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1

Distribution and photobiology of Symbiodinium types in different light environments for three colour morphs of the coral Madracis pharensis: is there more to it than total irradiance?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of symbiont variation in the photobiology of reef corals was addressed by investigating the links among symbiont genetic diversity, function and ecological distribution in a single host species, Madracis pharensis. Symbiont distribution was studied for two depths (10 and 25 m), two different light habitats (exposed and shaded) and three host colour morphs (brown, purple and green). Two Symbiodinium genotypes were present, as defined by nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) variation. Symbiont distribution was depth- and colour morph-dependent. Type B15 occurred predominantly on the deeper reef and in green and purple colonies, while type B7 was present in shallow environments and brown colonies. Different light microhabitats at fixed depths had no effect on symbiont presence. This ecological distribution suggests that symbiont presence is potentially driven by light spectral niches. A reciprocal depth transplantation experiment indicated steady symbiont populations under environment change. Functional parameters such as pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence and cell densities were measured for 25 m and included in multivariate analyses. Most functional variation was explained by two photobiological assemblages that relate to either symbiont identity or light microhabitat, suggesting adaptation and acclimation, respectively. Type B15 occurs with lower cell densities and larger sizes, higher cellular pigment concentrations and higher peridinin to chlorophyll a ratio than type B7. Type B7 relates to a larger xanthophyll-pool size. These unambiguous differences between symbionts can explain their distributional patterns, with type B15 being potentially more adapted to darker or deeper environments than B7. Symbiont cell size may play a central role in the adaptation of coral holobionts to the deeper reef. The existence of functional differences between B-types shows that the clade classification does not necessarily correspond to functional identity. This study supports the use of ITS2 as an ecological and functionally meaningful marker in Symbiodinium.

Frade, P. R.; Englebert, N.; Faria, J.; Visser, P. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

2008-12-01

2

Total Colouring With +poly(log ) Hugh Hind y Michael Molloy z Bruce Reed x  

E-print Network

Total Colouring With #1;+poly(log #1;) Colours #3; Hugh Hind y Michael Molloy z Bruce Reed x November 2, 2000 Abstract We provide a polynomial time algorithm which #12;nds a total colour- ing of any. This improves the best previous upper bound on the total chromatic number of #1;+ 18#1; 1=3 log(3#1;). 1

Molloy, Mike

3

Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

2013-11-01

4

Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.  

PubMed

Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. PMID:25863614

Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

2015-09-15

5

Marked colour divergence in the gliding membranes of a tropical lizard mirrors population differences in the colour of falling leaves.  

PubMed

Populations of the Bornean gliding lizard, Draco cornutus, differ markedly in the colour of their gliding membranes. They also differ in local vegetation type (mangrove forest versus lowland rainforest) and consequently, the colour of falling leaves (red and brown/black in mangrove versus green, brown and black in rainforest). We show that the gliding membranes of these lizards closely match the colours of freshly fallen leaves in the local habitat as they appear to the visual system of birds (their probable predators). Furthermore, gliding membranes more closely resembled colours of local fallen leaves than standing foliage or fallen leaves in the other population's habitat. This suggests that the two populations have diverged in gliding membrane coloration to match the colours of their local falling leaves, and that mimicking falling leaves is an adaptation that functions to reduce predation by birds. PMID:25540157

Klomp, D A; Stuart-Fox, D; Das, I; Ord, T J

2014-12-01

6

Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information  

PubMed Central

Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male–male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively). PMID:24335271

Ligon, Russell A.; McGraw, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

7

Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information.  

PubMed

Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male-male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively). PMID:24335271

Ligon, Russell A; McGraw, Kevin J

2013-01-01

8

Influence of colour-matching functions on threshold and large colour differencesInfluence des fonctions colorimétriques au seuil de discrimination et pour les grandes différences de couleur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we study the influence of colour-matching functions on the determination of colour-threshold differences (part I) and of greater size (part II). For this, we have used the colour-matching functions of 16 different observers, the five CIE centres and 200 Munsell samples. A previously operated and fully automated Wright colorimeter was used for the determination of colour-matching functions and colour-discrimination thresholds. The results for part I indicate that the discrimination ellipses obtained with different colour-matching functions (with some exceptions) had highly similar orientations, semiaxis relationships and areas, whereas the centres appeared to shift with respect to each other, primarily in the blue area. The results for part II reveal important discrepancies between the different observers in evaluating any colour, and close agreement in evaluating colour differences. On the basis of the overall study, we deduce that the colour-matching functions of the observers have significant influence on the specification of individual colours, but only slight effects on the determination of small or large colour differences.

Martínez, J. A.; Poza, A. J.; Melgosa, M.; Hita, E.

1997-02-01

9

Cyclic colour change in the bearded dragon Pogona vitticeps under different photoperiods.  

PubMed

The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12:12; LD 6:18; LD 18:6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles. PMID:25354192

Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

2014-01-01

10

Cyclic Colour Change in the Bearded Dragon Pogona vitticeps under Different Photoperiods  

PubMed Central

The ability to change colour rapidly is widespread among ectotherms and has various functions including camouflage, communication and thermoregulation. The process of colour change can occur as an aperiodic event or be rhythmic, induced by cyclic environmental factors or regulated by internal oscillators. Despite the importance of colour change in reptile ecology, few studies have investigated the occurrence of a circadian rhythm in lizard pigmentation. Additionally, although colour change also entails changes in near-infrared reflectance, which may affect thermoregulation, little research has examined this part of the spectrum. We tested whether the bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps, displays an endogenous circadian rhythm in pigmentation changes that could be entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles and how light affected the relative change in reflectance in both ultraviolet-visible and near-infrared spectra. We subjected 11 lizards to four photoperiodic regimens: LD 12?12; LD 6?18; LD 18?6 and DD; and measured their dorsal skin reflectance at 3-hour intervals for 72 hours after a habituation period. A proportion of lizards displayed a significant rhythm under constant darkness, with maximum reflectance occurring in the subjective night. This endogenous rhythm synchronised to the different artificial LD cycles, with maximum reflectance occurring during dark phases, but did not vary in amplitude. In addition, the total ultraviolet-visible reflectance in relation to the total near-infrared reflectance was significantly higher during dark phases than during light phases. We conclude that P. vitticeps exhibits a circadian pigmentation rhythm of constant amplitude, regulated by internal oscillators and that can be entrained by light/dark cycles. PMID:25354192

Fan, Marie; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Cadena, Viviana

2014-01-01

11

Interference and holography with femtosecond laser pulses of different colours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometry and holography are two domains that are based on observation and recording of interference fringes from two light beams. While the aim of the first technique is to reveal and map the phase difference of two wave fronts, the main task of the second technique is to reconstruct one of the two recording waves via diffraction of the other wave from the recorded fringe pattern (hologram). To create fringes, mutually coherent waves from the same laser are commonly used. It is shown here that fringes can be observed and holograms can be recorded with ultrashort, sub-picosecond pulses even of different colour, generated in our experiment with two parametric amplifiers seeded, both by the same mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser. The appearance of permanent and transient gratings is confirmed by recording of an image-bearing hologram, by observation of two-beam coupling gain in a pump–probe experiment and by frequency conversion in Raman–Nath self-diffraction from a moving grating.

Odoulov, Serguey; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Badorreck, Holger; Nolte, Stefan; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

2015-02-01

12

Interference and holography with femtosecond laser pulses of different colours.  

PubMed

Interferometry and holography are two domains that are based on observation and recording of interference fringes from two light beams. While the aim of the first technique is to reveal and map the phase difference of two wave fronts, the main task of the second technique is to reconstruct one of the two recording waves via diffraction of the other wave from the recorded fringe pattern (hologram). To create fringes, mutually coherent waves from the same laser are commonly used. It is shown here that fringes can be observed and holograms can be recorded with ultrashort, sub-picosecond pulses even of different colour, generated in our experiment with two parametric amplifiers seeded, both by the same mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser. The appearance of permanent and transient gratings is confirmed by recording of an image-bearing hologram, by observation of two-beam coupling gain in a pump-probe experiment and by frequency conversion in Raman-Nath self-diffraction from a moving grating. PMID:25651807

Odoulov, Serguey; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Badorreck, Holger; Nolte, Stefan; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

2015-01-01

13

Online colour training system for dental students: a comprehensive assessment of different training protocols.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the training effect and to determine the optimal training protocol for a recently developed online colour training system. Seventy students participated in the evaluation. They first completed a baseline test with shade guides (SGT) and the training system (TST), and then trained with one of the three system training methods (Basic colour training for group E1, Vitapan Classical for E2, and Vitapan 3D-Master for E3) or shade guides (group C1) for 4 days. The control group (C2) received no training. The same test was performed after training and they finally completed a questionnaire. The correct matches after training increased in three experimental groups and group C1. Among experimental groups, the greatest improvement of correct matching number was achieved by group E3 (4·00 ± 1·88 in SGT, 4·29 ± 2·73 in TST), followed by E2 (2·29 ± 2·73 in SGT, 3·50 ± 3·03 in TST) and E1 (2·00 ± 2·60 in SGT, 1·93 ± 2·96 in TST). The difference between E3 and E1 was statistically significant (P = 0·036 in SGT, 0·026 in TST). The total average training time was shorter in group E2 (15·39 ± 4·22 min) and E3 (17·63 ± 5·22 min), with no significant difference between them. Subjective evaluations revealed that self-confidence in colour matching were improved greater in group C1 and E3. In conclusion, all tested sections of the system effectively improved students' colour-matching ability. Among system training methods, Vitapan 3D-Master showed the best performance; it enabled greater shade-matching improvement, it saved time and was superior in subjective evaluations. PMID:25494964

Liu, M; Chen, L; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Zheng, M; Tan, J

2015-04-01

14

Coloured plastinates.  

PubMed

To obtain coloured plastinates by colouring anatomical structures in e.g. red, blue and yellow we used different types of chemical reagents. The colours remained stable during dehydration, degreasing and impregnation of specimen with silicone resin. The colours, which penetrated into the specimen, appeared to be included in the plastination process. To prove their stability, the coloured plastinates were exposed to light and heat for more than 5 years. A permanent colouration remained. The coloured plastinates are dry and flexible, odourless and robust. They are instructive and can be used in tutorials, examinations and seminars. PMID:16551016

Steinke, Hanno; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

2006-03-01

15

Characterization of total capsaicinoids, colour and volatile compounds of Habanero chilli pepper ( Capsicum chinense Jack.) cultivars grown in Yucatan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total capsaicinoids, colour and volatile compounds of 10 Habanero chilli pepper (Capsicum chinense Jack.) cultivars grown in Yucatan, grouped by their colours: four red, five orange and one brown, were determined. The content of capsaicinoids, responsible for the pungency of chilli peppers, varied between 41.8 and 65.9mgg?1 dry fruit. Mean concentration of orange cultivars was 55.0mgg?1, while red cultivars had

Jorge Pino; Marilú González; Liena Ceballos; Alma Rosa Centurión-Yah; Jorge Trujillo-Aguirre; Luis Latournerie-Moreno; Enrique Sauri-Duch

2007-01-01

16

Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of some fruits dehydrated by a combination of different methods.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to improve product quality of dehydrated fruits (apple, pear, papaya, mango) using combined drying techniques. This involved investigation of bioactivity, colour, and sensory assessment on colour of the dried products as well as the retention of the bio-active ingredients. The attributes of quality were compared in regard to the quality of dehydrated samples obtained from continuous heat pump (HP) drying technique. It was found that for apple, pear and mango the total colour change (?E) of samples dried using continuous heat pump (HP) or heat pump vacuum-microwave (HP/VM) methods was lower than of samples dried by other combined methods. However, for papaya, the lowest colour change exhibited by samples dried using hot air-cold air (HHC) method and the highest colour change was found for heat pump (HP) dehydrated samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that dehydrated pear with higher total colour change (?E) is more desirable because of its golden yellow appearance. In most cases the highest phenol content was found from fruits dried by HP/VM method. Judging from the quality findings on two important areas namely colour and bioactivity, it was found that combined drying method consisted of HP pre-drying followed by VM finish drying gave the best results for most dehydrated fruits studied in this work as the fruits contain first group of polyphenol compounds, which preferably requires low temperature followed by rapid drying strategy. PMID:23993562

Chong, Chien Hwa; Law, Chung Lim; Figiel, Adam; Wojdy?o, Aneta; Oziemb?owski, Maciej

2013-12-15

17

Difference between the optical flickering colours of cataclysmic variables and symbiotic recurrent novae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed simultaneous observations in 3 bands (UBV) of the flickering variability of the recurrent novae RS Oph and T CrB at quiescence. Using new and published data, we compare the colours of the flickering in cataclysmic variables and symbiotic recurrent novae. We find a difference between the colours of the flickering source in these two types of accreting white dwarfs. The detected difference is highly significant with p-values ? 2 {×} 10-6 for the distributions of (U-B)_0 colour and p ? 3 {×} 10-5 on an (U-B) versus (B-V) diagram. The possible physical reasons are briefly discussed. The data are available upon request from the authors. Based on observations obtained at National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen and Belogradchik Observatory, Bulgaria.

Zamanov, R.; Boeva, S.; Latev, G.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Tsvetkova, S. V.

2015-02-01

18

Cryptic differences in colour among Müllerian mimics: how can the visual capacities of predators and prey shape the evolution of wing colours?  

PubMed

Antagonistic interactions between predators and prey often lead to co-evolution. In the case of toxic prey, aposematic colours act as warning signals for predators and play a protective role. Evolutionary convergence in colour patterns among toxic prey evolves due to positive density-dependent selection and the benefits of mutual resemblance in spreading the mortality cost of educating predators over a larger prey assemblage. Comimetic species evolve highly similar colour patterns, but such convergence may interfere with intraspecific signalling and recognition in the prey community, especially for species involved in polymorphic mimicry. Using spectrophotometry measures, we investigated the variation in wing coloration among comimetic butterflies from distantly related lineages. We focused on seven morphs of the polymorphic species Heliconius numata and the seven corresponding comimetic species from the genus Melinaea. Significant differences in the yellow, orange and black patches of the wing were detected between genera. Perceptions of these cryptic differences by bird and butterfly observers were then estimated using models of animal vision based on physiological data. Our results showed that the most strikingly perceived differences were obtained for the contrast of yellow against a black background. The capacity to discriminate between comimetic genera based on this colour contrast was also evaluated to be higher for butterflies than for birds, suggesting that this variation in colour, likely undetectable to birds, might be used by butterflies for distinguishing mating partners without losing the benefits of mimicry. The evolution of wing colour in mimetic butterflies might thus be shaped by the opposite selective pressures exerted by predation and species recognition. PMID:24444083

Llaurens, V; Joron, M; Théry, M

2014-01-21

19

Planetary nebula or symbiotic Mira? Near infrared colours mark the difference  

E-print Network

Nebulae around symbiotic Miras look very much like genuine planetary nebulae, although they are formed in a slightly different way. We present near infrared photometry of known and suspected symbiotic nebulae obtained with the Deep Near Infrared Southern Sky Survey (DENIS). We demonstrate that the near infrared colours are an excellent tool to distinguish symbiotic from genuine planetary nebulae. In particular we find that the bipolar planetary nebulae M 2-9 and Mz 3 are in fact symbiotic Miras. Further observations on prototype symbiotic Miras prove that the proposed classification scheme works generally.

S. Schmeja; S. Kimeswenger

2001-08-21

20

Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core–veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm?min?1). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)?(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)?(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia–veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal–ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core–veneer adhesion. Metal–ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia–veneer ceramics tested. PMID:24158142

Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Özcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

2013-01-01

21

Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core-veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm?min(-1)). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)-(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)-(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia-veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal-ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core-veneer adhesion. Metal-ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia-veneer ceramics tested. PMID:24158142

Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Ozcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

2013-12-01

22

Effect of high pressure high temperature processing on the volatile fraction of differently coloured carrots.  

PubMed

To get deeper insight into the effect of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing on the volatile fraction of carrots, differently coloured cultivars exhibiting orange, purple, red and yellow hues were investigated. The impact of HPHT sterilisation was compared with thermal sterilisation based on equivalent microbiological inactivation. The results of this study demonstrated HPHT sterilisation to exert a distinct effect on important chemical reactions in comparison to thermal sterilisation. A comprehensive integration of MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and chemometric tools has been implemented as an untargeted multivariate screening tool to identify differences. In all carrot cultivars, two dominant discriminative quality-related reactions were found: oxidative degradation and the Maillard reaction. Regarding the first reaction, oxidative terpenes, free fatty acids and carotenoids degradation products were detected at higher levels after HPHT sterilisation. Regarding the latter reaction, HPHT sterilisation appeared to suppress the formation of Maillard and Strecker degradation products. PMID:24491739

Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Carle, Reinhold; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

2014-06-15

23

Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.  

PubMed

Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(?)a(?)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages. PMID:22062470

Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Møller, Jens K S

2008-04-01

24

Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity of different materials by two-colour pyrometry.  

PubMed

An experimental investigation is performed to substantiate the capability of a charge coupled device camera to measure local temperature and emissivity of different materials heated to temperatures above 500 °C by two-colour pyrometric technique using colorimetric method. Materials investigated are Inconel 718 with pyromark (high temperature paint), Inconel 718, stainless steel SS 304 and SS 316. Centerline temperature and emissivity distribution is obtained for target plates maintained at constant temperature by AC heating while complete temperature and emissivity distribution is provided for plates heated by flame impingement. The obtained results are compared with a calibrated infrared camera and thermocouples and the temperature distribution is found to be in close agreement. These results pertain to partially oxidized metal alloys covered in this study. Deviation in the measurement of emissivity can be attributed to its dependence on wavelength range, oxidation, and sensitivity of the image detector. PMID:24387454

Raj, Vinay C; Prabhu, S V

2013-12-01

25

Colour harmony of two colour combinations in clothes matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many definitions and theories about colour harmony. But no consistent rules and definitions can be determined. Some previous researches show that there are many factors that influence the colour harmony. Colour harmony is highly depends on the external factors, including the context of colour besides their colour combinations. In the current research an experiment conducted by observing two colour combinations which applied in shirt and trousers. Twenty observers involved in the experiment, consist of ten male and ten female. Each observer predict colour harmony score in 58 samples of shirt and trouser pairs, the colour combination then applied upside down. Based on the experimental results, male and female group has similar tendency in colour harmony score prediction in the same colour samples (correlation coefficient, r=0.84). Upside down colour combinations will change the impression of observer about colour harmony and yields a different value of colour harmony prediction score which indicated from correlation coefficient results of 0.53.

