Clinton Lake generally were uniform over time. As is typical for eastern Kansas reservoirs, arsenic, chromium, and nickel concentrations typically exceeded the threshold-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Zinc concentrations frequently exceeded the threshold-effects guideline. Trace-element concentrations did not exceed the probable-effects guidelines (available for eight trace elements), which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Cyanobacterial akinetes (cyanobacteria resting stage) in the bottom sediment of Clinton Lake, combined with historical water-quality data on chlorophyll-a and total phosphorus concentrations, indicated that the reservoir likely has been eutrophic throughout most of its history. A statistically significant increase in cyanobacterial akinetes in the bottom sediment indicated that Clinton Lake may have become more eutrophic over the life of the reservoir. The increase in cyanobacterial akinetes may, in part, be related to a possible increase in total phosphorus concentrations.

  16. Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia RIver and the Lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2001-01-24

    Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  17. Fluvial sedimentation in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Covering periods 1942-45 and 1951-81, this report documents the characteristics of sediments being transported from 79 drainage areas within the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and from eight stations on the main stem of the Ohio River. The drainage areas range in size from 0.67 square mile at Cane Branch near Parkers Lake to 40,330 square miles at Tennessee River near Paducah. Sediment yields and particle size of suspended and bed sediments are discussed by physiographic province. The Blue Grass had the highest average annual suspended-sediment yield for selected stations of 741 tons per square mile, and the Western Coal Field had the lowest with 197. The Eastern Coal Field had the broadest range of annual suspended-sediment yields. The range was from 25 tons per square mile at Helton Branch near Greenwood to 21,000 tons per square mile at Millers Creek near Phyllis. For selected stations bedload discharge was estimated to be 5 to 10 percent as much as the suspended-sediment discharge. Only three drainage areas had sediment yields that exceeded the average annual erosion rates for cultivated land in Kentucky of 9.93 tons per acre (6,355 tons per square mile). These three were in the Eastern Coal Field. (USGS)

  18. Evaluation of the effects of agricultural conservation practices on sediment yield in the Colusa Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzke, S. E.; Zhang, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on sediment runoff from almond orchards in the lower Colusa Basin Drain watershed in the Sacramento Valley, California. This study used modeling techniques that include varying hydrologic parameters for both upland areas and small channels to quantify the effects of BMPs water quality. The BMPs simulated in this study are commonly used in almond orchards and include strip cropping, cover cropping, vegetative filter strips, grassed waterways and channel stabilization. The effectiveness of each BMP was simulated for an above average, below average and average rainfall year. Comparison of annual total watershed sediment loads for each BMP simulation showed that overall, channel stabilization and grassed waterways, which target in stream sediment erosion and transport, are the most effective BMPs with an estimated respective reduction in sediment load of 18% and 35% for a below average precipitation year, 13% and 26% for an above average precipitation year, and 17% and 30% for an average precipitation year. Simulations of BMPs designed to reduce sediment transport in upland areas, which include strip cropping and vegetative filter strips, estimated a reduction in total annual sediment load of less than 1% at the watershed outlet. These results indicated that in-stream sediment transport is the dominant sediment transport process in this watershed. Implementation of channel stabilization measures or grassed waterways on almond orchards is estimated to result in an annual reduction of total sediment load of 41,874 kg or 72,753 kg of sediment per square kilometer of almond orchard for an above average precipitation year.

  19. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami

    2015-01-01

    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.

  20. Comparative aspects of sulfur mineralization in sediments of a eutrophic lake basin.

    PubMed

    King, G M; Klug, M J

    1982-06-01

    The net mineralization of organic sulfur compounds in surface sediments of Wintergreen Lake was estimated from a mass-balance budget of sulfur inputs and sediment sulfur concentrations. The net mineralization of organic sulfur inputs is <50% complete, which is consistent with the dominance of organic sulfur (>80% of total sulfur) in sediment. Although sediment sulfur is predominantly organic, sulfate reduction is the most significant process in terms of the quantities of sulfur transformed in surface sediments. Rates of sulfate reduction in these sediments average 7 mmol/m per day. On an annual basis, this rate is 19-fold greater than net rates of organic sulfur mineralization and 65-fold greater than sulfate ester hydrolysis. PMID:16346037

  1. Comparative Aspects of Sulfur Mineralization in Sediments of a Eutrophic Lake Basin

    PubMed Central

    King, Gary M.; Klug, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The net mineralization of organic sulfur compounds in surface sediments of Wintergreen Lake was estimated from a mass-balance budget of sulfur inputs and sediment sulfur concentrations. The net mineralization of organic sulfur inputs is <50% complete, which is consistent with the dominance of organic sulfur (>80% of total sulfur) in sediment. Although sediment sulfur is predominantly organic, sulfate reduction is the most significant process in terms of the quantities of sulfur transformed in surface sediments. Rates of sulfate reduction in these sediments average 7 mmol/m2 per day. On an annual basis, this rate is 19-fold greater than net rates of organic sulfur mineralization and 65-fold greater than sulfate ester hydrolysis. PMID:16346037

  2. Preliminary assessment of pseudo-total and bioavailable metals in depth in the sediment of Luíz Rau stream in Novo Hamburgo (RS).

    PubMed

    Ávila, C L; Bianchin, L; Illi, J C

    2015-12-01

    The Luíz Rau stream is one of the main streams of Novo Hamburgo. In the stream industrial effluents are released from various sectors, from paint and adhesive industries, metallurgy and leather industry, besides receiving a large amount of domestic sewage. The emissions of these pollutants contribute to decrease water and sediment quality. Within this context, this study evaluated the conditions of the Luíz Rau stream bed sediments, with the determination of the metals like cadmium, lead, chromium and nickel, in depth. To perform the evaluation three points were chosen for sampling along the stream course. The sampling sites were identified as Point A, in Roselândia district and this corresponds to one of the springs and therefore considered as reference value, Point B, in Santo Afonso district being a midpoint of the stream, and Point C also located in Santo Afonso district, near the outfall in Rio dos Sinos river. Cadmium was not detected in any point. At the A and C points chromium was the metal observed in higher concentration in the sediment, up to 45.14 mg kg-1 concentration. In the B point, the metal that was observed in the highest amount was nickel in the concentration of 20.69 mg kg-1. PMID:26628225

  3. Phytoremediation facilitates removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from eutrophicated water and release from sediment.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wu; Xiao-E, Yang; Rengel, Zed

    2009-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractions and the effect of phytoremediation on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophicated water and release from sediment were investigated in the eco-remediation experiment enclosures installed in the Hua-jia-chi pond (Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province, China). The main P fraction in the sediment was inorganic phosphorus (IP). For the mesotrophic sediments, IP mainly consisted of HCl-extractable P (Ca-P). The annual-average concentration of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) in water and the content of TN, TP in different vertical depth of sediment in the experiment enclosures with hydrophyte were always much lower than those in the control enclosure without hydrophyte and those outside of experiment enclosures. It is suggested that phytoremediation was an effective technology for N and P removal from eutrophicated water and release from sediment. PMID:18841488

  4. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  5. Long-term runoff and sediment yields from small semi-arid watersheds in southern Arizona

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents analysis of 34 years of precipitation, runoff and sediment data collected from 8 small (1.1 to 4.0 ha) semi-arid rangeland watersheds in southern Arizona, USA. Average annual precipitation ranged between 354 mm and 458 mm with 53% of the total rainfall occurring from July throug...

  6. Sediment yield estimation in a small watershed on the northern Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangju; Klik, Andreas; Mu, Xingmin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Peng; Sun, Wenyi

    2015-07-01

    Soil erosion is a major form of land degradation throughout the world and the key environmental problem that threatens the ecosystem of the Chinese Loess Plateau. In this study, we determined the sediment yield from a small dam-controlled watershed in the Huangfuchuan watershed, northern Loess Plateau, with a drainage area of 0.64 km2. The dam infill sediment provided evidence of at least 31 flood couplets, which corresponded to rain storms during 1958-1972. In total, 1.65 × 105 t sediment was accumulated within the whole check dams in this period. The annual sediment yield ranged from null in 1965 to 59,990 t in 1959. We used the modified WATEM/SEDEM model to simulate soil erosion and the sediment yield in the watershed and the sedimentation records were used for model verification. The model produced satisfactory results; the total soil erosion and sediment delivery ratio were estimated to be 1.97 × 105 t and 83.6%, respectively. Bare weathered stone in the steep gullies contributed > 90% of the sediment yield, while the remainder was derived mainly from bare loess slopes and the alluvial plain. This study suggests that analyzing sedimentation behind check dams and applying the WATEM/SEDEM model are useful for the quantitative analysis of sediment dynamics in ungauged basins on the Loess Plateau.

  7. Analysis of sediment retention in western riverine wetlands: the Yampa River watershed, Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Arp, Christopher D; Cooper, David J

    2004-03-01

    We quantified annual sediment deposition, bank erosion, and sediment budgets in nine riverine wetlands that represented a watershed continuum for 1 year in the unregulated Yampa River drainage basin in Colorado. One site was studied for 2 years to compare responses to peak flow variability. Annual mean sediment deposition ranged from 0.01 kg/m(2) along a first-order subalpine stream to 21.8 kg/m(2) at a sixth-order alluvial forest. Annual mean riverbank erosion ranged from 3 kg/m-of-bank at the first-order site to 1000 kg/m at the 6(th)-order site. Total sediment budgets were nearly balanced at six sites, while net export from bank erosion occurred at three sites. Both total sediment deposition (R(2) = 0.86, p < 0.01) and bank erosion (R(2) = 0.77, p < 0.01) were strongly related to bankfull height, and channel sinuosity and valley confinement helped to explain additional variability among sites. The texture and organic fraction of eroded and deposited sediment were relatively similar in most sites and varied among sites by watershed position. Our results indicate that bank erosion generally balances sediment deposition in riverine wetlands, and we found no distinct zones of sediment retention versus export on a watershed continuum. Zones of apparent disequilibrium can occur in unregulated rivers due to factors such as incised channels, beaver activity, and cattle grazing. A primary function of many western riverine wetlands is sediment exchange, not retention, which may operate by transforming materials and compounds in temporary sediment pools on floodplains. These results are considered in the context of the Hydrogeomorphic approach being implemented by the U.S. government for wetland resource management. PMID:15170244

  8. Changing trends of rainfall and sediment fluxes in the Kinta River catchment, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, W. R.; Hashim, M.

    2015-03-01

    The Kinta River, draining an area of 2566 km2, originates in the Korbu Mountain in Perak, Malaysia, and flows through heterogeneous, mixed land uses ranging from extensive forests to mining, rubber and oil palm plantations, and urban development. A land use change analysis of the Kinta River catchment was carried out together with assessment of the long-term trend in rainfall and sediment fluxes. The Mann-Kendall test was used to examine and assess the long-term trends in rainfall and its relationship with the sediment discharge trend. The land use analysis shows that forests, water bodies and mining land declined whilst built and agricultural land use increased significantly. This has influenced the sediment flux of the catchment. However, most of the rainfall stations and river gauging stations are experiencing an increasing trends, except at Kinta river at Tg. Rambutan. Sediment flux shows a net erosion for the period from 1961 to 1969. The total annual sediment discharge in the Kinta River catchment was low with an average rate of 1,757 t/km2/year. From 1970 to 1985, the annual sediment yield rose to an average rate of 4062 t/km2/year. Afterwards, from 1986 to 1993, the total annual sediment discharge decreased to an average rate of 1,306 t/km2/year and increased back during the period 1994 to 2000 to 2109 t/km2/year. From 2001 to 2006 the average sediment flux rate declined to 865 t/km2/year. The decline was almost 80% from the 1970s. High sediment flux in the early 1970s is partly associated with reduced tin mining activities in the area. This decreasing trend in sediment delivery leaving the Kinta River catchment is expected to continue dropping in the future.

  9. The role of two sediment-dwelling invertebrates on the mercury transfer from sediments to the estuarine trophic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, J. P.; Nunes, M.; Dolbeth, M.; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    The annual total and organic mercury bioaccumulation pattern of Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor was assessed to evaluate the potential mercury transfer from contaminated sediments to estuarine food webs. S. plana was found to accumulate more total and organic mercury than H. diversicolor, up to 0.79 mg kg -1 and 0.15 mg kg -1 (wet weight) respectively, with a maximum annual uptake of 0.21 mg kg -1 y -1, while for methylmercury the annual accumulation was similar between species and never exceeded 0.045 mg kg -1 y -1. The higher organic mercury fraction in H. diversicolor is related to the omnivorous diet of this species. Both species increase methylmercury exposure by burrowing activities and uptake in anoxic, methylmercury rich sediment layers. Integration with the annual biological production of each species revealed mercury incorporation rates that reached 28 μg m -2 y -1, and to extract as much as 11.5 g Hg y -1 (of which 95% associated with S. plana) in the 0.4 km 2 of the most contaminated area, that can be transferred to higher trophic levels. S. plana is therefore an essential vector in the mercury biomagnification processes, through uptake from contaminated sediments and, by predation, to transfer it to economically important and exploited estuarine species.

  10. Estimates of Sediment Load Prior to Dam Removal in the Elwha River, Clallam County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Higgins, Johnna L.; Bryant, Mark K.

    2009-01-01

    Years after the removal of the two dams on the Elwha River, the geomorphology and habitat of the lower river will be substantially influenced by the sediment load of the free-flowing river. To estimate the suspended-sediment load prior to removal of the dams, the U.S. Geological Survey collected suspended-sediment samples during water years 2006 and 2007 at streamflow-gaging stations on the Elwha River upstream of Lake Mills and downstream of Glines Canyon Dam at McDonald Bridge. At the gaging station upstream of Lake Mills, discrete samples of suspended sediment were collected over a range of streamflows including a large peak in November 2006 when suspended-sediment concentrations exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter, the highest concentrations recorded on the river. Based on field measurements in this study and from previous years, regression equations were developed for estimating suspended-sediment and bedload discharge as a function of streamflow. Using a flow duration approach, the average total annual sediment load at the gaging station upstream of Lake Mills was estimated at 327,000 megagrams with a range of uncertainty of +57 to -34 percent (217,000-513,000 megagrams) at the 95 percent confidence level; 77 percent of the total was suspended-sediment load and 23 percent was bedload. At the McDonald Bridge gaging station, daily suspended-sediment samples were obtained using an automated pump sampler, and concentrations were combined with the record of streamflow to calculate daily, monthly, and annual suspended-sediment loads. In water year 2006, an annual suspended-sediment load of 49,300 megagrams was determined at the gaging station at McDonald Bridge, and a load of 186,000 megagrams was determined upstream at the gaging station upstream of Lake Mills. In water year 2007, the suspended-sediment load was 75,200 megagrams at McDonald Bridge and 233,000 megagrams upstream of Lake Mills. The large difference between suspended-sediment loads at both gaging stations shows the extent of sediment trapping by Lake Mills, and a trap efficiency of 0.86 was determined for the reservoir. Pre-dam-removal estimates of suspended-sediment load and sediment-discharge relations will help planners monitor geomorphic and habitat changes in the river as it reaches a dynamic equilibrium following the removal of dams.

  11. A Kinetic Model To Quantify The Effect Of Total Organic Carbon Content On The Loss Of Magnetic Susceptibility Values In Surficial Sediments Of Coastal Environments: The Case Study Of The Ra De Muros, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A.; Rey, D.; Mohamed, K. J.; Rubio, B.

    2013-05-01

    A detailed magnetic study of mineral dissolution has been carried out in surficial sediments from the Ra de Muros, a large coastal embayment in NW Iberia. The study area is under the influence of one of the world's most intense coastal upwelling systems, which along with the important continental supplies of organic carbon, cause very high organic matter contents in the sediment. The magnetic susceptibility of the surficial (top 20 cm of the sea bed) sediments of the Ra de Muros is dominated by the occurrence of ferromagnetic minerals, mostly biogenic magnetite and detrital (titano-) magnetite. The way in which the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the sediment controls the occurrence and concentration of these minerals is twofold. First because a minimal amount of organic matter it is needed for the development of the magnetotactic bacteria. Second because values above a given TOC concentration promote early redoxomorfic diagenesis and subsequently, ferromagnetic minerals depletion by dissolution. Maximum magnetic susceptibility values (up to 7 x 10-8 SI) are subsequently found in sediments with enough supply of organic matter to ensure the growth of magnetotactic bacteria, but where the TOC content is not as high as to cause the development of suboxic conditions within the surficial layers of the sediments. The magnetic susceptibility loss due to the increase in TOC can be explained and quantified with a simple geochemical kinetic model. Textural dilution of the magnetic signal due to the presence of coarse diamagnetic quartz and biogenic carbonates in the sediment matrix, are accounted for by normalizing with Al, a well-know grain-size proxy in this environment. When the normalized magnetic susceptibility is plotted against the TOC, the resulting distribution shows a neat exponential decay trend from high magnetic susceptibility and low TOC values to low magnetic susceptibility and high TOC values, resulting from the kinetics of magnetite dissolution. This profile is interpreted as a consequence of the microbial degradation of organic matter that occurs in muddy or muddy sandy ra sediments, where the TOC availability is not a limiting factor due to the high organic matter concentrations (2 to 10%). On the contrary, the process appears to be limited by the availability of electron acceptors and, as a result, suboxic conditions are achieved at very shallow depths. Considering this, we propose a simple second order kinetic model for the dissolution of magnetite in which the rate of dissolution of magnetite depends on the TOC and magnetite concentrations of the sediment. The resulting model explains the exponential profile of magnetic susceptibility versus TOC with a significance level of p<0.01 (r2=0.98). From the parameters of this model, it is possible to estimate that an increase of 0.350.05% in the sedimentary TOC is able to reduce by half the magnetite concentration in the sediments of this ra.

  12. Timing and Transport of Fine Sediment in the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitlick, J.

    2003-12-01

    Gravel-bed reaches of the Colorado River in western Colorado and eastern Utah carry an annual average sediment load of 80-90 tons/km2/yr. Although the river is primarily gravel bed, more than 95 percent of the total sediment load is fine sediment (silt and sand) carried in suspension. This sediment satisfies the traditional definition of wash load, meaning it is not abundant in bulk samples of the bed material taken from low-lying gravel bars, but it is present in different areas of the channel bed characterized by low velocity; these areas include channel margins, secondary channels, or shallow pools, which are common to all reaches. Thus, in any given year, the suspended load carried by the Colorado River reflects varying proportions of sediment supplied from the surrounding watershed and sediment supplied from the channel bed. Analysis of suspended sediment data from USGS gauging stations in the study area indicates that peak sediment concentrations occur on the rising limb of the annual snowmelt hydrograph; the majority of this sediment is silt and clay. As snowmelt discharges increase, the amount of sand in suspension increases, reaching about 30 percent at flows equal to the threshold for bed material (gravel) transport. Sand transport continues after the peak in the hydrograph. The peak in suspended sand concentration occurs, on average, about 2 weeks after the peak in water discharge. At this point in time, suspended sediment concentrations are lower, but the supply of fines is not completely exhausted from the bed. Sediment samples obtained from traps in the riverbed indicate that fine-medium sand (0.25-0.5 mm) continues moving as bed load several weeks after the peak in the hydrograph. The sand fraction of the total load is thus not easily distinguished as wash load or bed-material load. Efforts to improve habitats for endangered fishes in the Colorado River through coordinated reservoir operations must therefore take into account the potential ecological effects of the supply and movement of fines both before and after the peak in the annual hydrograph.

  13. Depositional fluxes of metals and phytoplankton in Windermere as measured by sediment traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Willis, M.; Reynolds, C.S.

    1984-07-01

    Monthly sediment trap samples collected from a deep water station (42 m) in Windermere for a period of 1 year were analyzed for 0.5 M HCl extractable and total Fe, Mn, Al, Pb, Cu, Zn, total C, N, and total solids. Concomitant algal counts showed the year to be fairly typical in terms of the known sequence of phytoplankton. The annual depositional fluxes are compared with previously determined values based on sediment studies. The ratio of the annual trap to sediment flux for Al indicates the absence of local sediment resuspension. The ratios for Fe, Pb, and Zn suggest some possible biogeochemical cycling at the sediment-water interface. The deposition of Fe, Al, and Pb is predominantly associated with detrital material and occurs mainly during winter. The behavior of Zn is largely independent of other variables examined. The ratios for C, total solids, and Cu are all significantly >1. The major influence on the deposition and recycling of Mn is its well-known redox cycle involving oxidative precipitation and reductive remobilization. Cu undergoes an independent deposition-remobilization cycle, probably related to uptake by diatoms and their rapid microbial decomposition after sedimentation.

  14. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Reporting and statistical evaluation of the subsequent year (sixth) data

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, L.W.; Mercier, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    This annual report has historically been prepared to meet the annual reporting requirements of the Tennessee Department of and Environment and Conservation (TDEC), Hazardous Waste Management Regulation 1200-1-11-.05 (6)(e), for detection monitoring data collected on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wells in place around facilities which are accorded interim status. The regulatory authority for these units at the Y-12 Plant is currently in transition. A Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) with an effective date of January 1, 1992, has been negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE) for the Oak Ridge Reservation. This agreement provides a framework for remediation of the Oak Ridge Reservation so that both RCRA and CERCLA requirements are integrated into the remediation process and provides for State, EPA, and DOE to proceed with CERCLA as the lead regulatory requirement and RCRA as an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement. This report is presented for the RCRA certified wells for two interim status units at the Y-12 Plant. These units are Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin. Kerr Hollow is currently undergoing clean closure under RCRA. The Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) was closed in 1989 under a TDEC approved RCRA closure plan. The relevance of a RCRA Post-Closure Permit to either of these units is a matter of contention between DOE and TDEC since the FFA does not contemplate post-closure permits.

  15. Sediment transport and evaluation of sediment surrogate ratings in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Water Years 2011–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic surrogate ratings were developed between backscatter data collected using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) and results of suspended-sediment samples. Ratings were successfully fit to various sediment size classes (total, fines, and sands) using ADVMs of different frequencies (1.5 and 3 megahertz). Surrogate ratings also were developed using variations of streamflow and seasonal explanatory variables. The streamflow surrogate ratings produced average annual sediment load estimates that were 8–32 percent higher, depending on site and sediment type, than estimates produced using the acoustic surrogate ratings. The streamflow surrogate ratings tended to overestimate suspended-sediment concentrations and loads during periods of elevated releases from Libby Dam as well as on the falling limb of the streamflow hydrograph. Estimates from the acoustic surrogate ratings more closely matched suspended-sediment sample results than did estimates from the streamflow surrogate ratings during these periods as well as for rating validation samples collected in water year 2014. Acoustic surrogate technologies are an effective means to obtain continuous, accurate estimates of suspended-sediment concentrations and loads for general monitoring and sediment-transport modeling. In the Kootenai River, continued operation of the acoustic surrogate sites and use of the acoustic surrogate ratings to calculate continuous suspended-sediment concentrations and loads will allow for tracking changes in sediment transport over time.

  16. Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and guas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fazza, Elizete Vieira

    2008-12-01

    The city of Limeira is located in the state of So Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and guas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 ?g L - 1 and in sediment samples 0.03 ?g g - 1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb.

  17. Fallout radionuclide tracers identify a switch in sediment sources and transport-limited sediment yield following wildfire in a eucalypt forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, S. N.; Wallbrink, P. J.; Hancock, G. J.; Blake, W. H.; Shakesby, R. A.; Doerr, S. H.

    2009-09-01

    Fire can alter sediment sources and transport rates in river basins, changing landforms and aquatic habitats and degrading downstream water quality. Variability in the response between environments, between fires, and with time since fire makes predicting the catchment-scale effect of individual fires difficult. This study applies the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb xs to trace the sources and transport of fine sediment through a river network following a wildfire of moderate to extreme severity in the 629-km 2 eucalypt-forested Nattai River water-supply catchment near Sydney, Australia. The tracer analysis showed that post-fire erosion caused a switch in fine (< 10 m) sediment sources from 80% subsoil derived from gully and river bank erosion to 86% topsoil derived from hillslope surface erosion. The fine sediment phosphorus content increased 4-10 fold over pre-fire levels. Annual post-fire sediment yields estimated from suspended solids rating curves were 109-250 times higher than they would have been without fire. A large additional amount of sediment remained stored within the river network for at least four years, particularly in lower-gradient reaches. Analysis of a sediment core showed that surface erosion following a previous fire had supplied at least 29% of total catchment sediment yield over the past 36 years. It is concluded that wildfire can alter catchment sediment budgets in two ways. Firstly, a spatially-diffuse pulse of elevated erosion is associated with moderate or intense rainfall events in post-fire years. Secondly, pulses of elevated catchment sediment yield are driven by the timing and river sediment transport capacity of runoff events. Severe post-fire erosion and high interannual hydrologic variability can result in large sediment stores persisting within the river network for many years. Fallout radionuclide tracers are shown to be useful in quantifying fine sediment sources and transport dynamics following wildfire, and the contribution of wildfire to catchment sediment yield.

  18. Sediment deposition in the White River Reservoir, northwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.; Hindall, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    The history of deposition in the White River Reservoir was reconstructed from a study of sediment in the reservoir. Suspended-sediment concentrations, particle size, and streamflow characteristics were measured at gaging stations upstream and downstream from the reservoir from November 1975 through September 1977. Characteristics of the sediments were determined from borings and samples taken while the reservoir was drained in September 1976. The sediment surface and the pre-reservoir topography were mapped. Sediment thickness ranged from less than 1 foot near the shore to more than 20 feet in the old stream channel. The original reservoir capacity and the volume of deposited sediment were calculated to be 815 acre-feet and 487 acre-feet, respectively. Sediment size ranged from clay and silt in the pool area to large cobbles and boulders at the upstream end of the reservoir. Analyses of all samples averaged 43 percent sand, 40 percent silt, and 17 percent clay, and particle size typically increased upstream. Cobbles, boulders, and gravel deposits were not sampled. The average density of the deposited sediment was about 80 pounds per cubic foot for the entire reservoir. The reservoir was able to trap about 80 percent of the sediment entering from upstream, early in its history. This trap efficiency has declined as the reservoir filled with sediment. Today (1976), it traps only sand and silt-sized sediment, or only about 20 percent of the sediment entering from upstream. Data collected during this study indicate that essentially all of the clay-sized sediment (<0.062 mm) passes through the reservoir. The gross rate of deposition was 7.0 acre-feet per year over the reservoir history, 1907-76. Rates during 1907-63 and 1963-76 were 7.4 and 5.7 acre-feet per year, respectively, determined by the cesium-137 method. Based on scant data, the average annual sediment yield of the total 279 square mile drainage area above the gaging station at the powerhouse was about 50 tons per square mile. Analysis of the drainage-basin characteristics indicates that most of this sediment was derived from less than 10 percent of the total drainage area and from steep unvegetated streambanks.

  19. QUANTIFICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES BY A GC/MS METHOD AND COMPARISON WITH EPA 418.1 AND A RAPID FIELD METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Total Petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as a lumped parameter can be easily and rapidly measured or monitored. Despite interpretational problems, it has become an accepted regulatory benchmark used widely to evaluate the extent of petroleum product contamination. Three cu...

  20. Spatial variation of sediment deposition in the Hudson River - a detailed inventory and potential causes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment deposition in urban estuaries is controlled by the interaction of human modifications and natural factors that include tides, fresh water inputs, bed morphology, sediment supply, and hydrodynamics. A key element of managing these estuaries is detailed understanding of sediment deposition and its driving processes. Using a combination of geophysical and geochemical analysis we establish a detailed inventory of 20 century deposition for most of the mud-dominated sections of the Hudson River. These data show variations between different segments of the Hudson River as well as strong local variations within each section, with depositional settings ranging from erosional to those accumulating at ~10 mm/year. Our work indicates that 170,000 - 250,000 metric tons of sediment are deposited annually in the areas studied, which is a significant portion of the estimated total annual sediment load of ~700,000 - 800,000 metric tons. This also suggests that some of the accumulated sediments are re-mobilized, e.g. during major storms. The observed patterns of deposition/erosion are primarily caused by natural conditions, but, in some parts, they are strongly influenced by human modifications of the estuary, such as dredging. In addition to improving our understanding of the sediment dynamic of the Hudson River, the observed distribution of sediment deposition is also an indicator for the occurrence of contaminants including heavy metals and PCBs and thus a valuable tool for management decisions.

  1. Multi-proxy analysis of annually laminated sediments from two neighboring lakes in South-Central Chile: a continuous activity record of Villarrica Volcano for the past 600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Daele, Maarten; Moernaut, Jasper; Silversmit, Geert; Schmidt, Sabine; Fontijn, Karen; Heirman, Katrien; Vandoorne, Willem; De Clercq, Maikel; Van Acker, Joris; Wolff, Christian; Pino, Mario; Urrutia, Roberto; Roberts, Stephen J.; Vincze, Laszlo; De Batist, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Lake sediments contain valuable information about past volcanic and seismic events that affected the lake and its catchment, and provide unique records of the recurrence rate and magnitude of such events. This study uses a multi-lake and multi-proxy analytical approach to obtain reliable and high-resolution records of past natural catastrophes from c. 600 year old annually-laminated (varved) lake sediment sequences extracted from two lakes, Villarrica and Calafquén, in the volcanically and seismically active Chilean Lake District. Using a combination of µXRF scanning, microfacies analysis, grain-size analysis, color analysis and magnetic susceptibility, we detected and characterized four different types of event deposits (EDs) (lacustrine turbidites; tephra-fall layers; run-off cryptotephras; lahar deposits) and revised the eruption record for Villarrica Volcano, which is unprecedented in its continuity and temporal resolution. Moreover, lahar deposits in lacustrine sediments were described for the first time. Time series analysis shows 112 eruptions with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) ≥ 2 in the last c. 600 years. Also deposits of eruptions from the more remote Carrán-Los Venados Volcanic Complex, Mocho-Choshuenco, Quetrupillán and Lanín or Huanquihue volcanoes were identified in the studied lake sediments. The last VEI ≥ 2 eruption of Villarrica Volcano occurred in AD 1991. We estimate the probability of the occurrence of future eruptions from Villarrica Volcano, and statistically demonstrate that the probability of a 21-year repose period (anno 2012) without eruptions is ≤ 1.9 %. This new perspective on the recurrence interval of eruptions and historical lahar activity will help improve volcanic hazard assessments for this rapidly expanding tourist region.

  2. Large-scale quantification of suspended sediment transport and deposition in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manh, N. V.; Dung, N. V.; Hung, N. N.; Merz, B.; Apel, H.

    2014-04-01

    Sediment dynamics play a major role for the agricultural and fishery productivity of the Mekong Delta. However, the understanding of sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta, one of the most complex river deltas in the world, is very limited. This is a consequence of its large extent, the intricate system of rivers, channels and floodplains and the scarcity of observations. This study quantifies, for the first time, the suspended sediment transport and sediment-nutrient deposition in the whole Mekong Delta. To this end, a quasi-2-D hydrodynamic model is combined with a cohesive sediment transport model. The combined model is calibrated automatically using six objective functions to represent the different aspects of the hydraulic and sediment transport components. The model is calibrated for the extreme flood season in 2011 and shows good performance for the two validation years with very different flood characteristics. It is shown how sediment transport and sediment deposition vary from Kratie at the entrance of the Delta to the coast. The main factors influencing the spatial sediment dynamics are the setup of rivers, channels and dike-rings, the sluice gate operations, the magnitude of the floods and tidal influences. The superposition of these factors leads to high spatial variability of sediment transport, in particular in the Vietnamese floodplains. Depending on the flood magnitude, the annual sedimentation rate averaged over the Vietnamese floodplains varies from 0.3 to 2.1 kg m-2 yr-1, and the ring dike floodplains trap between 1 and 6% of the total sediment load at Kratie. This is equivalent to 29 103-440 103 t of nutrients (N, P, K, TOC) deposited in the Vietnamese floodplains. This large-scale quantification provides a basis for estimating the benefits of the annual Mekong floods for agriculture and fishery, and is important information for assessing the effects of deltaic subsidence and climate change related sea level rise.