Wicaksono, Sungging Haryo; Fu, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Liang-Ya; Hou, Chien-Yu; Ou, Li-Chen

2015-01-01

26

Change in Colour and Antioxidant Content of Tomato Cultivars Following Forced-Air Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three New Zealand grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars, Aranka, Encore, and Flavourine, were analysed for colour (CIELAB L?a?b? values), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, lycopene, and total antioxidant activity (ABTS assay). Colour analyses of the air-dried tomatoes showed that the colour degradation as measured by the L?a?b? values was minimal, and the colour was not significantly different (p p ?C

N. S. Kerkhofs; C. E. Lister; G. P. Savage

2005-01-01

27

Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured several carotenoid-based (eye ring, bill cere and tarsi skin) and melanin-based (head, back, rump and tail feathers) potential ornamental colours in male common kestrels. We analysed whether multiple ornaments can convey different or related information about individual quality. We explored whether different ornaments can express different information depending on the pigment (carotenoids or melanins), the time-scale over which the ornament can change (dynamic vs. static) and the season of the year when the ornament is formed. We found that both melanin- and carotenoid- based traits correlated with indexes of quality, including body condition, body condition of their partners and laying date. However, not all ornaments correlated with the same measures of quality. In addition, some ornaments were intercorrelated within the same individuals while others were not. These results suggest that different ornaments can convey information about different qualities, as predicted by the multiple-messages hypothesis. In addition, this study suggests that the predominant pigment (e.g. carotenoid vs. melanin, eumelanin vs. pheomelanin), the time-scale over which the trait is developed (static feathers vs. dynamic skin) and the season of the year at which the ornament is produced can be potential mechanisms to convey different messages in male common kestrels.

Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan A.

2011-04-01

28

Effect of different carotenoid sources and their dietary levels on red porgy ( Pagrus pagrus) growth and skin colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas wild specimens exhibit a red pink silver colour, under captivity red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) skin turns dark grey, being directly associated with lower acceptance by the consumers and lower market value. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with two carotenoid sources, at two different concentrations, on growth and skin coloration. Fish of 44 g

C. T. Kalinowski; L. E. Robaina; H. Fernández-Palacios; D. Schuchardt; M. S. Izquierdo

2005-01-01

29

Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects  

PubMed Central

The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects. PMID:23145282

Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2012-01-01

30

The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = ?0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = ?0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125

Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

2014-01-01

31

Size-dependent predation risk in tree-feeding insects with different colouration strategies: a field experiment.  

PubMed

1. Body size is positively correlated with fecundity in various animals, but the factors that counterbalance the resulting selection pressure towards large size are difficult to establish. Positively size-dependent predation risk has been proposed as a selective factor potentially capable of balancing the fecundity advantage of large size. 2. To construct optimality models of insect body size, realistic estimates of size-dependent predation rates are necessary. Moreover, prey traits such as colouration should be considered, as they may substantially alter the relationship between body size and mortality risk. 3. To quantify mortality patterns, we conducted field experiments in which we exposed cryptic and conspicuous artificial larvae of different sizes to bird predators, and recorded the incidence of bird attacks. 4. The average daily mortality rate was estimated to vary between 4% and 10%. In both cryptic and conspicuous larvae, predation risk increased with prey size, but the increase tended to be steeper in the conspicuous group. No main effect of colour type was found. All the quantitative relationships were reasonably consistent across replicates. 5. Our results suggest that the size dependence of mortality risk in insect prey is primarily determined by the probability of being detected by a predator rather than by a size-dependent warning effect associated with conspicuous colouration. Our results therefore imply that warningly coloured insects do not necessarily benefit more than the cryptic species from large body size, as has been previously suggested. PMID:19493131

Remmel, Triinu; Tammaru, Toomas

2009-09-01

32

Genetics of eye colours in different rural populations on the Silk Road.  

PubMed

Eye colour is a highly transmissible and discernible trait in humans. A genome-wide association scan for variants associated to eye pigmentation was carried out on a large group of individuals coming from the Silk Road. Significant associations were detected not only with HERC2 (P-value=4.99 × 10(-37)) and OCA2 (P-value=4.51 × 10(-9)) genes but also with CTNNA2 gene (P-value=4.06 × 10(-8)). Moreover, the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis clearly showed the effect of HERC2 haplotype over OCA2 mostly associated with SNP, thus enabling a highly accurate eye-colour prediction. Finally, the regression tree analysis showed that individuals carrying a given combination of haplotypes have a significant probability to show a blue or green/grey iris colour as compared with brown, with a gradient from west to east. PMID:23486544

Ulivi, Sheila; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

2013-11-01

33

Missense and nonsense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene of different goat breeds: association with red and black coat colour phenotypes but with unexpected evidences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Agouti and Extension loci control the relative amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin production in melanocytes that, in turn, affects pigmentation of skin and hair. The Extension locus encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose permanent activation, caused by functional mutations, results in black coat colour, whereas other inactivating mutations cause red coat colour in different mammals. RESULTS: The whole

Luca Fontanesi; Francesca Beretti; Valentina Riggio; Stefania Dall'Olio; Elena Gómez González; Raffaella Finocchiaro; Roberta Davoli; Vincenzo Russo; Baldassare Portolano

2009-01-01

34

Shelf-life and colour change kinetics of Aloe vera gel powder under accelerated storage in three different packaging materials.  

PubMed

Aloe vera gel powder was produced through dehumidified air drying of Aloe vere gel at optimized conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity of 64 °C, 18% and 0.8 m.s(-1), respectively. The powder was packed in three different packaging materials viz., laminated aluminum foil (AF), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polypropylene (PP). The shelf-life of the powder was predicted on the basis of free flowness of product under accelerated storage condition (38?±?1 °C, 90?±?1% relative humidity) and was calculated to be 33.87, 42.58 and 51.05 days in BOPP, PP and AF, respectively. The storage stability of powder in terms of colour change was studied. The magnitude of colour change of Aloe vera gel powder during storage suggests that AF was better than BOPP and PP. The colour change of powder during storage followed first order reaction kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0444 per day for AF, 0.075 per day for BOPP and 0.0498 per day for PP. PMID:24425977

Ramachandra, C T; Rao, P Srinivasa

2013-08-01

35

Colour contribution to children's wayfinding in school environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of colour to children's wayfinding ability in school environments and to examine the differences between colours in terms of their remembrance and usability in route learning process. The experiment was conducted with three different sample groups for each of three experiment sets differentiated by their colour arrangement. The participants totalled 100 primary school children aged seven and eight years old. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the participants were tested for familiarity with the experiment site and also for colour vision deficiencies by using Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness. In the second phase, they were escorted on the experiment route by the tester one by one, from one starting point to one end point and were asked to lead the tester to the end point by the same route. In the third phase, they were asked to describe verbally the route. In the final phase, they were asked to remember the specific colours at their correct locations. It was found that colour has a significant effect on children's wayfinding performances in school environments. However, there were no differences between different colours in terms of their remembrances in route finding tasks. In addition, the correct identifications of specific colours and landmarks were dependent on their specific locations. Contrary to the literature, gender differences were not found to be significant in the accuracy of route learning performances.

Helvac?o?lu, Elif; Olguntürk, Nilgün

2011-03-01

36

Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.  

PubMed

Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added. PMID:23871038

Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

2013-12-01

37

Spatial distribution pattern analysis of Dof1 transcription factor in different tissues of three Eleusine coracana genotypes differing in their grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency.  

PubMed

In the present study Dof1 gene of finger millet was cloned and sequenced. In silico analysis reveals 61% identity with the Sorghum bicolor and 57% identity with the Oryza sativa Dof1 sequence. A comparative analysis of gene sequences from different crops and three finger millet genotypes {Brown (PRM-1), Golden (PRM-701) and White (PRM-801)} differing in grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency showed a high degree of sequence identity of Dof1 sequence gene ranging from 22 to 70% as evident from distance matrix of the built phylogenetic tree showing two major clusters. A total of five conserved motifs were observed in Dof1 sequences of different cereals. Motif 1 with multilevel consensus sequence CKNCRRYWTKGGAMRNVPVG contains zinc finger Dof domain. Motif 3 and motif 5 contains protein kinase phosphorylation site. Motif 2 contains Dof domain and zinc finger N-glycosylation site while motif 4 is involved in Zinc finger type profiling. Further, we studied the spatial distribution of Dof1 gene in three vegetative tissues (root, stem and flag leaf) as well as four stages of developing spikes (S1, S2, S3 and S4) of the three finger millet genotypes using qualitative and quantitative PCR based approaches. Physiological parameters (plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, SPAD value and photosynthetic efficiency) at the time of flowering was found to be highest in white (PRM-801) genotype followed by golden (PRM-701) and brown (PRM-1) genotype. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of Dof1 is highest in leaves and lowest in roots, which suggests its role in regulation of photosynthesis-related genes and carbon skeleton synthesis. Also at grain maturity stage, expression of Dof1 was higher in white (PRM-801) genotype followed by golden (PRM-701) and brown (PRM-1) genotype. The result is suggestive of Dof1 role in the accumulation of grain protein and yield attribute through regulation of key enzymes involved in source to sink relationship during grain filling stage. PMID:21643752

Gupta, Nidhi; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Kumar, Anil

2012-03-01

38

Sex Differences in Obesity Associated with Total Fertility Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of biological and ecological factors that contribute to obesity may help in combating the spreading obesity crisis. Sex differences in obesity rates are particularly poorly understood. Here we show that the strong female bias in obesity in many countries is associated with high total fertility rate, which is well known to be correlated with factors such as low

Robert Brooks; Alexei Maklakov; Daniel J. Rankin

2010-01-01

39

Colour Lovers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The endless hues and shades of colors fascinate many persons, including interior-designers, fashionistas, and those who study the workings of the human eye. This particular site is "a place to view, rate and review some lovely colours & palettes." The site contains a number of user forums where people may gather around the electronic glow of the screen to discuss and debate the merits of different colors, along with a place for users to submit their own fanciful and innovative colors. On the right-hand side of the home page, visitors can browse through the top-rated colors, newly added colors, and new palettes. Many of the colors have rather curious names, such as "wegobysundawn" and "victory or ignorance." Of course, there is space provided for visitors to give their own opinions on each color or palette. Overall, a compelling site, and one that will delight those with a penchant for the uses of color.

40

Effects of grass feeding systemson ruminant meat colour and flavour. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass feeding has been reported to affect several meat quality characteristics, in particular colour and flavour. In this paper we have reviewed some differences in meat colour and flavour between ruminants fed concentrates and animals allowed to graze pasture. The possible factors influ- encing the differences have been also examined. We have examined a total of 35 experiments which report

Alessandro Priolo; Didier Micol; Jacques Agabriel

2001-01-01

41

Unconventional colour vision.  

PubMed

Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough. PMID:25514002

Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

2014-12-15

42

Fecundity selection on ornamental plumage colour differs between ages and sexes and varies over small spatial scales.  

PubMed

Avian plumage colours are some of the most conspicuous sexual ornaments, and yet standardized selection gradients for plumage colour have rarely been quantified. We examined patterns of fecundity selection on plumage colour in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus L.). When not accounting for environmental heterogeneity, we detected relatively few cases of selection. We found significant disruptive selection on adult male crown colour and yearling female chest colour and marginally nonsignificant positive linear selection on adult female crown colour. We discovered no new significant selection gradients with canonical rotation of the matrix of nonlinear selection. Next, using a long-term data set, we identified territory-level environmental variables that predicted fecundity to determine whether these variables influenced patterns of plumage selection. The first of these variables, the density of oaks within 50 m of the nest, influenced selection gradients only for yearling males. The second variable, an inverse function of nesting density, interacted with a subset of plumage selection gradients for yearling males and adult females, although the strength and direction of selection did not vary predictably with population density across these analyses. Overall, fecundity selection on plumage colour in blue tits appeared rare and inconsistent among sexes and age classes. PMID:21585583

Parker, T H; Wilkin, T A; Barr, I R; Sheldon, B C; Rowe, L; Griffith, S C

2011-07-01

43

Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours  

PubMed Central

Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

2013-01-01

44

Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.  

PubMed

It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems. PMID:24921355

Farup, Ivar

2014-05-19

45

Same trait, different receiver response: unlike females, male American goldfinches do not signal status with bill colour  

E-print Network

ornamentation genetic correlation social competition Spinus tristis status signal In species in which both sexes that carotenoid-based bill colour of female American goldfinches, Spinus tristis, functions as a signal of status

Murphy, Troy G.

46

The colour-differences in Epipactis helleborine (L.) Cr. Wats. & Coult., and the selection of the genetical varieties by environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It was found that climatological environmental influences play an important rôle in the natural selection of the colour-varieties ofEpipactis helleborine (L)Cr., Wats. & Coult. on the island of Ameland (Netherlands.)

J. Weijer

1953-01-01

47

Primary posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty: analysis of different instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Background Intercondylar femoral bone removal during posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) makes many cruciate substituting implant designs less appealing than cruciate retaining implants. Bone stock conservation is considered fundamental in the prevision of future revision surgeries. The purpose of this study was to compare the quantity of intercondylar bone removable during PS housing preparation using three contemporary PS TKA instrumentations. Method We compared different box cutting jigs which were utilized for the PS housing of three popular PS knee prostheses. The bone removal area from every PS box cutting jig was three-dimensionally measured. Results Independently from the implant size, the cutting jig for a specific PS TKA always resected significantly less bone than the others: this difference was statistically significant, especially for small- to medium-sized total knee femoral components. Conclusion This study does not establish a clinical relevance of removing more or less bone at primary TKA, but suggests that if a PS design is indicated, it is preferable to select a model which possibly resects less distal femoral bone. PMID:25037275

2014-01-01

48

Total column density variations of ozone (O3) in presence of different types of clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zenith sky scattered light spectra were carried out using zenith sky UV-visible spectrometer in clear and cloudy sky conditions during May-November 2000 over the tropical station Pune (18°32'N, 73°51'E). These scattered spectra are obtained in the spectral range 462-498 nm between 75° and 92° solar zenith angles (SZAs). The slant column densities (SCDs) as well as total column densities (TCDs) of NO2, O3, H2O and O4 are derived with different SZAs in clear and cloudy sky conditions. The large enhancements and reductions in TCDs of the above gases are observed in thick cumulonimbus (Cb) clouds and thin high cirrus (Ci) clouds, respectively, compared to clear sky conditions. The enhancements in TCDs of O3 appear to be due to photon diffusion, multiple Mie-scattering and multiple reflections between layered clouds or isolated patches of optically thick clouds. The reductions in TCDs due to optically thin clouds are noticed during the above period. The variations in TCDs of O3 measured under cloudy sky are discussed with total cloud cover (octas) of different types of clouds such as low clouds ( C L ), medium clouds ( C M ) and high clouds ( C H ) during May-November 2000. The variations in TCDs of O3 measured in cloudy sky conditions are found to be well matched with cloud sensitive parameter colour index (CI) and found to be in good correlation. The TCDcloudy are derived using airmass factors (AMFs) computed without considering cloud cover and CI in radiative transfer (RT) model, whereas TCDmodel are derived using AMFs computed with considering cloud cover, cloud height and CI in RT model. The TCDmodel is the column density of illuminated cloudy effect. A good agreement is observed between TCDmodel, TCDDob and TCDGOME.

Meena, G. S.

2010-06-01

49

Survey of colourings and preservatives in drugs.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of colourings and preservatives in drug formulations in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Postal survey. PARTICIPANTS--All pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United Kingdom were requested to supply data on drug formulations with particular regard to the content of colourings and preservatives. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Prevalence in proprietary drugs of colourings or preservatives, or both, that have been implicated in adverse reactions. Computation of a list of formulations of bronchodilators, antihistamines, and antibiotics that are free of such additives. RESULTS--A total of 118 out of 120 pharmaceutical companies supplied the data requested. In all, 2204 drug formulations were analysed and found to contain 419 different additives, of which 52 were colourings and preservatives that have been implicated in adverse reactions; 930 formulations contained such an additive. Tartrazine was the fourth most commonly occurring colouring, being present in 124 drug formulations. CONCLUSION--Many drugs contain additives that help to identify them and prolong their shelf life but are implicated in adverse reactions in some people. Some form of labelling of drug additives would enable these people to avoid drugs containing such additives. PMID:2508849

Pollock, I.; Young, E.; Stoneham, M.; Slater, N.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Warner, J. O.

1989-01-01

50

Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) with- in the image. Methods: All colour models have their advantages and

Gloria Bueno; Roberto González; Oscar Déniz; Jesús González; Marcial García-Rojo

2000-01-01

51

The colours of the Sun  

E-print Network

We compile a sample of Sun-like stars with accurate effective temperatures, metallicities and colours (from the UV to the near-IR). A crucial improvement is that the effective temperature scale of the stars has recently been established as both accurate and precise through direct measurement of angular diameters obtained with stellar interferometers. We fit the colours as a function of effective temperature and metallicity, and derive colour estimates for the Sun in the Johnson/Cousins, Tycho, Stromgren, 2MASS and SDSS photometric systems. For (B-V)_Sun, we favour the ``red'' colour 0.64 versus the ``blue'' colour 0.62 of other recent papers, but both values are consistent within the errors; we ascribe the difference to the selection of Sun-like stars versus interpolation of wider colour-Teff-metallicity relations.

Johan Holmberg; Chris Flynn; Laura Portinari

2005-11-06

52

Significance of early postmortem temperature and pH decline on colour characteristics of pork loin from different crossbreeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of early postmortem (pm) temperature and pH decline and the level of the muscle metabolites creatine phosphate (CP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on the colour of porcine M. longissimus dorsi was studied in a factorially designed experiment. Two stress levels peri mortem (minimal stress vs treadmill exercise and electrical stunning of the pigs) and four genotypes (Duroc boars

Gunilla Lindahl; Poul Henckel; Anders H. Karlsson; Henrik J. Andersen

2006-01-01

53

Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

54

Methods for describing illumination colour uniformities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimizing angular or spatial colour homogeneity has become an important task in many general lighting applications and first requires a valid description of illumination colour homogeneity. We analyse different frequently used methods to describe colour distributions in theory and with measurement data. It is described why information about chromaticity coordinates, correlated colour temperature and global chromaticity coordinate distances are not sufficient for describing colour homogeneity perception of light distributions. We present local chromaticity coordinate distances as expandable and easy implementable method for describing colour homogeneity distributions that is adaptable to the field of view by only one intuitive, physiological meaningful parameter.

Rotscholl, Ingo; Trampert, Klaus; Herrmann, Franziska; Neumann, Cornelius

2015-02-01

55

Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping  

PubMed Central

Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search. PMID:24466337

Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C.

2014-01-01

56

Effect of different carotenoid-containing diets on the vitamin A levels and colour parameters in Iberian pigs' tissues: utility as biomarkers of traceability.  

PubMed

Retinol and fat colour parameters in Iberian pigs fed on different carotenoid-containing diets were assessed. Thirty animals in two groups were considered: Iberian breed pigs fed on acorns and grass (Montanera) and on concentrate (Cebo). Carotenoids and retinoids were analysed in the diets and in plasma, liver and perirenal fat of the animals by HPLC and HPLC-MS. Retinol levels in plasma and fat were similar in Montanera and Cebo animals. The utility of retonids and colour parameters as traceability index was also explored. Retinoids in liver classified correctly 93% of the animals according to their diet L* and hab. CIELAB parameters of the perirenal fat discriminated correctly 78.6% of the animals according to their diet. L* values for the Montanera animals were significantly different (P<0.01) from those fed on concentrate. It can be claimed that the liver retinol profile and fat colour parameters can be useful for feeding traceability purposes in Iberian pigs breed in Montanera and Cebo. PMID:24967537

Álvarez, R; Vicario, I M; Meléndez-Martínez, A J; Alcalde, M J

2014-10-01

57

Segmentation of Colour Layers in Historical Maps Based on Hierarchical Colour Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour image segmentation (CIS) process for scanned historical maps is presented to overcome common problems associated with segmentation of old documents such as (1) variation in colour values of the same colour layer within one map page, (2) differences in typical colour values between homogeneous areas and thin line-work, which belong both to the same colour layer, and (3) extensive parameterization that results in a lack of robustness. The described approach is based on a two-stage colour layer prototype search using a constrained sampling design. Global colour layer prototypes for the identification of homogeneous regions are derived based on colour similarity to the most extreme colour layer values identified in the map page. These global colour layer prototypes are continuously adjusted using relative distances between prototype positions in colour space until a reliable sample is collected. Based on this sample colour layer seeds and directly connected neighbors of the same colour layer are determined resulting in the extraction of homogeneous colour layer regions. In the next step the global colour layer prototypes are recomputed using a new sample of colour values along the margins of identified homogeneous coloured regions. This sampling step derives representative prototypes of map layer sections that deviate significantly from homogeneous regions of the same layers due to bleaching, mixed or false colouring and ageing of the original scanned documents. A spatial expansion process uses these adjusted prototypes as start criterion to assign the remaining colour layer parts. The approach shows high robustness for map documents that suffer from low graphical quality indicating some potential for general applicability due to its simplicity and the limited need for preliminary information. The only input required is the colours and number of colour layers present in the map.

Leyk, Stefan

58

Missense and nonsense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene of different goat breeds: association with red and black coat colour phenotypes but with unexpected evidences  

PubMed Central

Background Agouti and Extension loci control the relative amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin production in melanocytes that, in turn, affects pigmentation of skin and hair. The Extension locus encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose permanent activation, caused by functional mutations, results in black coat colour, whereas other inactivating mutations cause red coat colour in different mammals. Results The whole coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced in goats of six different breeds showing different coat colours (Girgentana, white cream with usually small red spots in the face; Maltese, white with black cheeks and ears; Derivata di Siria, solid red; Murciano-Granadina, solid black or solid brown; Camosciata delle Alpi, brown with black stripes; Saanen, white; F1 goats and the parental animals). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: one nonsense mutation (p.Q225X), three missense mutations (p.A81V, p.F250V, and p.C267W), and one silent mutation. The stop codon at position 225 should cause the production of a shorter MC1R protein whose functionality may be altered. These SNPs were investigated in a larger sample of animals belonging to the six breeds. The Girgentana breed was almost fixed for the p.225X allele. However, there was not complete association between the presence of red spots in the face and the presence of this allele in homozygous condition. The same allele was identified in the Derivata di Siria breed. However, its frequency was only 33%, despite the fact that these animals are completely red. The p.267W allele was present in all Murciano-Granadina black goats, whereas it was never identified in the brown ones. Moreover, the same substitution was present in almost all Maltese goats providing evidence of association between this mutation and black coat colour. Conclusion According to the results obtained in the investigated goat breeds, MC1R mutations may determine eumelanic and pheomelanic phenotypes. However, they are probably not the only factors. In particular, the surprising not complete association of the nonsense mutation (p.Q225X) with red coat colour raises a few hypotheses on the determination of pheomelanic phenotypes in goats that should be further investigated. PMID:19706191

2009-01-01

59

An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

2013-01-01

60

"Close" Encounters...of a Totally Different Kind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a project used in an advanced art class in which students focus on the work of Chuck Close by creating large self-portraits in the manner of Close. Describes the work of different students, such as how one student made a portrait using different colors of Skittles candy. (CMK)

Greenman, Geri

2001-01-01

61

Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation. PMID:23441225

Ertl, Nicole G.; Elizur, Abigail; Brooks, Peter; Kuballa, Anna V.; Anderson, Trevor A.; Knibb, Wayne R.

2013-01-01

62

Upconversion nanocrystals: Bright colours ahead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full-colour displays with high spatial resolution can be produced with properly designed upconversion nanocrystals that emit light at different wavelengths, depending on the properties of the excitation pulses.

Bettinelli, Marco

2015-03-01

63

Genetics of colouration in birds.  

PubMed

Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues. PMID:23665152

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

2013-01-01

64

Rehabilitation of a Total Maxillectomy Patient by Three Different Methods  

PubMed Central

Rehabilitation of a patient with orbital defect is highly a challenging task, requiring an individualized design of the technique for each patient. The disfigurement associated with the loss of facial structures causes significant emotional stress and physical burdens.Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is the use of implants. Although implant-supported orbital prosthesis has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all the patients due to economic factors. The treatment of choice includes the silicone orbital prosthesis due to its life-like appearance. This article describes three different techniques, it’s advantages and limitations of fabricating a silicone orbital prosthesis for the same patient to achieve ideal fit and aesthetics. PMID:25478462

Ramesh; Kumar, C.Dinesh; Sharma, Neeraj; S, Yogesh

2014-01-01

65

The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

Harkness, Nick

2006-06-01

66

Inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape ( Brassica campestris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. Moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. Seed colour was predominantly but

A. Schwetka

1982-01-01

67

Colour Perception in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

2006-01-01

68

Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.  

PubMed

The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

2014-04-01

69

Colour in insect thermoregulation: empirical and theoretical tests in the colour-changing grasshopper, Kosciuscola tristis.  

PubMed

Body colours can result in different internal body temperatures, but evidence for the biological significance of colour-induced temperature differences is inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between body colour and temperature in a model insect species that rapidly changes colour. We used an empirical approach and constructed a heat budget model to quantify whether a colour change from black to turquoise has a role in thermoregulation for the chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis). Our study shows that colour change in K. tristis provides relatively small temperature differences that vary greatly with wind speed (0.55 °C at ms(-1) to 0.05 °C at 10 ms(-1)). The biological significance of this difference is unclear and we discuss the requirement for more studies that directly test hypotheses regarding the fitness effects of colour in manipulating body temperature. PMID:23108152

Umbers, K D L; Herberstein, M E; Madin, J S

2013-01-01

70

Effects of soaking, boiling and autoclaving on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) differing in seed coat colours.  

PubMed

The Australian grown faba beans of different seed coat colours were either soaked, boiled or autoclaved, and analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity using an array of reagent-based assays. Soaking, boiling and autoclaving were shown to lower the level of active compounds in faba beans. A significant amount of active compounds was leached to the soaking and cooking medium. Boiling was a better method in retaining active compounds in beans than autoclaving. The boiled beans had more active compounds than those of resulting cooking broths, which was the opposite observation when autoclaving. The buff-genotypes had a similar level of active compounds to red- and green-genotypes. The high performance liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation (HPLC-PCD) system detected a dense collection of high antioxidant HPLC peaks ('humps') in extracts of raw, soaked and boiled beans. The present findings encouraged consumption of faba beans together with cooking broth for the maximum potential health benefits. PMID:24001866

Siah, Siem; Wood, Jennifer A; Agboola, Samson; Konczak, Izabela; Blanchard, Christopher L

2014-01-01

71

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Differences in gait characteristics between total hip,  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Differences in gait characteristics between total hip, knee, and ankle arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) with a group of healthy side-to-side asymmetries in gait characteristics. Keywords: Gait, Arthroplasty, Hip, Knee, Ankle

Boyer, Edmond

72

The quality of protein of coloured fleshed potatoes.  

PubMed

Potatoes of purple varieties and red flesh colour were estimated as the important food product containing valuable protein. Amino acids concentration and protein nutritive value of coloured potatoes were analysed and compared with traditional yellow-fleshed varieties. Studies comprised potatoes of 13 varieties: 7 of purple-fleshed, four of red-fleshed and two of yellow-fleshed. There were observed differences between studied potatoes with respect to dry matter, starch and protein content as well as to amino acids concentration and protein quality independently on flesh colour. Potatoes of low as well of high content of total protein, independently on flesh colour, characterised similar protein quality, like for example varieties of Blaue Anneliese and Highland B. Red or Blue Congo and Salad Blue. Leucine limited the quality of majority of coloured fleshed potato varieties used for the experiment. The best amino acid profiles and protein quality confirmed by chemical scores and EAA index values characterised purple fleshed Vitelotte and Blaue Anneliese, yellow fleshed Verdi as well as red fleshed Herbie 26, Highland B. Red and Rosemarie. PMID:23871046

P?ksa, A; Kita, A; Ku?akowska, K; Anio?owska, M; Hamouz, K; Nem?, A

2013-12-01

73

Neutron absolute and total cross section difference measurements in the mass-140 region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a 100-MeV electron linac and neutron time-of-flight facility to measure precise neutron total cross sections in the mass-140 region for incident neutron energies of 3-60 MeV. We measured the absolute neutron total cross section of 140Ce and the total cross section differences of 139La-140Ce, 141Pr-140Ce, and 142Ce-140Ce. These cross section differences oscillate with energy. Optical model calculations

H. S. Camarda; T. W. Phillips; R. M. White

1984-01-01

74

INVESTIGATION OF RESPONSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have long been used to estimate the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) found in raw and finished drinking water. In recent years, computer automation and improved instrumental analysis technologies have created a ...

75

Prevalence of colour blindness in young Jordanians.  

PubMed

Colour blindness is one of the common genetic disorders observed in all human populations. It is a sex-linked recessive trait. The genes are located on the X chromosome within the Xq28 band. 1,418 university students (1,200 female and 218 male) from Zarka Private University and the Hashemite University were randomly selected and tested for congenital red/green colour blindness, by using Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic colour plates. A total of 23 individuals were found to be colour blind. In females, 4 students (0.33%) were colour blind: 1 of them showed protanomalia, 1 protanopia and 2 deuteranomalia. In males, 19 students (8.72%) were colour blind: 4 showed protanomalia, 3 protanopia, 8 deuteranomalia and 4 deuteranopia. The allelic frequencies of the colour vision gene were found to be 0.087 in males, 0.003 in females and 0.016 in the total population. Studies on colour blindness in Jordan are very few; this population-based investigation is meant to fill a gap in this field. PMID:11125268

Al-Aqtum, M T; Al-Qawasmeh, M H

2001-01-01

76

What weta want: colour preferences of a frugivorous insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants use colours as signals to attract mutualists and repel antagonists. Fleshy-fruits are often conspicuously coloured\\u000a to signal different types of information including fruit maturity and spatial location. Previous work on fruit colour selection\\u000a focus on large diurnal vertebrates, yet fruit colours are perceived differently by frugivores with different types of visual\\u000a systems. Here, we tested whether a nocturnal, frugivorous,

Nik Fadzly; K. C. Burns

2010-01-01

77

Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2009-01-01

78

Colour polymorphism in birds: causes and functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied polymorphism in all species of birds that are presently known to show intraspecific variation in plumage colour. At least three main mecha- nisms have been put forward to explain the maintenance of polymorphism: apostatic, disruptive and sexual selection. All of them make partly different predictions. Our aims were to investigate evolutionary causes and adaptive functions of colour polymorphism

P. Galeotti; D. Rubolini; P. O. Dunn; M. Fasola

2003-01-01

79

Differentiation in a tropical deceptive orchid: colour polymorphism and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour polymorphism has often been described among individuals of deceptive orchid species, and several studies have investigated\\u000a reproductive success variations among colour morphs. However, whether colour morphs differed in other traits has received\\u000a little attention in previous studies. Here, we report the case of a tropical deceptive orchid in Reunion Island that exhibits\\u000a three different colour varieties. We investigated patterns

Nicolas Juillet; Roxane Delle-Vedove; Laurent Dormont; Bertrand Schatz; Thierry Pailler

2010-01-01

80

Shelflife and colour change kinetics of Aloe vera gel powder under accelerated storage in three different packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aloe vera gel powder was produced through dehumidified air drying of Aloe vere gel at optimized conditions of temperature,\\u000a relative humidity and air velocity of 64 °C, 18% and 0.8 m.s?1, respectively. The powder was packed in three different packaging materials viz., laminated aluminum foil (AF), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polypropylene (PP). The shelf-life of the powder\\u000a was predicted on the

C. T. Ramachandra; P. Srinivasa Rao

81

Evolution of body shape in differently coloured sympatric congeners and allopatric populations of Lake Malawi's rock-dwelling cichlids.  

PubMed

The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi represent one of the most diverse adaptive radiations of vertebrates known. Among the rock-dwelling cichlids (mbuna), closely related sympatric congeners possess similar trophic morphologies (i.e. cranial and jaw structures), defend overlapping or adjacent territories, but can be easily distinguished based on male nuptial coloration. The apparent morphological similarity of congeners, however, leads to an ecological conundrum: theory predicts that ecological competition should lead to competitive exclusion. Hence, we hypothesized that slight, yet significant, ecological differences accompanied the divergence in sexual signals and that the divergence of ecological and sexual traits is correlated. To evaluate this hypothesis, we quantified body shape, a trait of known ecological importance, in populations of Maylandia zebra, a barred, widespread mbuna, and several sympatric nonbarred congeners. We found that the barred populations differ in body shape from their nonbarred sympatric congeners and that the direction of shape differences was consistent across all barred vs. nonbarred comparisons. Barred populations are generally deeper bodied which may be an adaptation to the structurally complex habitat they prefer, whereas the nonbarred species have a more fusiform body shape, which may be adaptive in their more open microhabitat. Furthermore, M. zebra populations sympatric with nonbarred congeners differ from populations where the nonbarred phenotype is absent and occupy less morphospace, indicating potential ecological character displacement. Mitochondrial DNA as well as published AFLP data indicated that the nonbarred populations are not monophyletic and therefore may have evolved multiple times independently. Overall our data suggest that the evolution of coloration and body shape may be coupled as a result of correlational selection. We hypothesize that correlated evolution of sexually selected and ecological traits may have contributed to rapid speciation as well as the maintenance of diversity in one of the most diverse adaptive radiations known. PMID:24617299

Husemann, M; Tobler, M; McCauley, C; Ding, B; Danley, P D

2014-05-01

82

Frequential versus spatial colour textons for breast TMA classification.  