  3. Role of sediment resuspension in the remobilization of particulate-phase metals from coastal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalnejais, Linda H.; Martin, William R.; Signell, Richard P.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    The release of particulate-phase trace metals due to sediment resuspension has been investigated by combining erosion chamber experiments that apply a range of shear stresses typically encountered in coastal environments with a shear stress record simulated by a hydrodynamic model. Two sites with contrasting sediment chemistry were investigated. Sediment particles enriched in silver, copper, and lead, 4?50 times greater than the bulk surface-sediment content, were the first particles to be eroded. As the shear-stress level was increased in the chamber, the total mass eroded increased, but the enrichment of these trace metals fell, approaching the bulk-sediment content. From the temporal distribution of shear stress generated by the hydrodynamic model for a site in Boston Harbor, resuspension fluxes were estimated. The erosion threshold of this site is exceeded during spring tides, releasing the particles enriched in trace metals into the water column. Due to the higher trace metal content and the regularity of resuspension, low-energy resuspension events (up to a shear stress of 0.2 N/m2) contribute up to 60% of the resuspension metal flux in an average year. The estimated annual quantity of copper and lead resuspended into the water column is higher than estimates of the total riverine flux for these metals. These results indicate that sediment resuspension is a very important mechanism for releasing metals into the water column and provide new insight into the chemical and physical processes controlling the long-term fate of trace metals in contaminated sediments.

  4. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT. COLLOID GENESIS/TRANSPORT AND FLOW PATHWAY ALTERATIONS RESULTING FROM INTERACTIONS OF REACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS AND HANFORD VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research is to improve our understanding on the effects of interactions between the tank waste solution and sediments on deep contaminant migration under Hanford Site conditions. This objective will be achieved through the following four tasks: (1) c...

  5. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacterial Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sullivan, K.; Sidle, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen loadings during high flows that produce bed load transport. Water (containing suspended sediment) and bed load samples (n = 145 & n = 28, respectively) were collected in a 122 km2 watershed located in N.E. Georgia, USA during the 2013 water year. Continuous discharge was calculated from level data using USGS rating curves. This study quantifies total sediment and fecal indicator bacteria loads (FIB) in an alluvial stream in a mixed land use watershed and provides valuable data for parameterization of watershed models that simulate sediment and bacteria transport. Annual loads for sediment and FIB were determined using linear relationships between the following: turbidity and total suspended solids (R2 = 0.96); turbidity and suspended Escherichia coli and enterococci (R2 = 0.54 and 0.67, respectively); discharge and bed load (R2 = 0.60), and discharge and sediment associated E. coli and enterococci (R2 = 0.55 and 0.50, respectively). The annual sediment load was 3660 t with approximately 95% attributed to suspended sediment load and 5% attributed to bed load. The annual E. coli load was 3.7 x 1014 colonies with approximately 99.5% attributed to suspended transport and 0.50% attributed to bed load sediment-associated transport. The annual enterococci load was 1.1 x 1015 colonies with approximately 100% attributed to suspended transport. Bed load sediment transport ranged from 2% to 8% of the total storm sediment load in several high flow events (Q = 5 to 40 m3 s-1). Bed sediment-associated E. coli load was 0.4% to 0.5% of the total storm E. coli load. Suspended transport is the predominant mechanism describing contaminant loading in this stream and load estimates can be determined using simple relationships between discharge and suspended concentrations.

  6. Streambank-Derived Sediment Delivery to the Great Barrier Reef from the Burnett River over Multiple Time Scales: Implications for Sediment Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.; Wilson, P.

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is in part, the result of the delivery of fine-grained, terrestrial sediment from catchments draining to the Coral Sea. The Burnett River, draining the GBR experienced severe flooding in 2011 and 2013 with the latter flood breaking all historical records. Huge quantities of sediment were transported to the Coral Sea. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of sediment eroded from the channel banks during the floods, long term bank-erosion rates, and cost-effective protection measures. System-wide analysis combined with numerical modeling using the Bank-Stability and Toe-Erosion Model (BSTEM) was used to determine annual bank-erosion rates over periods ranging from 4.5 to 100 years. Analysis of 2009 and 2013 aerial imagery revealed that 47.3 Mt (10.4 MT/y) of sediment was eroded from the banks of the lower 300 km of the Burnett River. Erosion of these bank materials does not equate to an equal volume exported to the Coral Sea, as an unknown proportion is deposited. It can be assumed, however, that the majority of the fine-grained materials (54%) were transported out to sea. Long-term simulations (42 years) were conducted using BSTEM, to compare longer term averages with those determined by the catchment model SedNet. Over this longer time period, annual bank-erosion rates were about 3.1 Mt/y, about 18 times greater than the value predicted by SedNet. Assuming 100 years of simulation and using an empirical relation between the length of BSTEM simulations and calculated erosion rates, a conservative value for the annual rate of bank erosion is 2.0 Mt/y. The BSTEM results and analysis of aerial imagery are within 10%. Bank erosion, instead of being a minor source of sediment representing 8% of the total, was found to be the single largest contributor, representing between 44 and 73% of the total annual sediment budget. In absolute terms, this is an increase in the reported average, annual rate of bank erosion from 0.175 Mt/y to 2.0 Mt/y. The significance of bank erosion to total, fine-grained sediment loads are drastically different than those reported for the Burnett and other Reef Catchments where fields and uplands are listed as the leading sediment contributors. These results pose important implications for sediment management and protection of the GBR.

  7. Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2??0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2??0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling the influence of river rehabilitation scenarios on bed material sediment flux in a large river over decadal timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, M.B.; Dunne, T.

    2006-01-01

    A stochastic flood generator and calibrated sediment transport formulae were used to assess the decadal impact of major river rehabilitation strategies on two fraction bed material sediment flux and net storage, first-order indicators of aquatic riverine habitat, in a large river system. Model boundary conditions were modified to reflect the implementation of three major river rehabilitation strategies being considered in the Sacramento River Valley: gravel augmentation, setting back of levees, and flow alteration. Fifty 30-year model simulations were used to compute probabilities of the response in sediment flux and net storage to these strategies. Total annual average bed material sediment flux estimates were made at six gauged river cross sections, and ???60 km reach-scale sediment budgets were evaluated between them. Gravel augmentation to improve spawning habitat induced gravel accumulation locally and/or downstream, depending on the added mixture. Levee setbacks to recreate the river corridor reduced flow stages for most flows and hence lowered sediment flux. Flow alteration to mimic natural flow regimes systematically decreased total annual average flux, suggesting that high-magnitude low-frequency transport events do not affect long-term trends in bed material flux. The results indicate that each rehabilitation strategy reduces sediment transport in its target reaches and modulates imbalances in total annual bed material sediment budgets at the reach scale. Additional risk analysis is necessary to identify extreme conditions associated with variable hydrology that could affect rehabilitation over decades. Sensitivity analysis suggests that sorting of bed material sediment is the most important determinant of modeled transport and storage patterns. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Monitoring urban impacts on suspended sediment, trace element, and nutrient fluxes within the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Program design, methodological considerations, and initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta, Georgia (City of Atlanta, COA), is one of the most rapidly growing urban areas in the US. Beginning in 2003, the US Geological Survey established a long-term water-quantity/quality monitoring network for the COA. The results obtained during the first 2 years have provided insights into the requirements needed to determine the extent of urban impacts on water quality, especially in terms of estimating the annual fluxes of suspended sediment, trace/major elements, and nutrients. During 2004/2005, suspended sediment fluxes from the City of Atlanta (COA) amounted to about 150 000 t year-1; ??? 94% of the transport occurred in conjunction with storm-flow, which also accounted for ??? 65% of the annual discharge. Typically, storm-flow averaged ??? 20% of theyear. Normally, annual suspended sediment fluxes are determined by summing daily loads based on a single calculation step using mean-daily discharge and a single rating curve-derived suspended sediment concentration. Due to the small and 'flashy' nature of the COAs streams, this approach could produce underestimates ranging from 25% to 64%. Accurate estimates (?? 15%) require calculation time-steps as short as every 2-3 h. Based on annual median base-flow/storm-flow chemical concentrations, the annual fluxes of ??? 75% of trace elements (e.g. Cu, Pb, Zn), major elements (e.g. Fe, Al), and total P occur in association with suspended sediment; in turn, ??? 90% of the transport of these constituents occur in conjunction with storm-flow. As such, base-flow sediment-associated and dissolved contributions represent relatively insignificant portions of the total annual load. An exception is total N, whose sediment-associated fluxes range from 50% to 60%; even so, storm-related transport typically exceeds 80%. Hence, in urban environments, non-point-source appear to be the dominant contributors to the fluxes of these constituents.

  10. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and diatoms in bottom sediment, Perry Lake, northeast Kansas, 1969-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 26 metals and trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, 1 radionuclide, and diatoms in bottom sediment of Perry Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1969 through 2001 in the original conservation-pool area of the lake was 2,470 million cubic feet (56,700 acre-feet) and 97,200 million pounds (44,100 million kilograms), respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 23 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the lake. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1969 was estimated to be 3,040 million pounds (1,379 million kilograms). Mean annual sediment yield from the Perry Lake Basin was estimated to be 2,740,000 pounds per square mile (4,798 kilograms per hectare). The estimated mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake were 7,610,000 pounds per year (3,450,000 kilograms per year) and 3,350,000 pounds per year (1,520,000 kilograms per year), respectively. The estimated mean annual yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Perry Lake Basin were 6,850 pounds per square mile per year (12.0 kilograms per hectare per year) and 3,020 pounds per square mile per year (5.29 kilograms per hectare per year), respectively. A statistically significant positive trend for total nitrogen deposition in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was indicated. However, the trend may be due solely to analytical variance. No statistically significant trend for total phosphorus deposition was indicated. Overall, the transport and deposition of these constituents have been relatively uniform throughout the history of Perry Lake. On the basis of nonenforceable sediment-quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, and nickel in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake typically exceeded the threshold-effects levels, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Most nickel concentrations also exceeded the probable-effects level, which represents the concentration above which toxic biological effects usually or frequently occur. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Statistically significant positive depositional trends for arsenic and manganese and statistically significant negative depositional trends for beryllium, chromium, titanium, and vanadium were indicated. However, the trends may be due solely to analytical variance. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations less than the threshold-effects levels. Evidence of a negative depositional trend for DDE (degradation product of DDT) was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected were DDD and dieldrin. Diatom occurrence in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was dominated by species that are indicators of eutrophic (nutrient-rich) conditions. Thus, it was concluded that eutrophic conditions have existed during much of the history of Perry Lake. However, an increase in the relative percentage abundance of the oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) species, combined with the significant positive depositional trends for two oligotrophic species (Aulacoseira islandica and Cyclotella radiosa) and the significant negative depositional trend for one eutrophic species (Stephanodiscus niagarae), indicated that conditions in Perry Lake may have become less eutrophic in recent years. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial decrease in alfalfa production and a substantial increase in soybean production from 1965 to 2000. These and other changes in human activi

  11. Exchanges of sediment between the flood plain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Meade, R.H.; Richey, J.E.; Forsberg, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sediment transport through the Brazilian sector of the Amazon River valley, a distance of 2010 km, involves exchanges between the channel and the flood plain that in each direction exceed the annual flux of sediment out of the river at O??bidos (???1200 Mt yr-1). The exchanges occur through bank erosion, bar deposition, settling from diffuse overbank flow, and sedimentation in flood-plain channels. We estimated the magnitude of these exchanges for each of 10 reaches of the valley, and combined them with calculations of sediment transport into and out of the reaches based on sediment sampling and flow records to define a sediment budget for each reach. Residuals in the sediment budget of a reach include errors of estimation and erosion or deposition within the channel. The annual supply of sediment entering the channel from bank erosion was estimated to average 1570 Mt yr-1 (1.3 ?? the O??bidos flux) and the amount transferred from channel transport to the bars (380 Mt yr-1) and the flood plain (460 Mt yr-1 in channelized flow; 1230 Mt yr-1 in diffuse overbank flow) totaled 2070 Mt yr-1 (1.7 ?? the O??bidos flux). Thus, deposition on the bars and flood plain exceeded bank erosion by 500 Mt yr-1 over a 10-16 yr period. Sampling and calculation of sediment loads in the channel indicate a net accumulation in the valley floor of approximately 200 Mt yr-1 over 16 yr, crudely validating the process-based calculations of the sediment budget, which in turn illuminate the physical controls on each exchange process. Another 300-400 Mt yr-1 are deposited in a delta plain downstream of O??bidos. The components of the sediment budget reflect hydrologie characteristics of the valley floor and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and flood plain, which in turn are influenced by tectonic features of the Amazon structural trough.

  12. Sediment dynamics in the restored reach of the Kissimmee River Basin, Florida: A vast subtropical riparian wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, E.R.; Hupp, C.R.; Gellis, A.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, the Kissimmee River Basin consisted of a broad nearly annually inundated riparian wetland similar in character to tropical Southern Hemisphere large rivers. The river was channelized in the 1960s and 1970s, draining the wetland. The river is currently being restored with over 10?000 hectares of wetlands being reconnected to 70 river km of naturalized channel. We monitored riparian wetland sediment dynamics between 2007 and 2010 at 87 sites in the restored reach and 14 sites in an unrestored reference reach. Discharge and sediment transport were measured at the downstream end of the restored reach. There were three flooding events during the study, two as annual flood events and a third as a greater than a 5-year flood event. Restoration has returned periodic flood flow to the riparian wetland and provides a mean sedimentation rate of 11.3?mm per year over the study period in the restored reach compared with 1.7?mm per year in an unrestored channelized reach. Sedimentation from the two annual floods was within the normal range for alluvial Coastal Plain rivers. Sediment deposits consisted of over 20% organics, similar to eastern blackwater rivers. The Kissimmee River is unique in North America for its hybrid alluvial/blackwater nature. Fluvial suspended-sediment measurements for the three flood events indicate that a majority of the sediment (70%) was sand, which is important for natural levee construction. Of the total suspended sediment load for the three flood events, 3%16% was organic and important in floodplain deposition. Sediment yield is similar to low-gradient rivers draining to the Chesapeake Bay and alluvial rivers of the southeastern USA. Continued monitoring should determine whether observed sediment transport and floodplain deposition rates are normal for this river and determine the relationship between historic vegetation community restoration, hydroperiod restoration, and sedimentation.

  13. Temporal changes in suspended sediment transport in an Atlantic catchment, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, M. L.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    Suspended sediment dynamics are still imperfectly understood, especially in Northwest of Spain, where few studies have been conducted. Using a dataset up to three years long in the Corbeira catchment (NW Spain), the variability in suspended sediment load at different temporal scales (within-events variability, monthly-seasonal and annual) is analysed in this paper. The Corbeira catchment has an area of approximately 16 km2 and varies in altitude from 474 m asl at the highest point to 60 m asl at the outlet. The area has steep slopes, where dominate slopes are between 13 and 25%. The geology of catchment is characterised by basic schist. Main soil types are classified as Umbrisol and Cambisol. Soils are acidic and rich in organic matter. The soil texture is silt and silt-loam. Land cover consists of a mixture of forest (65%) and agricultural fields (mainly grassland, pasture and maize). Soil management is conventional. The type of cultivated land management (especially in cultivate maize land) produced areas of bare soil during a large part of the year, what potentially exacerbate the delivery of fine sediments from sources areas to the stream. The catchment has been monitored since 2004 to study hydrochemical as well as hydrological and sediment response in a temperate humid environment. At the outlet discharge was continuously measured and suspended sediment were determined for 54 runoff events as well as under baseflow conditions during the study period (October 2004 to September 2007). Suspended sediment concentrations were determined by the gravimetric method. Suspended sediment load was calculated from the suspended sediment concentrations and discharge data. Within the catchment visual surveys were conducted after each rainfall event, especially in agricultural areas, to obtain information on erosion and sedimentation features. In areas where rills and ephemeral gullies erosion occurred, sediment production was evaluated by measuring channel volume. Sediment deposition areas were also measured. The obtained results show that, on the within-event scale, most of the sediment peaks precede the discharges, implying that nearby zones to the stream are the main sediment source areas. In several cases it observed that rills and ephemeral gullies developed in cropland were the main source of sediment delivered to the stream. On the other hand, independent of the occurring sequences of the peaks of sediment and discharge, most of the events could present a clockwise hysteresis loop resulting from soil erosion. Furthermore, it was observed that the reduction in the suspended concentration in a sequence of events can be mainly associated with a phenomenon of sediment exhaustion. However, the apparent sediment exhaustion might simply reflect a progressive increase in baseflow dilution. At the seasonal scale, most of the total annual suspended sediment load is transported during the autumn months, the period in which, generally, the largest number of events and maximum water yield occurred. By the contrary the percentage of the total annual suspended sediment load in summer was very low (<1%). At the annual scale, the variability in sediment yield (4-11 Mg km-2 y-1) was highly correlated with water yield, resulting from the number and magnitude of events recorded yearly and almost all the suspended load is transported during only few events. For example, in the last hydrological year (2006/07) more than 80% of the suspended sediment load was exported in runoff events involving less than 10% of the time.

  14. Sediment resuspension, redeposition, and focusing in a small dimictic reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, W.F.; Barko, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Rates of seston (dry mass) sedimentation, estimated from sediment traps (ST rates) and sediment cores (SC rates), were determined at four water depths to examine seasonal and annual sedimentation patterns in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin (USA). Annual ST rates overestimated annual SC rates at water depths less-than-or-equal-to 4 m, suggesting that sediment resuspension and redeposition in relatively shallow regions of the reservoir caused the overestimate. In contrast, annual ST and SC rates were similar at depths >4 m, suggesting minimal sediment resuspension and redeposition in deeper regions of the reservoir. Using variations in daily ST rates estimated during the autumn overturn of 1987, we developed a conceptual framework for estimating sediment resuspension, redeposition, and focusing. Resuspension of shallow sediments during this particular period accounted for over 50% of the annual ST rate at depths less-than-or-equal-to 4 m. At the same time, focusing of resuspended shallow sediments to deeper regions accounted for about 20% of the annual ST rate at depths >4 m. Our results indicate that during autumn overturn in this reservoir, peaks in sedimentation in the deep, profundal region, estimated from sediment traps, may reflect sediment focused from shallow regions rather than sediment resuspended from the profundal region.

  15. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  16. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: fluvial sediment load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Hilldale, Robert C.; Curran, Christopher A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Foreman, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Elwha River restoration project, in Washington State, includes the largest dam-removal project in United States history to date. Starting September 2011, two nearly century-old dams that collectively contained 213millionm3of sediment were removed over the course of three years with a top-down deconstruction strategy designed to meter the release of a portion of the dam-trapped sediment. Gauging with sediment-surrogate technologies during the first two years downstream from the project measured 8,200,0003,400,000tonnes of transported sediment, with 1,100,000 and 7,100,000t moving in years 1 and 2, respectively, representing 3 and 20 times the Elwha River annual sediment load of 340,00080,000t/y. During the study period, the discharge in the Elwha River was greater than normal (107% in year 1 and 108% in year 2); however, the magnitudes of the peak-flow events during the study period were relatively benign with the largest discharge of 292m3/s (73% of the 2-year annual peak-flow event) early in the project when both extant reservoirs still retained sediment. Despite the muted peak flows, sediment transport was large, with measured suspended-sediment concentrations during the study period ranging from 44 to 16,300mg/L and gauged bedload transport as large as 24,700t/d. Five distinct sediment-release periods were identified when sediment loads were notably increased (when lateral erosion in the former reservoirs was active) or reduced (when reservoir retention or seasonal low flows and cessation of lateral erosion reduced sediment transport). Total suspended-sediment load was 930,000t in year 1 and 5,400,000t in year 2. Of the total 6,300,0003,200,000t of suspended-sediment load, 3,400,000t consisted of silt and clay and 2,900,000t was sand. Gauged bedload on the lower Elwha River in year 2 of the project was 450,000360,000t. Bedload was not quantified in year 1, but qualitative observations using bedload-surrogate instruments indicated detectable bedload starting just after full removal of the downstream dam. Using comparative studies from other sediment-laden rivers, the total ungauged fraction of <2-mm bedload was estimated to be on the order of 1.5Mt.

  17. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: Fluvial sediment load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Hilldale, Robert C.; Curran, Christopher A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian; Foreman, James R.

    2015-10-01

    The Elwha River restoration project, in Washington State, includes the largest dam-removal project in United States history to date. Starting September 2011, two nearly century-old dams that collectively contained 21 ± 3 million m3 of sediment were removed over the course of three years with a top-down deconstruction strategy designed to meter the release of a portion of the dam-trapped sediment. Gauging with sediment-surrogate technologies during the first two years downstream from the project measured 8,200,000 ± 3,400,000 tonnes of transported sediment, with 1,100,000 and 7,100,000 t moving in years 1 and 2, respectively, representing 3 and 20 times the Elwha River annual sediment load of 340,000 ± 80,000 t/y. During the study period, the discharge in the Elwha River was greater than normal (107% in year 1 and 108% in year 2); however, the magnitudes of the peak-flow events during the study period were relatively benign with the largest discharge of 292 m3/s (73% of the 2-year annual peak-flow event) early in the project when both extant reservoirs still retained sediment. Despite the muted peak flows, sediment transport was large, with measured suspended-sediment concentrations during the study period ranging from 44 to 16,300 mg/L and gauged bedload transport as large as 24,700 t/d. Five distinct sediment-release periods were identified when sediment loads were notably increased (when lateral erosion in the former reservoirs was active) or reduced (when reservoir retention or seasonal low flows and cessation of lateral erosion reduced sediment transport). Total suspended-sediment load was 930,000 t in year 1 and 5,400,000 t in year 2. Of the total 6,300,000 ± 3,200,000 t of suspended-sediment load, 3,400,000 t consisted of silt and clay and 2,900,000 t was sand. Gauged bedload on the lower Elwha River in year 2 of the project was 450,000 ± 360,000 t. Bedload was not quantified in year 1, but qualitative observations using bedload-surrogate instruments indicated detectable bedload starting just after full removal of the downstream dam. Using comparative studies from other sediment-laden rivers, the total ungauged fraction of < 2-mm bedload was estimated to be on the order of 1.5 Mt.

  18. Sediment source fingerprinting to quantify fine sediment sources in forested catchments, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuller, P.; Walling, D. E.; Iroume, A.; Castillo, A.; Quilodran, C.

    2012-04-01

    A study to improve the understanding of the primary sediment sources and transfer pathways in catchments disturbed following forest plantation harvesting is being undertaken in South-Central Chile. The study focuses on two sets of paired experimental catchments (treatment and control), located about 400 km apart, with similar soil type but contrasting mean annual rainfall: Nacimiento (1,200 mm year-1) and Los Ulmos (2,500 mm year-1). Sediment source fingerprinting techniques are being used to document the primary fine sediment sources. In each catchment, three potential sediment sources were defined: clearcut slopes (Z1), forest roads (Z2) and the stream channel (Z3). In each catchment, multiple representative composite samples of the different potential source materials were collected before harvest operations from the upper 1 cm layer in Z1, Z2, and from the channel bank and bed for Z3. A time-integrating trap sampler installed in the discharge monitoring station constructed at the outlet of each catchment has been used to collect samples of the suspended sediment and these have been supplemented by sediment collected from the weir pools. Total suspended sediment load is been quantified in the monitoring stations using discharge records and integrated water sampling. Caesium-137 (137Cs), excess lead-210 (210Pbex) and other sediment properties are being used as fingerprints. After air-drying, oven-drying at 40°C and disaggregation, both the source material samples and the sediment samples collected in the discharge monitoring stations were sieved through a 63-μm sieve and the <63-μm fractions were used for subsequent analyses. For radionuclide assay, the samples were sealed in Petri dishes and after 4 weeks the mass activity density (activity concentration) of 137Cs and 210Pbex was determined by gamma analysis, using an ORTEC extended range Ge detector of 53% relative efficiency. The 137Cs and 210Pbex activity and organic carbon (Corg) concentration associated with potential source materials and the target sediment show that the two radionuclides used in combination with the Corg property provide effective source fingerprints. Additional work using a mixing model taking account of particle size effects is required to establish the relative contributions of the three sources to the fine sediment loads of the study catchments. This research is supported by the Chilean Government through FONDECYT Project 1090574 and by the IAEA through CRP D1.20.11 (Contract CHI-15531 and Technical Contract 15478) and the RLA 05/051 Project.

  19. The efficacy of oxidative coupling for promoting in-situ immobilization of hydroxylated aromatics in contaminated soil and sediment systems. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Bhandari, A.

    1998-06-01

    'Hydroxylated aromatic compounds (HAC''s) and their precursors are common contaminants of surface and subsurface systems at DOE facilities. The environmental fate and transport of such compounds, particularly in subsurface systems, is generally dominated by their sorption and desorption by soils and sediments. Certain secondary chemical reactions, most specifically abiotic and/or enzymatic oxidative coupling, may be significant in controlling the sorption and subsequent desorption of such hydroxylated aromatics by soils and sediments. The principal objectives of this study are to investigate: (1) the role of abiotic/enzymatic coupling reactions on the immobilization of HAC''s; (2) the effects of environmental factors on such immobilization; and (3) preliminary engineering approaches utilizing enhanced abiotic/enzymatic coupling reactions to immobilize hydroxylated aromatics in-situ. Information gathered from the study will be useful in quantifying the behavior of this class of organic compounds in various subsurface contamination scenarios relevant to DOE facilities, and in specifying strategies for the selection and design of remediation technologies. Over the first two years of this three-year project, the authors have developed a significantly improved understanding of the mechanisms of hydroxylated aromatic compound sorption and immobilization by natural soils and sediments. Immobilization in this context is attributed to oxidative coupling of the hydroxylated aromatics subsequent to their sorption to a soil or sediment, and is quantified in terms of the amount of a sorbed target compound retained by a sorbent after a series of sequential water and solvent extractions. The presence of oxygen, metal oxides, and organic matter, all of which can potentially catalyze/facilitate the abiotic oxidative coupling of HAC''s, were investigated during these first two years. Three different HAC''s: phenol, trichlorophenol and o-cresol were included in the experimental program. Inorganic soil matrices were represented by a glacial wash sand (Wurtsmith sand) having very low organic content. Because the chemical nature of soil organic matter may potentially affect the extent of coupling or immobilization, sorbents having different organic matter compositions are being investigated. Two of the three studied to date are near-surface soils, characterized by geologically younger organic material (Fox Forest soil and Fox Grassland soil). The third sorbent is an older and diagenetically altered soil (Lachine Shale). Sorbent preparation, characterization and experimental protocol development were completed in the first year of the study while the second year of the project has focused primarily on experiments with natural systems, as planned. Preliminary work with engineered systems has been initiated earlier than scheduled in order to integrate and relate all aspects of the study.'

  20. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TOTAL LIPID, LIPID CLASSES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS OF RIBBED MUSSELS (GUKENSIA DEMISSA) OVER AN ANNUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two indigenous ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa) populations were sampled approximately every four weeks during 1997 to investigate the relationships among concentrations of total lipid, lipid classes, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). One population was located in a highly c...

  1. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. PMID:24509365

  2. Sediment source and hydroclimatic inferences from glacial lake sediments: the postglacial sedimentary record of Lillooet Lake, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desloges, Joseph R.; Gilbert, Robert

    1994-07-01

    Lillooet River drains 3850 km 2 of partly glacier-covered terrain before entering Lillooet Lake in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. The elongated lake covers an area of 21 km 2 and forms a deep basin with water depths to 137 m. Acoustic profiling of the subbottom and sampling of the surface sediments reveals that total sediment thickness varies from 30 + m in the north half of the lake near Lillooet delta and then declines to less than 16 m in the south. Up-valley ice retreat approximately 11 000 years BP resulted in conformable sediments in the main lake indicative of turbidity currents off Lillooet delta which infilled and flattened the underlying surface. A sill which separates the main and south basins prevents the down-lake progression of turbidity currents resulting in conformable deposits indicative of rain-out (i.e. settling) processes only. A major acoustic reflector at about 6-9 m below the modern sediment surface is associated with a well-dated volcanic eruption and sediment yield event in the upper basin at 2400 years BP. Modern glaciolacustrine deposition forms varves which accumulate at a rate of up to 28 mm year -1 in the north and decline to less than 0.9 mm year -1 in the south. The occurrence of two sediment-runoff regimes, one average and the other extreme leads to distinct differences in varve sedimentology and varve thickness. De-coupling the two signals using sedimentary evidence alone cannot be done consistently so a sediment yield-runoff relation for the lake ( r2 = 41%) contains considerable 'noise'. An annual sediment accumulation chronology covering the last 125 years shows a much higher frequency of 'extreme' runoff-sediment yield events during the post-1940 interval. This parallels a documented change in climate of the region after 1945 and suggests that a longer varve chronology would provide a good, high-resolution, proxy record of hydroclimatic variations.

  3. Sediment Loading from Crab Creek and Other Sources to Moses Lake, Washington, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Cox, Stephen E.; Mastin, Mark C.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2010-01-01

    The average sediment-accumulation rate on the bed of Moses Lake since 1980, based on the identification of Mount St. Helens ash in lakebed cores, was 0.24 inches per year. Summed over the lake surface area, the average sediment-accumulation rate on the lakebed is 190,000 tons per year. Based on USGS stream-gaging station data, the average annual sediment load to Moses Lake from Crab Creek was 32,000 tons per year between 1943 and 2008; the post Mount St. Helens eruption annual load from Crab Creek was calculated to be 13,000 tons per year. The total mass input from Crab Creek and other fluvially derived sediment sources since 1980 has been about 20,000 tons per year. Eolian sediment loading to Moses Lake was about 50,000 tons per year before irrigation and land-use development largely stabilized the Moses Lake dune field. Currently, eolian input to the lake is less than 2,000 tons per year. Considering all sediment sources to the lake, most (from 80 to 90 percent) of post-1980 lakebed-sediment accumulation is from autochthonous, or locally formed, mineral matter, including diatom frustuals and carbonate shells, derived from biogenic production in phytoplankton and zooplankton. Suspended-sediment samples collected from Crab Creek and similar nearby waterways in 2007 and 2008 combined with other USGS data from the region indicated that a proposed Bureau of Reclamation supplemental feed of as much as 650 cubic feet per second through Crab Creek might initially contain a sediment load of as much as 1,500 tons per day. With time, however, this sediment load would decrease to about 10 tons per day in the sediment-supply-limited creek as available sediment in the channel is depleted. Sediment loads in the supplemental feed ultimately would be similar to loads in other bypass canals near Moses Lake. Considering the hydrology and geomorphology of the creek over multiple years, there is little evidence that the proposed supplemental feed would substantially increase the overall sediment load from Crab Creek to Moses Lake relative to natural, background conditions. Because Moses Lake is relatively shallow and subject to significant wind-driven circulation currents, mixing also would redistribute some of the fluvial sediment load deposited from Crab Creek throughout Parker Horn and the rest of Moses Lake, further mitigating the local effect of Crab Creek sedimentation near the City of Moses Lake.

  4. Suspended-sediment dynamics in the tidal reach of a San Francisco Bay tributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellenbarger, Gregory G.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2015-11-01

    To better understand suspended-sediment transport in a tidal slough adjacent to a large wetland restoration project, we deployed continuously measuring temperature, salinity, depth, turbidity, and velocity sensors in 2010 at a near-bottom location in Alviso Slough (Alviso, California, USA). Alviso Slough is the downstream reach of the Guadalupe River and flows into the far southern end of San Francisco Bay. River flow is influenced by the Mediterranean climate, with high flows (90 m3 s-1) correlated to episodic winter storms and low base flow (0.85 m3 s-1) during the summer. Storms and associated runoff have a large influence on sediment flux for brief periods, but the annual peak sediment concentrations in the slough, which occur in April and May, are similar to the rest of this part of the bay and are not directly related to peak discharge events. Strong spring tides promote a large upstream sediment flux as a front associated with the passage of a salt wedge during flood tide. Neap tides do not have flood-directed fronts, but a front seen sometimes during ebb tide appears to be associated with the breakdown of stratification in the slough. During neap tides, stratification likely suppresses sediment transport during weaker flood and ebb tides. The slough is flood dominant during spring tides, and ebb dominant during neap tides. Extreme events in landward (salt wedge) and bayward (rainfall events) suspended-sediment flux account for 5.0 % of the total sediment flux in the slough and only 0.55 % of the samples. The remaining 95 % of the total sediment flux is due to tidal transport, with an imbalance in the daily tidal transport producing net landward flux. Overall, net sediment transport during this study was landward indicating that sediment in the sloughs may not be flushed to the bay and are available for sedimentation in the adjacent marshes and ponds.