PubMed

Advances in digital pathology are generating huge volumes of whole slide (WSI) and tissue microarray images (TMA) which are providing new insights into the causes of cancer. The challenge is to extract and process effectively all the information in order to characterize all the heterogeneous tissue-derived data. This study aims to identify an optimal set of features that best separates different classes in breast TMA. These classes are: stroma, adipose tissue, benign and benign anomalous structures and ductal and lobular carcinomas. To this end, we propose an exhaustive assessment on the utility of textons and colour for automatic classification of breast TMA. Frequential and spatial texton maps from eight different colour models were extracted and compared. Then, in a novel way, the TMA is characterized by the 1st and 2nd order Haralick statistical descriptors obtained from the texton maps with a total of 241×8 features for each original RGB image. Subsequently, a feature selection process is performed to remove redundant information and therefore to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. Three methods were evaluated: linear discriminant analysis, correlation and sequential forward search. Finally, an extended bank of classifiers composed of six techniques was compared, but only three of them could significantly improve accuracy rates: Fisher, Bagging Trees and AdaBoost. Our results reveal that the combination of different colour models applied to spatial texton maps provides the most efficient representation of the breast TMA. Specifically, we found that the best colour model combination is Hb, Luv and SCT for all classifiers and the classifier that performs best for all colour model combinations is the AdaBoost. On a database comprising 628 TMA images, classification yields an accuracy of 98.1% and a precision of 96.2% with a total of 316 features on spatial textons maps. PMID:25499960

Fernández-Carrobles, M Milagro; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonzández-López, Lucía

2015-06-01

83

Total Factor Productivity, Human Capital, and Outward Orientation: Differences by Stage of Development and Geographic Regions  

E-print Network

Total Factor Productivity, Human Capital, and Outward Orientation: Differences by Stage 2002 Abstract: Do openness and human capital accumulation promote economic growth? While intuition factor productivity that include, among many others, human capital, openness, and distortion of domestic

Ahmad, Sajjad

84

Colour Appearance and Colour Rendering of HDR Scenes: An Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain a deeper understanding of the appearance of coloured objects in a three-dimensional scene, the research introduces a multidisciplinary experimental approach. The experiment employed two identical 3-D Mondrians, which were viewed and compared side by side. Each scene was subjected to different lighting conditions. First, we used an illumination cube to diffuse the light and illuminate all

Carinna Parraman; Alessandro Rizzi; John J. McCannc

85

Neutron absolute and total cross section difference measurements in the mass-140 region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a 100-MeV electron linac and neutron time-of-flight facility to measure precise neutron total cross sections in the mass-140 region for incident neutron energies of 3--60 MeV. We measured the absolute neutron total cross section of ¹⁴°Ce and the total cross section differences of ¹³⁹La- ¹⁴°Ce, ¹⁴¹Pr- ¹⁴°Ce, and ¹⁴²Ce- ¹⁴°Ce. These cross section differences oscillate with energy.

H. S. Camarda; T. W. Phillips; R. M. White

1984-01-01

86

Colour constancy in insects.  

PubMed

Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects. PMID:24647930

Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

2014-06-01

87

ORIGINAL PAPER Melanin-based colour polymorphism signals aggressive  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Melanin-based colour polymorphism signals aggressive personality in nest individuals. Because melanin-based colour traits can be associated with life history strategies, differently placed beside their nest. We conclude that melanin- based colouration is a signal of alternative nest

Lehmann, Laurent

88

Colour and chemical changes of the lime wood surface due to CO2 laser thermal modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied colour and main wood components changes of lime wood caused by CO2 laser beam irradiation. The dry surface of lime wood (Tilia vulgaris L.) was irradiated with the CO2 laser beam (wavelength of 10.6 ?m) at different exposures (expressed as the irradiation dose). Colour changes were monitored by the spectrophotometer, chemical changes were observed by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and carbohydrates were analysed by the HPLC method. With the growth of the irradiation dose (from 8.1 to 28.7 J cm-2) lightness (?L*) decrease and increase of the total colour difference (?E*) were observed. Higher values of the input energy lead to accelerating the mutual reaction of the functional groups resulting in the subsequent condensation of lignin. The total decrease in saccharides at the highest irradiation dose reaches 27.39% of the initial amount of saccharides in the reference sample. We have observed degradation and loss of hemicelluloses.

Kubovský, Ivan; Ka?ík, František

2014-12-01

89

Use of Descartes Folium Equation for Deriving a Relation between Total Aperture of Fractures after Uniaxial Compression and Strain Parameters of Different Rocks Exhibiting Negative Total Volumetric Strains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axial, crack and total volumetric strains, porosity, elastic constants, crack damage stresses, uniaxial compressive strengths, as well as fracture apertures and number of fracture traces in rock samples surface after compression were defined for different chalk, basalt, dolomite, granite, limestone and sandstone samples exhibiting negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is established that the total (summed) aperture of vertical fractures obtained on the lateral surface of rock sample is related to three characteristic strain parameters: axial strain at the onset of negative total volumetric strain, axial failure strain and negative total volumetric strain at failure. The relation is based on Descartes folium equation, where the length of the loop of folium is equal to axial strain coordinate at the onset of negative total volumetric strain. This relation shows that the total aperture increases according to power law with increasing difference between axial failure strain and axial strain at the onset of negative total volumetric strain. Simultaneously, an increase in this difference leads to an increase in the value of negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is found that a direct correlation between total aperture of fractures and negative total volumetric strain at failure is relatively weak. Nevertheless, total aperture of fractures tends to increase with increasing absolute value of negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is revealed that there is no connection between the number of fracture traces and negative total volumetric strain at failure.

Palchik, V.

2014-11-01

90

Tooth root colour as a measure of chronological age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess a possible colour shift in the root surfaces of adult human teeth and if so, whether this colour change is related to chronological age. Teeth extracted from persons of known age and gender were obtained from Ontario dental practitioners and grouped into five-year age ranges. Three experiments were undertaken: (1) to identify a possible difference in yellow colouration between the four surfaces of tooth roots (mesial, distal, lingual, and buccal), (2) to investigate the difference in yellow colouration of tooth roots between non-molar teeth and molar teeth and (3) to assess the correlation between the age of teeth and root colour saturation for yellow, magenta, cyan and black. The teeth in all investigations were scanned by a flat-bed digital colour scanner with a Kodak colour scale control and viewed on a colour computer monitor. In the first two experiments the yellow colour saturation of the root surfaces was measured at six points on each root using Photoshop 5.0 software. A significant difference was observed in the percentage yellow colour saturation between the mesial and the other three anatomical surfaces (p < 0.01), and between the root surfaces of non-molar and molar teeth (p < 0.01) (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test). The authors then randomly assigned tooth surfaces to select an equivalent number of posterior and anterior teeth in the study, assessing the relationship between age and root colouration. Four points of colour measurement on 40 teeth (sample size permitting, see Table 1) for each known age and gender were assessed for colour saturation (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). The correlation of chronological age to colour saturation was linear for all colours, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.81 to r = 0.94. The high correlation values strongly support the conclusion that chronological age is related to increased root colouration. PMID:11324269

Lackovic, K P; Wood, R E

2000-12-01

91

Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relative to high/low levels of sitting time combined with insufficient/sufficient physical activity (PA). The construct of total wellness incorporates a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life, an approach which may be more encompassing than some definitions of health. Methods Data were obtained from 226 adult respondents (27?±?6 years), including 116 (51%) males and 110 (49%) females. Total PA and total sitting time were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (short-version). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory was used to assess total wellness. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilised to assess the effects of the sitting time/physical activity group on total wellness. A covariate was included to partial out the effects of age, sex and work status (student or employed). Cross-tabulations were used to show associations between the IPAQ derived high/low levels of sitting time with insufficient/sufficient PA and the three total wellness groups (i.e. high level of wellness, moderate wellness and wellness development needed). Results The majority of the participants were located in the high total sitting time and sufficient PA group. There were statistical differences among the IPAQ groups for total wellness [F (2,220) = 32.5 (p <0.001)]. A Chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the distribution of the IPAQ categories within the classification of wellness [?2 (N = 226) = 54.5, p?total sitting time/insufficient PA were found in the wellness development needed group. In contrast, 72% of participants who were located in the low total sitting time/sufficient PA group were situated in the moderate wellness group. Conclusion Many participants who meet the physical activity guidelines, in this sample, sit for longer periods of time than the median Australian sitting time. An understanding of the effects of the enhanced PA and reduced sitting time on total wellness can add to the development of public health initiatives. PMID:24602315

2014-01-01

92

Allocare, Predation Risk, Social Structure and Natal Coat Colour in Anthropoid Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many primate species have a natal coat coloured differently from the coat colour of adults and, in some cases, the natal coat is very different from that of older animals with the infant being conspicuous and\\/or brightly coloured. This study uses data from 82 anthropoid species to investigate possible correlates of conspicuous natal coat colour (CNC), using comparative, phylogenetically controlled

Caroline Ross; Gemma Regan

2000-01-01

93

Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group. PMID:23888526

Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

2013-06-01

94

The Colour of Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can do in a…

Farrar, Bernice Lever

95

Brand Guidelines Colour version  

E-print Network

reverse on red Reverse Brand Overview 1.2 The Signature Our signature system is comprised of two elements forbidden. The signature must be inserted into documents from official artwork files only. The full colour, photographic or blended background. This will ensure the wordmark remains legible. Colour reverse on red

Shoubridge, Eric

96

COMMUNITY SCALE STREAM TAXA SENSITIVITIES TO DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OF EXCESS TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 d) were conducted with three total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in composition of major ions. Community scale emergence was compared with single-species responses conducted simultaneously using the whole effluent tox...

97

Long-term outcome of low contact stress total knee arthroplasty with different mobile bearing designs  

PubMed Central

Purpose to evaluate the differences in clinical outcome and survivorship of three different mobile bearings for total knee arthroplasty. Methods a retrospective study was conducted in 60 patients (53 females, 7 males, mean age: 68 years and 5 months) each submitted to total knee replacement using one of the three different mobile bearings of the LCS system (Depuy Johnson & Johnson, Warsaw, IN). The diagnosis was knee osteoarthritis in 57 cases and rheumatoid arthritis in three cases. Three different groups of 20 cases each were identified: total knee arthroplasties with mobile menisci (group 1); total knee arthroplasties with the rotating platform (group 2); and total knee arthroplasties with the anteroposterior glide platform (group 3). As regards the component fixation, 33 implants were cementless, three were cemented, and in 24 only the tibial component was cemented. The patella was not replaced. Results although the duration of follow-up differed between the three groups, the clinical and radiological results at final follow-up showed no revision of femoral and/or tibial components for mechanical or septic reasons, and no signs of impending failure. One meniscal bearing, showing polyethylene wear after 17 years, was successfully replaced. Conclusions the present retrospective study confirmed the long-term effectiveness of knee implants with mobile bearings, in which the congruity of the surfaces makes it possible to overcome the problem of high contact stresses that may result in polyethylene wear and osteolysis; at the same time, these implants eliminate constraint forces thereby reducing the risk of mechanical loosening. Level of evidence Level III, retrospective comparative study. PMID:25606553

SOLARINO, GIUSEPPE; SPINARELLI, ANTONIO; CARROZZO, MASSIMILIANO; PIAZZOLLA, ANDREA; VICENTI, GIOVANNI; MORETTI, BIAGIO

2014-01-01

98

Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours  

PubMed Central

Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

2010-01-01

99

Adaptive colouration in amphibians.  

PubMed

Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

2013-01-01

100

Categorical Effects in Children's Colour Search: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adults, visual search for a colour target is facilitated if the target and distractors fall in different colour categories (e.g. Daoutis, Pilling, & Davies, in press). The present study explored category effects in children's colour search. The relationship between linguistic colour categories and perceptual categories was addressed by…

Daoutis, Christine A.; Franklin, Anna; Riddett, Amy; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian R. L.

2006-01-01

101

Object knowledge modulates colour appearance  

PubMed Central

We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2011-01-01

102

Colour and lighting in hospital design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

2006-06-01

103

Artificial selection for food colour preferences.  

PubMed

Colour is an important factor in food detection and acquisition by animals using visually based foraging. Colour can be used to identify the suitability of a food source or improve the efficiency of food detection, and can even be linked to mate choice. Food colour preferences are known to exist, but whether these preferences are heritable and how these preferences evolve is unknown. Using the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata, we artificially selected for chase behaviour towards two different-coloured moving stimuli: red and blue spots. A response to selection was only seen for chase behaviours towards the red, with realized heritabilities ranging from 0.25 to 0.30. Despite intense selection, no significant chase response was recorded for the blue-selected lines. This lack of response may be due to the motion-detection mechanism in the guppy visual system and may have novel implications for the evolvability of responses to colour-related signals. The behavioural response to several colours after five generations of selection suggests that the colour opponency system of the fish may regulate the response to selection. PMID:25740894

Cole, Gemma L; Endler, John A

2015-04-01

104

Ultraviolet colour vision and ornamentation in bluethroats  

PubMed Central

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300–400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV/violet ornament in bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica. In an outdoor aviary at the breeding grounds, 16 females were each presented with a unique pair of males of equal age. In UVR (UV reduction) males, sunblock chemicals reduced only the UV reflectance and thereby the spectral shape (colour) of the throat ornament. In NR (neutral reduction) males, an achromatic pigment in the same base solvent (preen gland fat) was used for a corresponding but uniform brightness reduction. Both colour and brightness effects were invisible to human eyes, and were monitored by spectrometry. In 13 of the 16 trials, the female associated most with the NR male, a preference that implies that UV colour vision is used in mate choice by female bluethroats. Reflectance differences between one-year-old and older males were significant only in UV, suggestive of a UV colour cue in age-related mate preferences.

Andersson, S.; Amundsen, T.

1997-01-01

105

Male-male competition and speciation: aggression bias towards differently coloured rivals varies between stages of speciation in a Lake Victoria cichlid species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympatric speciation driven by sexual selection by female mate choice on a male trait is a much debated topic. The process is problematic because of the lack of negative frequency-dependent selection that can facilitate the invasion of a novel colour phenotype and stabilize trait polymorphism. It has recently been proposed that male-male competition for mating territories can generate frequency-dependent selection

P. D. D IJKSTRA; O. SEEHAUSEN; M. E. R. PIEROTTI; T. G. G. GROOTHUIS

2006-01-01

106

Neutron total cross section of 40Ca and cross section difference of 44Ca  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a 100-MeV electron linac and neutron time-of-flight facility to measure the neutron total cross section of 40Ca and the cross section difference of 44Ca- 40Ca for incident neutron energies of 6-60 MeV. Optical model calculations of 40Ca sigmaT have been made and compared to the data. Modifications of a global set of optical model parameters necessary to

H. S. Camarda; T. W. Phillips; R. M. White

1986-01-01

107

Colour Mixing Based on Daylight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

Meyn, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

108

Illumination Invariant Colour Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes a colour based recognition system with three novelfeatures. Firstly, the proposed system can operate in environments wherespectral characteristics of illumination change in both space and time. Secondly,benefits in terms of speed and quality of output are gained by focusingprocessing to areas of salient colour. Finally, an automatic model acquisitionprocedure allows rapid creation of the model database.1 IntroductionIn

J. Matas; R. Marik; J. Kittler

1994-01-01

109

Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions at five ecologically distinct sites near Berlin, Germany. Bee-subjective colours were quantified for all 168 species. A model of colour vision was used to predict how similar the colours of sympatric and simultaneously blooming flowers were for bees. We then compared flower colour differences in the real habitats with those of random plant communities. We did not find pronounced deviations from chance when we considered common plants. When we examined rare plants, however, we found significant divergence in two of the five plant communities. At one site, similarly coloured species were found to be more frequent than expected, and at the other two locations, flower colours were indistinguishable from a random distribution. These results fit theoretical considerations that rare plants are under stronger selective pressure to secure pollination than common plants. Our study illustrates the power of linking such distinct biological traditions as community ecology and the neuroethology of bee vision.

Gumbert, A.; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

1999-01-01

110

Ionospheric response to total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 in different Indian regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of ionospheric response to the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 has been studied analyzing the GPS data recorded at the four Indian low-latitude stations Varanasi (100% obscuration), Kanpur (95% obscuration), Hyderabad (84% obscuration) and Bangalore (72% obscuration). The retrieved ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) shows a significant reduction (reflected by all PRNs (satellites) at all stations) with a maximum of 48% at Varanasi (PRN 14), which decreases to 30% at Bangalore (PRN 14). Data from PRN 31 show a maximum of 54% at Kanpur and 26% at Hyderabad. The maximum decrement in VTEC occurs some time (2-15 min) after the maximum obscuration. The reduction in VTEC compared to the quiet mean VTEC depends on latitude as well as longitude, which also depends on the location of the satellite with respect to the solar eclipse path. The amount of reduction in VTEC decreases as the present obscuration decreases, which is directly related to the electron production by the photoionization process. The analysis of electron density height profile derived from the COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) satellite over the Indian region shows significant reduction from 100 km altitude up to 800 km altitude with a maximum of 48% at 360 km altitude. The oscillatory nature in total electron content data at all stations is observed with different wave periods lying between 40 and 120 min, which are attributed to gravity wave effects generated in the lower atmosphere during the total solar eclipse.

Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

2013-09-01

111

Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage  

PubMed Central

Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Denton, Alexander M.

2014-01-01

112

Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.  

PubMed

Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Denton, Alexander M

2014-01-01

113

Effects of gamma irradiation on total polyphenols, radical scavenging activities and decolourization of Nelumbo nucifera extracts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethanolic leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera (NC) was exposed to ?-irradiation, and its antioxidant activities, total polyphenols and colour characteristics were studied to discern its potential ability as a food or cosmetic materials. The results demonstrated that the radical scavenging activities and total polyphenols of the ?-irradiated leaf extract of NC were not observed to be significantly different. However, ?-irradiation significantly increased the Hunter colour L*-value at doses of 20 and 50 kGy, while the Hunter colour b*-values were decreased under the same conditions.

Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Byun, Myung Woo

2009-07-01

114

Total ionizing dose effects of domestic SiGe HBTs under different dose rate  

E-print Network

The total ionizing radiation (TID) response of commercial NPN silicon germanium hetero-junction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) produced domestic were investigated under the dose rate of 800mGy(Si)/s and 1.3mGy(Si)/s with Co-60 gamma irradiation source, respectively. The changes of the transistor parameter such as Gummel characteristics, excess base current before and after irradiation are investigated. The results of the experiments shows that for the KT1151, the radiation damage have slightly difference under the different dose rate after the prolonged annealing, shows an time dependent effect(TDE). But for the KT9041, the degradations of low dose rate irradiation are more higher than the high dose rate, demonstrate that there have potential enhanced low dose rate sensitive(ELDRS) effect exist on KT9041. The underlying physical mechanisms of the different dose rates response induced by the gamma ray are detailed discussed.

Mo-Han, Liu; Wu-Ying, Ma; Xin, Wang; Qi, Guo; Cheng-Fa, He; Ke, Jiang; Xiao-Long, Li; Ming-Zhu, Xiong

2015-01-01

115

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation  

PubMed Central

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

116

Importance of isovector effects in reproducing neutron total cross section differences in the W isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross section differences among the isotopes 182,184,186W have been measured as a part of a study of total cross sections in the 5 560 MeV energy range. These difference measurements show oscillations up to 150 mb between 5 and 100 MeV. Calculations with spherical and deformed phenomenological optical potentials employing standard radial and isospin dependences show much smaller oscillations than the experimental data. In a simple Ramsauer model, this discrepancy can be traced to a cancellation between radial and isospin effects. Understanding this problem requires a more detailed model that incorporates a realistic description of the neutron and proton density distributions. This has been done with the results of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the Gogny force, together with a microscopic folding model employing a modification of the Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux potential as an effective interaction. This treatment yields a satisfactory interpretation of the observed total cross section differences up to 200 MeV. The calculations have been extended above that energy with a folding model based on an empirical effective interaction.

Dietrich, F. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Bauer, R. W.; Grimes, S. M.; Finlay, R. W.; Abfalterer, W. P.; Bateman, F. B.; Haight, R. C.; Morgan, G. L.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Romain, P.

2003-04-01

117

Comparison of different digestion methods for total decomposition of siliceous and organic environmental samples.  

PubMed

A comparison was made of different digestion methods for the total decomposition of siliceous and organically environmental samples prior to their analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In the present study, three different digestion methods, including microwave-assisted, hot plate heating and pressurized digestion (pressure bomb), were employed for the determination of nine heavy metals, i.e. Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in sediment, soil, sludge and oil. The investigation of different combinations of acids through their analytical performance demonstrated that HCl plays a vital role in the determination of silver. The combination of HNO3 and HCl possesses more reactive ability in oxidizing organic matter. The recoveries of all elements of interest in sediment (NIST 2704) obtained by different digestion methods were found to be 86% to 113%, while microwave assisted digestion with various combinations of HNO3-HCl-HF and HNO3-HClO4-HF was considered to be a viable alternative to the conventional digestion systems because of its more intensive reaction conditions. The analytical results of four certified reference materials with different matrices, including sediment (GBW 07305), soil (GBW 07411), sludge (BCR R-143) and oil (NIST 1085a), by the microwave-assisted acid digestion method indicated that the recoveries of all elements of interest were more than 85% and the throughput of applied analytical method could be elevated significantly. PMID:11783788

Sun, Y C; Chi, P H; Shiue, M Y

2001-12-01

118

Sequestration of total and methyl mercury in different subcellular pools in marine caged fish.  

PubMed

Mercury contamination is an important issue in marine fish, and can cause toxicity to human by fish consumption. Many studies have measured the mercury concentrations in fish and estimated the threshold levels of its risk to human, but the mercury sequestration in different subcellular pools of fish is unclear. In this study, we investigated the concentration and distribution of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in different subcellular fractions in the farmed red seabream, red drum, and black seabream from Fujian marine fish farms, China. We found that both THg and MeHg were dominantly bound with the cellular debris, followed by metallothionein-like protein>metal-rich granule>heat-denatured protein>organelles pools. In general, Hg bound with the metal-sensitive fraction was small, indicating that Hg may have little toxicity to the fish (muscle). For the first time we showed that MTLP fraction had the highest % of total Hg as MeHg (88-91%) among all the subcellular fractions. Furthermore, the mercury concentration and subcellular distribution in the black seabream were both dependent on the fish size. Subcellular study may shed light on the detoxification of marine fish to Hg exposure and the potential bioavailability to humans due to fish consumption. PMID:22056886

Onsanit, Sarayut; Wang, Wen-Xiong

2011-12-30

119

Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid  

PubMed Central

Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

2012-01-01

120

Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

Parraman, Carinna

2008-01-01

121

Snow effect for total NM intensity and different multiplicities on Mt. Hermon during 1998 - 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All CR stations on mountains and at about sea level at middle and high latitudes in winter periods are covered by snow with the depth (in g/cm2) varied in time. For using these data for space weather forecasting, it is necessary to determine the snow effect for each moment in time and correct observation data not only from barometric and temperature effects (as usual), but also from the snow effect. According to observations on Mt. Hermon, the snow effect in the NM total intensity and different multiplicities is comparable with 11-year variation. The other problem is, that with increasing of snow depth, the sensitivity of the CR detector changed - it moved to higher energies. To determine the snow effect in NM on Mt. Hermon, we made the following investigations step by step: 1) we determined the connection of CR intensity observed on Mt. Hermon during periods without snow with CR intensity on stations which are never covered by snow; 2) by finding the regression coefficients we determine the expected CR variations on Mt. Hermon in winter time on the basis of data of stations which in winter time are not covered by snow; 3) the difference between observed CR intensity and that calculated in point 2 will give the snow effect. This method can be used for any CR station that is covered at some periods by snow. By this method data of CR station can be corrected on snow effect. As an example we determined the snow effect on Mt. Hermon for total neutron intensity and different multiplicities for 1998 - 2014 (the amplitude of this effect in some years reached a big values - more than 40%).

Lev, Dorman; Zukerman, Igor; Pustilnik, Lev; Dai, Uri; Shternlib, Abracham; Shai Applbaum, David; Kazantsev, Vasilii; Kozliner, Lev; Ben Israel, Isaac

122

Analysis of differences in bone removal during femoral box osteotomy for primary total knee arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose this study was conducted to compare the quantity of intercondylar bone removed during femoral box osteotomy for implantation of three contemporary posterior stabilized (PS) total knee arthroplasty designs: Sigma PS (DePuy), Vanguard (Biomet) and Persona (Zimmer). Methods we compared the maximum volumetric bone resection required for the housing of the PS mechanism of these three designs. Bone removal by each PS box cutting jig was three-dimensionally measured. The differences between the three designs were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for pairwise comparisons. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results for small-size implants, the average box osteotomy volume of Persona was significantly smaller than the Vanguard and Sigma PS volumes (p=0.003). The mean difference between Vanguard and Sigma PS (p=0.01) was also significant. For medium size implants, the mean difference between Persona and Sigma PS (p=0.008) and the mean difference between Vanguard and Sigma PS (p=0.01) were statistically significant. For large size implants, the mean difference between Vanguard and Sigma PS (p=0.01) and the mean difference between Sigma PS and Persona (p=0.008) were statistically significant. Conclusions irrespective of implant size, the Persona cutting jig always resected significantly less bone than did Vanguard and Sigma PS. Clinical Relevance although this study does not establish any clinical relevance of removing more or less bone at primary TKA, its results suggest that if a PS design is indicated, it is preferable to select a model which resects less distal femoral bone. PMID:25606547

GRACEFFA, ANGELO; INDELLI, PIER FRANCESCO; BASNETT, KAITLYN; MARCUCCI, MASSIMILIANO

2014-01-01

123

The effect of anticoagulant choice on apparent total antioxidant capacity using three different methods.  

PubMed

We assessed total antioxidant capacity using three different methods, in plasma samples treated with either EDTA or heparin as anticoagulant, from 26 healthy subjects. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using an oxygen electrode (as the total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant parameter), by enhanced chemiluminescence, and by measurement of the antioxidant-mediated quenching of the absorbance of a radical cation. The choice of anticoagulant had a profound effect on antioxidant capacity with heparinized plasma giving consistently higher values than plasma anticoagulated with EDTA. Using the oxygen electrode the mean value was 786.5 +/- 171.5 mumol/L (heparin) compared to 681.4 +/- 160.4 mumol/L (EDTA, P < 0.01). The chemiluminescence technique gave a mean antioxidant capacity of 915.6 +/- 214.1 mumol/L in heparin samples and 714.4 +/- 195.4 mumol/L in EDTA samples (P < 0.0001). The absorbance quenching technique gave a mean value of 867.0 +/- 199.2 mumol/L (heparin) and 675.5 +/- 245.4 mumol/L (EDTA, P < 0.001). All methods tested showed comparable results for EDTA plasma, but the chemiluminescence technique gave higher apparent antioxidant capacity than either of the two techniques when heparin plasma was used. We suggest that either heparin is interacting to enhance antioxidant protection perhaps through release of superoxide dismutase, or the chelation of metal ions by EDTA is limiting the activity of antioxidant metalloenzymes. Consistency in the choice of anticoagulant is clearly extremely important. PMID:7486802

Goode, H F; Richardson, N; Myers, D S; Howdle, P D; Walker, B E; Webster, N R

1995-07-01

124

Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour  

PubMed Central

In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

125

Covariation between plumage colour polymorphism and diet in the Barn Owl Tyto alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hypotheses might explain the evolution and maintenance of colour morphs within animal populations. The 'alternative foraging strategy' hypothesis states that alternative colour morphs exploit different ecological niches. This hypothesis predicts that morphs differ in diet, either because foraging success on alternative prey species is morph-dependent or because differently coloured individuals exploit alternative habitats. I examined this prediction in the

Alexandre Roulin

2004-01-01

126

Colour: A Computer Program for QCD Colour Factor Calculations  

E-print Network

A computer program for evaluating colour factors of QCD Feynman diagrams is presented, and illustrative examples on how to use the program to calculate non trivial colour factors are given. The program and the discussion in this paper is based on a diagrammatic approach to colour factors.

Jari Hakkinen; Hamid Kharraziha

1996-03-04

127

Total mercury in sediments and in Brazilian Ariidae catfish from two estuaries under different anthropogenic influence.  

PubMed

Santos-São Vicente estuary, located in São Paulo State, Brazil, has a history of contamination by inorganic chemicals such as mercury (Hg). In the 1980s the Cubatão was considered one of the most polluted sites in the world as a consequence of the intense industrial activities located in the city close to the estuary. To provide data and evaluate the local biota, total mercury (THg) contents were determined in sediments and in fish, Cathorops spixii, from different areas of the Santos-São Vicente estuary. For comparison, samples were also collected in a non-polluted system with similar hydrochemistry characteristics, the Cananeia estuary. The water characteristics and THg levels in sediment and fish samples confirmed a high human influence in the Santos-São Vicente estuary. The lowest THg values, observed in Cananeia, were evidence of low anthropogenic influence. High values observed in Santos-São Vicente show the necessity for a monitoring program. PMID:22030105

Azevedo, Juliana S; Braga, Elisabete S; Favaro, Deborah T; Perretti, Adriana R; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; Souza, Cristina Maria M

2011-12-01

128

A Novel Weighted Total Difference Based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Few-View Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

In practical applications of computed tomography (CT) imaging, due to the risk of high radiation dose imposed on the patients, it is desired that high quality CT images can be accurately reconstructed from limited projection data. While with limited projections, the images reconstructed often suffer severe artifacts and the edges of the objects are blurred. In recent years, the compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm has attracted major attention for CT reconstruction from a limited number of projections. In this paper, to eliminate the streak artifacts and preserve the edge structure information of the object, we present a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm based on weighted total difference (WTD) minimization, and demonstrate the superior performance of this algorithm. The WTD measure enforces both the sparsity and the directional continuity in the gradient domain, while the conventional total difference (TD) measure simply enforces the gradient sparsity horizontally and vertically. To solve our WTD-based few-view CT reconstruction model, we use the soft-threshold filtering approach. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the efficiency and the feasibility of our algorithm. For a typical slice of FORBILD head phantom, using 40 projections in the experiments, our algorithm outperforms the TD-based algorithm with more than 60% gains in terms of the root-mean-square error (RMSE), normalized root mean square distance (NRMSD) and normalized mean absolute distance (NMAD) measures and with more than 10% gains in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) measure. While for the experiments of noisy projections, our algorithm outperforms the TD-based algorithm with more than 15% gains in terms of the RMSE, NRMSD and NMAD measures and with more than 4% gains in terms of the PSNR measure. The experimental results indicate that our algorithm achieves better performance in terms of suppressing streak artifacts and preserving the edge structure information of the object. PMID:25275385

Yu, Wei; Zeng, Li

2014-01-01

129

A novel weighted total difference based image reconstruction algorithm for few-view computed tomography.  

PubMed

In practical applications of computed tomography (CT) imaging, due to the risk of high radiation dose imposed on the patients, it is desired that high quality CT images can be accurately reconstructed from limited projection data. While with limited projections, the images reconstructed often suffer severe artifacts and the edges of the objects are blurred. In recent years, the compressed sensing based reconstruction algorithm has attracted major attention for CT reconstruction from a limited number of projections. In this paper, to eliminate the streak artifacts and preserve the edge structure information of the object, we present a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm based on weighted total difference (WTD) minimization, and demonstrate the superior performance of this algorithm. The WTD measure enforces both the sparsity and the directional continuity in the gradient domain, while the conventional total difference (TD) measure simply enforces the gradient sparsity horizontally and vertically. To solve our WTD-based few-view CT reconstruction model, we use the soft-threshold filtering approach. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the efficiency and the feasibility of our algorithm. For a typical slice of FORBILD head phantom, using 40 projections in the experiments, our algorithm outperforms the TD-based algorithm with more than 60% gains in terms of the root-mean-square error (RMSE), normalized root mean square distance (NRMSD) and normalized mean absolute distance (NMAD) measures and with more than 10% gains in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) measure. While for the experiments of noisy projections, our algorithm outperforms the TD-based algorithm with more than 15% gains in terms of the RMSE, NRMSD and NMAD measures and with more than 4% gains in terms of the PSNR measure. The experimental results indicate that our algorithm achieves better performance in terms of suppressing streak artifacts and preserving the edge structure information of the object. PMID:25275385

Yu, Wei; Zeng, Li

2014-01-01

130

Colour, vision and ergonomics.  

PubMed

This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age. PMID:22317623

Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

2012-01-01

131

TDS exposure project: relevance of the total diet study approach for different groups of substances.  

PubMed

A method to validate the relevance of the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach for different types of substances is described. As a first step, a list of >2800 chemicals classified into eight main groups of relevance for food safety (natural components, environmental contaminants, substances intentionally added to foods, residues, naturally occurring contaminants, process contaminants, contaminants from packaging and food contact materials, other substances) has been established. The appropriateness of the TDS approach for the different substance groups has then been considered with regard to the three essential principles of a TDS: representativeness of the whole diet, pooling of foods and food analyzed as consumed. Four criteria were considered for that purpose (i) the substance has to be present in a significant part of the diet or predominantly present in specific food groups, (ii) a robust analytical method has to be available to determine it in potential contributors to the dietary exposure of the population, and (iii) the dilution impact of pooling and (iv) the impact of everyday food preparation methods on the concentration of the substance are assessed. For most of the substances the TDS approach appeared to be relevant and any precautions to be taken are outlined. PMID:25106751

Vin, Karine; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Cubadda, Francesco; Aureli, Federica; Oktay Basegmez, Hatice Imge; D'Amato, Marilena; De Coster, Sam; D'Evoli, Laura; López Esteban, María Teresa; Jurkovic, Martina; Lucarini, Massimo; Ozer, Hayrettin; Fernández San Juan, Pedro Mario; Sioen, Isabelle; Sokolic, Darja; Turrini, Aida; Sirot, Véronique

2014-11-01

132

Learning of colour and position cues in domestic chicks: Males are better at position, females at colour.  

PubMed

Male and female chicks were trained to discriminate between two boxes for food reinforcement. The correct box was indicated by a colour cue (red or brown) and a position cue (right or left). After learning, the colour and the position cues were dissociated: the right-left location of the two boxes was alternated between trials according to a semi-random sequence.The chicks were thus retrained to discriminate either on the basis of colour (irrespective of position) or on the basis of position (irrespective of colour). There were no sex differences, during training, with both position and colour cues. However, during re-training females performed better on the colour learning task and males performed better on the position learning task. PMID:24896877

Vallortigara, G

1996-06-01

133

A comparison of the closed-face cassette at different orientations while measuring total particles.  

PubMed

The current method for sampling aerosols using the 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) sampler is based on the orientation of the cassette at ?45° from horizontal. There is some concern as to whether this method is appropriate and may be underestimating exposures. An alternative orientation at ?0° (horizontal) has been discussed. This research compared the CFC's orientation at 45° from horizontal to the proposed orientation at horizontal, 0° in a controlled laboratory setting. The particles used in this study were fused alumina oxide in four sizes, approximately 9.5 ?m, 12.8 ?m, 18 ?m, and 44.3 ?m in aerodynamic diameter. For each test, one aerosol was dispersed in a wind tunnel operating at 0.2 m/s with samplers mounted in the breathing zone of a rotating mannequin. A sampling event consisted of four pairs of samplers, placed side by side (one pair at 45° and another at 0° cassette orientation), and exposed for a period of 45 minutes. A total of 12 sampling events, 3 sample events per particle size, were conducted with a total of 94 samples collected. Mass concentration measurements were compared to assess the relationship between the sampler orientations of the cassettes. In addition, the relationship between the mass collected on the cassette filter and on the interior walls of the cassette was also assessed. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the measured concentrations based on the orientation of the CFCs. The amount of mass collected on the interior walls of the cassettes was relatively low (<5%) compared to expected (up to 100%) wall losses for both orientations. PMID:25337937

Cook, David M; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

2015-03-01

134

Effects of coloured lighting on the perception of interior spaces.  

PubMed

Summary.-Use of coloured lighting in interior spaces has become prevalent in recent years. Considerable importance is ascribed to coloured lighting in interior and lighting design. The effects of colour on the perception of interior spaces have been studied as surface colour; but here, the effects of three different types of chromatic light were investigated. The lighting differed in colour (red, green and white) and perceptions of interior space were assessed. 97 participants (59 women, 38 men; M age = 21.4 yr.) evaluated the experiment room on a questionnaire assessing eight evaluative factors: Pleasantness, Arousal, Aesthetics, Usefulness, Comfort, Spaciousness, Colour, and Lighting quality. Perceptions of the room differed by colour of lighting for some of the evaluative factors, but there was no sex difference in perceptions. Interior spaces may be perceived as equally pleasant under white, green and red lighting. Under white lighting a space is perceived as more useful, spacious, clear, and luminous. Green lighting would make the same effect. Green and white lighting were perceived equally comfortable in an interior space. Chromatic coloured lighting was perceived to be more aesthetic than white lighting. The results support previous findings for some evaluative factors, but differed for others. PMID:25539020

Odaba?io?lu, Seden; Olguntürk, N?lgün

2015-02-01

135

Gastrointestinal tract size, total-tract digestibility, and rumen microflora in different dairy cow genotypes.  