  5. Sediment yield from the tectonically active semiarid Western Transverse Ranges of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment yields from the world's rivers are generally highest from steep drainage basins with weak lithology, active tectonics, or severe land-use impacts. Here, we evaluate sediment yields from the Western Transverse Ranges of California in an attempt to explain why they are two- to tenfold greater than the surrounding areas of California. We found that suspended-sediment yields across the gauged basins of the Western Transverse Range during 1969-1999 varied by approximately an order of magnitude (740-5300 t/km2/yr). Similarly, fine-sediment concentrations for normalized discharge rates varied by almost two orders of magnitude (e.g., 1.3-110 g/L for the mean annual flood) for 11 previously unmonitored drainages of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Areas with high sediment yields consistently have weakly consolidated bedrock (Quaternary-Pliocene marine formations) and are associated with the highest rates of tectonic uplift of the region (>5 mm/yr). These regions are important to the sediment discharge budgets, because ???50% of the total suspended-sediment discharge from the Western Transverse Range is estimated to be generated within these regions, even though they represent only ???10% of the total watershed area. Previous estimates of suspended-sediment discharge from the Ventura River have likely been underestimated by ???50% because the gauging station is located immediately upstream of a high sediment yield region. We also found a significant and positive correlation between sediment yield and the percentage of a watershed with grassland and agricultural land use. These results suggest that there is adequate variation within the lithology, tectonics, and land use of the broader Western Transverse Range geologic province to induce large variations in sediment yield at the local scale. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  6. Sedimentation and associated trace metal enrichment in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiang; Bao, Yuhai; He, Xiubin; Zhou, Huaidong; Cao, Zhijing; Gao, Peng; Zhong, Ronghua; Hu, Yunhua; Zhang, Xinbao

    2014-05-01

    Impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has created an artificial riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km(2), which has been subjected to seasonal inundation and exposure due to regular reservoir impoundment and the occurrence of natural floods. The significant alteration of hydrologic regime has caused numerous environmental changes. The present study investigated the magnitude and spatial pattern of sedimentation and metal enrichment in a typical section of the riparian zone, composed of bench terraces with previous agricultural land uses, and explored their links to the changed hydrologic regime. In particular, we measured the total sediment depths and collected surface riparian sediments and down-profile sectioned riparian soils (at 5 cm intervals) for trace metal determination. Our analysis showed that the annual average sedimentation rates varied from 0.5 to 10 cmyr(-1) and they decreased significantly with increasing elevation. This lateral distribution was principally attributed to seasonal variations in water levels and suspended sediment concentrations. Enriched concentrations of trace metals were found both in the riparian sediments and soils, but they were generally higher in the riparian sediments than in riparian soils and followed a similar lateral decreasing trend. Metal contamination assessment showed that the riparian sediments were slightly contaminated by Ni, Zn, and Pb, moderately contaminated by Cu, and moderately to strongly contaminated by Cd; while riparian soils were slightly contaminated by As, and moderately contaminated by Cd. Trace metal enrichment in the riparian sediments may be attributed to external input of contaminated sediments produced from upstream anthropogenic sources and chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions during pure sediment mobilization and after sink for a prolonged flooding period due to reservoir impoundment. PMID:24561931

  7. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Switek, J.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included.

  8. IN ROW AND BETWEEN ROW ZONE HERBICIDE APPLICATION AT DIFFERENT RATES CONTROLS ANNUAL WEEDS AND REDUCES TOTAL RESIDUAL HERBICIDE USE IN CORN (ZEA MAYS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zone herbicide application uses 1) crop management to enhance crop competitiveness with weeds, 2) soil residual herbicide banded over crop rows at reduced rates and 3) the same herbicide banded between rows at higher rates than over crop rows, so that total herbicide use per unit area is reduced. T...

  9. Basin-wide sediment trapping efficiency of emerging reservoirs along the Mekong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummu, M.; Lu, X. X.; Wang, J. J.; Varis, O.

    2010-07-01

    The Mekong Basin has remained relatively intact, but the current plans for rapid development in the hydropower sector may threaten the riverine ecosystems. Should all the plans be materialized in tributaries and mainstream, the cumulative active storage capacity of the reservoirs would increase more than tenfold from the present level to around 20% of the annual discharge of the Mekong (505 km 3). In this study a protocol is developed to estimate the trapping efficiency ( TE) of the existing and planned reservoirs in the Mekong Basin based on Brune's method. The existing reservoirs have a basin TE of 15-18% and should all the planned reservoirs be built, this will increase to 51-69%. However, due to the high heterogeneity of the specific sediment yield in different parts of the basin, the trapped sediment load ( TSL) is predicted to be much higher. The existing and planned mainstream dams in the Chinese part of the river have the largest impact on the river sediment load ( SL) as more than 60% of the basin SL originates from this stretch of the river. The three existing reservoirs in that part of the basin have potential to trap annually approximately 32-41 Mt of sediment. If the entire cascade of eight dams is constructed, TE will increase to 78-81%, and potentially 70-73 Mt, i.e. more than 50% of the total basin sediment load (˜ 140 Mt) will be trapped annually.

  10. Total Quality Leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  11. Suspended-sediment loads, reservoir sediment trap efficiency, and upstream and downstream channel stability for Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2010, at streamgage sites upstream and downstream from Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from each reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for each reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is decreasing the ability of the reservoirs to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. River channel stability upstream and downstream from the reservoirs was assessed using historical streamgage information. For Kanopolis Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 600 million pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 31 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 95 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 129,000 pounds per square mile per year. No pronounced changes in channel width were evident at five streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Ellsworth streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed aggradation was followed by a period of stability. Current (2010) conditions at five streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Langley streamgage site, located immediately downstream from the reservoir, the channel bed degraded 6.15 feet from 1948 to 2010. For Tuttle Creek Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 13.3 billion pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 327 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 98 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 691,000 pounds per square mile per year. In general, no pronounced changes in channel width were evident at six streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Barnes and Marysville streamgage sites, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed degradation followed by stability was indicated. At the Frankfort streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, channel-bed aggradation of 1.65 feet from 1969 to 1989 followed by channel-bed degradation of 2.4 feet from 1989 to 2010 was indicated and may represent the passage of a sediment pulse caused by historical disturbances (for example, channelization) in the upstream basin. With the exception of the Frankfort streamgage site, current (2010) conditions at four streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Manhattan streamgage site, located downstream from the reservoir, high-flow releases associated with the 1993 flood widened the channel about 60 feet (30 percent). The channel bed at this site degraded 4.2 feet from 1960 to 1998 and since has been relatively stable. For the purpose of computing suspended-sediment concentration and load, the use of turbidity data in a regression model can provide more reliable and reproducible estimates than a regression model that uses discharge as the sole independent variable. Moreover, the use of discharge only to compute suspended-sediment concentration and load may result in overprediction. Stream channel banks, compared to channel beds, likely are a more important source of sediment to Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes from the upstream basins. Other sediment sources include surface-soil erosion in the basins and shoreline erosion in the reservoirs.

  12. Biogeochemical characteristics of sedimenting particles in Dona Paula Bay, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'souza, Fraddry; Garg, Anita; Bhosle, Narayan B.

    2003-10-01

    Sedimenting particles were collected at weekly intervals from October to May during 1995-1997 at a station in the coastal waters of Dona Paula Bay on the west coast of India. Sedimenting particles were analysed for concentration and composition of total sedimented particulate matter (TPM), biogenic silica (BSi) and total neutral carbohydrates (TCHO). TPM, BSi and TCHO fluxes showed seasonal and annual variations. Fluxes of BSi showed significant correlations with the fluxes of TCHO and fucose indicating that at the study site diatoms were associated with the production of carbohydrates. However, a high content of arabinose plus xylose (˜56% of TCHO without glucose) in some samples and their negative correlations with fucose may suggest terrestrial inputs. Sedimenting particles depleted in glucose content were enriched in rhamnose, fucose, xylose, mannose and galactose. A principal component analysis based on log-normalized wt% of monosaccharides established three factors that contributed 78% of total variance. The first factor was mostly controlled by the abundance of arabinose and xylose while the second and third factors were dependent on fucose, galactose, mannose and rhamnose. Carbohydrate composition data suggest that the nature and sources of organic matter at the study site varied over the period of study.

  13. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. AQUATIC SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One hundred seventeen literature references in the area of freshwater sediments were abstracted and synthesized to produce a review of sediment-related research for the period November, 1975 through October, 1976. Research areas covered included sediment-water interchange, sampli...

  15. Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge Validation in a small, Pacific Northwestern Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, B. W.; Stubblefield, A. P.; Dhakal, A. S.; Sullivan, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Distributed Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and its sediment production prediction capabilities are evaluated in a small, gaged, timber-production watershed in northwestern California. McReady Creek drains a 5 km2 basin dominated by coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Forest soils are fine grained and poorly consolidated marine sediments approximately 40 kya. Stream and sediment discharge data collected by Humboldt State University and Humboldt Redwoods Company (HRC) from 2003 to present were used to calibrate and validate DHSVM. Model parameters like forest stand (over- and understory height, fractional coverage, monthly LAI, etc) and soil characteristics (porosity, bulk density, field capacity, etc) were measured via in-field investigations or gathered by HRC through timber cruising activities. All data was gridded to 10 meters for the analysis. Forest stand data was manipulated throughout the model run to reflect the operational nature of the watershed. Modeled stream discharge will be evaluated against observed discharge on an event by event basis, as well as against weekly and monthly totals. Modeled sediment discharge will be evaluated on a similar basis, including total annual sediment discharge. Sources of potential incoherence between modeled and observed data may be road density (6.7 km / km2) and road/stream connectivity or the presence of legacy forest practices that still produce sediment within the basin. Further work will involve field investigations that will clarify road/stream connectivity and legacy sediment production zones.

  16. Biomarker evidence of Holocene climate and cryosphere variability: results from a 171m, annually laminated, sediment core from the Adélie coast, Antarctica (IODP Expedition 318)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendle, J. A.; Seki, O.; Kawamura, K.; Willmott, V.; Schouten, S.; Sangiorgi, F.; McKay, R.; Riesselman, C. R.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Southern Ocean remains the least studied region on Earth with respect to Holocene climate variability. The few Antarctic proximal marine sedimentary records available tend to be short, low resolution, and discontinuous. However, sediments recently recovered from the Adélie drift during IODP Expedition 318 present a new opportunity to study East Antarctic Holocene climatic evolution, at a resolution that facilitates direct comparison with ice-cores. Expedition 318 recovered 171m of Holocene laminated diatom ooze from site U1357B. The sediments represent continuous Holocene accumulation up to the present day (based on 89 AMS 14C dates) and are characterised by 2-6cm thick, light/dark laminae couplets, interpreted as seasonal biogenic production and accumulation events. We present the results of initial biomarker analyses: fatty acid δD and TEX86 measurements on lipid extracts from paired light/dark laminae throughout the Holocene. The C18 fatty acid is assumed to represent an integrated signal from the algal precursors and thus surface water conditions. The δDC18-FA values show no consistent offset between the light and dark laminae, and values become isotopically heavier on average through the Holocene (ca. -220 to 140‰), in line with declining insolation at 65°S. Superimposed on this trend are millennial scale isotopic excursions of ca. 20 to 60‰, including a clear excursion coeval with an increase in grain size in U1356B and the late Holocene climate 'optimum' between 6 and 3 kyr, inferred from East Antarctic ice-cores. δDC18-FA shows no clear relationship with TEXL86 sea-surface temperature estimates, which display pronounced early variability and relative warmth from 11.2 to 10.4 ka (0 to 6.5 °C, average ca. 3.5 °C), but almost no change after 10.4 ka, as cold, stable SSTs (average ca. 2 °C) persist through the rest of the Holocene. We explore the potential controls on the δDC18-FA record and suggest the influence of isotopically depleted meltwater from the proximal ice-sheet (additive to a salinity effect) and/or upwelling could account for the millennial scale variability. The next steps are to ground-truth the proxies in this unique archive and to exploit the paleoclimatic information encoded in the abundant algal sterol compounds, the higher plant waxes and to apply compound-specific δ13C as well as additional δD measurements.

  17. Background Radioactivity in River and Reservoir Sediments near Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    S.G.McLin; D.W. Lyons

    2002-05-05

    As part of its continuing Environmental Surveillance Program, regional river and lake-bottom sediments have been collected annually by Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) since 1974 and 1979, respectively. These background samples are collected from three drainage basins at ten different river stations and five reservoirs located throughout northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Radiochemical analyses for these sediments include tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, total uranium, plutonium-238, plutonium-239,-240, americium-241, gross alpha, gross beta, and gross gamma radioactivity. Detection-limit radioactivity originates as worldwide fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing and satellite reentry into Earth's atmosphere. Spatial and temporal variations in individual analyte levels originate from atmospheric point-source introductions and natural rate differences in airborne deposition and soil erosion. Background radioactivity values on sediments reflect this variability, and grouped river and reservoir sediment samples show a range of statistical distributions that appear to be analyte dependent. Traditionally, both river and reservoir analyte data were blended together to establish background levels. In this report, however, we group background sediment data according to two criteria. These include sediment source (either river or reservoir sediments) and station location relative to the Laboratory (either upstream or downstream). These grouped data are statistically evaluated through 1997, and background radioactivity values are established for individual analytes in upstream river and reservoir sediments. This information may be used to establish the existence and areal extent of trace-level environmental contamination resulting from historical Laboratory research activities since the early 1940s.

  18. Suspended-sediment rating curve response to urbanization and wildfire, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Rubin, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    River suspended-sediment concentrations provide insights to the erosion and transport of materials from a landscape, and changes in concentrations with time may result from landscape processes or human disturbance. Here we show that suspended-sediment concentrations in the Santa Ana River, California, decreased 20-fold with respect to discharge during a 34-year period (1968−2001). These decreases cannot be attributed to changes in sampling technique or timing, nor to event or seasonal hysteresis. Annual peak and total discharge, however, reveal sixfold increases over the 34-year record, which largely explain the decreases in sediment concentration by a nonlinear dilution process. The hydrological changes were related to the widespread urbanization of the watershed, which resulted in increases in storm water discharge without detectable alteration of sediment discharge, thus reducing suspended-sediment concentrations. Periodic upland wildfire significantly increased water discharge, sediment discharge, and suspended-sediment concentrations and thus further altered the rating curve with time. Our results suggest that previous inventories of southern California sediment flux, which assume time-constant rating curves and extend these curves beyond the sampling history, may have substantially overestimated loads during the most recent decades.

  19. From agricultural intensification to conservation: Sediment transport in the Raccoon River, Iowa, 1916-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.S.; Schilling, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fluvial sediment is a ubiquitous pollutant that negatively aff ects surface water quality and municipal water supply treatment. As part of its routine water supply monitoring, the Des Moines Water Works (DMWW) has been measuring turbidity daily in the Raccoon River since 1916. For this study, we calibrated daily turbidity readings to modern total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations to develop an estimation of daily sediment concentrations in the river from 1916 to 2009. Our objectives were to evaluate longterm TSS patterns and trends, and relate these to changes in climate, land use, and agricultural practices that occurred during the 93-yr monitoring period. Results showed that while TSS concentrations and estimated sediment loads varied greatly from year to year, TSS concentrations were much greater in the early 20th century despite drier conditions and less discharge, and declined throughout the century. Against a backdrop of increasing discharge in the Raccoon River and widespread agricultural adaptations by farmers, sediment loads increased and peaked in the early 1970s, and then have slowly declined or remained steady throughout the 1980s to present. With annual sediment load concentrated during extreme events in the spring and early summer, continued sediment reductions in the Raccoon River watershed should be focused on conservation practices to reduce rainfall impacts and sediment mobilization. Overall, results from this study suggest that eff orts to reduce sediment load from the watershed appear to be working. ?? 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  20. Mechanisms of flow through compressible porous beds in sedimentation, filtration, centrifugation, deliquoring, and ceramic processing. [Annual report], February 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, F.M.

    1992-06-01

    The University of Houston research program is aimed at the specific area of solid/liquid separation including sedimentation, thickening, cake filtration, centrifugation, expression, washing, deep-bed filtration, screening, and membrane separation. Unification of the theoretical approaches to the various solid/liquid separation operations is the principle objective of the research. Exploring new aspects of basic separation mechanisms, verification of theory with experiment, development of laboratory procedures for obtaining data for design, optimizing operational methods, and transferring the results to industry are a part of the Houston program. New methodology developed in our program now permits an engineer or scientist to handle thickening, cake filtration, centrigual filtration, and expression in a unified manner. The same fundamental equations are simply adapted to the differing parameters and conditions related to the various modes of separation. As the system is flexible and adaptable to computational software, new developments can continually be added. Discussions of the various research projects in this report have been kept to a minimum and are principally qualitative. The length of the report would be excessive if each topic were covered in depth. Although the number of research topics may appear larger than one would expect, many are closely interconnected and reflect our philosophy of working in apparently diverse fields such as ceramics, mining, wastewater, food, chemical processing, and oil well operations.

  1. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC.

  2. Changes in bottom-surface elevations in three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania and Maryland, following the January 1996 flood; implications for nutrient and sediment loads to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Hainly, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains about 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, contributes nearly 50 percent of the freshwater discharge to the Chesapeake Bay, and contributes nearly 66 percent of the annual nitrogen load, 40 percent of the phosphorus load, and 25 percent of the suspended-sediment load from non-tidal parts of the Bay during a year of average streamflow. A reservoir system formed by three hydroelectric dams on the lower Susquehanna River is currently trapping a major part of the phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads from the basin and, to a lesser extent, the nitrogen loads. In the summer of 1996, the U. S. Geological Survey collected bathymetric data along 64 cross sections and 40 bottom-sediment samples along 14 selected cross sections in the lower Susquehanna River reservoir system to determine the remaining sediment-storage capacity, refine the current estimate of when the system may reach sediment-storage capacity, document changes in the reservoir system after the January 1996 flood, and determine the remaining nutrient mass in Conowingo Reservoir. Results from the 1996 survey indicate an estimated total of 14,800,000 tons of sediment were scoured from the reservoir system from 1993 (date of previous bathymetric survey) through 1996. This includes the net sediment change of 4,700,000 tons based on volume change in the reservoir system computed from the 1993 and 1996 surveys, the 6,900,000 tons of sediment deposited from 1993 through 1996, and the 3,200,000 tons of sediment transported into the reservoir system during the January 1996 flood. The January 1996 flood, which exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval, scoured about the same amount of sediment that normally would be deposited in the reservoir system during a 4- to 6-year period. Concentrations of total nitrogen in bottom sediments in the Conowingo Reservoir ranged from 1,500 to 6,900 mg/kg (milligrams per kilogram); 75 percent of the concentrations were between 3,000 and 5,000 mg/kg. About 96 percent of the concentrations of total nitrogen consisted of organic nitrogen. Concentrations of total phosphorus in bottom sediments ranged from 286 to 1,390 mg/kg. About 84 percent of the concentrations of total phosphorus were comprised of inorganic phosphorus. The ratio of concentrations of plant-available phosphorus to concentrations of total phosphorus ranged from 0.6 to 3.5 percent; ratios generally decreased in a downstream direction. About 29,000 acre-feet, or 42,000,000 tons, of sediment can be deposited before Conowingo Reservoir reaches sediment-storage capacity. Assuming the average annual sediment-deposition rate remains unchanged and no scour occurs due to floods, the reservoir system could reach sediment-storage capacity in about 17 years. The reservoir system currently is trapping about 2 percent of the nitrogen, 45 percent of the phosphorus, and 70 percent of the suspended sediment transported by the river to the upper Chesapeake Bay. Once the reservoir reaches sediment-storage capacity, an estimated 250-percent increase in the current annual loads of suspended sediment, a 2-percent increase in the current annual loads of total nitrogen, and a 70-percent increase in the current annual loads of total phosphorus from the Susquehanna River to Chesapeake Bay can be expected. If the goal of a 40-percent reduction in controllable phosphorus load from the Susquehanna River Basin is met before the reservoirs reach sediment-storage capacity, the 40-percent reduction goal will probably be exceeded when the reservoir system reaches sediment-storage capacity.

  3. MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING SEDIMENTATION IN STREAM NETWORKS: FOR USE IN SEDIMENT TMDL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework that can be used to evaluate sedimentation in stream networks is described. This methodology can be used to determine sediment Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in sediment impaired waters, and provide the necessary hydrodynamic and sediment-related data t...

  4. Fine-suspended sediment and water budgets for a large, seasonally dry tropical catchment: Burdekin River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Smithers, Scott G.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Henderson, Brent L.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2014-11-01

    The Burdekin River catchment (˜130,400 km2) is a seasonally dry tropical catchment located in north-east Queensland, Australia. It is the single largest source of suspended sediment to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Fine sediments are a threat to ecosystems on the GBR where they contribute to elevated turbidity (reduced light), sedimentation stress, and potential impacts from the associated nutrients. Suspended sediment data collected over a 5 year period were used to construct a catchment-wide sediment source and transport budget. The Bowen River tributary was identified as the major source of end-of-river suspended sediment export, yielding an average of 530 t km-2 yr-1 during the study period. Sediment trapping within a large reservoir (1.86 million ML) and the preferential transport of clays and fine silts downstream of the structure were also examined. The data reveal that the highest clay and fine silt loads—which are of most interest to environmental managers of the GBR—are not always sourced from areas that yield the largest total suspended sediment load (i.e., all size fractions). Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating particle size into catchment sediment budget studies undertaken to inform management decisions to reduce downstream turbidity and sedimentation. Our data on sediment source, reservoir influence, and subcatchment and catchment yields will improve understandings of sediment dynamics in other tropical catchments, particularly those located in seasonally wet-dry tropical savannah/semiarid climates. The influence of climatic variability (e.g., drought/wetter periods) on annual sediment loads within large seasonally dry tropical catchments is also demonstrated by our data.

  5. Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) and Sediment Discharge in a Small, Timber Production Watershed, Humboldt County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, A.; Huggett, B.; Sullivan, K.; Dhakal, A.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment impacts to streams and rivers, either as suspended sediment concentration (SSC), or as aggradation, are well documented in the Pacific Northwest. Fishery stocks, estuarine, infrastructural and wildland resources can be negatively impacted. The causes and reasons for sedimentation of river resources are varied and diverse: tectonic setting - the relative rapid uplift of the study region produces a dominant erosional process of landsliding and mass wasting; regolithic setting - the relatively recent uplift of marine sediments has produced local formations of poorly and moderately consolidated soils, and lithic melanges that are naturally susceptible to erosion; climatic/geographic setting - coastal locations are subject to seasonal delivery of a relatively high average annual precipitation serving to transport available sediment; and finally, management setting - the activities that serve to make sediment available for transport to the river channel, forest road building and harvesting activities associated with timber production, agriculture, gravel mining, and fire management. The reduction of sediment loading can be accomplished through restoration activities like forest road decommissioning or riparian area revegetation. The need to prioritize restoration efforts is confounded by a lack of hydrographic and sediment discharge data, the complex terrain, and the inability to predict the effects of these activities on a dynamic scale. The Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) has been developed to model watersheds using spatially explicit geographical data coupled with physically based hydrologic equations. DHSVM simulates watershed processes across a grid on a cell-by-cell manner. The most recent development within the DHSVM includes a mass wasting / sediment production and channel routing module which allows prediction of total sediment loading in a forest basin. We are applying DHSVM to the McReady sub-basin of Freshwater Creek, Humboldt County, California, utilizing site specific precipitation, hydrographic, and sediment data. Hydrographic and sediment discharge data from 2002 to present are used to train and validate the model. A detailed sediment source inventory from both the road and stream courses further informs the model process and parameterization of sediment production and mobilization within the watershed. The availability of continuous discharge and sediment loading via turbidity threshold stations (TTS) allows validation of the model's performance on multiple levels: average annual, monthly, or weekly sediment loading, and on an event by event basis. Effective validation permits the use of the model to understand the effects of future management strategies, i.e. timber harvest, road construction or decommissioning on a site-specific basis, and to model landscape effects of wildfire and climate change scenarios on watershed functions.

  6. Relation of sediment and nutrient loads to watershed characteristics and land use in the Otisco Lake basin, Onondaga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschal, J.E.; Sherwood, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Otisco Lake, the smallest and easternmost of New York State 's Finger Lakes, is the source of water supply for several villages in Onondaga County. In recent years, turbidity and algal blooms have periodically impaired the lake 's use for both water supply and recreation. Principal land uses within the Otisco Lake basin are woodland (39%) and cropland (49%). Conservation practices such as contour farming, strip cropping, and diversion ditches are applied to about 47% of the cropland in the basin. Runoff and concentrations of sediment and nutrients in the five major tributaries, which together drain about 70% of the lake 's watershed, were monitored from November 1981 through September 1983, and sediment and nutrient loads from the ungaged areas of the watershed were estimated. Otisco Lake received 10,600 tons of sediment, 20,600 lbs of phosphorus asp, 199,000 lbs of total kjeldahl nitrogen as N, and 236,000 lbs of nitrite plus nitrate as N from the five tributaries and the ungaged area during the 23-month study. Spafford Creek basin (12.0 sq mi) contributed about 72% of the annual sediment load and 46% of the annual nutrient load; the other four subbasins, which range from 2.6 to 3.7 sq mi in area, each contributed 3 to 5% of the annual sediment load and 6 to 16% of the annual nutrient load. The ungaged part of the watershed contributed 12% of the annual sediment load and 28% of the annual nutrient load. Concentrations of ammonia as N were relatively uniform through the year, although some extremely high concentrations occurred during the summer. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were highest in the summer and lowest in the fall. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate were significantly lower in winter than in the rest of the year. Total phosphorus concentrations were slightly higher in the spring than at other times, and concentrations of dissolved phosphorus were slightly higher in the summer. Storms and snowmelt accounted for 70 to 90% of the runoff, 90 to 99% of the sediment load, and 70 to 98% of the nutrient loads from the tributaries. The largest nutrient loads occurred during the spring of each year, when runoff was highest. About 70% of the sediment, 60% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 58% of total phosphorus, and 53% of nitrite plus nitrate were transported during spring high flows. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  8. Sediment budget and interannual variations of suspended sediment load in the Rio Cordon (Italy). Three decades of monitoring and investigations (1987-2014).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Rama, Adriana; Rainato, Riccardo; Mao, Luca; Picco, Lorenzo; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2015-04-01

    This work shows the results of 28 years of measurements carried out in the Rio Cordon catchment, an Alpine watershed where a measuring station continuously recorded water discharge, bedload and suspended sediment transport since 1987. Hourly values of discharge and suspended sediment transport (or 5 min interval during flood events) have been studied throughout the whole study period. Annual and seasonal variations of suspended sediment load during the study period were analyzed along with their contribution to the total sediment yield. Comparing these almost three decades, the highest suspended solid transport occurred in 1994, 2001, 1987, 1998, 2002 and 2009, during which it was 2521.5, 1568.5, 792, 745, 551 and 514.8 t year-1, respectively. Summer and autumn contributions were significant in 1989, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2002, and 2005; on the other hand 2001 was characterized by a snowmelt flood that generated almost all the suspended load. A notable variability of the suspended solid transport can be observed taking in count snowmelt floods. Also 1987, 2001, 2008, 2009 and 2010 are characterized by a very important role of this kind of runoff. Data collected in the Rio Cordon for 28 years show that 75.2% of the total sediment load (10597.8 t of 14088.8 t) was due to suspended sediment transport. In 1994 and 2001, a large portion of the suspended sediment load was mainly supplied during the flood events that occurred in September 1994 and May 2001, which produced 198 and 1017.5 t respectively. Averaging 28 years of data, the mean annual specific sediment yield turns out to be around 102,9 t km-2 year-1. However, this value includes the 1986-1993 period characterized by ordinary flood events during which de mean sediment production was 65.34 t km-2 year-1, the massive sediment yield in 1994 (803.4 t km-2 year-1), the 1995-2000 period (93.2 t km-2 year-1), the 2001 (343.8 km-2 year-1) and the 2002-2014 period(54.5 t km-2 year-1). The highest values correspond to 1994, 2001, 1998 and 1987, respectively. Sediment availability decreased during the latest ten years, in which only snowmelt floods contributed significantly to the total suspended sediment yield. The reduction of the annual sediment budget in this period indicates an armoring process that is taking place in the riverbed. This research was funded by both Italian Research Project PRIN2010-2011-N 20104ALME4-ITSE: National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area and EU Project SedAlp: sediment management in Alpine basins, integrating sediment continuum, risk mitigation and hydropower, 83-4-3-AT.

  9. Simulation of contaminated sediment transport in White Oak Creek basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Brenkert, A.L.; Moore, T.D.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a systematic approach to management of the contaminated sediments in the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The primary contaminant of concern is radioactive cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), which binds to soil and sediment particles. The key components in the approach include an intensive sampling and monitoring system for flood events; modeling of hydrological processes, sediment transport, and contaminant flux movement; and a decision framework with a detailed human health risk analysis. Emphasis is placed on modeling of watershed rainfall-runoff and contaminated sediment transport during flooding periods using the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran (HSPF) model. Because a large number of parameters are required in HSPF modeling, the major effort in the modeling process is the calibration of model parameters to make simulation results and measured values agree as closely as possible. An optimization model incorporating the concepts of an expert system was developed to improve calibration results and efficiency. Over a five-year simulation period, the simulated flows match the observed values well. Simulated total amount of sediment loads at various locations during storms match with the observed values within a factor of 1.5. Simulated annual releases of {sup 137}Cs off-site locations match the data within a factor of 2 for the five-year period. The comprehensive modeling approach can provide a valuable tool for decision makers to quantitatively analyze sediment erosion, deposition, and transport; exposure risk related to radionuclides in contaminated sediment; and various management strategies.

  10. Effects of urbanization on streamflow and sediment transport in the Rock Creek and Anacostia River basins, Montgomery County, Maryland, 1962-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorke, Thomas H.; Herb, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Land use, precipitation, streamflow, and sediment discharge data were collected from nine small drainage basins in Montgomery County, Maryland, to evaluate runoff and sediment response to sediment-control practices in areas undergoing urban development. Drainage basins ranged in size from 0.35 to 21.1 sq mi and land use ranged from rural to 60 percent urban. Urbanization did not affect low and medium flows, but it did result in increased storm runoff and peak flows. Suspended sediment transported from one of the basins that underwent urban development, the 21.1 sq mi Anacostia River basin, averaged 15 ,400 tons/yr between 1962 and 1974. Bedload was estimated as 5 to 11 percent of the total load. Cropland, urban land, and construction sites were the major sources of sediment. Average annual sediment yields ranged from 065 to 4.3 tons/acre for cropland, 3.7 tons/acre for urban land, and 7 to 100 tons/acre for urban construction sites. The magnitude of the yields from construction sites was significantly affected by (1) the slope of the sites, (2) the proximity of stream channels, (3) buffer zones of natural vegetation, and (4) sediment-control measures. Sediment controls, particularly those enforced under a 1971 sediment-control ordinance, apparently decreased construction-site sediment yields by 60 to 80 percent. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: implications for habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with this uncertainty provides a more statistically rigorous method of quantifying this uncertainty than the more typical “sum of errors” approach. The results of this study reinforce the need for measurement of estuarine sediment fluxes over multiple years (multiple hydrologic conditions) to adequately detail the variability in flux. Additionally, the timing of breaching events for the restoration project could be tied to annual hydrologic conditions to capitalize on increased regional sediment supply.