PubMed

The superior milk production efficiency of Jersey (JE) and Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JE × HF) cows compared with Holstein-Friesian (HF) has been widely published. The biological differences among dairy cow genotypes, which could contribute to the milk production efficiency differences, have not been as widely studied however. A series of component studies were conducted using cows sourced from a longer-term genotype comparison study (JE, JE × HF, and HF). The objectives were to (1) determine if differences exist among genotypes regarding gastrointestinal tract (GIT) weight, (2) assess and quantify whether the genotypes tested differ in their ability to digest perennial ryegrass, and (3) examine the relative abundance of specific rumen microbial populations potentially relating to feed digestibility. Over 3 yr, the GIT weight was obtained from 33 HF, 35 JE, and 27 JE × HF nonlactating cows postslaughter. During the dry period the cows were offered a perennial ryegrass silage diet at maintenance level. The unadjusted GIT weight was heavier for the HF than for JE and JE × HF. When expressed as a proportion of body weight (BW), JE and JE × HF had a heavier GIT weight than HF. In vivo digestibility was evaluated on 16 each of JE, JE × HF, and HF lactating dairy cows. Cows were individually stalled, allowing for the total collection of feces and were offered freshly cut grass twice daily. During this time, daily milk yield, BW, and dry matter intake (DMI) were greater for HF and JE × HF than for JE; milk fat and protein concentration ranked oppositely. Daily milk solids yield did not differ among the 3 genotypes. Intake capacity, expressed as DMI per BW, tended to be different among treatments, with JE having the greatest DMI per BW, HF the lowest, and JE × HF being intermediate. Production efficiency, expressed as milk solids per DMI, was higher for JE than HF and JE × HF. Digestive efficiency, expressed as digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, N, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, was higher for JE than HF. In grazing cows (n=15 per genotype) samples of rumen fluid, collected using a transesophageal sampling device, were analyzed to determine the relative abundance of rumen microbial populations of cellulolytic bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. These are critically important for fermentation of feed into short-chain fatty acids. A decrease was observed in the relative abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens in the JE rumen compared with HF and JE × HF. We can deduce from this study that the JE genotype has greater digestibility and a different rumen microbial population than HF. Jersey and JE × HF cows had a proportionally greater GIT weight than HF. These differences are likely to contribute to the production efficiency differences among genotypes previously reported. PMID:24704226

Beecher, M; Buckley, F; Waters, S M; Boland, T M; Enriquez-Hidalgo, D; Deighton, M H; O'Donovan, M; Lewis, E

2014-06-01

136

Total haemoglobin mass, blood volume and morphological indices among athletes from different sport disciplines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Haemoglobin is a key determinant of maximal oxygen uptake. This study's objective was to assess total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), as well as blood volume and morphological indices in athletes training different sports disciplines. Material and methods This study was conducted on 176 endurance and non-endurance athletes (males and females). tHb-mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and red cell volume (RCV) were determined by optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), red blood count (RBC) were also determined. Results In endurance sports, gender regardless, no significant differences in relative mean values of tHb-mass (12.8–13.1 g/kg – males; 10.4–10.6 g/kg – females), BV (90.8–94.0 ml/kg – males; 82.7–86.9 ml/kg – females), RCV (36.6–38.0 ml/kg – males; 31.1–31.5 ml/kg – females) or of PV in males (54.2–56.4 ml/kg) were observed. The above indices’ relative values, gender regardless, were significantly lower in judo (11.2 ±0.7 g/kg, 81.8 ±5.9 ml/kg, 48.6 ±4.5 ml/kg and 33.1 ±2.0 ml/kg – males; 9.3 ±0.7 g/kg, 74.3 ±5.6 ml/kg, 46.4 ±4.0 ml/kg and 27.9 ±2.1 ml/kg – females) compared to endurance sports (p < 0.001). No substantial differences were observed in morphological blood indices in males, whereas this differentiation was found between certain sports in female athletes. Conclusions The lack of differences in tHb-mass, BV, PV and RCV in endurance sports and presence of this differentiation between various sports shows that the types of training might affect levels of mentioned indices. Measurements of tHb-mass and BV parameters prove Hb, Hct and RBC to have limited value for haematological status evaluations. PMID:24273557

Sitkowski, Dariusz; Orysiak, Joanna; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Szygula, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

137

Microscopic optical-model calculations of neutron total cross sections and cross section differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the microscopic optical model of Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux we have calculated the absolute neutron total cross sections and cross section differences of 140Ce, 139Ce, 141Ce, 142Ce, and 40Ca, 44Ca from 6-60 MeV and have made comparisons with experimental data. Except for 142Ce, reasonable agreement with the mass 140 data was achieved with proton densities ?p of the nuclei determined by ?- data and neutron densities determined by the relationship ?n=(N/Z)?p which implies ?rnp =1/2 -1/2=0. Satisfactory agreement with the 142Ce data was obtained by choosing a ?n for 142Ce with ?rnp=0.05 fm and by a 10% increase in the strength of the 142Ce imaginary potential. Similar choices of ?rnp and imaginary potential strength were made for 44Ca in trying to fit the 44Ca data. Previous phenomenological analyses carried out for this data are in qualitative agreement with our results, which imply that the addition of a few neutrons to a nucleus with a closed neutron shell yields a nucleus with a slightly thicker neutron skin and a larger neutron reaction cross section when compared to their closed shell isotopes.

Camarda, H. S.; Dietrich, F. S.; Phillips, T. W.

1989-05-01

138

The Resistance to Desiccation of Drosophila Mutants Affecting Body Colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offspring of a y\\/y+ × y cross in Drosophila melanogaster, simulans, subobscura and pseudoobscura race A showing phenotypically yellow body colour die earlier when starving in dry air (0% relative humidity and 25 degrees C) than flies of wild type body colour which differ in respect of one gene. The yellow flies also lose more weight. In D. melanogaster

Hans Kalmus

1941-01-01

139

Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the extent of coral bleaching has become an important part of studies that aim to understand the condition of coral reefs. In this study a reference card that uses differences in coral colour was developed as an inexpensive, rapid and non-invasive method for the assessment of bleaching. The card uses a 6 point brightness\\/saturation scale within four colour

U. E. Siebeck; N. J. Marshall; A. Klüter; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

2006-01-01

140

Development of a forensic skin colour predictive test.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in skin colour prediction in the forensic field. However, a lack of consensus approaches for recording skin colour phenotype plus the complicating factors of epistatic effects, environmental influences such as exposure to the sun and unidentified genetic variants, present difficulties for the development of a forensic skin colour predictive test centred on the most strongly associated SNPs. Previous studies have analysed skin colour variation in single unadmixed population groups, including South Asians (Stokowski et al., 2007, Am. J. Hum. Genet, 81: 1119-32) and Europeans (Jacobs et al., 2013, Hum Genet. 132: 147-58). Nevertheless, a major challenge lies in the analysis of skin colour in admixed individuals, where co-ancestry proportions do not necessarily dictate any one person's skin colour. Our study sought to analyse genetic differences between African, European and admixed African-European subjects where direct spectrometric measurements and photographs of skin colour were made in parallel. We identified strong associations to skin colour variation in the subjects studied from a pigmentation SNP discovery panel of 59 markers and developed a forensic online classifier based on naïve Bayes analysis of the SNP profiles made. A skin colour predictive test is described using the ten most strongly associated SNPs in 8 genes linked to skin pigmentation variation. PMID:25082135

Maroñas, Olalla; Phillips, Chris; Söchtig, Jens; Gomez-Tato, Antonio; Cruz, Raquel; Alvarez-Dios, José; de Cal, María Casares; Ruiz, Yarimar; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María V

2014-11-01

141

Colour symbolism in the folk literature and textile tradition of the Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour associations have been analysed indirectly by a study of oral traditions and legends, using methods developed in structural anthropology. Colours were considered, not in isolation, but mainly in contrasting pairs or in sequences. It was found that a specific colour could have different associations in different conditions, and that generally the associations were more abstract than concrete. In surviving woollen rugs and felts and silk embroideries, colours appear to be linked with availability of dyes rather than symbolism.

Hunt, David; Chenciner, Robert

2006-06-01

142

Measuring the colour of rendering mortars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (?E*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

2014-05-01

143

Antioxidant, total phenolic contents and antinociceptive potential of Teucrium stocksianum methanolic extract in different animal models  

PubMed Central

Background Oxidative stress and analgesia are connected with different pathological conditions. The drug candidates from synthetic sources are associated with various side effects; therefore, researchers are giving priority to find novel, effective and safe phytomedicines. Teucrium species possesses antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. The essential oils of Teucrium stocksianum have shown strong antinociceptive potential. Our current study is designed to embark total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant and antinociceptive potential of the methanolic extract of Teucrium stocksianum (METS). Method Phytochemical composition was determined by using standard methods. Free radical scavenging potential and TPC of METS were assessed by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent (FCR) respectively. Antinociceptive potential was determined by acetic acid induced abdominal writhing, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion tests. Different test dose 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of METS were administered intra peritonealy (i.p) to various groups of mice for the evaluation of analgesic potential. Results Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthraquinone, steroid, phlobatannin, terpenoid, glycoside and reducing sugars. METS was found safe at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight. A concentration dependent free radical scavenging effect was observed with methanolic aerial parts extract of Teucrium stocksianum (MAPETS) and methanolic roots extracts of Teucrium stocksianum (MRETS). MAPETS and MRETS have shown highest antioxidant activity 91.72% and 86.19% respectively at 100 ?g/ml. MAPETS was found more rich (115.32 mg of GAE/g of dry material) in TPC as compared to MAPETS (105.41 mg of GAE/g). METS demonstrated a dose dependent antinociceptive potential in different pain models, like in acetic acid, formalin and tail immersion showing 83.103%, 80.872% and 67.58% at a dose of 150 mg/kg, similar to acetylsalicylic acid (74.79%, 82.87%, 100 mg/kg) and TramadolR (74%, 30 mg/kg) respectively. Conclusion Strong antioxidant potential and high TPCs are residing in the methanolic extract of T. stocksianum. METS showed analgesic potential in all models of nociception implying that both peripheral and central pathways of analgesia are involved. This might be due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals in the plant extract. PMID:24893601

2014-01-01

144

Coevolution and the adaptive value of autumn tree colours: colour preference and growth rates of a southern beech aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary explanation for the change in leaf colour during autumn is still debated. Autumn colours could be a signal of defensive commitment towards insects (coevolution) or an adaptation against physical damage because of light at low temperatures (photoprotection). These two hypotheses have different predictions: (1) under the coevolution hypothesis, insects should not prefer red leaves in autumn and grow

C. C. RAMÍREZ; B. LAVANDERO; M. ARCHETTI

2007-01-01

145

Validity and reproducibility of self-reported total physical activity—differences by relative weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is hypothesized to reduce the risk of obesity and several other chronic diseases and enhance longevity. However, most of the questionnaires used measure only part of total physical activity, occupational and\\/or leisure-time activity, which might lead to misclassification of total physical activity level and to dilution of risk estimates. We evaluated the validity and reproducibility of a

A Norman; R Bellocco; A Bergström; A Wolk

2001-01-01

146

New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

2004-01-01

147

Further success of the colour dipole model  

E-print Network

We confront a very wide body of HERA diffractive electroproduction data with the predictions of the colour dipole model. We focus upon three different parameterisations of the dipole scattering cross-section and find good agreement for all observables. There can be no doubting the success of the dipole scattering approach and more precise observations are needed in order to expose its limitations.

J. R. Forshaw; R. Sandapen; G. Shaw

2006-10-16

148

Demographic Variation between Colour Patterns in a Temperate Protogynous Hermaphrodite, the Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta  

PubMed Central

Fish populations are often treated as homogeneous units in typical fishery management, thereby tacitly ignoring potential intraspecific variation which can lead to imprecise management rules. However, intraspecific variation in life-history traits is widespread and related to a variety of factors. We investigated the comparative age-based demography of the two main colour patterns of Labrus bergylta (plain and spotted, which coexist in sympatry), a commercially valuable resource in the NE Atlantic. Individuals were aged based on otolith readings after validating the annual periodicity of annuli deposition. The relationships between the otolith weight and fish age and between otolith length and fish length were strong but differed between colour patterns. The fit of the growth models to the age and length data resulted in divergent growth curves between colour morphotypes and between sexes. Males and spotted individuals attained larger mean asymptotic sizes (Linf) than females and plain individuals, respectively, but converged to them more slowly (smaller k). Estimates of mortality based on catch curves from two independent datasets provided a global total mortality (Z) of 0.35 yr–1, although Z was larger in plain and female individuals. Overall, the results of this research have direct implications for management of L. bergylta and, as a precautionary measure, we recommend considering both colour patterns as two different management units. PMID:24058404

Villegas-Ríos, David; Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Fabeiro, Mariña; Bañón, Rafael; Saborido-Rey, Fran

2013-01-01

149

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

2008-01-01

150

Variation in Differential and Total Cross Sections Due to Different Radial Wave Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three sets of analytical wave functions are used to calculate the Na (3s---3p) transition differential and total electron excitation cross sections by Born approximations. Results show expected large variations in values. (Author/CP)

Williamson, W., Jr.; Greene, T.

1976-01-01

151

Measuring Productivity in Federal Agencies: Does Total Quality Management Make a Difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s, during the Reagan and Bush administrations, many federal agencies embarked on journeys toward Total Quality Management. The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 then shifted the focus of federal agencies to \\

Bonnie G. Mani

1996-01-01

152

Optimality of the basic colour categories for classification  

PubMed Central

Categorization of colour has been widely studied as a window into human language and cognition, and quite separately has been used pragmatically in image-database retrieval systems. This suggests the hypothesis that the best category system for pragmatic purposes coincides with human categories (i.e. the basic colours). We have tested this hypothesis by assessing the performance of different category systems in a machine-vision task. The task was the identification of the odd-one-out from triples of images obtained using a web-based image-search service. In each triple, two of the images had been retrieved using the same search term, the other a different term. The terms were simple concrete nouns. The results were as follows: (i) the odd-one-out task can be performed better than chance using colour alone; (ii) basic colour categorization performs better than random systems of categories; (iii) a category system that performs better than the basic colours could not be found; and (iv) it is not just the general layout of the basic colours that is important, but also the detail. We conclude that (i) the results support the plausibility of an explanation for the basic colours as a result of a pressure-to-optimality and (ii) the basic colours are good categories for machine vision image-retrieval systems. PMID:16849219

Griffin, Lewis D

2005-01-01

153

Anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of snacks with coloured potato.  

PubMed

Coloured-fleshed potatoes of four varieties were used as raw material for coloured flour and fried snack production. The effects of thermal processes traditionally used in dried potato processing and in snack pellet manufacturing on anthocyanin profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant properties of obtained half- and ready products were studied. There was a significant influence of potato variety on the experimental flour and snack properties. Flours with the highest antioxidant activities were obtained from Salad Blue and Herbie 26 potatoes; however, the flour prepared from the Blue Congo exhibited a much higher total polyphenol and anthocyanin content. Snacks produced with coloured flour had 2-3 times higher antioxidant activities, 40% higher contents of polyphenols, attractive colour and better expansion compared to control samples. The lowest losses of anthocyanins during snack processing were in snacks with flour from the purple-fleshed Blue Congo and red-fleshed Herbie 26. PMID:25442540

Nem?, Agnieszka; P?ksa, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kita, Agnieszka; Dro?d?, Wioletta; Hamouz, Karel

2015-04-01

154

Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

1992-01-01

155

Odour and colour polymorphism in the food-deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza romana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food deceptive orchid, Dactylorhiza romana (Sebastiani) Soó exhibits a colour polymorphism with yellow, red, and intermediate orange morphs. In this study we tested\\u000a if floral odour differed among the three distinct colour morphs. We identified 23 odour compounds in D. romana, and all of them occurred in the three colour morphs. Monoterpenes dominated the floral scent. On the basis

C. C. Salzmann; F. P. Schiestl

2007-01-01

156

REVIEW PAPER Visual ecology of aphids--a critical review on the role of colours  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Visual ecology of aphids--a critical review on the role of colours in host finding of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to stimuli of different colours. Only in one species there are adequate of the great interest in aphid responses to coloured targets from an evolutionary, ecological and applied

Chittka, Lars

157

Influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on colour removal by coagulation and filtration.  

PubMed

This study aims to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances (AHSs) on the effectiveness of coagulation with aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using the jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out with water samples having a true colour of approximately 100 Hazen units and prepared with AHSs of different molecular sizes. Stability diagrams are presented showing regions of > or = 90% and > or = 95% apparent colour removal delineated for each water sample using plots of total metal ion concentration (Al3+ and Fe3+) versus coagulation pH. To achieve the same degree of colour removal, the water samples with smaller apparent molecular sizes and a higher percentage of fulvic acids required higher dosages of both aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. PMID:22439564

Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

2011-12-01

158

Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.  

PubMed

Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change. PMID:24068351

Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

2013-10-15

159

Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes.?METHODS—To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed.?RESULTS—In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1.8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (?=1.21, p<0.0001), and negatively related to stereoacuity (?=?0.16, p=0.019). The interocular difference in logMAR acuity was negatively related to stereoacuity (?=?0.13, p=0.009).?CONCLUSIONS—Colour rivalry suppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.?? PMID:10535858

Hofeldt, T.; Hofeldt, A.

1999-01-01

160

Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.  

PubMed

All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness. PMID:25452008

Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

2015-03-01

161

Erb's palsy contrasted with Klumpke's and total palsy: Different mechanisms are involved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the available evidence regarding the nature of the forces that were involved in the production of a lower plexus palsy or a total (whole arm) palsy, as contrasted with the nature of the forces that resulted in an upper plexus palsy. Study Design: This was a review of studies that dealt

Raymond J. Jennett; Theodore J. Tarby; Robert L. Krauss

2002-01-01

162

Comparison of different analytical methods for assessing total antioxidant capacity of human serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three assays were compared for the determination of total antioxidant capacity in human serum: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the Randox Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (Randox-TEAC) assay, and the ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. There was a weak but significant linear correlation between serum ORAC and serum FRAP. There was no correlation either between serum ORAC and serum TEAC

Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1998-01-01

163

Gender Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life Following Total Laryngectomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The impact of a total laryngectomy on an individual's life has primarily been measured from a male viewpoint reflecting the demographics of a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. A small number of studies have looked specifically at females, but very few are comparison studies. Consequently, there is little consistent research regarding any…

Lee, Mary T.; Gibson, Sam; Hilari, Katerina

2010-01-01

164

Transcript profile of barley aleurone differs between total and polysomal RNAs: Implications for proteome modeling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microarray analysis of mRNA populations is routinely conducted with total RNA. However, such analyses would probably represent the translated genome (proteome) more accurately if conducted with polysomal RNA. In order to determine whether significant variation occurs between these two populations,...

165

Colour pattern modification by coldshock in Lepidoptera.  

PubMed

When young pupae of Vanessa cardui, V. virginiensis and Precis coenia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are exposed to severe coldshock many develop aberrant adult wing patterns. For each species, a synchronous cohort of experimental animals always develops a broad range of aberrant pattern morphologies but these can always be arranged in a single unbranched morphological series. When such phenotypic series are compared, between species and between wing surfaces within a species (each wing surface usually bears a different colour pattern), many parallel modifications and trends become evident. These parallelisms reveal certain homologies of pattern elements and suggest that a common physiology underlies the development of a considerable diversity of normal and aberrant colour patterns. The case is made that the phenotypic series produced may represent either a series of sequential stages in colour pattern determination or, a series of quantitatively different 'interpretations' of an established gradient system. Colour pattern morphoclines reveal which patterns are developmentally 'adjacent' to one another and may therefore prove useful in elucidating the evolution of patterns. PMID:6470611

Nijhout, H F

1984-06-01

166

Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis).  

PubMed

Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background. PMID:19798479

Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E

2010-01-01

167

Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

2010-01-01

168

Children's Models about Colours in Nahuatl-Speaking Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and structure of indigenous children's ideas about mixing colours as well as their ideas about each colour, derived from their traditions. The children were interviewed both at school and outside it, and an educational proposal was implemented. Ideas expressed in the school context were analysed using the partial possible model, which states that the inferences and explanations used to describe a subject consist of constricting ideas, rules of correspondence, and a set of phenomenological inferences about processes. After identifying these components in the children's ideas, we developed models to describe their conceptions about mixing colours. We employed a different approach to analyse children's ideas related to their cultural context. The results showed that children change from a conception that focuses on colours as entities that do not change and as properties of objects (model 1) to the idea that colour represents a quality of substances or objects that can be modified by mixing colours (model 2). Cultural context analysis showed that stories are independent from one another and that they are not connected to colour mixing processes, only to the actions of colour on people. We concluded that students generate independent constructions between school and cultural knowledge.

Gallegos-Cázares, Leticia; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Calderón-Canales, Elena; Perrusquía-Máximo, Elvia; García-Rivera, Beatriz

2014-10-01

169

Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

2013-10-01

170

Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

2010-01-01

171

Archaeological Zelliges of Meknes (14th-century): Physical measurements of the colour and identification of colouring agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two series of Zelliges belonging to the Filalia and Bou-Inaniya Medersas (14th-century) in Meknes city have been studied in order to describe precisely the colour of the glazes and to identify the chromogen agents responsible for these colours. The glaze colours are physically studied by the determination of their chromatic coordinates using chromametry method. These coordinates are represented in the conventional Yxy and L*a*b* spaces. Furthermore the chromogen ions, responsible for the different colour shades, are identified by optical absorption spectrometry (OAS) and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. These ions are the classical ones: copper (Cu2+) for the green, cobalt (Co2+) for the blue, iron (Fe3+) for the honey colour and iron (Fe3+) in association with manganese (Mn3+) for the black.

Ben Amara, A.; Azzou, A.; Haddad, M.; Schvoerer, M.; Ney, C.; Lyazidi, S. Ait; Molinié, P.

2005-03-01

172

Clinical Nutrition and Foodservice Personnel in Teaching Hospitals have Different Perceptions of Total Quality Management Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the perceived total quality management (TQM) performance of their department by clinical nutrition managers and dietitians, and foodservice managers and supervisors, in hospital food and nutrition service departments.Design Using a 2-part questionnaire containing items about 3 constructs of TQM performance and demographic characteristics, participants rated their perceptions of TQM performance.Subjects Employees in 7 Council of Teaching Hospitals.

YUKYEONG CHONG; NAN UNKLESBAY; RICHARD DOWDY

2000-01-01

173

Liver protection by hypothermic perfusion at different temperatures during total vascular exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:In situ hypothermic perfusion (HP) can be applied to attenuate ischemia and reperfusion (I\\/R) injury during liver resection under total vascular exclusion (TVE). This study examines the protective effect of cooling by HP at 20 and 28 degrees C as compared with no HP during TVE in a porcine liver I\\/R model. Methods: Twenty-one pigs underwent 60 min TVE of

S. Dinant; Veen van S. Q; H. J. Roseboom; Vliet van A. K; Gulik van T. M

2006-01-01

174

Plant genotype differences to ferrous and total iron in emerging leaves. II. Dry beans and soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferrous iron (Iron and Fe) and total Fe were determined in “Fe?tolerant”; and “Fe?susceptible”; dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; UI 59 and PI 165078) and soybean (Glycine max L.; A2, T203, and Hawkeye) genotypes to evaluate their differential responses to Fe deficiency stress. Plants were grown in growth chambers in solutions with Fe (+Fe) and without Fe (?Fe). Once Fe

E. E. Pierson; R. B. Clark; D. P. Coyne; J. W. Maranville

1984-01-01

175

Management Practice Effects on Surface Total Carbon: Differences in Spatial Variability Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of information about the spatial variability of soil C in dif- ferent management systems limits accurate extrapolation of C seques- tration findings to large scales. The objectives of this study were to: (i) describe and quantify variability of total C in three management sys- tems, chisel-plow (CT) and no-till (NT) with conventional chemical inputs and a chisel-plow organic management

A. N. Kravchenko; G. P. Robertson; X. Hao; D. G. Bullock

2006-01-01

176

Assessment of Antioxidant Potential, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids of Different Solvent Fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia Fruit  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440

Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia

2013-01-01

177

Is the Globular Cluster Colour-Metallicity Relation Universal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible at much greater distances than resolved stars, globular clusters are important tools for studying galaxy formation and assembly. Studies of extragalactic globular clusters typically use optical colours to derive metallicites. We use Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy and Subaru Suprime-Cam photometry from the SLUGGS Survey to investigate how the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation varies galaxy to galaxy and with globular cluster luminosity. As in previous studies we see variations in the shape of the relationship between (g - i) colour and the strength of the calcium triplet spectral feature. To measure weaker spectral features in the DEIMOS spectra, we stack the spectra by colour and by magnitude. Comparing spectra with the same colours and luminosities but from different galaxies, we see significant differences in the strengths of several spectral features, including the calcium triplet and weak iron lines. We interpret this as strong evidence that the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation varies galaxy-to-galaxy. We suggest differences in globular cluster ages between galaxies and in the abundances of light elements (helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) between galaxies as possible explanations for the observed variations in the colour-metallicity relation.

Usher, Christopher; Sluggs Survey Team

2015-01-01

178

Spectral sensitivity of a colour changing spider.  

PubMed

Vision plays a paramount role in some spider families such as the Salticidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae, as it is involved in prey hunting, orientation or choice of substrate. In the thomisid Misumena vatia, for which the substrate colour affects the body colour, vision seems to mediate morphological colour changes. However, nothing is known about which component of visual signals from the substrate might be perceived, nor whether M. vatia possesses the physiological basis for colour vision. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the vision of this spider species by measuring the spectral sensitivities of the different pairs of eyes using electrophysiological methods. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings combined with selective adaptation revealed the presence of two classes of photoreceptor cells, one sensitive in the UV region of the spectrum (around 340 nm) and one sensitive in the green (around 520 nm) regions in the four pairs of eyes. We conclude that M. vatia possesses the physiological potential to perceive both chromatic and achromatic components of the environment. PMID:21300067

Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Warrant, Eric J; Casas, Jérôme

2011-04-01

179

Ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility in blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) fed extruded diets containing different protein sources.  

PubMed

This study compared apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of macronutrients and amino acids in blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) fed dry extruded diets. The control diet contained fish meal as the main protein source, while in the other diets 50% of the fish meal protein was replaced by not de-hulled solvent-extracted soybean meal, meat meal or bacterial protein meal. Ileal digestibility was obtained with animals modified with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA method). There were no significant differences in the average digestibility of CP, Lys, Trp, Val, Ala or Glu between IRA modified and intact animals. Average ileal digestibilities of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Gly, Hyp, Pro, Ser, starch and total carbohydrates (CHO) were significantly lower compared with total tract values. Average ileal digestibility of Arg, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Tyr and crude fat was significantly higher than total tract digestibility. Digestibility measured in IRA modified animals showed less variability compared with values from intact animals. There were significant differences among diets in ileal as well as total tract digestibility of orude protein, most amino acids, starch and CHO, and in ileal digestibility of crude fat. Ileal crude protein digestibility of the diets ranged from 81.0-86.4% and total tract digestibility from 82.5-86.4%. Ileal amino acid digestibilities ranged from 70.1 (Asp) to 93.3% (Arg) and total tract values ranged from 72.8 (Cys) to 92.2% (Arg). Both ileal and total tract digestibilities of crude protein and most amino acids were significantly lower for diets containing meat meal or bacterial protein meal compared with the control fish meal-based diet and the diet with soybean meal. Although ileal digestibility may be more accurate than total tract digestibility in estimating the protein and amino acid supply in blue foxes, total tract digestibility may be acceptable because of numerically small differences between ileal and total tract digestibilities for protein and most amino acids. It was further concluded that ileal digestibilities of starch and CHO in the blue fox are lower than corresponding total tract digestibilities. PMID:15889653

Vhile, Stine G; Skrede, Anders; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Szymeczko, Roman; Hove, Knut

2005-02-01

180

Colour map design through optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often in engineering systems, full-colour images have to be displayed on limited hardware, for example on mobile devices or embedded systems that can only handle a limited number of colours. Therefore an image is converted into an indexed map from where the indices point to specific colours in a fixed-size colour map generated for that image. The choice of an optimal colour map, or palette, is therefore crucial as it directly determines the quality of the resulting image. Typically, standard quantization algorithms are used to create colour maps. Whereas these algorithms employ domain specific knowledge, in this work a variant of simulated annealing (SA) was employed as a standard black-box optimization algorithm for colour map generation. The main advantage of black-box optimization algorithms is that they do not require any domain specific knowledge yet are able to provide a near optimal solution. The effectiveness of the approach is evaluated by comparing its performance with several specialized colour quantization algorithms. The results obtained show that even without any domain specific knowledge the SA based algorithm is able to outperform standard quantization algorithms. To further improve the performance of the algorithm the SA technique was combined with a standard k-means clustering technique. This hybrid quantization algorithm is shown to outperform all other algorithms and hence to provide images with superior image quality.

Nolle, Lars; Schaefer, Gerald

2007-04-01

181

Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.  

PubMed

The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. PMID:24495279

Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

2014-11-01

182

The phylogenetic significance of colour patterns in marine teleost larvae  

PubMed Central

Ichthyologists, natural-history artists, and tropical-fish aquarists have described, illustrated, or photographed colour patterns in adult marine fishes for centuries, but colour patterns in marine fish larvae have largely been neglected. Yet the pelagic larval stages of many marine fishes exhibit subtle to striking, ephemeral patterns of chromatophores that warrant investigation into their potential taxonomic and phylogenetic significance. Colour patterns in larvae of over 200 species of marine teleosts, primarily from the western Caribbean, were examined from digital colour photographs, and their potential utility in elucidating evolutionary relationships at various taxonomic levels was assessed. Larvae of relatively few basal marine teleosts exhibit erythrophores, xanthophores, or iridophores (i.e. nonmelanistic chromatophores), but one or more of those types of chromatophores are visible in larvae of many basal marine neoteleosts and nearly all marine percomorphs. Whether or not the presence of nonmelanistic chromatophores in pelagic marine larvae diagnoses any major teleost taxonomic group cannot be determined based on the preliminary survey conducted, but there is a trend toward increased colour from elopomorphs to percomorphs. Within percomorphs, patterns of nonmelanistic chromatophores may help resolve or contribute evidence to existing hypotheses of relationships at multiple levels of classification. Mugilid and some beloniform larvae share a unique ontogenetic transformation of colour pattern that lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between them. Larvae of some tetraodontiforms and lophiiforms are strikingly similar in having the trunk enclosed in an inflated sac covered with xanthophores, a character that may help resolve the relationships of these enigmatic taxa. Colour patterns in percomorph larvae also appear to diagnose certain groups at the interfamilial, familial, intergeneric, and generic levels. Slight differences in generic colour patterns, including whether the pattern comprises xanthophores or erythrophores, often distinguish species. The homology, ontogeny, and possible functional significance of colour patterns in larvae are discussed. Considerably more investigation of larval colour patterns in marine teleosts is needed to assess fully their value in phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:24039297

Baldwin, Carole C

2013-01-01

183

Splanchnic and total body oxygen consumption differences in septic and injured patients.  

PubMed

The splanchnic and total body oxygen exchange and flow dynamics for injured patients (n = 7) and patients with sepsis and stable vital signs (n = 12) were studied. All patients were judged to be in the hyperdynamic phase of the stress response. In both patient groups 27% to 28% of the cardiac index was directed to the splanchnic circulation. However, in sepsis the splanchnic region consumed a significantly larger fraction (p less than 0.05) of the total body oxygen (43.8%) compared with that consumed in injury (30.2%). After injury, the regional splanchnic flow and oxygen consumption appeared to be well matched whereas in sepsis, a disproportionately higher oxygen consumption is found, which must be supplied by increasing blood oxygen extraction. This regional hypermetabolism of the splanchnic area probably results from the increased metabolic demand imposed by the various synthetic processes of this region. In addition, it is proposed that excessive discrepancy between splanchnic flow and oxygen demand may precipitate regional ischemia. PMID:3798330

Dahn, M S; Lange, P; Lobdell, K; Hans, B; Jacobs, L A; Mitchell, R A

1987-01-01

184

Individual differences in physiologic measures are stable across repeated exposures to total sleep deprivation  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some individuals show severe cognitive impairment when sleep deprived, whereas others are able to maintain a high level of performance. Such differences are stable and trait?like, but it is not clear whether these findings generalize to physiologic responses to sleep loss. Here, we analyzed individual differences in behavioral and physiologic measures in healthy ethnic?Chinese male volunteers (n = 12; aged 22–30 years) who were kept awake for at least 26 h in a controlled laboratory environment on two separate occasions. Every 2 h, sustained attention performance was assessed using a 10?min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and sleepiness was estimated objectively by determining percentage eyelid closure over the pupil over time (PERCLOS) and blink rate. Between?subject differences in heart rate and its variability, and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power were also analyzed during each PVT. To assess stability of individual differences, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined using variance components analysis. Consistent with previous work, individual differences in PVT performance were reproducible across study visits, as were baseline sleep measures prior to sleep deprivation. In addition, stable individual differences were observed during sleep deprivation for PERCLOS, blink rate, heart rate and its variability, and EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band, even after adjusting for baseline differences in these measures (range, ICC = 0.67–0.91). These findings establish that changes in ocular, ECG, and EEG signals are highly reproducible across a night of sleep deprivation, hence raising the possibility that, similar to behavioral measures, physiologic responses to sleep loss are trait?like. PMID:25263200

Chua, Eric Chern?Pin; Yeo, Sing?Chen; Lee, Ivan Tian?Guang; Tan, Luuan?Chin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Sara S.; Ho Mien, Ivan; Gooley, Joshua J.

2014-01-01

185

Colour stability of maxillofacial silicone elastomers: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Colour degradation is a serious limitation of maxillofacial silicone elastomers and most silicone facial prostheses have to be remade within 1 year due to colour deterioration. A comprehensive review of the literature was completed using MEDLINE and PubMed Library databases. This was supplemented with a manual search of selected journals and textbooks. English language articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 1966 to January 2012 in which colour stability of silicone elastomers was evaluated using standard research protocols were included. In all, 127 articles were identified and 23 met the inclusion criteria. Current literature reveals that average colour stability of maxillofacial silicone prostheses is 6-12 months, and inherent unstable nature of silicones is responsible for the color degradation. Opacifiers, oil pigments and inorganic colourants may have a protective effect on colour stability of prostheses. Organic colourants, ultraviolet (UV) light, cleansing solutions, dust and aging can adversely affect colour stability of silicone prostheses. A direct comparison between studies has not been possible, because of the differences in experimental set-up such as materials tested, colourants used, or method of aging. There appears to be a need for a standardised test protocol for colour stability of maxillofacial materials. Colour degradation limits the useful lifespan of maxillofacial silicones. Improvements in colour stability is possible with the use of certain nano opacifiers, UV absorbers, photoprotective agents, and use of inorganic pigments and metal oxides. PMID:25831712

Kulkarni, R S; Nagda, S J

2014-09-01

186

Large-scale retrospective evaluation of regulated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry bioanalysis projects using different total error approaches.  