  12. Diurnal variation in rates of calcification and carbonate sediment dissolution in Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality and circulation in Florida Bay (a shallow, subtropical estuary in south Florida) are highly dependent upon the development and evolution of carbonate mud banks distributed throughout the Bay. Predicting the effect of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on carbonate sedimentation requires an understanding of annual, seasonal, and daily variations in the biogenic and inorganic processes affecting carbonate sediment precipitation and dissolution. In this study, net calcification rates were measured over diurnal cycles on 27 d during summer and winter from 1999 to 2003 on mud banks and four representative substrate types located within basins between mud banks. Substrate types that were measured in basins include seagrass beds of sparse and intermediate density Thalassia sp., mud bottom, and hard bottom communities. Changes in total alkalinity were used as a proxy for calcification and dissolution. On 22 d (81%), diurnal variation in rates of net calcification was observed. The highest rates of net carbonate sediment production (or lowest rates of net dissolution) generally occurred during daylight hours and ranged from 2.900 to -0.410 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1. The lowest rates of carbonate sediment production (or net sediment dissolution) occurred at night and ranged from 0.210 to -1.900 g CaCO3 m -2 night-1. During typical diurnal cycles, dissolution during the night consumed an average of 29% of sediment produced during the day on banks and 68% of sediment produced during the day in basins. Net sediment dissolution also occurred during daylight, but only when there was total cloud cover, high turbidity, or hypersalinity. Diurnal variation in calcification and dissolution in surface waters and surface sediments of Florida Bay is linked to cycling of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of long-term sediment accumulation rates from diurnal rates of carbonate sediment production measured in this study indicates an overall average accumulation rate for Florida Bay of 8.7 cm 1000 yr-1 and suggests that sediment dissolution plays a more important role than sediment transport in loss of sediment from Florida Bay. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  13. Sediment budget of a debris flow event in the French Prealps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theule, J. I.; Loye, A.; Libault, F.; Laigle, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2009-12-01

    Manival Torrent, a small mountain stream located in the Northern French Prealps, experiences debris flows annually. The torrents catchment (3.6 km2, 1,200 m relief) is composed of marl and limestone beds with increasing limestone towards the ridge. A field monitoring program started in 2009 to study the geomorphic responses to flow events. The aim of this study is to implement an event-based sediment budget approach for monitoring coarse sediment transport and characterizing the spatial variability of the sediment response in the main channel. The monitoring of 38 cross-sections (within a 1.8 km length) provides total volumes of erosion and deposition throughout the main channel. At the downstream end of the surveyed reach, a sediment trap (capacity: 25,000 m3) is used for measuring sediment output. Terrestrial LiDAR is used for monitoring erosion and deposition wherever accessible in the catchment area which includes the sediment trap, reaches of the torrent, talus slopes, gullies, and cliffs. Precipitation is monitored by a rain gage in the upper catchment. An airborne LiDAR survey was done in spring 2009 providing a high-resolution DTM of the catchment. This intense field monitoring allows us to reconstruct morphological changes induced by a debris flow event that occurred on August 24, 2009. A sediment budget analysis was performed to determine the main sediment sources of the torrent and to evaluate the respective contribution of channels and hillslopes to the sediment yield. Left photo shows a reach of Manival torrent full of sediment storage before the event. Right photo shows the same reach with the storage removed after the debris flow event (25 August, 2009).

  14. Laboratory-determined Phosphorus Flux from Lake Sediments as a Measure of Internal Phosphorus Loading

    PubMed Central

    Ogdahl, Mary E.; Steinman, Alan D.; Weinert, Maggie E.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is a water quality issue in lakes worldwide, and there is a critical need to identify and control nutrient sources. Internal phosphorus (P) loading from lake sediments can account for a substantial portion of the total P load in eutrophic, and some mesotrophic, lakes. Laboratory determination of P release rates from sediment cores is one approach for determining the role of internal P loading and guiding management decisions. Two principal alternatives to experimental determination of sediment P release exist for estimating internal load: in situ measurements of changes in hypolimnetic P over time and P mass balance. The experimental approach using laboratory-based sediment incubations to quantify internal P load is a direct method, making it a valuable tool for lake management and restoration. Laboratory incubations of sediment cores can help determine the relative importance of internal vs. external P loads, as well as be used to answer a variety of lake management and research questions. We illustrate the use of sediment core incubations to assess the effectiveness of an aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment for reducing sediment P release. Other research questions that can be investigated using this approach include the effects of sediment resuspension and bioturbation on P release. The approach also has limitations. Assumptions must be made with respect to: extrapolating results from sediment cores to the entire lake; deciding over what time periods to measure nutrient release; and addressing possible core tube artifacts. A comprehensive dissolved oxygen monitoring strategy to assess temporal and spatial redox status in the lake provides greater confidence in annual P loads estimated from sediment core incubations. PMID:24637715

  15. Runoff and Sediment Delivery from Bare and Graveled Forest Road Approaches to Stream Crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. R.; McGuire, K. J.; Aust, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Forested watersheds are typically associated with high quality water yield, yet forest roads and trails can adversely impact water quality draining forested watersheds. Increased stream sedimentation from forest road stream crossings often represents the most significant water quality threat associated with forestry operations. Quantification of sediment delivery rates is essential for the prescription of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that adequately address forest road stormwater runoff. Two different field experiments were implemented in the Virginia Piedmont to achieve the objectives of quantifying sediment delivery from forest roads where the road meets the stream (the road approach) and evaluating the sediment reduction efficacy of partially graveling road approaches. A forest operational experiment that included sediment traps and differential leveling was used to measure sediment delivery from five bare and four fully graveled road approaches for one year (August 2011 through July 2012). Rainfall simulation experiments were performed on six additional approaches to measure stormwater runoff volume, infiltration, and sediment delivery for 10 to 50-minute rain events with rainfall recurrence intervals of < 1 to 5-year return periods. Rainfall simulations were performed on newly-reopened bare approaches, with subsequent simulations on partially graveled approaches. The sediment trap study provides annual sediment delivery rates for bare and fully graveled road approaches. The rainfall simulation experiments characterize sediment delivery during storm events and provide an evaluation of different levels of Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation (i.e. to full gravel coverage) to minimize sediment inputs from road approaches. Sediment delivery from both experiments was related to rainfall amount, timing, and intensity, as well as road approach characteristics such as length, slope, and percentage of bare soil through stepwise multiple regression analysis. We found that the most important explanatory variables of sediment delivery over time are rainfall amount and approach length. Sediment delivery rates from the silt fence study ranged from 40 to 320 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the bare approaches and from 11 to 20 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for the fully graveled approaches. Median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration of surface runoff during rainfall simulations ranged from 1.1-3.7, 1.1-2.0, and 0.2-1.1 g L-1, for the bare approach, first-, and second-gravel application treatments, respectively. These findings are particularly important for development and refinement of forestry BMPs as evidenced by recent and impending Federal court interpretations of the Clean Water Act. In addition, these controlled field experiments provide the data necessary to test model representation of hydrologic and soil erosion processes and to evaluate uncertainty in model predictions of runoff and sediment delivery.

  16. Long-term sediment yield of the Austdalsbreen glacier, southwest Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Bogen, Jim; Ragulina, Galina; Read, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Long-term sediment yield of Austdalsbreen glacier, an eastern outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen ice cap in southwest Norway, was investigated by studies of sedimentation rates in the proglacial lakes Austdalsvatn and Styggevatn, along with subglacial topography radar survey and seismic surveys of the lake bed sediment. Sediment cores were taken from both lakes. Annual sedimentation throughout the cores was identified from high resolution photographs and X-ray scan analyses and was confirmed by three accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings. The seismic survey profiles revealed the distribution of these sediments. The impact of the subglacial topography on the sediment delivery from upstream, along with grain-size distribution and organic content analyses, were also taken into account in the interpretation of sediment cores. Possible impact of climate change on sediment delivery from the glacier was discussed by comparison of the average lake sedimentation rates during different periods of postglacial time. Around calibrated years 9000-8870 BP, Austdalsbreen glacier was subject to rapid retreat and calving. It was found that the glacier retreated rapidly from its maximum extension, which had totally covered the two lakes, in the 130 yrs in the early Holocene. About 1.4 million tons suspended load was delivered from the glacier during this short period, giving an average sediment yield of 400 t/yr km2. Such a high sediment yield was found to be due to rapid calving, fast ice motion, abundance of meltwater, and larger areal extension and volume of the glacier at that time. The glacier probably disappeared from the catchment around 6000 BP. The glacier advanced after the 1100s, reaching its Little Ice Age maximum before retreating to its present position. About 3.5 million tons suspended load was delivered from the glacier during the 800 yrs from 1186 to 1986 AD, corresponding to an average sediment yield of 290 t/yr km2, 30% lower than that of the early Holocene retreat. This difference is probably mostly due to the smaller volume of the modern glacier. Keywords: long-term sediment yield, postglacial time, proglacial lake, sediment core, seismic survey

  17. Temporal and spatial variability of sediment flux into the sea from the three largest rivers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yang, Qingshu; Chen, Shenliang; Luo, Zhifa; Yuan, Fei; Wang, Runtian

    2014-06-01

    The Yellow, Yangtze and Pearl Rivers supply over 90% of the sediment flux from China to the western Pacific Ocean. Trends and abrupt changes in the water discharge and sediment load of the three rivers were examined and compared based on data updated to the year 2011 at the seasonal and annual scales. The total water discharge from the three rivers shows a statistically insignificant decreasing trend with a rate of 0.62 109 m3/a, and the total sediment load shows a statistically significant decreasing trend at a rate of 31.12 106 t/a from the 1950s to 2011. The water discharge of the entire Yellow River and the upstream portion of the Yangtze River shows significant decreasing trends, and that of the mid-lower stream of Yangtze River and the entire Pearl River shows insignificant trends. The sediment loads in the three river basins all show significant decreasing trends at the annual and seasonal scales, and a dramatic decrease in the 2000s resulted in a more obvious decreasing trend over the studied period. From the 1950s to the 2000s, the contribution of sediment flux from the Yellow River to the ocean decreased from 71.8% to 37.0%, and the contributions of the Yangtze and Pearl Rivers increased from 24.2% and 4.0% to 53.0% and 10.0%, respectively. Inter-annual variations in water discharge and sediment load were affected by climate oscillations, such as the El Nio/Southern Oscillation, and the long-term decreasing trend in sediment load was primarily caused by human activities. Dam constructions and soil conservation projects were the major causes of sediment reduction. From the 1970s to the 2000s, the decrease in total sediment load from the three rivers caused by climate change and human activities was 2.24 108 t/a (23.0%) and 7.5 108 t/a (77.0%), respectively. In the coming decades, the sediment flux from the three rivers into the sea will decrease further with intensifying human activities, resulting in many challenges for the management of river basins and river deltas.

  18. How Much Water and Suspended Sediment Does a Large Tropical Island Shed During a Major Hurricane? Hydrologic and Geomorphologic Effects of Hurricane Georges, September 1998, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, M. C.; Webb, R. M.; Warne, A. G.

    2005-05-01

    On September 21-22 1998, Hurricane Georges, a category-3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, produced heavy rainfall, flooding, and landslides in the mountains and coastal plains of Puerto Rico. In general, rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield vary across the 8,711 square kilometer island of Puerto Rico because of an orographic barrier, the Cordillera Central. Mean annual runoff for the island is estimated to be 910 mm (equal to 8 billion cubic meters), which is about 57 percent of mean annual precipitation: 1,600 mm (14 billion cubic meters). Mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from Puerto Rico into surrounding coastal waters is estimated at 5.9 (+/- 3.2) million metric tonnes. The largely mountainous watersheds of the island are small (tens to hundreds of square kilometers), channel gradients are steep, and most stream valleys tend to be well-incised and narrow. Major rainstorms are intense but brief. As a consequence, flood waters rise rapidly (minutes to tens of minutes) with peak discharges several orders of magnitude above base discharge, and flood waters recede quickly (hours). Major storms transport a substantial portion of suspended sediment from uplands to the coast, based on data from a set of nine suspended-sediment monitoring stations representative of typical conditions in Puerto Rico. During Hurricane Georges, U. S. Geological Survey and National Weather Service rain-gage networks recorded 2-day rainfalls that ranged from about 100 mm to 630 mm (average was 300 mm, equal to about 2.6 billion cubic meters of water). Many streams rose more than 5 meters, resulting in severe flooding in northern, southwestern, and western watersheds. Landslides dissected roads and isolated communities on both the northern and southern slopes of the Cordillera Central. More than twice the mean annual discharge flowed from some watersheds (approximately 1 billion cubic meters of water for the entire island) carrying with it one to six times the mean annual load of sediment from some watersheds. A total of approximately 2.4 million metric tonnes of suspended sediment were discharged from the island to the coastal areas and insular shelf, equal to an average suspended-sediment yield of 280 metric tonnes per square kilometer. Suspended-sediment concentrations for streams draining the steeper, drier, and less vegetated southern watersheds were four to five times greater than the concentrations for streams draining the lower relief, wetter, and more vegetated northern watersheds. The runoff from this single storm was about 13 percent of mean annual runoff and was responsible for about 40 percent of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from the island.

  19. Using sediment 'fingerprints' to assess sediment-budget errors, north Halawa Valley, Oahu, Hawaii, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, B.R.; DeCarlo, E.H.; Fuller, C.C.; Wong, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Reliable estimates of sediment-budget errors are important for interpreting sediment-budget results. Sediment-budget errors are commonly considered equal to sediment-budget imbalances, which may underestimate actual sediment-budget errors if they include compensating positive and negative errors. We modified the sediment 'fingerprinting' approach to qualitatively evaluate compensating errors in an annual (1991) fine (<63 ??m) sediment budget for the North Halawa Valley, a mountainous, forested drainage basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, during construction of a major highway. We measured concentrations of aeolian quartz and 137Cs in sediment sources and fluvial sediments, and combined concentrations of these aerosols with the sediment budget to construct aerosol budgets. Aerosol concentrations were independent of the sediment budget, hence aerosol budgets were less likely than sediment budgets to include compensating errors. Differences between sediment-budget and aerosol-budget imbalances therefore provide a measure of compensating errors in the sediment budget. The sediment-budget imbalance equalled 25% of the fluvial fine-sediment load. Aerosol-budget imbalances were equal to 19% of the fluvial 137Cs load and 34% of the fluval quartz load. The reasonably close agreement between sediment- and aerosol-budget imbalances indicates that compensating errors in the sediment budget were not large and that the sediment-budget imbalance as a reliable measure of sediment-budget error. We attribute at least one-third of the 1991 fluvial fine-sediment load to highway construction. Continued monitoring indicated that highway construction produced 90% of the fluvial fine-sediment load during 1992. Erosion of channel margins and attrition of coarse particles provided most of the fine sediment produced by natural processes. Hillslope processes contributed relatively minor amounts of sediment.

  20. Quantifying sediment connectivity in Wadi Al-Arab (NW Jordan) using a sediment budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Pöppl, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    Due to data scarcity, sediment connectivity most often only qualitatively describes the potential transfer of sediments through a landscape. However, quantitative information on sediment delivery is of special relevance for modelling approaches as well as for sustainable land and water management, especially in water scarce regions such as Jordan, where valuable water reservoirs suffer from sediment pollution. Measurements are needed to quantify sediment outputs of the different land units and to trace their pathways though the catchments. This study uses the outcomes of a multiple response sediment budget approach conducted in the Wadi al-Arab catchment in northwest Jordan (263.5 km²) to quantify sediment connectivity. The catchment shows a Mediterranean to semi arid climate and consists of carbonatic and marly geology of the Upper Cretaceous. The topography ranges from rolling hills in the East to steeper mountainous areas in the North and West were olive orchards are the main agricultural use. Soil erosion measurements in the main land use units and relevant sediment sources, such as olive orchards, agricultural fields, and natural vegetated slopes uncovered the potential ranges of soil erosion rates in these units. Furthermore, the annual sediment yield in the Wadi Al Arab water reservoir was calculated. With the extrapolation of the erosion rates of the main contributing land use units and the annual sediment amount that reaches the sink, a maximum value of lateral sediment connectivity could be quantified, reaching up to 18%. A multiple sediment fingerprint method was used to delineate the relative contribution of each measured source to the sink based on the lake sediment samples. Supported by additional 137Cs analysis of terrace samples and a survey of the Wadi bed a high longitudinal connectivity could be derived. The applied method mix allowed the quantification of lateral sediment connectivity on catchment scale and gave a comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal connectivity in the Wadi bed, this way serving as possible data base to test available sediment connectivity models.

  1. Effects of low-level dams on the distribution of sediment, trace metals, and organic substances in the lower Schuylkill River basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorke, Thomas H.; Stamer, John K.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy use of the Schuylkill River for municipal water supplies and a history of accidental spills and discharges of trace metals and organic substances have been a concern of State and local officials for many years. The U.S. Geological Survey, as part of their River Quality Assessment Program, developed a study to assess the occurrence and distribution of trace substances that pose a threat to human health and aquatic life. This report presents the results of the part of the study that evaluates the effects of low-level dams in the lower basin on the distribution and transport of sediment and trace substances. A combination of historical and current data were used in the assessment. Suspended-sediment data collected at several mainstem and tributary sites from 1954 to 1979 and sedimentation surveys of the six pools in the lower basin were used to define the sediment-transport characteristics of the river. These data provided a base for assessing the transport of trace substances, which are associated closely with riverbed sediments and suspended particles. Water and riverbed samples were collected for analyses of trace substances at numerous sites in the lower basin from 1978 to 1980. The six dams on the river between Pottstown and Philadelphia have had a significant effect on the transport of sediment and trace substances. Between 1954 and 1970, more than 4.7 million cubic yards of sediment accumulated in the pools formed by the dams. The quantity of sediment deposited in the pools ranged from 150,000 cubic yards in Plymouth Pool to 1.6 million cubic yards in Fairmount Pool. The rate of accumulation in the pools was a function of pool size and geometry and the frequency of storms. About 35 percent of the total sediment discharged by the river was stored in the six pools from 1954 to 1970. Since 1970, the net change in sediment accumulation has been minimal. More than 24 percent of the sediment in Fairmount Pool in 1970 was scoured from the pool during Hurricane Agnes in 1972; however, total sediment accumulation returned to the 1970 level within 2 years. Analyses of water samples showed that some trace substances are associated closely with particulate material transported by the river. The concentration of suspended and total cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc correlated well with the concentration of suspended sediment and suspended organic carbon. The average annual discharge of metals in suspension as a percentage of total average annual discharge ranged from 46 percent for nickel to 94 percent for lead for the Schuylkill River at Manayunk. The average annual discharge of each metal remained about the same or decreased between Pottstown and Philadelphia. Synoptic sampling of the inflow and outflow of several pools during storm runoff showed that the pools limit the transport of trace metals. More than 50 percent of the suspended copper transported by the river at Pottstown was deposited in Vincent Pool during the storm of May 12-15, 1980. Similar reductions were observed between Port Kennedy and Manayunk as the storm runoff passed through Norristown, Plymouth, and Flat Rock Pools. Analyses of riverbed sediments showed that concentrations of trace substances were higher in sediments that included all particles finer than 0.062 millimeter than in sediments that included only particles finer than 0.016 millimeter. This suggests that medium and coarse silt particles or conglomerates of finer particles sorb as much or more trace constituents as the individual fine silts and clay particles. Concentrations of trace metals were as much as 90 percent higher in the sediments that included coarse silt. Concentrations of trace organic substances were several times higher in the sediments that included coarse silt than in sediments consisting of only fine silt or clay. Surficial and core samples of riverbed sediments were used to define the present and historical distribution of trace substances in

  2. Effective discharge for suspended sediment transport of the Ganga River and its geomorphic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Effective discharge (Qe) for suspended sediment transport in the alluvial reaches of the Ganga River in the western Ganga plains (WGP) has been computed using analytical' and an alternative magnitude-frequency' approach. Thirty years of mean monthly discharge data from various sites of the Ganga River have been assessed, and the abundance of discharge occurrence has been determined. Our analysis shows that less than 40% of the flow causes effective sediment transport in the Ganga, and this can be considered as the effective discharge for suspended sediment transport. Alternatively, 50% of the sediment load for all studied sites is moved by a discharge varying between 14 and 40% of the total discharge. Effective discharges calculated over the period of record are well below the bankfull discharges (Qb). A few events are close to the bankfull level, but with a high return period (RI > 40 years), and therefore, not effective to transport most of the available sediments. Our computation shows that the mean annual discharge (RI = 2.33 yrs) can transport only 0 to 10% of the total available sediments. The computation of effective discharge also provided important insights to understand the linkage between hydrology and channel morphology. Sediment storage and removal processes, which are reflected in sediment budget, cause changes in cross-sectional area/channel bathymetry at various sites but the channel margins are not affected. A high ratio of bankfull to effective discharge (Qb/Qe) forces the flow lines to be concentrated to the thalweg position and channels are incised. Our study also implies that incision and aggradation of the river valley during a relatively long period are caused by changes in effective discharge. We argue that the valley incision and filling episodes in the western Ganga plains at Late Quaternary timescales in response to monsoonal fluctuations were primarily affected by changes in the effective discharges of the rivers.

  3. Assessing the short- and long-term effects of land development on watershed erosion and sediment delivery to marine ecosystems of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Gray, S. C.; Sears, W.; Brooks, G.; Larson, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout history, significant portions of the native vegetation of many Caribbean islands were replaced by cropland. Even though most islands eventually underwent reforestation, sediment yields and deposition rates appear to be higher now than throughout the past millennia, and this suggests that coral reef systems are experiencing an unprecedented level of sediment-related stress. Given the present-day emphasis on erosion control projects to restore coral reefs of the US Caribbean, it is of utmost importance to develop a quantitative understanding of the effects of both land development and watershed restoration activities on sediment delivery at various spatio-temporal scales. Efforts to measure contemporary erosion, sediment delivery and deposition rates have been conducted on the island of St. John-USVI since 2009. Sediment yields under natural conditions from the small (<10 km2) watersheds in this dry sub-tropical setting are between 1 and 10 Mg km-2 yr-1. Current sediment yields are 2 - 50 times higher than background depending on unpaved road network abundance and characteristics. Our efforts indicate that a watershed restoration program implemented in 2010-2011 within the 13-km2 Coral Bay watershed resulted in the reduction of annual sediment delivery rates from 445 Mg yr-1 to 327 Mg yr-1. Marine sedimentation rates of terrigenous materials based on sediment trap data were 6 - 24 times greater below developed watersheds relative to undeveloped catchments and were consistent with spatial comparisons of modeled sediment yields. At sites located within reef systems, total and silt deposition rates during sampling periods with major storms exceeded rates shown to harm corals more frequently in developed areas. Terrigenous sedimentation rates during periods with equivalent storms were reduced following watershed restoration. These results suggest that targeted watershed restoration may be effective in reducing sedimentation where land development and sediments are considered a major threat to coral reefs.

  4. Phosphite flux at the sediment-water interface in northern Lake Taihu.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huimin; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Zhaoyi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphite (H2PO3(-), HPO3(2-), +3 valence), a reduced form of phosphorus (P), has been widely detected in water environments. The role of phosphite in the P biogeochemical cycle has not been investigated systematically and quantitative results on phosphite fluxes are lacking. In this study, intact sediment core simulation was employed to measure the flux of phosphite at the sediment-water interface in northern Lake Taihu. Phosphite fluxes (?molm(-)(2)d(-1)) ranged from -38.211.14 to 7.102.18, with an annual average of -4.7210.40. On the whole, phosphite migrated from water into sediment and the sediment was primarily a sink. The highest seasonal negative phosphite fluxes (?molm(-)(2)d(-1)) occurred in winter (-10.4418.63), followed by summer (-8.045.61) and spring (-2.614.17). In autumn, phosphite flux was 2.204.07. Higher annual average negative fluxes of phosphite (?molm(-)(2)d(-1)) appeared in site ZSB (-12.7017.96), which contained the highest content of total soluble P. The average yearly migration of phosphite in Lake Taihu from water to sediment was estimated to be (4.048.88)10(6)moly(-1). The transfer of phosphite from water into sediment usually occurs in winter may due to the season's natural tendency to create more favorable conditions for phosphite biogeochemical reactions. Phosphite fluxes showed significant negative correlations with the original phosphite concentration in water (r=-0.840, p<0.01), as well as organic matter (r=-0.720, p<0.01) and phosphate bound to Ca (Ca-Ps) (r=-0.632, p<0.05) in sediment. These results indicate that microbiological processes and P species bound to Ca may play an important role in the P redox cycle. No significant correlations between phosphite fluxes and dissolved oxygen or oxidation-reduction potential were observed. PMID:26580728

  5. An Investigation of Effective Discharge for Suspended Sediment by Level III Ecoregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heins, A.; Simon, A.

    2002-12-01

    The concept of dominant discharge in alluvial channels was first introduced by Wolman and Miller (1960). In their examination of magnitude and frequency of geomorphic forces, they proposed that the flow transporting the greatest amount of sediment and controlling channel form was not the highest magnitude discharge experienced by a river channel as commonly perceived, but in reality a relatively frequent event. This "effective discharge" can be calculated using flow and sediment-transport data to establish the increment of discharge that transports the largest fraction of the annual sediment load over a period of years. Because of the availability of suspended-sediment data, the dearth of bed-load data and the need to establish water-quality criteria for suspended sediment, this study focuses on the "effective discharge" for suspended sediment only. In the decades since Wolman and Miller's work, the term "dominant discharge" has been associated with two other flows: bankfull discharge, and flow of a given recurrence interval. Pickup and Warner (1976) state the average dominant discharge is the 1.58 year event on the annual flood series, although in other literature the recurrence interval is cited to generally fall between 1.0 and 2.5 years. Conversely, other authors refute that a flow of a universally applicable recurrence interval represents the effective discharge. However, the recent focus on river restoration and rehabilitation projects has meant magnitude-frequency analysis has become more widely applied for designing stable channels, and in many cases the 1.5 year flood has been considered equivalent to the bankfull and effective discharges. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effective discharge for suspended sediment in various ecoregions of the continental United States and to test whether the 1.5 year discharge is a reasonable estimate of this channel-forming flow. To date, the effective discharges for suspended sediment have been calculated for seven ecoregions: Coast Range (1) Sierra Nevada (5), Snake River Basin (12), Arizona-New Mexico Plateau (22), Flint Hills (28), Central Irregular Plains (40) and the Mississippi Valley Loess Plains (74). Mean daily flow data for a substantial period of record were divided into 33 logarithmic classes and the percentage occurrence of each of these was computed. The total annual suspended sediment transport was then calculated for each class, using suspended-sediment rating equations generated through regression of instantaneous discharge and suspended sediment concentration historic sample data. The geometric midpoint of the class transporting the greatest annual sediment load was considered to be the effective discharge. Results to date demonstrate in environments as diverse the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Mississippi Valley Loess Plains, the effective discharge for suspended sediment is close to the 1.5 year flow. In the former ecoregion, the mean recurrence interval of suspended sediment effective discharge was 1.526 years. The eventual aim of this project is to calculate effective discharges for all 2929 USGS gaging stations with sufficient instantaneous suspended sediment and associated discharges measurements. These sites cover all 84 level III ecoregions, permitting environmental and geographic patterns of effective discharge recurrence interval. Calculations will be repeated using higher temporal resolution (15 minute) flow data.

  6. Cumulative sediment reduction to the Lower Mekong River from planned dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z.; Minear, J. T.; Alford, C.

    2012-12-01

    Cumulative sediment reduction to the Lower Mekong River from planned dams Kondolf, G.M.1, Rubin, Z.1, Alford, C.1 1University of California, Berkeley, USA T. Minear, US Geological Survey Essentially unregulated until the 1990s, the Mekong River system is now being rapidly changed by dam construction. On the Lancang River (the upper Mekong in China), a cascade of eight mainstem dams is under construction; on the Lower Mekong and tributaries, over 135 dams are planned or under construction. How will these dams alter the sediment load of the Mekong? Sediment data are lacking from important tributaries, and data from the better-sampled mainstem have data quality problems. Average annual suspended load of the entire Mekong is about 160 million tonnes per year (Mt/y) (Walling 2005), about half of which is derived from the Lancang drainage in China. Prior studies indicate that the eight Chinese dams will reduce sediment yield from the Lancang to the Lower Mekong River basin by 95%. Once the Lower Basin dams are built, what will be the likely cumulative reduction in sediment load? We first estimated sediment yields from tributaries to the lower Mekong River by delineating distinct geomorphic provinces, and based on geomorphic characteristics, the limited sediment sampling data available, and runoff, we reconstructed the unimpaired sediment loads for each tributary and each reach of the mainstem, such that the total load equaled the documented 160Mt/y. We next applied the 3W model of Minear and Kondolf (2009) (a network model that accounts for multiple reservoirs on a given river and changing trap efficiencies as reservoirs fill) to estimate the sediment trapping by various combinations of dams, from a near-term, 'definite-future' scenario to a full build-out scenario. Under the former scenario, the sediment load reaching the Delta will be about half of its pre-1990 level. With full build-out of dams in the Lower Mekong River basin, including mainstem dams, the sediment load reaching the Delta will be less than 5% of its pre-1990 load. This reduction will likely have profound implications for the productivity of agriculture and the fishery within the lower Mekong River and Delta, as well as the offshore fishery and the sustainability of the Delta landform itself. This reduction assumes no sediment bypass or pass-through strategies are implemented in these dams, but such measures could significantly reduce the sediment trapping and resulting sediment starvation.

  7. Early and late Holocene sediment yield of Austdalsbreen glacier, southwest Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Bogen, Jim; Ragulina, Galina; Read, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Early and late Holocene sediment yield of Austdalsbreen glacier, an eastern outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen ice cap in southwest Norway, was investigated by studies of sedimentation rates in the proglacial lakes Austdalsvatn and Styggevatn, along with subglacial topography radar survey and seismic surveys of the lake bed sediment. Sediment cores were taken from both lakes. Annual sedimentation throughout the cores was identified from high resolution photographs and X-ray scan analyses. Three accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C datings were carried out to assist dating of sedimentation during different periods. The seismic survey profiles revealed the distribution of these sediments. The impact of the subglacial topography on the sediment delivery from upstream, along with grain-size distribution and organic content analyses, were also taken into account in the interpretation of sediment cores. Possible impact of climate change on sediment delivery from the glacier was discussed by comparison of the average lake sedimentation rates during two periods of postglacial time. Around calibrated years 9000-8870 BP, Austdalsbreen glacier was subject to rapid retreat and calving. It was found that the glacier retreated rapidly from its maximum extension, which had totally covered the two lakes, in the 130 years in the early Holocene. About 1.4 million tonnes suspended load was delivered from the glacier during this short period, giving an average sediment yield of 400 t/y/km2. Such a high sediment yield is hypothesised to be caused by rapid calving, fast ice motion, abundance of meltwater, and larger areal extension and volume of the glacier at that time. The glacier probably disappeared from the catchment around 6000 BP. The glacier advanced after the 1100s, reaching its Little Ice Age maximum before retreating to its present position. About 3.5 million tonnes suspended load was delivered from the glacier during the 800 years from A.D. 1186 to 1986, corresponding to an average sediment yield of 290 t/y/km2, 30% lower than that of the early Holocene retreat. This difference is probably mostly caused by the smaller area of the modern glacier.

  8. A graphical method to study suspended sediment dynamics during flood events in the Wadi Sebdou, NW Algeria (1973-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megnounif, Abdesselam; Terfous, Abdelali; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Small sub-basins are numerous in Mediterranean area and global sedimentary budgets cannot be obtained without a detailed understanding of the hydroclimatic processes that govern sediment fluxes in these small river systems. In this study, the shape of the relationship between sediment concentration (C) and water discharge (Q) during flood events of a 31-years period (1973-2004) was analyzed at the outlet of the Wadi Sebdou basin (256 km2) in northwest Algeria, using a new graphical analysis method based on features of hysteresis loops. Each flood was decomposed as successive stages - each of which being characterized by a sediment rating curve - and used to quantify the contribution of diverse sediment sources within the basin. Seven common classes of hydrological events (single valued and six hysteresis loops: clockwise, counter-clockwise, eight-shaped, single valued plus one loop, either clockwise or counter-clockwise, and single valued plus at least two loops) were explored. Sediment supply from locally derived sources (or "base load") was high and reached 77% of total sediment yield for the study period, and was attributed to weathering of bed material or gullies. The remainder portion was derived from hill-slopes, re-suspension of fresh fine deposits in the river bed, or bank collapse. The ratio of suspended sediment load derived from active sediment source varies considerably from one flood to another depending on many factors, such as seasonality and antecedent type of flood. The simpler floods were the most frequent ones but produced less sediment. The most frequent floods were clockwise or anticlockwise (52% of floods) but brought only 34% of the total sediment flux. The 18% of the most complex floods (single valued plus at least two loops) produced more than 53% of the sediments, mainly supplied by base load (84%). Intra-annual variability was very high. Over 31-years, the five biggest floods cumulated 64% of the total sediment flux and were of three classes, the most complex floods being dominant. The largest contribution occurred during one single 33-days long hydrological event with complex form which represented 26% of the total sediment flux. Apart from the five biggest flood events, the base load represented 53%. The biggest floods favour base load as compared to the smallest ones.

  9. Sediment discharge from an area of highway construction, Applemans Run basin, Columbia County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of highway construction on stream sediment loads were studied in Applemans Run basin, Columbia County, Pa., from October 1971 to May 1974. During the investigations, about 5,200 tons of suspended-sediment were discharged from the basin. Of this amount, about 2,700 tons, or about half the total sediment discharge, as derived from the highway construction area. Annual suspended-sediment yields from 17.5 acres under construction ranged from 40,000 to 66,000 tons/sq mi in the 1972 and 1973 water years, respectively. In the 1972 and 1973 er years of active construction, 83 percent of the sediment transported from the construction site was eroded each year in storms from January to June. Seasonal trends in sediment discharge for 1972 show that 69 percent of that year 's suspended-load was transported in April, May, and June, whereas less than 1 percent was transported in July, August, and September. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Spatial Patterns of Suspended Sediment Yield in the Upper Indus River Basin, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; de Boer, D. H.; Martz, L. W.

    2004-05-01

    The Indus River is one of the world`s largest rivers in term of water discharge and sediment loads, and the backbone of Pakistan`s economy for agriculture and hydropower. Much of its flow originates in the mountains of the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush. The suspended sediment load, which constitutes the main portion of the total load in mountain rivers, creates major water resources management problems such as siltation of reservoirs, damage to turbines, and a reduction in water quality. An understanding of the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the upper Indus River basin is, therefore, essential for effective water resources development in northern Pakistan. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration records are available for 17 active and discontinued hydrological stations (with drainage areas ranging from 600 to 166,000 km2) operated by the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority. The objective of this study is to delineate the spatial pattern of suspended sediment yield in the basin by analyzing the available hydrological database. Sediment yields have been calculated by constructing sediment rating curves. Physiographic characteristics, hydrologic regimes and climatic patterns of the basin have also been investigated. The results show that the upper Indus River basin can be subdivided into three regions based on suspended sediments yield. This division reflects the contrasting hydrological regimes of the basin. Region 1 comprises the high elevation, glacierized areas of the Karakoram Mountains in the northernmost part of the basin. This region extends downstream to Partab Bridge on the Indus River, and excludes areas around Nanga Parbat, which acts as a barrier to the monsoon. The sediments are mainly derived from the Shyok, Shigar, Hunza and Gilgit sub-basins during the period of increasing summer runoff in June. This runoff is caused by the melt of glaciers and permanent snow pack, and peaks in July and August, when almost the entire annual sediment load is transported. The mean annual sediment yield is greatest in the 28% glaciated Hunza River basin which accounts for more than 2800 t km-2 year-1. Region 2 is characterized by the sediment yields that result from an interaction of monsoon rains and glacier-melt. This region extends from Partab Bridge to Besham Qila. The Astore River produces the highest specific discharges in the basin, which are from southwest flanks of Nanga Parbat. Region 3 includes the area between Besham Qila and Tarbela Dam with the Gorband, Siran and Brandu tributaries. This part of the basin is mainly rain fed with little snow, and experience two types of rainfall: summer monsoon rains, and late winter and early spring rainfall produced by disturbances coming from the west that derive sediment on the hill slopes. This results in two separate peaks in the sediment loads, in March and July, respectively. This study can be further extended to construct a sediment budget for the upper Indus River. A sediment budget would result in a better understanding of the sediment dynamics by providing an accounting of the fluxes and fate of sediment in the drainage basin. The upper Indus exists in natural basin conditions without significant human impacts. As the sparse gauging network in this large basin is rapidly decreasing in density, the upper Indus basin represents a good case study for investigating the sediment dynamics in a data-sparse river as a contribution to the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) program.

  11. Sediment Yields and Sediment Sources in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A. C.; Landwehr, J. M.; Pavich, M. J.; Hupp, C. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Reuter, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Fine-grained sediment is having an adverse effect on the living resources and habitat of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. In order to reduce sediment inputs to the Bay, it is necessary to quantify erosion rates and sediment yields and identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment. Sediment sources in the Chesapeake Bay watershed were identified using different methods at several scales. At the Chesapeake Bay scale (165,800 km2), U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment data collected from 1985 through 2001 for 35 stations showed that 4 of the 6 highest sediment yields were in the Conestoga River Basin, Pennsylvania, which drains to the Susquehanna River. In the Susquehanna River Basin (70,190 km2), erosion rates were determined using atmospheric 10Be at 92 river outlets and confirmed that the highest rates of erosion were in the Conestoga River Basin. In three small watersheds draining to the Chesapeake Bay -- the Pocomoke River (157 km2), Little Conestoga Creek (109 km2), and Mattawoman Creek (142 km2) -- sediment sources were identified using a sediment-fingerprinting approach. In this approach, the sources of fine-grained suspended sediment in transport can be established by comparing physical and chemical properties of the suspended sediment to potential sources. In this study, suspended sediment (< 0.062 mm) collected during storm runoff was compared to upland sediment sources (cropland, construction sites, and forest) and channel corridor sources (channel banks and bed) using radionuclides (210Pb, 137Cs), stable isotopes (13C, 15N), and total C, N, and P. Preliminary results are available for two of the three watersheds. In the Pocomoke River watershed, ditch beds which were dug to drain cropland are a significant source of sediment. In the Little Conestoga Creek watershed, river banks and cropland are significant sources Erosion rates for nine cropland sites in the Little Conestoga Creek watershed were also determined with 137Cs inventories and indicated an average rate of erosion of 16.4 tons/hectare/year, which is about 25 times the sediment yield of the Little Conestoga Creek (0.65 tons/hectare/year). This finding indicates substantial sediment storage in the watershed.

  12. Sediment and nutrient trapping efficiency of a constructed wetland near Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, 1993-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.; Goddard, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Jackson Creek Wetland a 95-acre shallow prairie marsh containing three sediment retention ponds was constructed in 1992 to reduce sediment and nutrient in- flow to eutrophic Delavan Lake. The function of the wetland as a retention system for suspended sediments and nutrients (total and dissolved phosphorus, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved ammonia, and nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen) was studied from February 1993 through September 1995. Input and output load computations were based on water flow (discharge) measurements and periodic sampling of suspended sediments and nutrients at the three inflowing streams and at the wetland outflow. Results of the study indicated consistent sediment retention throughout the year; at times, as much as 80 percent of the inflow load was retained in the wetland. Nutrient retention was generally of lesser magnitude and much more variable. Although the annual budgets confirm net retention for all nutrient forms except ammonia, data analysis over shorter time scales show that outflow loads actually can exceed inflow loads during the late spring and summer months the period of greatest likelihood of algal blooms in the lake. This result demonstrates that the nutrient-trapping function of the wetland is variable because of the complexity of the system. Awareness of such variability can help to maintain realistic expectations and effective management practices.

  13. 75 FR 63804 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United States. These data are collected to... classification basis, annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses,...

  14. 77 FR 64463 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ..., the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e- commerce sales, year-end..., accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales..., annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total and detailed operating expenses,...

  15. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully account for proximal small urbanized watersheds that may dominate sediment supply.

  16. Total protein

    MedlinePLUS

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your blood. These are albumin and globulin. Proteins are important parts of all cells and tissues. ...

  17. Quantifying the origin of different sediment types in a catchment of the Southern French Alps by combining hydro-sedimentary records and fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Navratil, Oldrich; Ayrault, Sophie; Esteves, Michel; Legout, Cdric; Nmery, Julien; Lefvre, Irne; Bont, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion and subsequent sediment supply to rivers are particularly massive and episodic in mountainous environments, such as in the Southern French Alps. Those processes typically lead to an increase in water turbidity and a rapid filling of reservoirs in downstream areas. This situation is particularly problematic in regions where reservoirs are used to provide clear water to hydroelectric power plants. Sediment source areas must first be delineated and sediment fluxes between hillslopes and the river system must be better understood to implement efficient sediment management. We therefore combined traditional monitoring techniques (i.e., installation of river gauges and sediment samplers in several subcatchments) and sediment fingerprinting using elemental geochemistry and fallout radionuclides as potential discriminant properties to quantify the supply of sediment provided by different lithological sources (i.e., black marls, marly limestones, conglomerates, Quaternary deposits) to the River Blone (905 km). Those analyses were conducted on different material types collected within the catchment (i.e. suspended and riverbed sediment), and at the catchment outlet (i.e. on a sequence of sections of a 3-m long sediment core). Sediment exports at the river catchment outlet (330100 t km-2 yr-1) were mainly driven (80%) by the occurrence of widespread rainfall events (long duration, low intensities). In contrast, heavy, local and short duration storms generated high peak discharges and suspended sediment concentrations, but they were restricted to small upstream torrents. Our study (2007-2009) confirmed the important contribution of black marls (up to 70% at the flood scale) to sediment transported in rivers, although this substrate only occupies c. 10% of the total catchment surface. However, the contribution of other lithological sources varied at both intra- and inter-flood scales. Sediment exports generated by local convective storms were dominated by black marls/marly limestones. In contrast, widespread flood events that generate the bulk of annual sediment supply at the outlet were characterized by a more stable lithologic composition and by a larger contribution of limestones, Quaternary deposits and conglomerates, which corroborated the analysis of riverbed sediment. Finally, we found that black marls and marly limestone sources provided the main fraction of sediment analysed throughout the outlet core sequence (40 and 22 %, respectively, for the period 1962-2009). However, we also found evidence for the occurrence of major floods carrying large quantities of sediment originating from Quaternary deposits and conglomerates (25 and 16 %, respectively). The variability of sediment sources throughout the sequence may reflect the spatial variability of rainfall within the catchment, which in turn reflects its origin. This study emphasizes the importance of using archival data to validate the results of sediment fingerprinting studies conducted during short contemporary monitoring programmes.

  18. Sediment storage and yield in an urbanized karst watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Evan A.; Schurger, Stephen G.

    2005-08-01

    In karst watersheds, sinkholes and other drainage features control the temporal and spatial pattern of sediment storage across the landscape. However, studies dealing with sedimentation in karst watersheds are scarce and the sediment storage function of sinkholes and caves has not been investigated using a sediment budget approach. In this study, we use estimates of channel erosion, sinkhole sedimentation, and suspended sediment yield to examine changes in sediment storage in the 9 km 2 Upper Pigeon Roost Creek fluviokarst watershed near Cookeville, TN. The study watershed has undergone urbanization over the last ˜ 50 years, and sinkholes and caves in the area show signs of recent sedimentation (buried tree roots, buried cultural artifacts, etc.). While sinkholes are generally considered to be sediment sinks, sinkholes examined in this study are shown to cycle between periods of net sediment storage and net sediment loss. Using copyright dates on trash items buried in sinkhole deposits, we estimated the residence time of sinkhole-stored sediment to range from 6 to 10 years. However, other evidence indicates that some sinkholes may store sediment for several centuries. We propose that sediment storage within sinkholes is controlled by several factors including sinkhole drainage area, sinkhole morphology, and basin sediment yield. In addition, changes in sediment storage in karst watersheds are contingent upon random events such as sinkhole collapses. Annual sediment yield was estimated to be 111 Mg km - 2 year - 1 for the entire study watershed and ranged from 11 to 128 Mg km - 2 year - 1 for 3 sub-watersheds. Sediment eroded from the watershed, perhaps during historic settlement of the area, is stored within a large cave system underlying the city. However, the results of a partial sediment budget indicate that the cave is presently a net sediment source. Overall, the findings indicate that the sediment storage function of caves and sinkholes varies spatially and temporally, and that these changes need to be incorporated into sediment budgets for karst watersheds.

  19. IMPACTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE SEDIMENT REGIME OF THE HANJIANG RIVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    The Han River is the longest tributary of Yangtze River. It merges with the Yangtze at Wuhan city. It plays a critical role in promoting the socio-economic development of the Hanjiang River basin. With population increase and economic growth, the development of water resources and hydropower resources of the Hanjiang River has been intensified by dam building, and consequently the sediment regime of the Hanjiang River has been altered to some extent. To assess dam-induced alterations in the sediment regime of the Hanjiang River quantitatively, this paper selected three key hydrological stations as case study sites above and below the Danjiangkou reservoir respectively. The Danjiangkou reservoir is a seasonal-storage reservoir and was built in 1967. It is located at the end of the upper reach of the Hanjiang, and its catchment area accounts for 60% of the river basin total. The reservoir has a normal pool level of 157m and a capacity of 17.45 billion m3. It is also the water source of the central route of Chinas South-North water transfer project. Currently the second-stage engineering works are underway with an aim of increasing the normal pool level to 170m and the storage capacity to 29.05 billion m3, and expected to be completed by 2010. Baihe station, above the Danjiangkou reservoir, is the upper controlling station for water and sediment discharges to the Danjiangkou reservoir, located at the upper reach of the Hanjiang River. Huangzhuang is located at the end point of the middle reach of the Hanjiang River, 223 km below the Danjiangkou reservoir. Xiantao, below the Danjiangkou, is the most downstream station on the Hanjiang River, and controls water and sediment discharges to the main stem of the Yangtze River from the Hanjiang River. The whole study period was divided into 2 subperiods by the year when the reservoirs started to store water. On the basis of 54-year long time series of daily sediment data from three stations, the alterations of their annual, seasonal, monthly and daily sediment load, and the relationships between water quantity and sediment load were analyzed and compared. The results revealed: the Danjiangkou reservoir imposed significant effects to the river sediment regime and the impacts varied with the distance between the target reservoir and the study site; deforestation resulted in an increase in annual, wet seasonal and dry seasonal sediment load; the trapping of sediment in reservoirs together with soil and water conservation caused a significant reduction in annual, seasonal, monthly and daily sediment load downstream; the reservoir operation mode of retain high floods in wet seasons altered the distribution of monthly and daily sediment load downstream, i.e. the percentages of sediment load in high flow months decreasing and the ones in low flow months increasing, and caused an reduction in the percentages of high daily sediment concentration and sediment load downstream; the relationship between water and sediment significantly changed. The output of this paper could provide reference for the assessment of the impacts of human activities on the long-term health and stability of the Hanjiang River ecosystem.

  20. An evaluation of sediment rating curves for estimating suspended sediment concentrations for subsequent flux calculations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of actual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measurements, hydrologists have used sediment rating (sediment transport) curves to estimate (predict) SSCs for subsequent flux calculations. Various evaluations of the sediment rating-curve method were made using data from long-term, daily sediment-measuring sites within large (>1 000 000 km2), medium ( 1000 km2), and small (<1000 km2) river basins in the USA and Europe relative to the estimation of suspended sediment fluxes. The evaluations address such issues as the accuracy of flux estimations for various levels of temporal resolution as well as the impact of sampling frequency on the magnitude of flux estimation errors. The sediment rating-curve method tends to underpredict high, and overpredict low SSCs. As such, the range of errors associated with concomitant flux estimates for relatively short time-frames (e.g. daily, weekly) are likely to be substantially larger than those associated with longer time-frames (e.g. quarterly, annually) because the over- and underpredictions do not have sufficient time to balance each other. Hence, when error limits must be kept under ??20%, temporal resolution probably should be limited to quarterly or greater. The evaluations indicate that over periods of 20 or more years, errors of <1% can be achieved using a single sediment rating curve based on data spanning the entire period. However, somewhat better estimates for the entire period, and markedly better annual estimates within the period, can be obtained if individual annual sediment rating curves are used instead. Relatively accurate (errors annual suspended sediment fluxes can be obtained from hydrologically based monthly measurements/samples. For 5-year periods or longer, similar results can be obtained from measurements/samples collected once every 2 months. In either case, hydrologically based sampling, as opposed to calendar-based sampling is likely to limit the magnitude of flux estimation errors. Published in 2003 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  1. 2008 annual merit review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  2. Sediment transport in the lower Snake and Clearwater River Basins, Idaho and Washington, 2008–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Gregory M.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Wood, Molly S.

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation is an ongoing maintenance problem for reservoirs, limiting reservoir storage capacity and navigation. Because Lower Granite Reservoir in Washington is the most upstream of the four U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs on the lower Snake River, it receives and retains the largest amount of sediment. In 2008, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to quantify sediment transport to Lower Granite Reservoir. Samples of suspended sediment and bedload were collected from streamgaging stations on the Snake River near Anatone, Washington, and the Clearwater River at Spalding, Idaho. Both streamgages were equipped with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter to evaluate the efficacy of acoustic backscatter for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations and transport. In 2009, sediment sampling was extended to 10 additional locations in tributary watersheds to help identify the dominant source areas for sediment delivery to Lower Granite Reservoir. Suspended-sediment samples were collected 9–15 times per year at each location to encompass a range of streamflow conditions and to capture significant hydrologic events such as peak snowmelt runoff and rain-on-snow. Bedload samples were collected at a subset of stations where the stream conditions were conducive for sampling, and when streamflow was sufficiently high for bedload transport. At most sampling locations, the concentration of suspended sediment varied by 3–5 orders of magnitude with concentrations directly correlated to streamflow. The largest median concentrations of suspended sediment (100 and 94 mg/L) were in samples collected from stations on the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, and the Salmon River at White Bird, Idaho, respectively. The smallest median concentrations were in samples collected from the Selway River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Lochsa River near Lowell, Idaho (11 mg/L), the Clearwater River at Orofino, Idaho (13 mg/L), and the Middle Fork Clearwater River at Kooskia, Idaho (15 mg/L). The largest measured concentrations of suspended sediment (3,300 and 1,400 mg/L) during a rain-on-snow event in January 2011 were from samples collected at the Potlatch River near Spalding, Idaho, and the Palouse River at Hooper, Washington, respectively. Generally, samples collected from agricultural watersheds had a high percentage of silt and clay-sized suspended sediment, whereas samples collected from forested watersheds had a high percentage of sand. During water years 2009–11, Lower Granite Reservoir received about 10 million tons of suspended sediment from the combined loads of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. The Snake River accounted for about 2.97 million tons per year (about 89 percent) of the total suspended sediment, 1.48 million tons per year (about 90 percent) of the suspended sand, and about 1.52 million tons per year (87 percent) of the suspended silt and clay. Of the suspended sediment transported to Lower Granite Reservoir, the Salmon River accounted for about 51 percent of the total suspended sediment, about 56 percent of the suspended sand, and about 44 percent of the suspended silt and clay. About 6.2 million tons (62 percent) of the sediment contributed to Lower Granite Reservoir during 2009–11 entered during water year 2011, which was characterized by an above average winter snowpack and sustained spring runoff. A comparison of historical data collected from the Snake River near Anatone with data collected during this study indicates that concentrations of total suspended sediment and suspended sand in the Snake River were significantly smaller during water years 1972–79 than during 2008–11. Most of the increased sediment content in the Snake River is attributable to an increase of sand-size material. During 1972–79, sand accounted for an average of 28 percent of the suspended-sediment load; during 2008–11, sand accounted for an average of 48 percent. Historical data from the Clearwater River at Spalding indicates that the concentrations of total suspended sediment collected during 1972–79 were not significantly different from the concentrations measured during this study. However, the suspended-sand concentrations in the Clearwater River were significantly smaller during 1972–79 than during 2008–11. The increase in suspended-sand concentrations in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers are probably attributable to numerous severe forest fires that burned large areas of central Idaho from 1980–2010. Acoustic backscatter from an acoustic Doppler velocity meter proved to be an effective method of estimating suspended-sediment concentration and load for most streamflow conditions in the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. Models based on acoustic backscatter were able to simulate most of the variability in suspended-sediment concentrations in the Clearwater River at Spalding (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.93) and the Snake River near Anatone (R2=0.92). Acoustic backscatter seems to be especially effective for estimating suspended-sediment concentration and load over short (monthly and single storm event) and long (annual) time scales when sediment load is highly variable. However, during high streamflow events acoustic surrogate tools may be unable to capture the contribution of suspended sand moving near the bottom of the water column and thus, underestimate the total load of suspended sediment. At the stations where bedload was collected, the particle-size distribution at low streamflows typically was unimodal with sand comprising the dominant particle size. At higher streamflows and during peak bedload discharge, the particle size typically was bimodal and was comprised primarily of sand and coarse gravel. About 55,000 tons of bedload was discharged from the Snake River to Lower Granite Reservoir during water years 2009–11, about 0.62 percent of the total sediment load delivered by the Snake River. About 9,500 tons of bedload was discharged from the Clearwater River to Lower Granite Reservoir during 2009–11, about 0.83 percent of the total sediment load discharged by the Clearwater River during 2009–11.

  3. Temporal Variability of Suspended Sediment Load, Dissolved Load, and Bedload for Two Small Oak Forested Catchments with Contrasting Disturbance Levels in the Lesser Himalaya of North-West India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qazi, N. U. Q.; Rai, S. P.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment transfer from mountainous areas to lowland areas is one of the most important geomorphological processes globally with the bulk of the sediment yield from such areas typically deriving from mass wastage processes. This study presents monthly, seasonal and annual variations in sediment transport (both suspended load and bed load) as well as dissolved loads over three consecutive water years (2008-2011) for two small forested watersheds with contrasting levels of forest disturbance in the Lesser Himalaya of Northwest India. Seasonal and annual suspended sediment yields were strongly influenced by amounts of rainfall and stream flow and showed a 23-fold range between wet and dry years. Of the annual load, some 92% was produced on average during the monsoon season (June-September). Sediment production by the disturbed forest catchment was 2.6-fold (suspended sediment) to 5.9-fold (bed load) higher than that for the well-stocked forest catchment. By contrast, dissolved loads varied much less between years, seasons (although minimal during the dry summer season), and degree of forest disturbance. Total mechanical denudation rates were 1.2 times and 4.7 times larger than chemical denudation rates for the little disturbed and the heavily disturbed forest catchment, respectively whereas overall denudation rates were estimated at 0.59 and 1.05 mm per 1000 years, respectively.

  4. Gully development in Pavon Creeks: Downstream sediment supply and sub-basin restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, S.; McKee, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Sediment supply in watersheds is a function of geology, climate, and land use. Small watersheds in the Coast Ranges of California can provide large volumes of sediment to downstream waterbodies due to the active tectonic setting, the Mediterranean climate, and the history of intense land use. The Pavon Creeks sub-basin, a 1.1 km2 tributary to Pinole Creek which drains to San Francisco Bay, California, currently provides a large supply of fine-grained sediment to the detriment of creek function and native species habitat. The sub-basin is situated near the active Hayward Fault Zone, is underlain by highly erosive shales and siltstones, and has experienced over 100 years of cattle grazing. Despite only comprising 3% of the total watershed area, the Pavon Creeks sub-basin has been identified as one of the largest sources of fine sediment within the Pinole Creek watershed. To protect creek function and habitat, watershed stakeholders have prioritized preventing excess fine sediment delivery to Pinole Creek. The sub-basin includes four small ephemeral gully channels that are primarily actively eroding, downcutting, and extending over their length, and secondarily aggrading over a shorter localized reach. Field-based geomorphic data including channel cross-sections, longitudinal profiles, bank pins, and headcut monitoring have documented channel incision, erosion, and lengthening of the channel network over six years. During Water Year 2006, the first and wettest year of measurements, we observed maximum rates of incision of 0.75 m, lateral bank erosion of 2.5 m, and gully extension of 16.3 m. Annual repeat surveys show continued gully evolution, and allowed for quantitative assessment of incision, aggradation, and extension rates over this time period, as well as eroded sediment volume. We found that the largest storm events of a season cause the greatest instantaneous amount of change in the sub-basin, but cumulative seasonal rainfall determines the total amount and rate of annual erosion. The underlying complex structure of the bedrock appears to be controlling the location of the gullies, while the lithology is controlling erosion processes and rates. In 2010, local land managers completed an extensive mitigation project within the sub-basin, utilizing our geomorphic data and observations. Key components of the restoration are halting headward gully extension, controlling channel bed elevations, and re-contouring banks to reduce bank erosion and supply of sediment downstream to sensitive aquatic habitat reaches and to the flood-control channel. Much of the sub-basin drainage is now routed into sediment basins, where after just a single wet season, extensive delta deposits have formed, necessitating sediment removal to occur much sooner than anticipated.

  5. Large-scale suspended sediment transport and sediment deposition in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manh, N. V.; Dung, N. V.; Hung, N. N.; Merz, B.; Apel, H.

    2014-08-01

    Sediment dynamics play a major role in the agricultural and fishery productivity of the Mekong Delta. However, the understanding of sediment dynamics in the delta, one of the most complex river deltas in the world, is very limited. This is a consequence of its large extent, the intricate system of rivers, channels and floodplains, and the scarcity of observations. This study quantifies, for the first time, the suspended sediment transport and sediment deposition in the whole Mekong Delta. To this end, a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model is combined with a cohesive sediment transport model. The combined model is calibrated using six objective functions to represent the different aspects of the hydraulic and sediment transport components. The model is calibrated for the extreme flood season in 2011 and shows good performance for 2 validation years with very different flood characteristics. It is shown how sediment transport and sediment deposition is differentiated from Kratie at the entrance of the delta on its way to the coast. The main factors influencing the spatial sediment dynamics are the river and channel system, dike rings, sluice gate operations, the magnitude of the floods, and tidal influences. The superposition of these factors leads to high spatial variability of sediment transport, in particular in the Vietnamese floodplains. Depending on the flood magnitude, annual sediment loads reaching the coast vary from 48 to 60% of the sediment load at Kratie. Deposited sediment varies from 19 to 23% of the annual load at Kratie in Cambodian floodplains, and from 1 to 6% in the compartmented and diked floodplains in Vietnam. Annual deposited nutrients (N, P, K), which are associated with the sediment deposition, provide on average more than 50% of mineral fertilizers typically applied for rice crops in non-flooded ring dike floodplains in Vietnam. Through the quantification of sediment and related nutrient input, the presented study provides a quantitative basis for estimating the benefits of annual Mekong floods for agriculture and fishery, and is an important piece of information with regard to the assessment of the impacts of deltaic subsidence and climate-change-related sea level rise on delta morphology.

  6. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction. PMID:20048309

  7. Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Intertidal Sediment Temperature Database, 1998 - 2006.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed, long term sediment temperature records were obtained and compiled in a database to determine the influence of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual temperature variation on eelgrass distribution across the intertidal habitat in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Both currently and hi...

  8. Water and sediment quality assessment of the Axios River and its coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgis, A. P.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Karamanos, H.; Skoulikidis, N.

    2003-11-01

    The Axios River (Axios R.) receives substantial loads of nutrients, heavy metals and other compounds, resulting from anthropogenic activities within its catchment. Long-term trends in nutrients were assessed. Dissolved and particulate fluxes of nutrients and selected metals to the Thermaikos Gulf were calculated and finally, data evaluation with water and sediment quality criteria was performed. Dissolved nutrient concentrations exhibited intra-annual variations related to the agricultural practices of the drainage area with elevated autumn-winter NO 3 concentrations (related to fertilizers applied early spring) and high levels of total phosphorous in the summer attributed to point source pollution. Long-term inter-annual variability showed a 2.5-fold increase in nitrate concentration, coupled with a 3-fold decrease in water discharge. Elevated concentrations of dissolved Pb and As have been observed in the Axios R., and freshwater quality criteria for Pb were exceeded. Stream sediments exhibited high contents for Zn, Cr, Pb, and As, mainly originating in tailings and industrial effluents. On the other hand, a considerable portion of the heavy metals is derived from the weathering of ultra-mafic ophiolite complexes. Similar patterns were observed in the Thermaikos Gulf sediment chemistry; the geochemical signatures of the Axios and Aliakmon Rivers (Aliakmon R.), in respect to their contribution in heavy metals, were identified, as well as the impact of the Thessaloniki city. Quality criteria for both river and marine sediments were violated for As and Cr. Overall, the water and sediment quality of the Axios R. and the Thermaikos Gulf have been impacted by anthropogenic activities in the hinterland. The coastal waters and sediments do not appear to pose any threat to human health and aquatic life, however, the need for regular monitoring is highly recommended.

  9. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1992-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Sedimentation. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. The report was issued on a quarterly basis in 1946 and 1947, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to the present, the report has been issued annually.

  10. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1994-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Sedimentation. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. The report was issued on a quarterly basis in 1946 and 1947, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to present, the report has been issued annually.

  11. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1991-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Sedimentation. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. The report was issued on a quarterly basis in 1946 and 1947, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to the present, the report has been issued annually.

  12. River sediments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin

    2012-05-13

    River history is reflected in the nature of the sediments carried and deposited over time. Using examples drawn from around the world, this account illustrates how river sediments have been used to reconstruct past environmental changes at a variety of scales in time and space. Problems arising from a patchy alluvial record and from influences external to the river basin can make interpretation difficult. The Nile is treated in some detail because its history is further complicated by tectonic, volcanic and climatic events in its headwaters and by enduring human impacts. It arose soon after 30 Ma. Since that time approximately 100,000 km(3) of rock have been eroded from its Ethiopian sources and deposited in the eastern Mediterranean, with minor amounts of sediment laid down along its former flood plains in Egypt and Sudan. From these fragmentary alluvial remains, a detailed history of Nile floods and droughts has been reconstructed for the last 15 kyr, and, with less detail, for the past 150 kyr, which shows strong accordance with global fluctuations in the strength of the summer monsoon, which are in turn perhaps modulated by changes in solar insolation caused by changes in the Earth's orbit and by variations in solar irradiance. PMID:22474677

  13. Visual sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2013-12-01

    We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentation processes: objects fall due to gravity, and aggregate into strata over time. Inspired by this metaphor, data is visually depicted as falling objects using a force model to land on a surface, aggregating into strata over time. In this paper, we discuss how this metaphor addresses the specific challenge of smoothing the transition between incoming and aging data. We describe the metaphor's design space, a toolkit developed to facilitate its implementation, and example applications to a range of case studies. We then explore the generative capabilities of the design space through our toolkit. We finally illustrate creative extensions of the metaphor when applied to real streams of data. PMID:24051811

  14. CAUSATIVE FACTORS AND VARIATION OF SEDIMENT YIELDS IN KENTUCKY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sholar, Clyde J.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation, topography, runoff, soils, and land use are the major causative factors of sediment yield in Kentucky. The variability and interaction of these factors directly affects the amount and type of sediment yields. Sediment yield and size data were collected during 1942-45 and 1951-81 throughout the five major physiographic regions of Kentucky and at selected stations on the main stem of the Ohio River. The highest average annual suspended-sediment discharge, the average percent sand in suspended sediment, and the bedload discharge for selected stations were noted in the article.

  15. Mercury sediment biogeochemistry in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, D. B.; Liu, B.; Schaider, L. A.; Mason, R. P.; Rice, G. E.; Bank, M. S.; Rabalais, N. N.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Shine, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We explored controls on Hg dynamics and net methylmercury (MeHg) production in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM), an important US fishery, through field measurements and sediment incubation studies between July 2005 and July 2006. In addition to exploring the influence of typical nGOM sediment conditions and coastal eutrophication, the study's timing allowed us to evaluate the impact of the September 2005 hurricanes. Sediment samples were collected at 14 stations that extended 400 km westward from the Mississippi River, with several of these stations occupied on up to 4 occasions, including 1 month after the hurricanes. The nGOM is not a Hg-contaminated system, with totalHg levels in July 2006 averaging 170 pmol/g (s.d.=47 pmol/g) and %MeHg ranging from 0.4-1.0%. Methylation potential rates in isotope-spiked cores ranged from 0.01-0.05 1/day. Despite spatial variability, a clear trend of down-core decreases in %MeHg and methylation potential can be observed in pooled data, with %MeHg and methylation potential moderately well-correlated (r2=0.49) at the ten Jul06 core incubation. Most of the variance (60%) in July 2006 MeHg concentrations can be explained using a multivariate regression against OC (+), methylation potential (+), and totalHg (-). Box model estimates suggest that the Mississippi River (75%) and direct atmospheric deposition (25%) deliver 10 tons Hg per year to this area, and that 80% of this total Hg accumulates in bottom sediments. We estimate that hurricane-related sediment disturbances in 2005 redistributed substantially more Hg than the annual inputs; thus, depending on their frequency, hurricanes could play an important role in the nGOM Hg budget. In addition, our data suggests that hurricane disturbances could influence net methylation, at least in the weeks immediately after the disturbance, through altering sediment redox conditions, the activitiy of methylating microbes, or the bioavailability of inorganic Hg for methylation.

  16. Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers, northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina, October 2005 to September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.; Petkewich, Mattew D.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at sites in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers in northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina from October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2009 (water years 2006 to 2009). Nutrient and sediment loads and yields also were computed for the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River not represented by the South and North Pacolet River Basins. Except for a few outliers, the majority of the measurements of total nitrogen concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.69 milligram per liter for streams and rivers in the nutrient ecoregion IX, which includes the study area within the Pacolet River Basin. Dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower at the South Pacolet River site compared to the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites. About 90 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the South Pacolet River site were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.37 milligram per liter, and more than 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites were above that guideline. At all sites, minimum annual nutrient loads for the estimation period were observed during water year 2008 when severe drought conditions were present. An estimated mean annual total nitrogen load of 37,770 kilograms per year and yield of 2.63 kilograms per hectare per year were determined for the South Pacolet River site for the estimation period. The North Pacolet River site had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 65,890 kilograms per year and yield of 2.19 kilograms per hectare per year. The Pacolet River had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 99,780 kilograms per year and yield of 1.82 kilograms per hectare per year. Mean annual total phosphorus loads of 2,576; 9,404; and 11,710 kilograms per year and yields of 0.180, 0.313, and 0.213 kilograms per hectare per year were estimated at the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet River sites, respectively. Annually, the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River contributed negligible amounts of total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads, and large losses of dissolved nitrate plus nitrite and orthophosphate loads were determined for the subbasin. Biological (algal) uptake in the two reservoirs in this intervening area was considered the likely explanation for the loss of these constituents. Estimated mean annual suspended-sediment loads were 21,190,000; 9,895,000; and 6,547,000 kilograms per year at the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet River sites, respectively. In the intervening Pacolet River subbasin, computed annual suspended-sediment loads were consistently negative, indicating large percentage losses in annual suspended-sediment load. Sedimentation processes in the two reservoirs are the most likely explanations for these apparent losses. At all sites, the winter season tended to have the highest estimated seasonal dissolved orthophosphate and dissolved nitrate plus nitrite fluxes, and the summer and fall seasons tended to have the lowest fluxes. The reverse pattern, however, was observed in the intervening drainage area in the Pacolet River where the lowest fluxes of dissolved orthophosphate and nitrate plus nitrite occurred during the winter and spring seasons and the highest occurred during the summer and fall seasons. Synoptic samples were collected during a high-flow event in August 2009 at eight sites that represented shoreline and minor tributary drainages. The South Pacolet River site was identified as contributing greater than 80 percent of the cumulative nutrient and sediment l

  17. Ammonia and sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.S.; Hansen, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    Ammonia toxicity to aquatic organisms has received considerable study, with most of these studies focusing on water column organisms. However, with the development and implementation of sediment (and pore water) toxicity tests, the toxicity of ammonia to benthic infauna and other sediment toxicity test organisms has become important, especially since sediment/porewater ammonia occurs at higher concentrations than in the water column. Unfortunately, there has been very little of this type information, especially for marine/estuarine organisms. This laboratory determined the toxicity of ammonia to three key marine/estuarine test organisms: the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, the bivalve Mytilus edulis, and the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Because sediment/porewater pH can differ substantially from typical seawater pH, the toxicity evaluations covered a range of pH levels (6, 7, 8, and 9). Eohaustorius results indicate that while Total Ammonia increased in toxicity (measured as EC50) as pH increased (from 460 mg/L at pH 6, to 13 mg/L at pH 9), unionized ammonia toxicity decreased from 0.13 mg/L at pH 6 to 2.8 mg/L at pH 9. The amphipod was much less sensitive to ammonia than were the bivalve and echinoderm, with an unionized ammonia EC50 at pH 8 of 2.14 mg/L relative to 0.43 mg/L for the mussel and 0.13 mg/L for the purple urchin. These results are discussed with respect to design and interpretation of sediment toxicity test results, including an interpretation approach based on partitioning of Toxic Units (TU).

  18. Linking suspended sediment transport metrics with fish functional traits in the Northwestern Great Plains (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J. S.; Simon, A.; Klimetz, L.

    2009-12-01

    Loss of ecological integrity due to excessive suspended sediment in rivers and streams is a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Although 32 states have developed numeric criteria for turbidity or suspended solids, or both according to the USEPA (2006), criteria is typically written as a percent exceedance above background and what constitutes background is not well defined. Defining a background level is problematic considering suspended sediments and related turbidity levels change with flow stage and season, and limited scientific data exists on relationships between sediment exposure and biotic response. Current assessment protocols for development of sediment total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) lack a means to link temporally-variable sediment transport rates with specific losses of ecological functions as loads increase. This study, within the in Northwestern Great Plains Ecoregion, co-located 58 USGS gauging stations with existing flow and suspended sediment data, and fish data from federal and state agencies. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) transport metrics were quantified into exceedance frequencies of a given magnitude, duration as the number of consecutive days a given concentration was equaled or exceeded, dosage as concentration x duration, and mean annual suspended sediment yields. A functional traits-based approach was used to correlate SSC transport metrics with site occurrences of 20 fish traits organized into four main groups: preferred rearing mesohabitat, trophic structure, feeding habits, and spawning behavior. Negative correlations between SSC metrics and trait occurrences were assumed to represent potential conditions for impairment, specifically identifying an ecological loss by functional trait. Potential impairment conditions were linked with presence of the following traits: habitat preferences for stream pool and river shallow waters; feeding generalists, omnivores, piscivores; and several spawning behaviors. Using these results, TMDL targets were proposed such as < 19 mg/l SSC and 1,500 mg/l-day dosage at the 95% recurrence frequency for feeding generalists and omnivores. In general, traits correlated with: 1) a broad range of SSC exceedance frequencies and flow stages, 2) exceedance frequencies near 90-95% occurring at moderate flow stages; and 3) exceedance frequencies near 0.01-10 % occurring during floods. Unstable channels were found to be greater in transported suspended sediment than stable channels over a range of concentration exceedance frequencies, and likely influence physical habitat quality. Pool-preference and gravel spawner traits were greater in stable channels than unstable channels. Overall, a functional traits-based approach utilizing concentration-duration-frequency characteristics of suspended sediment transport was successful in identifying potential “targets” for biological impairment due to excessive sediment, and will aid in developing sediment TMDLs.

  19. Sedimentation problem in water Conservancy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.

    1984-12-01

    The state-of-the-art of river sedimentation management in China is reviewed. Attention is focused on the sediment load carried by main rivers in China; the related sediment problems encountered in developing water resources; and the methods in dealing with those problems. There are 50 rivers with annual maximum sediment load exceeding 10 million tons in China. There are more than 400,000 sq km of loess plateaus and hills in the drainage basin of the Yellow River. Inadequate conservation of soil and water leads to erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment, giving rise to much trouble in water conservation works. These problems include flood control, navigational concerns, reservoir sedimentation, and sediment problems of lowhead diversion dams or hydroelectric projects. Methods for dealing with sediment problems include water and soil conservation and use of turbid water with emphasis on terracing, strip cropping, forestation, grass and crop rotation. Several types of structures may be built along a gully such as small reservoirs, check dams, drop structures, drainage ditches, and irrigation canal systems for diverting hyperconcentrated flow into farmland or to warp land. Processes for diverting water while preventing sediment from entering water intakes at hydroelectric plants are becoming more advanced. 4 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by considering seasonal effects. Typically, sediment concentration is the highest during the warmest months. The infrequent high flows carry a large, disproportionate amount of sediment.

  1. Use of turbidometry to characterize suspended sediment and phosphorus fluxes in the Lake Tahoe basin, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, Andrew P.; Reuter, John E.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Goldman, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of in-stream nephelometric turbidometry as a surrogate for total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations was evaluated for use in low turbidity (<50 NTU) subalpine watersheds at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA. Continuous turbidity records for the 1999, 2000 and 2001 snowmelt seasons and data from water quality samples (1982-2000) were examined to determine watershed sediment delivery dynamics. Strong correlations were found between turbidity and both TSS and TP concentration. The strong correlation indicates that turbidity can serve as a good surrogate for direct measurement in these watersheds. The watersheds displayed clockwise hysteresis: sediment flushing and depletion, on daily, seasonal and decadal time-scales. The hysteresis curves had strong concave shapes, indicating a sensitive response to peak flow. A pronounced seasonal trend was observed for the ratio of suspended sediment concentration (SSC)/discharge over time, indicating early season flushing of available sediment. Significant linear relationships (p < 0.05) were found for 12 of 17 years. Comparison of annual sediment rating curve coefficients indicated smaller coefficients during high sediment loading years and in the years following. The smaller coefficients are evidence of sediment depletion during high flow years. The effect of hysteresis on monitoring methods was illustrated by comparing turbidity estimates of TSS load with sediment rating curve estimates of SSC. After accounting for differences in SSC/TSS methods of analysis, daily loads calculated with turbidity methods were 58-98% of rating curve estimates for the spring snowmelt seasons of 1999-2001. Copyright

  2. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. )

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  3. Earth's portfolio of extreme sediment transport events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korup, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative estimates of sediment flux and the global cycling of sediments from hillslopes to rivers, estuaries, deltas, continental shelves, and deep-sea basins have a long research tradition. In this context, extremely large and commensurately rare sediment transport events have so far eluded a systematic analysis. To start filling this knowledge gap I review some of the highest reported sediment yields in mountain rivers impacted by volcanic eruptions, earthquake- and storm-triggered landslide episodes, and catastrophic dam breaks. Extreme specific yields, defined here as those exceeding the 95th percentile of compiled data, are ~ 104 t km- 2 yr- 1 if averaged over 1 yr. These extreme yields vary by eight orders of magnitude, but systematically decay with reference intervals from minutes to millennia such that yields vary by three orders of magnitude for a given reference interval. Sediment delivery from natural dam breaks and pyroclastic eruptions dominate these yields for a given reference interval. Even if averaged over 102-103 yr, the contribution of individual disturbances may remain elevated above corresponding catchment denudation rates. I further estimate rates of sediment (re-)mobilisation by individual giant terrestrial and submarine mass movements. Less than 50 postglacial submarine mass movements have involved an equivalent of ~ 10% of the contemporary annual global flux of fluvial sediment to Earth's oceans, while mobilisation rates by individual events rival the decadal-scale sediment discharge from tectonically active orogens such as Taiwan or New Zealand. Sediment flushing associated with catastrophic natural dam breaks is non-stationary and shows a distinct kink at the last glacial-interglacial transition, owing to the drainage of very large late Pleistocene ice-marginal lakes. Besides emphasising the contribution of high-magnitude and low-frequency events to the global sediment cascade, these findings stress the importance of sediment storage for fuelling rather than buffering high sediment transport rates.

  4. Flood generation and sediment transport in experimental catchments affected by land use changes in the central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Ruiz, Jos M.; Regs, David; Alvera, Bernardo; Lana-Renault, Noem; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Navas, Ana; Latron, Jrme; Mart-Bono, Carlos; Arnez, Jos

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThree small catchments (<2.5 km2 in size) were monitored in the Central Spanish Pyrenees to analyse the hydrological and geomorphological consequences of different land covers under the same climate scenario: (i) the San Salvador catchment represents a dense, undisturbed forest environment; (ii) the Arns catchment corresponds to an old, abandoned cultivated area subjected to colonisation by plants; and (iii) the Aragus catchment consists in part of active badlands. The obtained results demonstrate that plant cover is a key factor, influencing (i) the seasonality and intensity of floods, (ii) the annual volume of discharge, and (iii) the suspended sediment concentration, total sediment yield and proportions of different types of sediment. The forested catchment tends to generate floods in late winter and spring, when the water table is close to the surface, and flood hydrographs are generally gentle, with solutes largely prevailing over suspended sediment. The old agricultural catchment produces in average twice the number of floods as that recorded in the forested catchment, with the highest floods recorded in autumn and spring; this catchment behaves as a complex mosaic, with a large spatial and temporal variability in terms of both sediment- and runoff-contributing areas; in addition, suspended sediment is equal to solutes, and bedload reaches a relatively high importance. Finally, the badland catchment reacts to all rainstorm events throughout the year, with a high suspended-sediment load. Sediment outputs from the Aragus catchment are two orders of magnitude higher than in the Arns and San Salvador catchments. Suspended sediment concentrations exceed 300 g l-1 in the Aragus catchment, whereas they rarely exceed 20 g l-1 in the Arns and rarely 1.5 g l-1 in the San Salvador catchment.

  5. From deposition to erosion: spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport in a small agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Florsheim, J.L.; Pellerin, B.A.; Oh, N.H.; Ohara, N.; Bachand, P.A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.; Kavvas, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of sediment sources, storage, and transport were investigated in a small agricultural watershed draining the Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley in central California. Results of field, laboratory, and historical data analysis in the Willow Slough fluvial system document changes that transformed a transport-limited depositional system to an effective erosion and transport system, despite a large sediment supply. These changes were caused by a combination of factors: (i) an increase in transport capacity, and (ii) hydrologic alteration. Alteration of the riparian zone and drainage network pattern during the past ~ 150 years included a twofold increase in straightened channel segments along with a baselevel change from excavation that increased slope, and increased sediment transport capacity by ~ 7%. Hydrologic alteration from irrigation water contributions also increased transport capacity, by extending the period with potential for sediment transport and erosion by ~ 6 months/year. Field measurements document Quaternary Alluvium as a modern source of fine sediment with grain size distributions characterized by 5 to 40% fine material. About 60% of an upland and 30% of a lowland study reach incised into this deposit exhibit bank erosion. During this study, the wet 2006 and relatively dry 2007 water years exhibited a range of total annual suspended sediment load spanning two orders of magnitude: ~ 108,500 kg/km2/year during 2006 and 5,950 kg/km2/year during 2007, only 5% of that during the previous year. Regional implications of this work are illustrated by the potential for a small tributary such as Willow Slough to contribute sediment – whereas large dams limit sediment supply from larger tributaries – to the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay Delta and Estuary. This work is relevant to lowland agricultural river–floodplain systems globally in efforts to restore aquatic and riparian functions and where water quality management includes reducing fine sediment contributions that can couple with other pollutants.

  6. Modern transport and deposition of settling particles in the northern South China Sea: Sediment trap evidence adjacent to Xisha Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Clift, Peter D.; Yan, Wen; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Han; Xiang, Rong; Wang, Dongxiao

    2014-11-01

    Studies on modern sediment transport and deposition, especially studies analyzing settling particles collected with sediment traps, have rarely been carried out in the northern South China Sea. Using sediment trap time series data from Site XS1 (1724.5?N, 11055.0?E, water depth 1690 m) adjacent to the Xisha Trough, variations in sediment source through time have been reconstructed. These observations include total particle flux (TPF) and current data, grain size distributions, and clay mineral compositions obtained from two sediment traps deployed in 500 m and 1500 m water depth, respectively. Time series records at Site XS1 changed seasonally for both sampled layers. TPF in the lower layer (426 mg/m2/d) was several times that of the upper layer (113 mg/m2/d) and is affected by lateral transport. However, mean grain size (Mz) of the upper layer is greater that of the lower layer (29 vs10 ?m) due to contributions from biogenic materials. There are no clear seasonal changes in clay mineral assemblage in either the upper or lower layers. The annual percentages of four main clay minerals were 82-83% illite, 7-9% kaolinite, 6-8% chlorite and 1-3% smectite. Taiwan was the dominant sediment source (42-74%), while sediment contributions from the Red River and Annamite Chain account for 23-53% and 0-15%, respectively. Sediment supply from Taiwan could be explained by deep water current flow, while coastal currents may aid sediment transport from the Red River and small mountainous rivers of central Vietnam.

  7. Temporal trends in fluvial-sediment discharge in Ohio, 1950-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Long-term fluvial-sediment records of annual suspended-sediment discharge data are available for eight daily suspended-sediment stations operated in Ohio. Graphical and statistical analyses of long-term sediment records indicate that, in general, no long-term (>3- to 5-year) trends are readily apparent in the relation between annual mean suspended-sediment discharge and water discharge in Ohio; however, some short-term, year-to-year changes in that relation occur for Ohio streams. Double-mass curves for five daily suspended-sediment stations and seasonal Kendall analysis of data from eight daily suspended-sediment stations clearly illustrate the lack of any discernible changes in the suspended-sediment-discharge/water-discharge relation or in suspended-sediment concentration for most Ohio streams over the past 36 years. -from Author

  8. Nutrient and sediment concentrations and corresponding loads during the historic June 2008 flooding in eastern Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, L; Kolpin, D W; Kalkhoff, S J; Robertson, D M

    2011-01-01

    A combination of above-normal precipitation during the winter and spring of 2007-2008 and extensive rainfall during June 2008 led to severe flooding in many parts of the midwestern United States. This resulted in transport of substantial amounts of nutrients and sediment from Iowa basins into the Mississippi River. Water samples were collected from 31 sites on six large Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi River to characterize water quality and to quantify nutrient and sediment loads during this extreme discharge event. Each sample was analyzed for total nitrogen, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, dissolved ammonia as nitrogen, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended sediment. Concentrations measured near peak flow in June 2008 were compared with the corresponding mean concentrations from June 1979 to 2007 using a paired t test. While there was no consistent pattern in concentrations between historical samples and those from the 2008 flood, increased flow during the flood resulted in near-peak June 2008 flood daily loads that were statistically greater (p < 0.05) than the median June 1979 to 2007 daily loads for all constituents. Estimates of loads for the 16-d period during the flood were calculated for four major tributaries and totaled 4.95 x 10(7) kg of nitrogen (N) and 2.9 x 10(6) kg of phosphorus (P) leaving Iowa, which accounted for about 22 and 46% of the total average annual nutrient yield, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of large flood events to the total annual nutrient load in both small streams and large rivers. PMID:21488505

  9. Nutrient and sediment concentrations and corresponding loads during the historic June 2008 flooding in eastern Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Kalkhoff, S.J.; Robertson, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of above-normal precipitation during the winter and spring of 2007-2008 and extensive rainfall during June 2008 led to severe flooding in many parts of the midwestern United States. This resulted in transport of substantial amounts of nutrients and sediment from Iowa basins into the Mississippi River. Water samples were collected from 31 sites on six large Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi River to characterize water quality and to quantify nutrient and sediment loads during this extreme discharge event. Each sample was analyzed for total nitrogen, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, dissolved ammonia as nitrogen, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and suspended sediment. Concentrations measured near peak flow in June 2008 were compared with the corresponding mean concentrations from June 1979 to 2007 using a paired t test. While there was no consistent pattern in concentrations between historical samples and those from the 2008 flood, increased flow during the flood resulted in near-peak June 2008 flood daily loads that were statistically greater (p < 0.05) than the median June 1979 to 2007 daily loads for all constituents. Estimates of loads for the 16-d period during the flood were calculated for four major tributaries and totaled 4.95 x 10(7) kg of nitrogen (N) and 2.9 x 10(6) kg of phosphorus (P) leaving Iowa, which accounted for about 22 and 46% of the total average annual nutrient yield, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of large flood events to the total annual nutrient load in both small streams and large rivers.

  10. Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger Lagoon. To address this data gap we collected sediment samples during a February 2013 field campaign. One set of sediment samples is from the bottom of the lagoon along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline and another set is from an approximately 1 m depth profile on the lagoon side of the sand berm (depth of the groundwater table at the time of collection). These samples are being analyzed for HgT, MMHg, and total organic carbon (TOC) and will provide a first glimpse into the distribution of mercury species and organic carbon in sediments from the Younger Lagoon Reserve. We will also collect and analyze sediment samples from another lagoon site with comparable watershed characteristics.

  11. Floodplain Sedimentation in Vegetated Areas of the Elwha River Floodplain, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. W.; Polka, J.

    2014-12-01

    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams from the Elwha River, near Port Angeles, Washington, has released a large pulse of sediment into the middle and lower reaches of the Elwha River. This sediment has important geomorphic, hydraulic, and ecological implications. Our project focuses on the deposition of fine sediment on vegetated parts of the Elwha floodplain using field observations of sediment accumulation in combination with a simplified physics numerical model, CAESAR-Lisflood. The floodplain of the Elwha is densely vegetated and in places is characterized by large amounts of local topographic variation. This makes measuring centimeter-scale overbank sedimentation difficult using traditional approaches such as lidar and total-station based cross-section surveys. To address this problem and to provide ground truth for more traditional surveying methods, we set up over 50 short (10-20 m long) cross-sections between sets of flagged trees and surveyed, at 1-meter intervals, ground elevation with respect to a spike set in each section. Nails in the trees ensure that the horizontal position of our measurements do not shift by more than a few centimeters from year to year. This approach allows sediment accumulation to be measured repeatedly with a precision we estimate to be on the order of a few centimeters, allowing us to estimate annual rates of local sedimentation. At a given point on the floodplain, sedimentation should depend significantly on the frequency of inundation. We simulate this for the 2012-2014 period using a CAESAR-Lisflood 2-D numerical model calibrated using a set of continuously recording staff gages. CAESAR-Lisflood uses simplified-physics hydraulic routines to efficiently simulate flow depth and velocity and to drive size-specific sediment transport and morphodynamic change. This allows the model to simulate changes in flood inundation probability for the post- removal period. CAESAR-based hydraulic results are used to interpret our field-based sedimentation measurements and to develop a reach-wide estimate of overall fine sediment accumulation on the floodplain. Our CAESAR runs, which are performed for the entire post-dam removal period, produce rich 2-D representations of velocity and bed texture that should be useful to other researchers studying this system.

  12. Fluvial sediments a summary of source, transportation, deposition, and measurement of sediment discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colby, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    This paper presents a broad but undetailed picture of fluvial sediments in streams, reservoirs, and lakes and includes a discussion of the processes involved in the movement of sediment by flowing water. Sediment is fragmental material that originates from the chemical or physical disintegration of rocks. The disintegration products may have many different shapes and may range in size from large boulders to colloidal particles. In general, they retain about the same mineral composition as the parent rocks. Rock fragments become fluvial sediment when they are entrained in a stream of water. The entrainment may occur as sheet erosion from land surfaces, particularly for the fine particles, or as channel erosion after the surface runoff has accumulated in streams. Fluvial sediments move in streams as bedload (particles moving within a few particle diameters of the streambed) or as suspended sediment in the turbulent flow. The discharge of bedload varies with several factors, which may include particle size and a type of effective shear on the surface of the streambed. The discharge of suspended sediment depends partly on concentration of moving sediment near the streambed and hence on discharge of bedload. However, the concentration of fine sediment near the streambed varies widely, even for equal flows, and, therefore, the discharge of fine sediment normally cannot be computed theoretically. The discharge of suspended sediment also depends on velocity, turbulence, depth of flow, and fall velocity of the particles. In general, the coarse sediment transported by a stream moves intermittently and is discharged at a rate that depends on properties of the flow and of the sediment. If an ample supply of coarse sediment is available at the surface of the streambed, the discharge of the coarse sediment, such as sand, can be roughly computed from properties of the available sediment and of the flow. On the other hand, much of the fine sediment in a stream usually moves nearly continuously at about the velocity of the flow, and even low flows can transport large amounts of fine sediment. Hence, the discharge of fine sediments, being largely dependent on the availability of fine sediment upstream rather than on the properties of the sediment and of the flow at a cross section, can seldom be computed from properties, other than concentrations based directly on samples, that can be observed at the cross section. Sediment particles continually change their positions in the flow; some fall to the streambed, and others are removed from the bed. Sediment deposits form locally or over large areas if the volume rate at which particles settle to the bed exceeds the volume rate at which particles are removed from the bed. In general, large particles are deposited more readily than small particles, whether the point of deposition is behind a rock, on a flood plain, within a stream channel, or at the entrance to a reservoir, a lake, or the ocean. Most samplers used for sediment observations collect a water-sediment mixture from the water surface to within a few tenths of a foot of the streambed. They thus sample most of the suspended sediment, especially if the flow is deep or if the sediment is mostly fine; but they exclude the bedload and some of the suspended sediment in a layer near the streambed where the suspended-sediment concentrations are highest. Measured sediment discharges are usually based on concentrations that are averages of several individual sediment samples for a cross section. If enough average concentrations for a cross section have been determined, the measured sediment discharge can be computed by interpolating sediment concentrations between sampling times. If only occasional samples were collected, an average relation between sediment discharge and flow can be used with a flow-duration curve to compute roughly the average or the total sediment discharges for any periods of time for which the flow-duration c

  13. Challenges of ecosystem restoration in Louisiana - availability of sediment and its management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, S. M.; Freeman, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Human intervention has impaired the Mississippi River's ability to deliver sediment to its delta wetlands, and as a consequence acute land loss in coastal Louisiana has resulted in an unprecedented ecocatastrophe. To mitigate this degradation, an unparalleled restoration effort is underway. For this effort to be successful and sustainable, various sediment input mechanisms must be integrated, including: building appropriate sediment-diversions; beneficially using the millions of cubic metres of sediment dredged annually from navigational channels; harvesting deposits of sand and suitable sediment from the river and offshore; and related sediment management activities that are compatible with other uses of the river. A comprehensive sediment management plan has been developed to identify and delineate potential sediment sources for restoration, and to provide a framework for managing sediment resources wisely, cost effectively, and in a systematic manner. The Louisiana Sediment Management Plan provides regional strategies for improved comprehensive management of Louisiana's limited sediment resources.

  14. Elwha River Restoration: Sediment Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrel, S.; Bountry, J.; Randle, T. J.; Ritchie, A.; Huginin, H.; Torrance, A.

    2013-12-01

    The removal of Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams on the Elwha River relies on controlled reservoir drawdown increments and natural river flows to erode and redistribute the reservoir sediment, estimated to be a total of 23 ( 3) million m3. To mitigate for the predicted sediment effects, facilities have been constructed for water quality and flood protection. A sediment monitoring program is being implemented by an interdisciplinary team from Reclamation and National Park Service to integrate real-time measurements with continually updated numerical model predictions. The most recent numerical reservoir modeling and monitoring results indicate about 20 to 25 percent of the reservoir sediment has been released since the start of dam removal. Monitoring results in 2012 and early 2013 confirmed that controlled reservoir drawdown increments have induced sufficient vertical and lateral erosion of delta surfaces behind both dams. Predam channel and floodplain surface has been exposed in numerous portions of Lake Aldwell, with the release of coarse and fine sediment in the first few pools below Elwha Dam. The material released from Lake Aldwell has included organic material. With the removal of about three quarters of Glines Canyon Dam and the disappearance of Lake Mills, coarse bedload sediment has been continually released into the downstream river since late fall 2012. Field measurements and numerical modeling are being used to track the progression of the sediment wave downstream to the Elwha River mouth. Initial findings are that the aggradation was greatest immediately downstream of Glines Canyon Dam, and filled pools and transformed river planform from step-pool to glide for most of the 7 mile reach between Lake Mills and Lake Aldwell. Although there has not been a major flood, winter flows and spring snowmelt have significantly reworked the released sediment and remnants of the pre-sediment release pools and rapids have re-emerged. Large wood and organics have also been a consistent component of the released material. Future monitoring will include documenting the effect of encountering the lakebed muds on erosion rates of delta sediments in the former Lake Mills. Uncertainty in the amount of sediments released from Lake Mills will be addressed through continued monitoring as part of the adaptive management plan set forth during the restoration project. Monitoring will also continue to document the progression of sediments in the downstream Elwha River system.. NPS web camera photograph of Lake Mills delta upstream from Glines Canyon Dam.

  15. Contaminated Sediments in Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us Water: Contaminated Sediments You are here: Water Pollution Prevention & Control Sediments Contaminated Sediments in Water Contaminated ... Water Education & Training Grants & Funding Laws & Regulations Our Waters Pollution Prevention & Control Applications & Databases Low Impact Development Impaired ...

  16. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual reports. 219.800 Section 219.800 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Annual Report § 219.800 Annual reports. (a) Each railroad that has a total of 400,000 or...

  17. 49 CFR 219.800 - Annual reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual reports. 219.800 Section 219.800 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Annual Report § 219.800 Annual reports. (a) Each railroad that has a total of 400,000 or...

  18. 76 FR 69239 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to..., annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, accounts receivables, and...

  19. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  20. Anthropogenic sediment resuspension mechanisms in a shallow microtidal estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms that resuspend bottom sediments in Hillsborough Bay, a shallow, microtidal, subtropical estuary in West-central Florida, were determined by analysing hydrodynamic and suspended-solids concentration data collected during several instrument deployments made in 1990 and 1991. Large vessels in a dredged ship channel can generate forced solitary long waves that cause large water velocities and sediment resuspension at the study sites. An experiment was conducted with a trawler that resuspended bottom sediments, and some of the resuspended sediments remained in suspension for at least 8 h. A secondary impact of vessel-generated long waves and trawling is that sediments that are resuspended and newly deposited are more susceptible to resuspension by tidal currents than undisturbed bottom sediments. Natural sediment resuspension by wind waves and tidal current is less frequent or of smaller magnitude than anthropogenic sediment resuspension. The annual mass of sediment resuspended by vessel-generated long waves is estimated to be one order of magnitude greater than the annual mass of sediment resuspended by wind waves generated by winter storms.

  1. Patterns and contributions of floodplain and legacy sediments remobilized from Piedmont streams of the mid-Atlantic U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Mitchell; Miller, Andrew; Baker, Matthew; Gellis, Allen

    2015-04-01

    The perceived role of streambank erosion as a contributor to watershed sediment yield is an important driver of policy decisions for managing downstream impacts in the United States. In the Piedmont physiographic province of the eastern U.S. and in other regions of the south and midwest, the issue of 'legacy' sediment stored in stream valleys has long been recognized as a consequence of rapid deforestation and erosive agricultural practices following European settlement. Remobilization of stored floodplain sediment by bank erosion is frequently cited as a dominant component of watershed sediment budgets, with legacy sediment comprising the largest portion of this source. However there are few published studies documenting spatially extensive measurements of channel change throughout the drainage network on time scales of more than a few years. In this study we document 1) rates of sediment remobilization from Baltimore County floodplains by channel migration and bank erosion, 2) proportions of streambank sediment derived from legacy deposits, and 3) potential contribution of net streambank erosion and legacy sediments to downstream sediment yield within the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont. We measured gross erosion and channel deposition rates over 45 years within the fluvial corridor along 40 valley segments from 18 watersheds with drainage areas between 0.18 and 155 km2 by comparing stream channel and floodplain morphology from LiDAR-based digital elevation data collected in 2005 with channel positions recorded on 1:2400-scale topographic maps from 1959-1961. Results were extrapolated to estimate contributions to watershed sediment yield from 1005 km2 of northern Baltimore County. Results indicate that legacy sediment is a dominant component (62%) of the sediment derived from bank erosion and that its relative importance is greater in larger valleys with broader valley floors and lower gradients. Although mass of sediment remobilized per unit channel length is greater in these downstream valleys, a majority of remobilized sediment (62%) is coming from first- and second-order tributaries because they represent the largest fraction of cumulative channel length in the drainage network. Floodplain segments are discontinuous along low-order tributaries but sediment contributions reported here are adjusted to account for the percent valley length bordered by floodplain sediments. Average annual lateral migration rates ranged from 0.04-0.19 m/y with higher rates along larger streams; however, when scaled by channel width, we find that on average streams are migrating 2.5% of channel width across all drainage areas. Direct measurements reported here account for in-channel deposition, but not floodplain deposition. Other studies in the region have demonstrated that redeposition on floodplains is an important component of the sediment budget and are necessary to avoid overestimating streambank erosion contributions to watershed sediment yield. We therefore adjust our measured sediment contributions by estimating the mass of sediment redeposited on floodplains within our study area. With this adjustment, extrapolated net stream bank sediment yields (72 Mg/km2/yr) are equivalent to 70% of the estimated average Piedmont watershed yield (104 Mg/km2/yr) cited by previous authors. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that measurements over adequate spatial and temporal scales- rather than short-term, localized observations- are required to accurately capture and measure patterns of streambank erosion across the drainage network. It is important to note that upland erosion rates- not measured here- have been reported with equivalent and greater magnitude for forested and cropland areas within the Maryland Piedmont and therefore should not be assumed to contribute only 30% of the total.

  2. Weldon Spring, Missouri: Annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Radiological monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured uranium, Radium-226, and Thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; all long-lived natural series isotopes in air particulates; and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public were calculated based on assumed exposure periods and the above measurements. Radon concentrations, external gamma exposure rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water at the site were generally equivalent to previous years' levels. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSRP and WSCP area was 1 mrem, or 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSQ was 14 mrem, or about 14 percent of the standard. Thus the WSS currently complies with DOE Off-site Dose Standards. Chemical contamination monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured nitroaromatics, total organic carbon and the inorganic anions chloride, nitrate, fluoride and sulfate in surface water, groundwater and sediment. 22 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. A re-evaluation of sediment and solute transfers in Karkevagge Swedish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, John

    2014-05-01

    Karkevagge, Swedish Lapland, has been the site of detailed geomorphic investigations for over sixty years. The classic study by Rapp (1960) not only identified the dominant processes operating on slope evolution in the valley, but also their magnitudes. Since that landmark study, there has been on-going research focused on better understanding magnitudes and frequencies of the dominant processes, but there has been no comprehensive reassessment of the overall sediment and solute fluxes in the valley. This paper compiles data from numerous recent studies in an effort to obtain an understanding of contemporary sediment fluxes in the valley. . Kärkevagge is a 5km long glacial valley located in northern Swedish Lapland at approximately 68o26' N latitude and 18o18'E longitude. The 30 year mean annual air temperature from the nearby Katterjakk climate station is -1.7oC and mean annual precipitation is 844mm. Some 50% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. Mean total sediment output from the catchment is 0.2-11.2tkm-2d-1 (Rehn et al., 1982). There is however considerable spatial variability in sediment transfer within the valley. Solifluction accounts for the greatest sediment mass transfer in the valley at 1176 t/km2/yr. Mean mass transfer is in the vicinity of 20,000t/yr. (Ridefelt et al., 2009). Annual movement is on average 4cm/ yr. but displays considerable spatial variability depending on moisture availability Slush avalanches and slush torrents represent significant contributors to sediment transfer in the valley, with mean mass/area transfers of 128t/km2/yr. They display considerable variability in their magnitude, varying from as little as 0.5m3 to >300m3. Slush torrents may contribute between 10,000 and 20,000m3 of mass flow (Gude et al., 2000). Solute transfer amounts to 46t/km2/yr. for the valley as a whole but there is considerable spatial variability. Total solute flux is greatest at the valley outlet, but within the valley solute flux is greatest at the base of the dam impounding Lake Rissajaure. Within-valley solute variability is strongly controlled by bedrock lithology variability. Earth slides and debris flows account for approximately 43t/km2/yr. Rockfalls account for approximately 8.7 t/km2/yr. while small avalanches account for 1.4t/km2/yr. These mass movements display considerable spatial and temporal variability in magnitude and frequency within the valley. Valley side wash moves 0.59t/km2/yr. of fine sediment. Fluvial transport is estimated to be between 40-50 t/km2/yr. flood and slush events contribute suspended sediment up to as much as 3.4t/km2/day. There is considerable variability in suspended sediment transport within the valley channel systems (Rhen et al. 1982). Rapp's (1960) sediment transfer rates continue to provide a broadly reliable framework for understanding sediment fluxes in Kärkevagge. However subsequent calculations suggest some earlier magnitude determinations need minor revision. Process rates are highly variable spatially and temporally.

  4. South Florida Coastal Sediment Ecological Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Julian, Paul

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the degree of sediment contamination in several South Florida estuaries. During the 2010 National Condition Assessment, Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute collected water column, sediment and biotic data from estuaries across the entire state of Florida. Sediments were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc and total polychlorinated biphenyls and were compared relative to empirically derived sediment quality guidelines. As a result of this data collection and assessment effort, it was determined that the degree of contamination with respect to sediment was low for all southern Florida estuaries assessed, except the Miami River which was determined to be considerably contaminated. However only one monitoring location was used to assess the Miami River, and as such should be viewed with caution. A low degree of contamination was determined for Biscayne Bay sediments, possibly indicating a recovery from its previously reported higher contaminant level. PMID:26084967

  5. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of feeding

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  6. Importance of elemental mercury in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Bouffard, Ariane; Amyot, Marc

    2009-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) redox changes in sediments are poorly studied and understood, even though they potentially control Hg availability for methylation and can alter sediment-water Hg exchange. Elemental Hg (Hg(0)) concentrations in sediments of two Canadian Shield lakes were assessed by thermodesorption. Hg(0) concentrations in sediments varied between 6.3 and 60.3 pg g(-1) (wet weight) which represented 7.4-28.4% of total mercury (HgT) concentration. Hg(0) concentrations were similar in both lakes. Hg(0) was rapidly adsorbed on sediments in controlled adsorption experiments and surface sediments sampled in summer had a stronger affinity for Hg(0) than deeper sediments and sediments sampled in fall. This adsorption was positively correlated to organic matter content and negatively related to particle grain size, pH and oxygen concentration in overlying water. This study demonstrates that Hg(0) is a prevalent species in sediments, but not in porewater, because of the high sorptive capacity of sediments towards Hg(0). Its potential availability towards Hg methylating bacteria remains to be determined. PMID:19091379

  7. Estimating selenium removal by sedimentation from the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliver, W.; Fuller, C.; Naftz, D.L.; Johnson, W.P.; Diaz, X.

    2009-01-01

    The mass of Se deposited annually to sediment in the Great Salt Lake (GSL) was estimated to determine the significance of sedimentation as a permanent Se removal mechanism. Lake sediment cores were used to qualitatively delineate sedimentation regions (very high to very low), estimate mass accumulation rates (MARs) and determine sediment Se concentrations. Sedimentation regions were defined by comparison of isopach contours of Holocene sediment thicknesses to linear sedimentation rates determined via analysis of 210Pb, 226Ra, 7Be and 137Cs activity in 20 short cores (<5 cm), yielding quantifiable results in 13 cores. MARs were developed via analysis of the same radioisotopes in eight long cores (>10 cm). These MARs in the upper 1-2 cm of each long core ranged from 0.019 to 0.105 gsed/cm2/a. Surface sediment Se concentrations in the upper 1 or 2 cm of each long core ranged from 0.79 to 2.47 mg/kg. Representative MARs and Se concentrations were used to develop mean annual Se removal by sedimentation in the corresponding sedimentation region. The spatially integrated Se sedimentation rate was estimated to be 624 kg/a within a range of uncertainty between 285 and 960 kg/a. Comparison to annual Se loading and other potential removal processes suggests burial by sedimentation is not the primary removal process for Se from the GSL. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Impact of river regulation on potential sediment mobilization and transport in an Alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Lane, Stuart N.; Bakker, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The upper Rhône basin (upstream of Lake Geneva) has been heavily affected by human activities during the last century. The most evident impacts are related to river regulation, specifically flow impoundement, flow abstraction and channelization. In the last century and mainly since 1960, several large dams have been built along the main tributaries of the Rhône River, resulting in the water storage of a volume equal to 20% of the total annual river flow. The dams are part of hydropower systems which abstract water from streams and transfer it through complex networks (intakes, tunnels and pumping stations) to the reservoirs. Hydropower production leads to regulated flow in the Rhône: mostly an increase of winter flows, a reduction of summer flows, and a decrease of flood peaks. The sediment supply into Lake Geneva has decreased following dam construction (Loizeau & Dominik, 2000) due to the storage of sediment in upstream reservoirs, in rivers with reduced sediment transport capacity due to flow abstraction, and due to the development of sediment mining. Our hypothesis is that streamflow regulation itself has dramatically impacted the sediment transport dynamics of the system. We investigate the impacts of flow regulation on the sediment transport regime, by analysing the effects on potential sediment transport capacity (bedload). By the use of different bedload transport formulae (Meyer-Peter Müller, Wilcock and Crowe), the potential sediment transport capacity is computed at different cross sections within the basin. Potential sediment mobility occurs when the applied bed shear stress exceeds a critical value, τ>τc. The applied bed shear stress is computed as τ=ρghS, with water depth (h) measured from rating curves. We obtain an estimate of the energy slope (S) from the analysis of the river cross section, assuming uniform flow. The critical value of bed shear stress τc is computed using empirical formulae as a function of the grain diameter (ds). To identify the grain size-dependent effects of streamflow regulation, computations are applied to different grain sizes taken from grain size distributions of river bed sediment. The results show that flow regulation has indeed resulted in higher potential mobility of finer grain sizes during winter due to the increased flow, but not for the coarsest fractions which are mobilized only during summer high flows. Many studies of the impacts of major flow regulation have focused upon the effects of dams and flow diversions on sediment flux. In contrast, here we focus upon the effects of flow regulation on sediment transport potential downstream of a region of major flow regulation in an Alpine catchment. We show that the seasonal changes in streamflow arising from flow regulation impact upon sediment transport potential and these may be important in terms of the seasonal dynamics of sediment production (e.g. glacier erosion, landslides, rockfalls produced by heavy seasonal rainfall). In this context we also analyse suspended sediment concentration data and turbidity data at the outlet of the basin, in order to identify specific features of fine sediment production and transport processes. The present work is part of the research project SEDFATE funded by the SNF Sinergia Programme, which aims at quantifying the human impacts on the observed reduction of suspended sediment inflows to Lake Geneva.

  9. Sediment transport patterns and climate change: the downstream Tuul River case study, Northern Mongolia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing changes in the Central Asian climate including increasing temperatures can influence the hydrological regimes of rivers and the waterborne transport of sediments. Changes in the latter, especially in combination with adverse human activities, may severely impact water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, waterborne transport of sediments is a result of complex processes and varies considerably between, and even within, river systems. There is therefore a need to increase our general knowledge about sediment transport under changing climate conditions. The Tuul River, the case site of this study, is located in the upper part of the basin of the Selenga River that is the main tributary to Lake Baikal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like many other rivers located in the steppes of Northern Mongolia, the Tuul River is characterized by a hydrological regime that is not disturbed by engineered structures such as reservoirs and dams. However, the water quality of the downstream Tuul River is increasingly affected by adverse human activities - including placer gold mining. The largest contribution to the annual river discharge occurs during the relatively warm period in May to August. Typically, there are numerous rainfall events during this period that cause considerable river flow peaks. Parallel work has furthermore shown that due to climate change, the daily variability of discharge and numbers of peak flow events in the Tuul River Basin has increased during the past 60 years. This trend is expected to continue. We here aim at increasing our understanding of future sediment transport patterns in the Tuul River, specifically considering the scenario that peak flow events may become more frequent due to climate change. We use a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream reach of the river to simulate natural patterns of sediment transport for a recent hydrological year. In general, the results show that sediment transport varies considerably spatially and temporally. Peak flow events during the warm period contribute largely to the total annual transport of sediments and also to the erosion of stored bed material. These results suggest that if the number of peak flow events will increase further due to climate change, there will be a significant increase in the annual sediment load and consequently in the load of contaminants that are attached to the sediments, in particular downstream of mining sites. The present results are furthermore consistent with parallel studies on sediment transport and climate change showing that increased water discharges and frequencies of rainfall/flow events can lead to enhanced erosion processes. Furthermore, in addition to climate change effects, human activates can change sediment loads in rivers to even greater extent, as pointed out in several studies. Thus, several different challenges can be expected to face the management of Central Asian rivers such as Tuul and their ecosystems in the future.

  10. Water and sediment transport modeling of a large temporary river basin in Greece.

    PubMed

    Gamvroudis, C; Nikolaidis, N P; Tzoraki, O; Papadoulakis, V; Karalemas, N

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study the spatial distribution of runoff and sediment transport in a large Mediterranean watershed (Evrotas River Basin) consisting of temporary flow tributaries and high mountain areas and springs by focusing on the collection and use of a variety of data to constrain the model parameters and characterize hydrologic and geophysical processes at various scales. Both monthly and daily discharge data (2004-2011) and monthly sediment concentration data (2010-2011) from an extended monitoring network of 8 sites were used to calibrate and validate the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In addition flow desiccation maps showing wet and dry aquatic states obtained during a dry year were used to calibrate the simulation of low flows. Annual measurements of sediment accumulation in two reaches were used to further calibrate the sediment simulation. Model simulation of hydrology and sediment transport was in good agreement with field observations as indicated by a variety of statistical measures used to evaluate the goodness of fit. A water balance was constructed using a 12 year long (2000-2011) simulation. The average precipitation of the basin for this period was estimated to be 903 mm yr(-1). The actual evapotranspiration was 46.9% (424 mm yr(-1)), and the total water yield was 13.4% (121 mm yr(-1)). The remaining 33.4% (302 mm yr(-1)) was the amount of water that was lost through the deep groundwater of Taygetos and Parnonas Mountains to areas outside the watershed and for drinking water demands (6.3%). The results suggest that the catchment has on average significant water surplus to cover drinking water and irrigation demands. However, the situation is different during the dry years, where the majority of the reaches (85% of the river network are perennial and temporary) completely dry up as a result of the limited rainfall and the substantial water abstraction for irrigation purposes. There is a large variability in the sediment yield within the catchment with the highest annual sediment yield (3.5 t ha(-1)yr(-1)) to be generated from the western part of the watershed. The developed methodology facilitated the simulation of hydrology and sediment transport of the catchment providing consistent results and suggesting its usefulness as a tool for temporary rivers management. PMID:25497675

  11. Estimating suspended sediment loads in the Pearl River Delta region using sediment rating curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoyan; Jinhai, Zheng; Yuliang, Zhu; Zhang, Yanjing

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sediment rating curves are employed to study the variations in relationships between water discharge and suspended sediment concentration based on the recent 50 years of monthly data set in the three major rivers of the Pearl River Delta. Results show that sediment rating parameters vary with time. The lowest rating coefficient, ln(a), and the highest rating exponent, b, mostly occur in the 1980s, indicating that sediment transport reached its peak in this decade at the same level as water discharge. This upward shift of sediment load is probably caused by exacerbated karst rocky desertification in the upper reaches of the Pearl River. However, since the beginning of the 1990s sediment loads from the Pearl River to its estuary began to show a dramatically decreasing trend, which is attributed mainly to deposition in the reservoirs, leading to an increase of ln(a) and a decrease of b. Furthermore, the sediment rating curve in 1957 to1970 is applied to estimate potential sediment load (1971 to 2006) in the absence of human influences. It is also estimated quantitatively by the sediment rating curves that in the 1980s, the annual sediment load decreased by 7.59106 t/yr because of natural factors, while sediment increase induced by human activities was 20.07106 t/yr, which resulted in an actual increased sediment load of 12.47106 t/yr compared with the reference level in 1957 to 1970. In the last two decades, the difference between measured and estimated sediment loads became considerable, and the annual deficit sharply increased to 26.80106 t/yr in the 1990s, and 50.46106 t/yr in the 2000s, indicating that human activities, mainly referring to dam and reservoir construction, play a dominant role in the decrease of sediment load. The decrease in sediment supply from the Pearl River should be paid special attention because it may cause serious impacts on the river delta and the coastal ocean.

  12. RAPID Assessment of Extreme Reservoir Sedimentation Resulting from the September 2013 Flood, North St. Vrain Creek, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, S. L.; McElroy, B. J.; Wohl, E.; Sutfin, N. A.; Huson, K.

    2014-12-01

    During mid-September 2013, approximately 360 mm of precipitation fell in the headwaters of the North St. Vrain drainage basin, Front Range, CO. Debris flows on steep hillslopes and extensive flooding along North St. Vrain Creek resulted in extreme sedimentation within Ralph Price Reservoir, municipal water supply for the City of Longmont. The event allows comparison of historical sedimentation with that of an unusually large flood because 1) no reservoir flushing has been conducted since dam construction, 2) reservoir stratigraphy chronicles uninterrupted delta deposition, and 3) this is the only on-channel reservoir with unimpeded, natural sediment flux from the Continental Divide to the mountain front in a basin with no significant historic flow modifications and land use impacts. Assessing the flood-related sedimentation prior to any dredging activities included coring the reservoir delta, a bathymetric survey of the delta, resistivity and ground penetrating radar surveys of the subaerial inlet deposit, and surveying tributary deposits. Over the 44-year life of the reservoir, two-thirds of the delta sedimentation is attributed to extreme discharges from the September 2013 storm. Total storm-derived reservoir sedimentation is approximately 275,000 m3, with 81% of that within the gravel-dominated inlet and 17% in the delta. Volumes of deposition within reservoir tributary inlets is negatively correlated with contributing area, possibly due to a lack of storage in these small basins (1-5 km2). Flood-related reservoir sedimentation will be compared to other research quantifying volumes from slope failures evident on post-storm lidar. Analysis of delta core samples will quantify organic carbon flux associated with the extreme discharge and develop a chronology of flood and fire disturbances for North St. Vrain basin. Applications of similar techniques are planned for two older Front Range reservoirs affected by the September flooding to fill knowledge gaps about event-based sedimentation and to expand these rates to annual and decadal scales.

  13. Macrophytes and suspension-feeding invertebrates modify flows and fine sediments in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Geraldene; Cotton, Jacqueline A.; Wotton, Roger S.; Bass, Jon A. B.; Heppell, Catherine M.; Trimmer, Mark; Sanders, Ian A.; Warren, Luke L.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThis research investigated the ecosystem engineering by in-stream macrophytes, dominated by Ranunculus spp., and associated suspension-feeding blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) for five reaches in the Frome and Piddle catchments, Dorset (UK) over one annual growth cycle (2003). This paper focuses on the modification of flow velocities and the trapping of fine sediment (particles <2 mm in diameter) by in-stream macrophytes and the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM), fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) and fine inorganic particles into faecal pellets by blackfly larvae attached to the leaves of Ranunculus plants. In-stream macrophyte growth was extensive, with maximum percentage cover of 80% recorded in September and October 2003. The macrophyte cover significantly altered flow patterns and flow velocities within and between the macrophyte stands. The reduced flow velocities within the plants promoted sediment trapping, reaching volumes of 0.085 m 3 of fine sediment trapped per metre square of vegetation at one site. The effective particle sizes of the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands were dominated by the 250-500 μm fraction from March to July 2003 whereas a higher proportion of smaller fractions occurred from October to December. Faecal pellets were highly abundant in the sediments trapped within Ranunculus stands (up to 2.2 × 10 8 faecal pellets per m 2) and their dimensions (total size range 25-400 μm) fall within the dominant size fraction of the trapped sediments. Our findings demonstrate the need to consider the biogenic component of the fine sediments in chalk streams in future studies of sediment and nutrient dynamics.

  14. Event Driven Deltaic Sedimentation On A Low Gradient, Low Energy Shelf: The Sediment Dynamics Of The Brazos River Subaqueous Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlin, J. A.; Dellapenna, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Brazos River Delta, located along the Texas Coast in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico, is located on a 130 km-wide, low gradient shelf, with a tidal range of 0.5 m and a mean wave height of 1.1 m. With the river supplying 10 - 16 Mt of sediment annually, this study investigated the fate of fluvial sediments within a 150 km2 area on the shelf proximal to the river mouth. Results from sediment cores indicate that significant accumulation is occurring only in the western third of the study area with long-term averaged accumulation rates near 2 cm/yr. This sediment is accumulating in distinct, centimeters thick event layers. Two-thirds of the study area shows little net accumulation. A time series of cores from this area shows that sediment is deposited following a major flood event. Less than 1 year later, the flood deposit has been completely remobilized and removed. Following a hurricane, the area experienced approximately 5 cm of erosion. Within the cores, the sediments exhibit a unique color spectrum. Sediment layer colors range from red, derived from the river, to grey, typical of marine sediments. Fluvial sediments are red in color when initially deposited, and remobilization of sediments and transport across the shelf can mix fluvial sediments with grey marine sediments. A sediment budget suggests that most of the sediment supplied by the river is not accumulating within this study area proximal to the river mouth. These results indicate that following deposition of fluvial sediments, waves and currents resuspend and transport most of the sediment both along and across the shelf beyond the study area. Accumulation occurs only in the area where fluvial deposits exhibit increased thickness and frequency to outpace remobilization. This study shows the importance of marine processes in modulating sedimentation within a low energy delta system.

  15. Identifying trends in sediment discharge from alterations in upstream land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, R.S.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental monitoring is a primary reason for collecting sediment data. One emphasis of this monitoring is identification of trends in suspended sediment discharge. A stochastic equation was used to generate time series of annual suspended sediment discharges using statistics from gaging stations with drainage areas between 1606 and 1 805 230 km2. Annual sediment discharge was increased linearly to yield a given increase at the end of a fixed period and trend statistics were computed for each simulation series using Kendal's tau (at 0.05 significance level). A parameter was calculated from two factors that control trend detection time: (a) the magnitude of change in sediment discharge, and (b) the natural variability of sediment discharge. In this analysis the detection of a trend at most stations is well over 100 years for a 20% increase in sediment discharge. Further research is needed to assess the sensitivity of detecting trends at sediment stations.

  16. Lake sediment records of industrialization in the Sudbury area of Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Huhn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The smelting of nickel and copper sulfide ores has drastically modified the original landscape around Sudbury, Ontario. A record of this impact exists in the sediments of local lakes. Changes in the annual fallout of heavy metals, identifiable smoke particulates, and pollen grains reflect the changes that occurred in the sedimentation rate and the vegetation. A year by year chronology for the last 300 years was provided by meromictic lake sediments containing countable seasonal laminations, obtained by a freezing technique that kept the sediments and sediment/water interface undisturbed. Results indicate that: correspondences of vegetation changes, and sedimentation rates with metal residues and smoke particulates in the sediments, and with published smelter records are good; annual laminations in meromictic lakes provided an excellent chronology, as checked against known dates for settlement and the onset of smelting; identifiable smoke particulates provided a good record of smelter activity, and were also a check on metal residue mobility in the sediments.

  17. Quantifying suspended sediment flux in a mixed-land-use urbanizing watershed using a nested-scale study design.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Sean; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-01-15

    Suspended sediment (SS) remains the most pervasive water quality problem globally and yet, despite progress, SS process understanding remains relatively poor in watersheds with mixed-land-use practices. The main objective of the current work was to investigate relationships between suspended sediment and land use types at multiple spatial scales (n=5) using four years of suspended sediment data collected in a representative urbanized mixed-land-use (forest, agriculture, urban) watershed. Water samples were analyzed for SS using a nested-scale experimental watershed study design (n=836 samples5 gauging sites). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc multiple comparison tests were used to test for significant differences (CI=95%, p<0.05) in SS levels between gauging sites. Climate extremes (high precipitation/drought) were observed during the study period. Annual maximum SS concentrations exceeded 2387.6 mg/L. Median SS concentrations decreased by 60% from the agricultural headwaters to the rural/urban interface, and increased by 98% as urban land use increased. Multiple linear regression analysis results showed significant relationships between SS, annual total precipitation (positive correlate), forested land use (negative correlate), agricultural land use (negative correlate), and urban land use (negative correlate). Estimated annual SS yields ranged from 16.1 to 313.0 t km(-2) year(-1) mainly due to differences in annual total precipitation. Results highlight the need for additional studies, and point to the need for improved best management practices designed to reduce anthropogenic SS loading in mixed-land-use watersheds. PMID:26519591

  18. Nature of Decadal-scale Sediment Accumulation in the Mississippi River Deltaic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, R.; McKee, B.; Allison, M.

    2004-12-01

    Rivers deliver approximately 15 x 109 tons of sediment to coastal margins each year. This sediment delivery to coastal systems plays a key role in the global carbon and nutrient cycles as deltas and continental shelves are considered to be the main repositories of organic matter in marine sediments. The Mississippi River, delivering more than 50% of the total dissolved and suspended materials from the conterminous U.S., is the dominant stimulus for coastal processes in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Draining approximately 47% of the conterminous U.S., the Mississippi delivers approximately 2 X 108 tons of suspended matter to the northern Gulf shelf each year. Although many researchers have evaluated sediment accumulation in different areas on the shelf near the Mississippi River Delta, this study examines data from more than 90 cores collected throughout the last decade covering majority of the shelf (<150 m water depth) adjacent to the Mississippi River Delta. This provides a unique and invaluable dataset of the spatial and modern temporal variations of the sediment accumulation in this dynamic coastal environment. Four types of 210Pb profiles were observed from these short cores (15-45 cm) collected on the shelf. Proximal to Southwest Pass in 30-100 m of water, two types of non-steady state profiles were observed. These profiles either showed (1) rapid accumulation or (2) an event layer with a change in sedimentation rate. Sedimentation rates in this area are typically >2.5 cm yr-1 (>1.6 g cm-2 y-1). Two Kasten cores ( 200 cm in length) collected near Southwest Pass also indicate rapid deposition (>4 cm y-1) on a longer timescale than that captured in the box cores. Near shore (<20 m), profiles are dominated by (3) mixing, probably reworked by waves and currents, with the exception of an area just south of Barataria Bay that have steady state profiles. The remainder of the shelf (distal of Southwest Pass) is dominated by (4) steady state accumulation beneath a 10 cm mixed layer. Sedimentation rates for the distal shelf are typically <0.7 cm yr-1 (<0.4 g cm-2 y-1). A preliminary sediment budget indicates that more than 50% of the sediment delivered by the river annually are either deposited prior to exiting Southwest Pass or is transported out of the study area, presumably off the shelf.

  19. Scale as a factor in designing sampling programs for determination of annual trace element fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Concentration data of suspended sediment-associated trace elements are a requisite for estimation of annual chemical fluxes. Fluvial suspended sediment and associated trace elements display marked shortterm spatial and temporal variability, suggesting that determination of annual fluxes requires high frequency depth and width integrated sampling and subsequent chemical analyses. When time scales are shifted from hours or days to a year, short-term variability is less important. A 2 year study on the Arkansas River indicates that it may be possible, after detailed site characterization of mean/median sediment chemical data, to estimate annual fluxes of trace elements solely through monitoring of discharge and suspended sediment concentration.

  20. Surface sediment analysis and modern sedimentation rates in Flandres Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Y. P.; Wellner, J. S.; Mead, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Flandres Bay is located on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula, where temperatures have risen more than the global average over the last century and where many glaciers have shown signs of retreat in recent decades. The Antarctic Ice Cap drains through tidewater glaciers that flow into bays around the peninsula. In this study, multibeam swath bathymetry data, seismic profiles, and sediment cores were used to determine the distribution of surface sediment types and modern sedimentation rates and compare these to the sediment accumulation down core. The bathymetry of the fjord includes small basins with flat bottoms, highly irregular seamounts, and deep channels in the bedrock as well as subglacial geomorphic features carved by the flow of glaciers. Results of sediment analysis show a variation in sediment type throughout the bay from pebbles with minor matrix close to the glacial calving margin to muddy diatomaceous ooze in the outer bay. Sediment accumulation rates were measured using 137 Cs counts on bulk sediment and 14 C on carbonate, usually forams, found after sieving bulk sediment. Samples for 137 Cs were taken on the top few centimeters of sediment cores and show a higher rate of sediment accumulation compared to rates calculated using 14 C, which measures millennial scale accumulation rates to the base of the core. Density logs of the sediment cores have relatively consistent values, indicating that the change in calculated accumulation rates is not simply due to compaction. As predicted, accumulation rates are higher close to the glaciers, where there is a high occurrence of ice rafted debris and dropstones; the sedimentation rates decrease away from the source and sediment analysis shows an increase in the biogenic component in the sediment, especially diatoms, in the outer bay. Other fjords adjacent to Flandres Bay, including Beascochea to the south, show similar trends of increasing rates of sediment accumulation in the upper portions of cores. In a simple model, sediment accumulation rate at any one location would decrease as the ice margin retreats, leaving the sample location more and more distal from the sediment source. However, as our results show increasing sediment accumulation during modern day ice-margin retreat in Flandres Bay, we interpret this to indicate increased sediment yield across the basin with ice is in a retreat phase, possibly undergoing faster flow, yielding a greater total volume of sediment.

  1. Development of a reference artificial sediment for chemical testing adapted to the MELA sediment contact assay.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Perrichon, Prescilla; Landi, Laure; Clrandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hlne; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jrme

    2014-12-01

    Most persistent organic pollutants, due to their hydrophobic properties, accumulate in aquatic sediments and represent a high risk for sediment quality. To assess the toxicity of hydrophobic pollutants, a novel approach was recently proposed as an alternative to replace, refine and reduce animal experimentation: the medaka embryo-larval sediment contact assay (MELAc). This assay is performed with Japanese medaka embryos incubated on a natural sediment spiked with the compound being tested. With the aim of improving this assay, our study developed a reference exposure protocol with an artificial sediment specifically designed to limit natural sediment composition uncertainties and preparation variability. The optimum composition of the new artificial sediment was tested using a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), fluoranthene. The sediment was then validated with two other model PAHs, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene. Various developmental end points were recorded, including survival, embryonic heartbeat, hatching delay, hatching success, larval biometry and abnormalities. The final artificial sediment composition was set at 2.5 % dry weight (dw) Sphagnum peat, 5 % dw kaolin clay and 92.5 % dw silica of 0.2- to 0.5-mm grain size. In contrast with natural sediments, the chemical components of this artificial matrix are fully defined and readily identifiable. It is totally safe for fish embryos and presents relatively high sorption capacities for hydrophobic compounds. Studies with other hydrophobic and metallic contaminants and mixtures should be performed to further validate this artificial sediment. PMID:24526399

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport on an inland parabolic dune, Bigstick Sand Hills, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, C. H.; Wolfe, S. A.; Walker, I. J.; Moorman, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Topographic changes from erosion pins and on-site meteorological data document the spatial and temporal patterns of aeolian sediment transport at monthly to annual timescales across an active parabolic dune within a vegetation-stabilized inland, prairie dune field. Over two years, the sediment budget, calculated from digital elevation models, shows that the total volume of erosion (9890 m 3) is greater than the amount of deposition (6990 m 3), indicating a net loss of 2900 m 3 of sediment (or 29% of eroded sediment) from the dune. Sediment erosion occurred mainly on the stoss slope (3600 m 3; 36% of eroded sediment), but also on the south (2100 m 3; 21%) and north sides of the dune head (1700 m 3; 17%), the blowouts along the arms (1740 m 3, 18%) and the crest (650 m 3; 7%). Erosion from the deflation basin is limited by surface roughness and armoring effects of a gravel lag deposit (100 m 3; 1%). Thus, the blowouts currently contribute to maintaining dune mobility because no other sediment input occurs from upwind. Sediment deposition onto the dune occurred primarily beyond the brink on the south and southeast lee slopes (5500 m 3; 80%), coinciding with the southeasterly resultant transport direction for November 2004-05. The net loss of about 2900 m 3 ( 29%) may be attributed to sediment carried in suspension over and beyond the dune. Correlation analysis between sediment transport and meteorological variables suggests that monthly to seasonal changes of surface conditions (e.g., vegetation cover, ground freezing, moisture) buffer the relative importance of temperature and precipitation on rates of sediment transport. Conversely, wind correlates well on a monthly to seasonal basis because it is a driver of transport under all types of surface conditions. Seasonal effects produce a complex interaction between wind, climate and surface conditions. This leads to a dynamic range of threshold velocities, which in turn causes spatial and temporal variations in transport-limiting and supply-limiting conditions. Collectively, these findings have implications for modeling parabolic dune morphodynamics and sediment transport in mid- to high-latitude inland settings.

  3. Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2012-04-15

    Bohai Bay, the second largest bay of Bohai Sea, largely due to the huge amount of pollutants discharged into it annually and its geohydrologic condition, is considered to be one of the most polluted marine areas in China. To slow down, halt and finally reverse the environmental deterioration of Bohai Sea, some researchers have proposed to connect it with Jiaozhou Bay in the western coast of Southern Yellow Sea by digging an interbasin canal through Shandong Peninsula. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide background information for such a large geoengineering scheme, surface sediments from 42 stations covering both riverine and marine regions of the northwestern coast of Bohai Bay were analyzed for heavy metal content and fractionation (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Three empirically derived sediment quality guidelines were used to assess the pollution extent of these metals. The studied metals had low mobility except for Cd at all stations and Zn at some riverine stations. Although a high mobility of Cd was observed, it could hardly cause a bad effect on the environment owing to its low total concentrations. Anthropogenic influence on the accumulation of studied heavy metals in sediments of Bohai Bay was obvious, but their contents were relatively lower to date comparing with some other marine coastal areas that receive important anthropogenic inputs. Taking as a whole, surface sediments of northwestern Bohai Bay had a 21% probability of toxicity based on the mean effects range-median quotient. PMID:22285040

  4. River sediment and flow characteristics near a bank filtration water supply: Implications for riverbed clogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschneider, Alexandra A.; Haralampides, Katy A.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.

    2007-09-01

    SummaryRiverbed clogging is an important issue related to the sustainable exploitation of riverbank filtration well fields. In this research, several complementary field techniques are employed to assess the current state and possible evolution of riverbed clogging at a site in the Saint John River, New Brunswick. The study is conducted in regions of the riverbed that have previously been identified as allowing recharge to the semi-confined aquifer that has been used since 1955 to supply water to the City of Fredericton. Flow velocity measurements, video imaging, and suspended sediment and bed sediment analyses conducted during the low flow (summer) period indicate that part of the recharge area closest to the well field, about 20% of the total area, is affected by bed armoring with cobbles and boulders. Consistent with previous studies, with increasing distance from the riverbank the sediment size decreases and the armor layer disappears. Previous research indicates that turbulent impacting of fine particles into the voids between the cobbles and boulders of the armor layer may reduce infiltration by up to 95%; however, the suspended sediment load in the river is mainly composed of organic matter, and the measured concentrations of suspended sediment (up to 3 mg/L) are not considered high enough to create such large reductions in infiltration. Additionally, the mineral fraction of the suspended sediment would not be expected to settle under the calculated average shear velocity of 0.012 m/s. Other sources of particulate matter, such as the degradation of aquatic vegetation on the riverbed, may be more significant with respect to riverbed clogging; however, annual peak flows may also create bed shear stresses that serve to limit long-term clogging effects.

  5. Rates and spatial patterns of sediment dispersal across the lower Strickland River floodplain, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, K. M.; Apte, S.; Aalto, R.; Marshall, A.; Dietrich, W.

    2004-12-01

    As part of a NSF Margins Source to sink study, we are exploring the rates and patterns of floodplain sediment vertical accretion on the Middle Fly River and the lower Strickland River, Papua New Guinea. The rivers join at 6 m above sea level where tidal influences are currently weak (except at exceptionally low flow). In response to post-glacial sea level rise both rivers aggraded, but the Strickland, carrying 7 times the sediment load, twice the discharge, and transiting through a much shorter lowland reach, has built a roughly 10 times steeper slope and a much coarser bed than the Fly. We have hypothesized that as a consequence of this difference the rate of sediment loss to the floodplain will be much lower than on the Fly (which is currently about 40% for the Middle Fly Reach). Near the gravel-sand transition, the Strickland floodplain rapidly widens downstream to an average width of approximately 10 km, and the channel has built an elevated meander belt across the roughly 100 km long plain. Recently, sediment laden flood flows have occasionally spilled out of the Strickland through an oxbow and traveled along a small channel into Lake Murray. Lake Murray is directly connected to the Strickland via the Herbert River, a large, deep channel that occasionally reverses and directs Strickland waters to the Lake. To document the spatial pattern of sediment deposition, sediment cores were collected at 11 transects across the floodplain. In addition, samples were collected along the outflow channel, in Lake Murray, and in a separate oxbow fed only by a tie channel. Duplicates and, in places, triplicate core samples were taken to enable independent analysis of sedimentation rates using two methods. Mine tailings introduced into the headwaters of the Strickland since 1990, although of relatively minor importance to the total load of the lower Strickland; provide a distinct elevated Pb and Ag signature in the recently deposited sediment. In over 30 cores, 210Pb analyses have been performed to document sedimentation rates over longer periods. Analyses are still underway, but findings to date show that the two methods of estimating sedimentation rates give roughly similar rates. Across the approximately 2 km active portion of the floodplain, vertical accretion rates on average are on the order of 1 cm/yr, with rates being highest near the channel. Applying this rate uniformly across the entire active floodplain gives an annual sedimentation rate of about 2 million tonnes, which is less than 3% of the estimated annual load of 70 Mt/yr. It is unlikely that further refinement of our analyses will increase this percent to a value similar to the 40% found on the Fly. Although the current sediment loss rate to the Strickland floodplain appears to be relatively low, sediment laden flood pulses from the uplands are substantially damped out by transient flow storage in the main channel and floodplain.

  6. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Ground Water. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. The report was issued on a quarterly basis in 1946 and 1947, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to the present, the report has been issued annually.

  7. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1985-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Ground Water. The Subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. From 1946 to 1947 the report was issued on a quarterly basis, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to the present the report has been issued annually.

  8. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1986-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagercy River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Ground Water. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. From 1946 to 1947, the report was issued on a quarterly basis; from 1948 to 1953, reports were issued every 6 months; and from 1954 to the present, the report has been issued annually.

  9. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1988-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Ground Water. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. The report was issued on a quarterly basis in 1946 and 1947, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to the present, the report has been issued annually.

  10. Notes on sedimentation activities calendar year 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data- Subcommittee on Sedimentation

    1990-01-01

    This report is a digest of information furnished by Federal agencies conducting sedimentation investigations. The decision to publish the report was made in 1946, from a proposal by the Chairman of the Federal Interagency River Basin Committee, Subcommittee on Ground Water. The subcommittee approved the proposal and agreed to issue this report as a means of effecting better coordination of the work of various Federal agencies in the field of sedimentation. The report was issued on a quarterly basis in 1946 and 1947, from 1948 to 1953 reports were issued every 6 months, and from 1954 to the present, the report has been issued annually.

  11. Sorption and sedimentation of Zn and Cd by seston in southern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Paker, J.I.; Stanlaw, K.A.; Marshall, J.S.; Kennedy, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The sorption and sedimentation of Zn and Cd by southern Lake Michigan seston particles was investigated using /sup 65/Zn and /sup 109/Cd in 21 radiotracer experiments. The time-series sorption by total seston >0.45 ..mu..m was asymptotic with apparent equilibria of approx.100-200 ng Zn/L and approx.1.0-2.0 ng Cd/L, occurring in approx.24-30h during the summer phytoplankton bloom. Studies of the sorption by different particle size fractions showed that the abundance of phytoplankton and detritus control the concentrations of particle-bound Zn and Cd. The seasonal maximum concentrations of particle-bound Zn and Cd correlated with the development of both the summer and fall phytoplankton blooms. Serial additions of Zn and Cd in combination with the radiotracers showed that these additions inhibit the sorption of both metals as their toxic effects are expressed. Coupling of the particle-bound Zn and Cd estimates for the period May to December with data on the seasonal variations in the net settling velocity in southern Lake Michigan provided annual sedimentation rates of approx.9 ..mu..g Zn/cm/sup 2/.yr and approx.0.1 ..mu..g Cd/cm/sup 2/.yr. Likewise, dividing the particle-bound estimates by the dry weight of total seston in the samples provided sediment concentration estimates of approx.38-185 ng Zn/mg dry weight (ppm) and 0.5-2.3 ng Cd/mg dry weight that agree with measured levels from the surficial Lake Michigan sediment. The results of these experiments suggest that, if the dissolved concentrations of Zn and Cd do increase to toxic levels, the impacts on phytoplankton may potentiate further increases in the dissolved levels by reducing plankton sorption and removal by sedimentation.

  12. Sediment dynamics in the Mekong basin- a multi-objective calibration on discharge and sediment load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedtke, Stefan; Apel, Heiko; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The Mekong delta is one of the most extensively used deltas world wide and provides natural resources to more than 17 million people. Environmental issues in the Mekong delta are closely linked to water usage and availability. In addition, the sediment input to the floodplains during the annual flood plays a crucial role in terms of nutrient supply to agriculture. Since flood magnitudes and sediment delivery are driven by human activities and hydrological processes along the entire Mekong river, it is highly important to assess the dynamics upstream of the Mekong delta. This study applies the hydrological model SWIM to the watershed upstream of Kratie/Cambodia with a size of approximately 650.000 km2 and gives a quantitative depiction on the sediment and discharge dynamics. The model is driven by different, mostly globally available data sources. After the identification of the sensitive parameters, a multi objective calibration, namely the NSGA-II algorithm, is applied. The model simulates the discharge values well, e.g. by capturing the annual flood season and sediment dynamics. The next steps comprise an assessment of different sources of uncertainty that are incorporated in the model. This includes the climate input data and the sparsely available and highly variable sediment data. Eventually, the study shall provide a basis to examine the future developments along the Mekong river, for example, quantifying the impacts of potential reservoirs on the flow regime and sediment dynamics.

  13. Spatial variations in archaeal lipids of surface water and core-top sediments in the South china sea and their implications for paleoclimate studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuli; Wang, Jinxiang; Liu, Jie; Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Wang, Hui; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Meixun; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2011-11-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, yet little is known about archaeal distributions and TEX??-based temperatures in this unique oceanic setting. Here we report findings of abundances in both core lipids (CL) and intact polar lipids (IPL) of Archaea from surface water (CL only) and core-top sediments from different regions of the SCS. TEX??-derived temperatures were also calculated for these samples. The surface water had extremely low abundances of CL (average of 0.05 0.13 ng/liter; n = 75), with higher values present in regions where upwelling is known to occur. The core-top sediments had CL values of 0.1 to 0.9 ?g/g, which are on the low end of CL concentrations reported for other marine sediments and may reflect the oligotrophic nature of the open SCS. The IPL of Archaea accounted for 6 to 36.4% of total lipids (CL plus IPL), indicating that the majority of archaeal lipids in core-top sediments were derived from nonliving cells. The TEX??-based temperatures of surface water were overall lower than satellite-based sea surface temperatures or CTD-measured in situ temperatures. The core-top sediment samples, however, had TEX?? temperatures very close to the mean annual sea surface temperatures, except for samples with water depths of less than 100 m. Our results demonstrated low and heterogeneous distributions of archaeal lipids in surface water and core-top sediments of the SCS, which may reflect local or regional differences in productivity of Archaea. While TEX??-based temperatures for core-top marine sediments at deep water depths (>100 m) generally reflected mean annual sea surface temperatures, TEX?? temperatures in surface water varied basin wide and underestimated sea surface temperatures in most locations for the season when surface water samples were collected. PMID:21890672

  14. Particulate matter fluxes in the southern and central Kara Sea compared to sediments: Bulk fluxes, amino acids, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, sterols and fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaye, Birgit; Fahl, Kirsten; Kodina, Lyudmila A.; Lahajnar, Niko; Nagel, Birgit; Unger, Daniela; Gebhardt, A. Catalina

    2007-12-01

    The Kara Sea is one of the arctic marginal seas strongly influenced by fresh water and river suspension. The highly seasonal discharge by the two major rivers Yenisei and Ob induces seasonal changes in hydrography, sea surface temperature, ice cover, primary production and sedimentation. In order to obtain a seasonal pattern of sedimentation in the Kara Sea, sediment traps were deployed near the river mouth of the Yenisei (Yen) as well as in the central Kara Sea (Kara) within the framework of the German-Russian project "Siberian River run-off; SIRRO". Two and a half years of time-series flux data were obtained between September 2000 and April 2003 and were analyzed for bulk components, amino acids, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as well as sterols and fatty acids. Sediment trap data show that much of the annual deposition occurred under ice cover, possibly enhanced by zooplanktonic activity and sediment resuspension. An early bloom of ice-associated algae in April/May occurred in the polynya area and may have been very important to sustain the life cycles of higher organisms after the light limitation of the winter months due to no/low insolation and ice cover. The strong river input dominated the months June-August in the southern part of the Kara Sea. The central Kara Sea had a much shorter productive period starting in August and was less affected by the river plumes. Despite different time-scales of sampling and trapping biases, total annual fluxes from traps were in the same order of magnitude as accumulation rates in surface sediments. Terrestrial organic carbon accumulation decreased from 10.7 to 0.3 g C m -2 a -1 from the riverine source to the central Kara Sea. Parallel to this, preservation of marine organic matter decreased from 10% to 2% of primary productivity which was probably related to decreasing rates of sedimentation.

  15. Climate and environmental changes over the past 150 years inferred from the sediments of Chaiwopu Lake, central Tianshan Mountains, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Wu, Jinglu; Abuduwaili, Jilili

    2013-04-01

    We used a 55-cm sediment core from shallow Chaiwopu Lake in the central Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, northwest China, to investigate climate and environmental changes in this arid region over the past ~150 years. The core was dated using 137Cs. We compared temporal changes in several sediment variables with recent meteorological and tree-ring records. Organic matter had a positive correlation with the Palmer Drought Severity Index in the central Tianshan Mountains, and the ?13C of organic matter had a positive correlation with regional temperature. We applied constrained incremental sum-of-squares cluster analysis to element concentrations in the core and identified three distinct zones: (1) 55-46 cm, ~1860-1910, (2) 46-26 cm, ~1910-1952, and (3) 26-0 cm, 1952-present. Between 1880 and 1910 AD, following the Little Ice Age (LIA), the sediment environment was relatively stable, climate was cold and dry, and the lake water displayed high salinity, in contrast to conditions during the LIA. During the LIA, westerlies carried more water vapor into Central Asia when the North Atlantic Oscillation was in a negative phase, and encountered the enhanced Siberia High, which probably led to increased precipitation. In the period 1910-1950 AD, the lake was shallow and the regional climate was unstable, with high temperatures and humidity. In the last ~15-20 years, human activities caused an increase in sediment magnetic susceptibility, and heavy metal and total phosphorus concentrations in the sediment were substantially enriched. Mean annual temperature displays a warming trend over the past 50 years, and the lowest temperature was observed in the 1950s. There has been an increase in annual total precipitation since the 1990s. The combined influences of climate and human activity on the lake environment during this period were faithfully recorded in sediments of Chaiwopu Lake. This study provides a scientific basis for environmental management and protection.

  16. Nutrient and suspended-sediment trends, loads, and yields and development of an indicator of streamwater quality at nontidal sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, 1985-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael; Blomquist, Joel; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) updates information on loads of, and trends in, nutrients and sediment annually to help the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) investigators assess progress toward improving water-quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. CBP scientists and managers have worked since 1983 to improve water quality in the bay. In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay. The TMDL specifies nutrient and sediment load allocations that need to be achieved in the watershed to improve dissolved oxygen, water-clarity, and chlorophyll conditions in the bay. The USEPA, USGS, and state and local jurisdictions in the watershed operate a CBP nontidal water-quality monitoring network and associated database that are used to update load and trend information to help assess progress toward reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to the bay. Data collected from the CBP nontidal network were used to estimate loads and trends for two time periods: a long-term period (1985-2010) at 31 "primary" sites (with storm sampling) and a 10-year period (2001-10) at 33 primary sites and 16 "secondary" sites (without storm sampling). In addition, loads at 64 primary sites were estimated for the period 2006 to 2010. Results indicate improving flow-adjusted trends for nitrogen and phosphorus for 1985 to 2010 at most of the sites in the network. For nitrogen, 21 of the 31 sites showed downward (improving) trends, whereas 2 sites showed upward (degrading) trends, and 8 sites showed no trends. The results for phosphorus were similar: 22 sites showed improving trends, 4 sites showed degrading trends, and 5 sites indicated no trends. For sediment, no trend was found at 40 percent of the sites, with 10 sites showing improving trends and 8 sites showing degrading trends. The USGS, working with CBP partners, developed a new water-quality indicator that combines the results of the 10-year trend analysis with results from a greater number of sites (64 primary sites) where loads and yields of total nitrogen and phosphorus and sediment could be calculated. The new indicator shows fewer significant trends for the 10-year time period than for the long-term time period (1985-2010). For 2001-10, total nitrogen trends were downward (improving) at 14 sites and upward (degrading) at 2 sites; no trend was found at 17 sites. For total phosphorus, 12 sites showed improving trends, 4 sites showed degrading trends, and 17 sites showed no trend. For total sediment, most sites (21) did not exhibit a significant trend; 3 sites showed improving trends, and 10 sites showed degrading trends. Few significant trends were seen at the 16 secondary sites: improving trends for total nitrogen at 4 sites, improving trends for total phosphorus at 2 sites, and a degrading trend for sediment at 1 site. Total streamflow to the Chesapeake Bay was 20 percent higher in 2010 than in 2009 and is considered to be within the normal range of flow, whereas annual streamflow at 28 sites was greater in 2010 than in 2009. No trends in daily streamflow were detected at the 31 long-term sites. Combined loads for the farthest downstream nontidal monitoring sites (called "River Input Monitoring sites") increased 33 percent for total nitrogen, 120 percent for total phosphorus, and 330 percent for total sediment from 2009 to 2010. The large increase in phosphorus and sediment loads in 2010 was caused in large part by two large storm events that occurred during the spring in the Potomac River Basin. Yields (load per watershed area) of total nitrogen in the Chesapeake Bay watershed decreased from north to south (New York to Virginia). No spatial patterns were discernible for total phosphorus or sediment.

  17. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

  18. Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdige, D. J.; Skoog, A.; Gardner, K.

    2000-03-01

    Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented 5-9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or C ox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a pelagic turbidite, PCHO remineralization (as a percentage of C ox) did not vary by more than a factor of 2-3 over a 3-4 order of magnitude range in C ox values. The causes of this are not well understood, but may be related to specific effects associated with the remineralization of highly altered organic matter mixtures under aerobic conditions. Dissolved carbohydrates (DCHOs) in these sediment pore waters ranged from 30 to 400 ?M, increased with depth in a manner similar to total DOC, and represented 10 to 55% of pore water DOC. In Chesapeake Bay sediments this percentage decreased with sediment depth, while in these continental margin sediments it was constant (upper 30 cm). Of the DCHOs in these pore waters 30 to 50% could be identified as individual aldoses (monomeric neutral sugars), and total aldose yields (individual aldoses as a percentage of total DOC) were higher in these continental margin sediment pore waters (>9%) than they were in the estuarine sediment pore waters (<5%). A comparison of DCHO and PCHO concentrations in these sediments indicates that their concentrations are uncoupled, and that pore water DCHO concentrations are primarily controlled by sediment remineralization processes. Pore water DCHOs appeared to be preferentially found in the high molecular weight (HMW) DOC pool, and likely occur as some of the initial HMW intermediates produced and consumed during sediment POC remineralization. These results also support past suggestions about the differing controls on carbon remineralization processes in continental margin versus estuarine sediments.

  19. A century-scale record of the preservation of chlorophyll and its transformation products in anoxic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Joan; Hastings, David W.

    2000-07-01

    We have determined the chlorophyll pigment composition by liquid chromatography (LC) and LC/MS/MS in a 1.45-m long freeze core, representing 157 years of annually varved sedimentation, from Saanich Inlet, B.C, Canada. We investigated the very early diagenetic processes of chlorophyll a alteration in these anoxic sediments and the possible implications for palaeoproductivity studies. Excellent preservation of pigments is indicated by high total pigment concentrations, and the presence of labile compounds such as chlorophyllide a. The lack of systematic down core changes in both the total pigment concentration and the chlorin composition indicates that no detectable alteration of the pigment composition has occurred during the past 157 years. The sedimentary pigment composition is the result of processes occurring in the water column, or within few months after deposition. Chlorophyll derivatives corresponding to different diagenetic processes have distinct down core profiles. Profiles of compounds related to grazing activity steryl pyrophaeophorbide esters (SPE) and pyrophaeophytin a, are very similar. In contrast, dephytylated compounds (chlorophyllide a and phaeophorbide a), which are related to chlorophyllase activity during the degradation of ungrazed diatom cells, show an independent pattern. Quantifying pigment composition in Saanich Inlet sediments can help constrain processes regarding the transport of algal pigments to the sediments.

  20. Sediment yields from unit-source semi-arid watersheds at Walnut Gulch 1893

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports sediment yields from seven small (0.18 to 5.42 ha) watersheds in southern Arizona measured from 1995 to 2005. Sediment concentrations and total event sediment yields were related to storm-runoff characteristics, and statistical relationships were developed to estimate sediment yi...

  1. Sediment transport, particle sizes, and loads in lower reaches of the Chippewa, Black and Wisconsin Rivers in Western Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Average annual total-sediment load and the percentage transported as bedload were determined for a 10-year period (water years 1974-83)(October 1,1973-September 30, 1982). These loads and percentages were, respectively, 123,000 tons and 35 percent at Chippewa River near Caryville; 1,073,000 tons and 61 percent at Chippewa River at Durand; 940,000 tons and 44 percent at Chippewa River near Pepin; 277,000 tons and 43 percent at Black River near Galesville; and 558,000 tons and 49 percent at Wisconsin River at Muscoda.

  2. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet. Sediment profile imaging report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-31

    A Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) survey was conducted in July, 1997 in Shelikof Strait and Lower Cool Inlet as part of a larger study of sediment quality in relation to offshore oil development. The purpose of the SPI survey was to delineate sediment type, provide information on patterns of sediment deposition and erosion, and describe biological community characteristics in the region. A total of 57 stations were sampled during a nine-day cruise. Based on the reflectance contrast of the sediment profile, there were no areas suffering from excess carbon loading and no areas had indications of excess chemical contamination. All the data from the profile images point to both high sediment quality and benthic habitat values at depositional sites. In particular, the images from deep water (depositional) stations in Shelikof Strait indicate a largely undisturbed, low-energy depositional basin.

  3. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg

    2014-05-01

    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected and taken account for. The study showed that common fingerprint elements and practices would have led to misinterpretations in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment and calls for a sound knowledge on catchment characteristics before the implementation of such a method.

  4. A model to predict annual bed load transport in ungauged watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, C.; Pitlick, J.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of bed load transport is relevant to many aspects of river management such as river engineering, channel stability, and stream ecology. However, given that the functions used to predict bed load transport are very sensitive to input values, the uncertainty associated with estimates of transport at a specific place or point in time can be quite large. In addition, if the goal is to predict annual loads, a distribution characterizing the frequency of sediment-transporting flows must also be known. In this work we develop a model to predict annual bed load transport in ungauged catchments by computing the sediment movement associated with discharge levels between of bankfull and bankfull flow. The model incorporates both the prediction of daily flows based on a power function, and a field-based parameterization of the spatial-temporal distribution of boundary shear stress based on two-dimensional flow modelling. The data inputs for the model are channel geometry (depth, width, and slope), grain size distribution, and drainage area. We will present the results sites in Colorado and Idaho. The model can be used to explore how changes in the frequency of extreme events impacts the total annual bed load and the spatial-temporal disturbance regime of aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Efficiency of erosion mitigation strategies in reducing sediment-loading rates from unpaved road networks into coral reef-bearing waters of the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Scharron, Carlos; Gray, Sarah; Sears, Whitney

    2014-05-01

    Erosion from unpaved road networks represents a critical source of stress affecting the coral reef systems of the U.S. Virgin Islands in the Northeastern Caribbean. Combined community- and government-driven efforts to reduce sediment contributions from unpaved roads in the island of St. John have consisted in improving road drainage design, paving selected road segments, and constructing sediment retention structures. Here we describe empirical evidence attesting to the efficacy of these mitigation efforts. Road drainage improvements reduced sediment production rates to about a third of pre-treatment levels. Road-segment scale erosion rates following paving ranged from 5-30% of pre-treatment levels, depending on road slope and road grading frequency. A 616-m3 sediment retention pond proved to contain 86 Mg of sediment annually and about 94% of the runoff generated from a 12 ha sub-catchment with an unpaved road density of 19 km km-2. Watershed-scale modeling evaluations suggested that the combination of these three treatments within the 13-km2 Coral Bay watershed resulted in the reduction of annual sediment delivery rates from 445 Mg yr-1 to 327 Mg yr-1. Cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that road drainage improvements and construction of the detention pond provided the greatest reductions in sediment delivery per total amount of funds spent. Even though paving is a proven erosion control method, the high costs involved made it a relatively cost-inefficient method. Marine sedimentation of terrigenous sediment (land-derived) was regularly monitored (every 26 days) at 15 near-shore and reef sites from 2008 to 2013 below the treated and undeveloped watersheds. Sediment composition (% terrigenous) determined by loss on ignition was multiplied by the total sediment accumulation rate in tube sediment traps to obtain terrigenous sediment accumulation rates (in mg cm-2 d-1). Mean terrigenous sediment accumulation rates were over 24 (near-shore) and 6 (reef) times greater below developed compared to undeveloped watersheds. Comparisons of marine terrigenous accumulation rates between undeveloped and developed areas were consistent with those based on modeled sediment yields. At all near-shore sites below mitigated watersheds, mean post-mitigation marine terrigenous sediment accumulation rates were reduced by up to 70% of mean pre-mitigation values. Nevertheless, further analysis is required to evaluate whether the observed post-mitigation reduction is strictly related to watershed restoration. At the developed coral reef sites, acute terrigenous sediment accumulation rates during major storms equaled or exceeded coral-stressing levels (>50 mg cm-2d-1). Results from this research are being employed in the design of mitigation strategies within our study areas as well as in other parts of the Caribbean where roads are considered a major threat to coral reefs.

  6. Flocculated sediments can reduce the size of sediment basin at construction sites.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; King, Scott E; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-01-15

    Due to stringent water quality regulations on stormwater discharges, there is increasing interest in chemically-assisted settling of suspended sediments at construction sites. This study investigated settling characteristics of flocculated sediment by polyacrylamide (PAM) in a top-loading settling tube. Studied sediment materials were obtained from construction sites in North Carolina, USA: Coastal Plain loamy sand (CPLS), Piedmont sandy clay loam (PSCL), Piedmont silt loam (PSL), and Mountain clay loam (MCL). The four different sediment suspensions mixed with and without dissolved PAM were introduced to the top of the column individually. During a 1-h settling period, samples were taken at 1-m depth from surface at various times and analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS). Flocculated sediment by PAM greatly increased its settled TSS fraction up to 95-97% only in 1-min settling period compared to those of unflocculated sediment (16-72%). The settling improvement by PAM was profound in the finer-textured soils (PSL and MCL) by increasing their median particle settling velocity (>2cms(-1)) compared to unflocculated counterparts (<1.1cms(-1)). Estimated surface area requirement of sediment basin suggested that the basins receiving flocculated sediment could be reduced in size (surface area) by 2- to 4-times compared to those receiving unflocculated sediment. Our results suggests that current sediment basin design could be modified when chemically-assisted settling is implemented, taking up less space and cost in construction sites. PMID:26555101

  7. Transport of sediment-bound organochlorine pesticides to the San Joaquin River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Suspended sediment samples were collected in westside tributaries and the main stem of the San Joaquin River, California, in June 1994 during the irrigation season and in January 1995 during a winter storm. These samples were analyzed for 15 organochlorine pesticides to determine their occurrence and their concentrations on suspended sediment and to compare transport during the irrigation season (April to September) to transport during winter storm runoff (October to March). Ten organochlorine pesticides were detected during the winter storm runoff; seven during the irrigation season. The most frequently detected organochlorine pesticides during both sampling periods were p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and chlordane. Dissolved samples were analyzed for three organochlorine pesticides during the irrigation season and for 15 during the winter storm. Most calculated total concentrations of p,p'-DDT, chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. At eight sites in common between sampling periods, suspended sediment concentrations and streamflow were greater during the winter storm runoff median concentration of 3,590 mg/L versus 489 mg/and median streamflow of 162 ft3/s versus 11 ft3/s. Median concentrations of total DDT (sum of p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT), chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene on suspended sediment were slightly greater during the irrigation season, but instantaneous loads of organochlorine pesticides at the time of sampling were substantially greater during the winter storm. Estimated loads for the entire irrigation season exceeded estimated loads for the January 1995 storm by about 2 to 4 times for suspended transport and about 3 to 11 times for total transport. However, because the mean annual winter runoff is about 2 to 4 times greater than the runoff during the January 1995 storm, mean winter transport may be similar to irrigation season transport. This conclusion is tentative primarily because of insufficient information on long-term seasonal variations in suspended sediment and organochlorine concentrations. Nevertheless, runoff from infrequent winter storms will continue to deliver a significant load of sediment-bound organochlorine pesticides to the San Joaquin River even if irrigation-induced sediment transport is reduced. As a result, concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in San Joaquin River biota will continue to be relatively high compared to other regions of the United States.

  8. Sediment quality in Rivers and their estuaries of an olive oil production area, Messinia, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its outfall in the Messinian Gulf. A significant enrichment in phenolic content of sediments as well in organic carbon was observed in 2011 when compared to 2008, in most of the cases, indicating degradation of the study aquatic ecosystems of Messinia Prefecture.

  9. Availability of organic chemicals for biodegradation in settled bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Shimp, R.J.; Young, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    Biodegradation rates for dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (TMAC), a quaternary ammonium compound, and phenol were measured in settled sediments to determine if adsorbed chemicals were directly available for biodegradation by sediment-associated bacteria. In settled sediment cores, biodegradation rates for TMAC, which is charged at environmental pH, was a function of the amount of unadsorbed chemical; adsorbed material was not directly degraded by the sediment-associated bacteria. However, the rate of biodegradation of adsorbed phenol, a relatively hydrophobic and neutral chemical, was apparently a function of the total concentration of material present, suggesting that at least a fraction of the adsorbed material was directly degraded. These results indicate that chemical structure and, possibly, the mechanism of adsorption may influence biodegradation in sediments. Studies on TMAC biodegradation in completely mixed sediment/water slurries (up to 10 g/liter sediment) showed that TMAC biodegradation in slurries differed from that in settled sediments. Biodegradation in slurries was a function of the total amount of material present, both adsorbed and unadsorbed. These results suggest that biodegradation in settled sediments may be influenced by high concentrations of sediment present and/or the lack of mixing. Thus mixed, low-sediment-level slurries may not be realistic surrogates for modeling biodegradation processes in settled bottom sediments.

  10. A spatially referenced regression model (SPARROW) for suspended sediment in streams of the Conterminous U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarz, Gregory E.; Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.; Gray, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment has long been recognized as an important contaminant affecting water resources. Besides its direct role in determining water clarity, bridge scour and reservoir storage, sediment serves as a vehicle for the transport of many binding contaminants, including nutrients, trace metals, semi-volatile organic compounds, a nd numerous pesticides (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000a). Recent efforts to addr ess water-quality concerns through the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process have iden tified sediment as the single most prevalent cause of impairment in the Nation’s streams a nd rivers (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000b). Moreover, sediment has been identified as a medium for the tran sport and sequestration of organic carbon, playing a potentia lly important role in understa nding sources and sinks in the global carbon budget (Stallard, 1998). A comprehensive understanding of sediment fate a nd transport is considered essential to the design and implementation of effective plans for sediment management (Osterkamp and others, 1998, U.S. General Accounting Office, 1990). An exte nsive literature addr essing the problem of quantifying sediment transport has produced a nu mber of methods for estimating its flux (see Cohn, 1995, and Robertson and Roerish, 1999, for us eful surveys). The accuracy of these methods is compromised by uncertainty in the concentration measurements and by the highly episodic nature of sediment movement, particul arly when the methods are applied to smaller basins. However, for annual or decadal flux es timates, the methods are generally reliable if calibrated with extended periods of data (Robertson and Roerish, 1999). A substantial literature also supports the Universal Soil Loss Equation (U SLE) (Soil Conservation Service, 1983), an engineering method for estimating sheet and rill erosion, although the empirical credentials of the USLE have recently been questioned (Tri mble and Crosson, 2000). Conversely, relatively little direct evidence is available concerning the fate of sediment. The common practice of quantifying sediment fate with a sediment deliv ery ratio, estimated from a simple empirical relation with upstream basin area, does not artic ulate the relative importance of individual storage sites within a basin (Wolman, 1977). Rates of sediment deposition in reservoirs and flood plains can be determined from empirical measurement s , but only a limited number of sites have been monitored, and net rates of deposition or loss from other potential sinks and sources is largely unknown (Stallard, 1998). In particular, little is known about how much sediment loss from fields ultimately makes its way to stream channels, and how much sediment is subsequently stored in or lost from th e streambed (Meade and Parker, 1985, Trimble and Crosson, 2000). This paper reports on recent progress made to a ddress empirically the question of sediment fate and transport on a national scale. The model pres ented here is based on the SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attr ibutes (SPARROW) methodology, fi rst used to estimate the distribution of nutrients in str eams and rivers of the United Stat es, and subsequently shown to describe land and stream processes affecting the delivery of nutrients (Smith and others, 1997, Alexander and others, 2000, Preston and Brakeb ill, 1999). The model makes use of numerous spatial datasets, available at the national level, to explain long-term sediment water-quality conditions in major streams and rivers throughou t the United States. Sediment sources are identified using sediment erosion rates from the National Resources I nventory (NRI) (Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000) and apportioned over th