PubMed

The current approach in regulated LC-MS bioanalysis, which evaluates the precision and trueness of an assay separately, has long been criticized for inadequate balancing of lab-customer risks. Accordingly, different total error approaches have been proposed. The aims of this research were to evaluate the aforementioned risks in reality and the difference among four common total error approaches (?-expectation, ?-content, uncertainty, and risk profile) through retrospective analysis of regulated LC-MS projects. Twenty-eight projects (14 validations and 14 productions) were randomly selected from two GLP bioanalytical laboratories, which represent a wide variety of assays. The results show that the risk of accepting unacceptable batches did exist with the current approach (9% and 4% of the evaluated QC levels failed for validation and production, respectively). The fact that the risk was not wide-spread was only because the precision and bias of modern LC-MS assays are usually much better than the minimum regulatory requirements. Despite minor differences in magnitude, very similar accuracy profiles and/or conclusions were obtained from the four different total error approaches. High correlation was even observed in the width of bias intervals. For example, the mean width of SFSTP's ?-expectation is 1.10-fold (CV=7.6%) of that of Saffaj-Ihssane's uncertainty approach, while the latter is 1.13-fold (CV=6.0%) of that of Hoffman-Kringle's ?-content approach. To conclude, the risk of accepting unacceptable batches was real with the current approach, suggesting that total error approaches should be used instead. Moreover, any of the four total error approaches may be used because of their overall similarity. Lastly, the difficulties/obstacles associated with the application of total error approaches in routine analysis and their desirable future improvements are discussed. PMID:25617753

Tan, Aimin; Saffaj, Taoufiq; Musuku, Adrien; Awaiye, Kayode; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Jhilal, Fayçal; Sosse, Saad Alaoui; Trabelsi, Fethi

2015-03-01

187

Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2012-13 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Research)  

E-print Network

Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2012-13 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Research) Aut: BIOS 200 The Nucleus (8 units) MI 250* Frontiers in Microbiology & Immunology (1 The Responsible Conduct of Research (1 unit) Spr: MI 204 Innate Immunology (3 units) MI 215 Principles

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

188

Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2014-15 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Graduate Research)  

E-print Network

Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2014-15 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses Foundations in Experimental Biology 6 units MI 250* Frontiers in Microbiology & Immunology 1 unit MI 399 The Responsible Conduct of Research 1 unit Spring MI 204 Innate Immunology 3 units MI 215 Principles of Biological

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

189

Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2013-14 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Graduate Research)  

E-print Network

Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2013-14 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses Foundations in Experimental Biology 6 units MI 250* Frontiers in Microbiology & Immunology 1 unit MI 399 of Research 1 unit Spring MI 204 Innate Immunology 3 units MI 215 Principles of Biological Technologies 3

Sonnenburg, Justin L.

190

Isolation and antisense suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase modifies flower pigments and colour in cyclamen  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. Results A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H) was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C) in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results illustrate the complexity involved in modifying a biosynthetic pathway with multiple branch points to different end products and provides important information for future flower colour modification experiments in cyclamen. PMID:20540805

2010-01-01

191

Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in different species of apples grown in Georgia.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown that biologically active components in plant-based foods, particularly phytochemicals, have important potential to modulate many processes in the development of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and other degenerative diseases. The aim of the our study was to provide an updated understanding and analysis of various apple sorts growing in Georgia by the compounds with a particular focus on their potential role(s) in disease risk and general human health. The Various sorts (Kekhura, Banany, Golden, Starty, Chempion, Aidaridy, Brotsky, Achabety, Sinapy, Jonagold and Antonovka,) of apples were investigated. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were studied in peel and flesh extracts and were measured by slightly modified method of Folin-Denis using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and - 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method in those varieties of apples. Summarizing our data, we can conclude that, in accordance with the benefit to human health, the most prominent varieties of apples - Kekhura. It is rich with phenolic compounds, and also characterized by high scavenging activity. Also has good features Antonovka and Achabety. It should be noted that apple peel more helpful than the flesh, and therefore during consumption peeling of apples is unacceptable in terms of its usefulness. PMID:25214284

Gogia, N; Gongadze, M; Bukia, Z; Esaiashvili, M; Chkhikvishvili, I

2014-01-01

192

Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of morphology and colour on environment  

E-print Network

We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for over 100,000 objects from Galaxy Zoo, the largest sample of visually classified morphologies yet compiled. We conclusively show that colour and morphology fractions are very different functions of environment. Both are sensitive to stellar mass; however, at fixed stellar mass, while colour is also highly sensitive to environment, morphology displays much weaker environmental trends. Only a small part of both relations can be attributed to variation in the stellar mass function with environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments and irrespective of their morphology. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments, but mostly red in high-density environments, again irrespective of their morphology. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morphology, in particular the fraction of spiral galaxies that have red colours, and especially at low stellar masses. We demonstrate that our red spirals primarily include galaxies with true spiral morphology. We clearly show there is an environmental dependence for colour beyond that for morphology. Before using the Galaxy Zoo morphologies to produce the above results, we first quantify a luminosity-, size- and redshift-dependent classification bias that affects this dataset, and probably most other studies of galaxy population morphology. A correction for this bias is derived and applied to produce a sample of galaxies with reliable morphological type likelihoods, on which we base our analysis.

Steven P. Bamford; Robert C. Nichol; Ivan K. Baldry; Kate Land; Chris J. Lintott; Kevin Schawinski; Anze Slosar; Alexander S. Szalay; Daniel Thomas; Mehri Torki; Dan Andreescu; Edward M. Edmondson; Christopher J. Miller; Phil Murray; M. Jordan Raddick; Jan Vandenberg

2008-11-14

193

Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour.  

PubMed

Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies. PMID:25369035

Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K W

2014-01-01

194

Phylogenetic analysis reveals a scattered distribution of autumn colours  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Leaf colour in autumn is rarely considered informative for taxonomy, but there is now growing interest in the evolution of autumn colours and different hypotheses are debated. Research efforts are hindered by the lack of basic information: the phylogenetic distribution of autumn colours. It is not known when and how autumn colours evolved. Methods Data are reported on the autumn colours of 2368 tree species belonging to 400 genera of the temperate regions of the world, and an analysis is made of their phylogenetic relationships in order to reconstruct the evolutionary origin of red and yellow in autumn leaves. Key Results Red autumn colours are present in at least 290 species (70 genera), and evolved independently at least 25 times. Yellow is present independently from red in at least 378 species (97 genera) and evolved at least 28 times. Conclusions The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that autumn colours have been acquired and lost many times during evolution. This scattered distribution could be explained by hypotheses involving some kind of coevolutionary interaction or by hypotheses that rely on the need for photoprotection. PMID:19126636

Archetti, Marco

2009-01-01

195

Power colours: simple X-ray binary variability comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a new method of variability classification using observations of black hole X-ray binaries. Using `power colours' - ratios of integrated power in different Fourier frequency bands - we can clearly differentiate different canonical black hole states as the objects evolve during outburst. We analyse (˜2400) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of 12 transient low-mass black hole X-ray binaries and find that the path taken around the power colour-colour diagram as the sources evolve is highly consistent from object to object. We discuss how the consistency observed in the power colour-colour diagram between different objects allows for easy state classification based on only a few observations, and show how the power-spectral shapes can be simply classified using a single parameter, the power-spectral `hue'. To illustrate the benefits of our simple model-independent approach, we show that the persistent high-mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 shows very similar power-spectral evolution to the transient black hole sources, with the main difference being caused by a combination of a lack of quasi-periodic oscillations and an excess of low-frequency power-law noise in the Cyg X-1 power spectra during the transitional state. We also compare the transient objects to the neutron star atoll source Aquila X-1, demonstrating that it traces a different path in the power colour-colour plot. Thus, power colours could be an effective method to classify newly discovered X-ray binaries.

Heil, L. M.; Uttley, P.; Klein-Wolt, M.

2015-04-01

196

The colours of extant mammals.  

PubMed

In this review I survey pelage and skin colouration patterns of the 29 orders of extant mammals and assess their functional significance. The vast majority of mammals are shades of grey or brown. Concealment is probably the principal evolutionary driver of pelage colouration in this Class likely through background matching and self-shadow concealment. A small minority of species are aposematic while many others have distinctive markings used in intraspecific and interspecific communication although the meaning of these markings is unclear. Colouration in mammals also has physiological consequences but these are barely understood as yet. PMID:23567208

Caro, Tim

2013-01-01

197

Agreement among three different equine venipuncture sites with regard to measurement of packed cell volume and total solids.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine the agreement between the packed cell volume (PCV) and total solids (TS) values in blood collected from the jugular vein (JV) in comparison with the cephalic vein (CV) and the transverse facial venous sinus (TFVS) in healthy adult horses. A total of 72 samples were taken from 24 horses. We found high agreement that reflects no clinically relevant differences between the PCV and TS values obtained from the CV or the TFVS in comparison with the JV in standing healthy adult horses. PMID:25817976

Dahan, R; Sutton, G A; Oreff, G L; Kelmer, G

2015-04-01

198

Colour superconductivity in a strong magnetic field  

E-print Network

We explore the effects of an applied strong external magnetic field in a three flavour massless colour superconductor. The long-range component of the B field that penetrates the superconductor enhances some quark condensates, leading to a different condensation pattern. The external field also reduces the flavour symmetries in the system, and thus it changes drastically the corresponding low energy physics. Our considerations are relevant for the study of highly magnetized compact stars.

Efrain J. Ferrer; Vivian de la Incera; Cristina Manuel

2005-11-30

199

How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

2008-09-03

200

How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently  

E-print Network

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank

2008-01-01

201

How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently  

E-print Network

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Tanju Gleisberg; Stefan Hoeche; Frank Krauss

2008-08-27

202

Evolutionary genetics of dorsal wing colour in Colias butterflies.  

PubMed

The evolution of butterfly wing colouration is strongly affected by its multiple functions and by the correlated evolution of wing colour elements. Both factors may prevent local adaptation to ecological conditions. We investigated one aspect of wing colouration, the degree of dorsal wing melanization, in the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle across an elevational gradient and its correlation with another aspect of wing colouration, ventral wing melanization. Dorsal wing melanization increased with elevation and these differences persisted in a common environment. Full-sibling analysis revealed high heritability for males but only intermediate heritability for females. The correlation between ventral and dorsal melanization showed significant elevational and sex-specific differences. In males the two traits were highly correlated, whereas in females the strength of the correlation decreased with increasing elevation. We conclude that uncoupling of ventral and dorsal melanization has evolved in females but not in males and discuss possible mechanisms underlying uncoupling. PMID:15271074

Ellers, J; Boggs, C L

2004-07-01

203

Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.  

PubMed

Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. PMID:24525191

Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

2014-04-01

204

Melanin-based colour polymorphism responding to climate change.  

PubMed

Climate warming leads to a decrease in biodiversity. Organisms can deal with the new prevailing environmental conditions by one of two main routes, namely evolving new genetic adaptations or through phenotypic plasticity to modify behaviour and physiology. Melanin-based colouration has important functions in animals including a role in camouflage and thermoregulation, protection against UV-radiation and pathogens and, furthermore, genes involved in melanogenesis can pleiotropically regulate behaviour and physiology. In this article, I review the current evidence that differently coloured individuals are differentially sensitive to climate change. Predicting which of dark or pale colour variants (or morphs) will be more penalized by climate change will depend on the adaptive function of melanism in each species as well as how the degree of colouration covaries with behaviour and physiology. For instance, because climate change leads to a rise in temperature and UV-radiation and dark colouration plays a role in UV-protection, dark individuals may be less affected from global warming, if this phenomenon implies more solar radiation particularly in habitats of pale individuals. In contrast, as desertification increases, pale colouration may expand in those regions, whereas dark colourations may expand in regions where humidity is predicted to increase. Dark colouration may be also indirectly selected by climate warming because genes involved in the production of melanin pigments confer resistance to a number of stressful factors including those associated with climate warming. Furthermore, darker melanic individuals are commonly more aggressive than paler conspecifics, and hence they may better cope with competitive interactions due to invading species that expand their range in northern latitudes and at higher altitudes. To conclude, melanin may be a major component involved in adaptation to climate warming, and hence in animal populations melanin-based colouration is likely to change as an evolutionary or plastic response to climate warming. PMID:24700793

Roulin, Alexandre

2014-11-01

205

Differences in gait characteristics between total hip, knee, and ankle arthroplasty patients: a six-month postoperative comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The recovery of gait ability is one of the primary goals for patients following total arthroplasty of lower-limb joints. The aim of this study was to objectively compare gait differences of patients after unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) with a group of healthy controls. Methods A total of 26 TAA, 26 TKA and 26 THA patients with a mean (± SD) age of 64 (± 9) years were evaluated six months after surgery and compared with 26 matched healthy controls. Subjects were asked to walk at self-selected normal and fast speeds on a validated pressure mat. The following spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured: walking velocity, cadence, single-limb support (SLS) time, double-limb support (DLS) time, stance time, step length and step width. Results TAA and TKA patients walked slower than controls at normal (p<0.05) and fast speeds (p<0.01). The involved side of TAA and TKA patients showed shorter SLS compared to controls at both normal and fast speeds (p<0.01). Regardless of walking speed, the uninvolved side of TAA and TKA patients demonstrated longer stance time and shorter step length than controls (p<0.01). TAA patients showed shorter SLS of the involved side, longer stance time and shorter step length of the uninvolved side compared to the contralateral side at both normal and fast speeds (p<0.001). Conclusions Gait disability after unilateral lower-limb joint arthroplasty was more marked for distal than for proximal joints at six months after surgery, with a proximal-to-distal progression in the impairment (TAA>TKA>THA). THA patients demonstrated no gait differences compared with controls. In contrast, TAA and TKA patients still demonstrated gait differences compared to controls, with slower walking velocity and reduced SLS in the involved limb. In addition, TAA patients presented marked side-to-side asymmetries in gait characteristics. PMID:23731906

2013-01-01

206

Colour as visual rhetoric in financial reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual rhetoric within communication seeks to persuade through the use of picturing and encompasses words and colour. Visual rhetoric is present within annual reports. The specific role of colour in financial reporting is a neglected field of enquiry. A survey of 100 Hong Kong annual reports related colour usage to profitability change and found companies used more colour when profitability

John K. Courtis

2004-01-01

207

Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

1995-01-01

208

Sexual colouration and sperm traits in guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among the area, hue, saturation and brightness of orange colouration and sperm traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata were investigated. Males with greater areas of orange colouration had significantly larger sperm loads, more motile sperm and longer sperm relative to males with relatively little orange colouration. Males with greater areas of orange colouration did not possess more viable

T. E. Pitcher; F. H. Rodd; L. Rowe

2007-01-01

209

TOTAL SCORE AS A GENETIC INDEX OF MEAT QUALITY TRAITS IN CHIANINA BEEF CATTLE IL TOTAL SCORE QUALE INDICE GENETICO DELLA QUALITÀ DELLA CARNE DELLA RAZZA CHIANINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of this research was to study a Total Score Index, capable to resume the meat quality traits, and useful for improvement programs. The quality of meat from the Longissimus dorsi muscle, of 82 Chianina bulls, was analysed. The animals, reared in two Tuscan farms with different feeding-programs, were slaughtered at about 19 months of age. Colour traits,

Valeria Casavola

210

What Colour Is a Shadow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

Hughes, S. W.

2009-01-01

211

Co-housing rodents with different coat colours as a simple, non-invasive means of individual identification: validating mixed-strain housing for C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice.  

PubMed

Standard practice typically requires the marking of laboratory mice so that they can be individually identified. However, many of the common methods compromise the welfare of the individuals being marked (as well as requiring time, effort, and/or resources on the part of researchers and technicians). Mixing strains of different colour within a cage would allow them to be readily visually identifiable, negating the need for more invasive marking techniques. Here we assess the impact that mixed strain housing has on the phenotypes of female C57BL/6 (black) and DBA/2 (brown) mice, and on the variability in the data obtained from them. Mice were housed in either mixed strain or single strain pairs for 19 weeks, and their phenotypes then assessed using 23 different behavioural, morphological, haematological and physiological measures widely used in research and/or important for assessing mouse welfare. No negative effects of mixed strain housing could be found on the phenotypes of either strain, including variables relevant to welfare. Differences and similarities between the two strains were almost all as expected from previously published studies, and none were affected by whether mice were housed in mixed- or single-strain pairs. Only one significant main effect of housing type was detected: mixed strain pairs had smaller red blood cell distribution widths, a measure suggesting better health (findings that now need replicating in case they were Type 1 errors resulting from our multiplicity of tests). Furthermore, mixed strain housing did not increase the variation in data obtained from the mice: the standard errors for all variables were essentially identical between the two housing conditions. Mixed strain housing also made animals very easy to distinguish while in the home cage. Female DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice can thus be housed in mixed strain pairs for identification purposes, with no apparent negative effects on their welfare or the data they generate. This suggests that there is much value in exploring other combinations of strains. PMID:24204864

Walker, Michael; Fureix, Carole; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia

2013-01-01

212

Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts and Fractions from the Aerial Parts of Artemisia biennis Willd.  

PubMed

Total phenolic contents (TPC) of five different extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water) of Artemisia biennis Willd were measured in this work. The antioxidant activity was investigated by three different methods: ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) test, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Among all the extracts analyzed, the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a significantly higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than other samples. Vacuum liquid chromatography of this extract yielded seven fractions (A to G) which were subjected to all aforementioned experiments. The highest total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activites were present in the same sample (Fraction D) but the only statistically significant correlation between TPC and EC50 values was observed for BCB. PMID:25237350

Hatami, Tayyebe; Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Miraghaee, Sayyed Shahram; Mojarrab, Mahdi

2014-01-01

213

Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts and Fractions from the Aerial Parts of Artemisia biennis Willd  

PubMed Central

Total phenolic contents (TPC) of five different extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water) of Artemisia biennis Willd were measured in this work. The antioxidant activity was investigated by three different methods: ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) test, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Among all the extracts analyzed, the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a significantly higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than other samples. Vacuum liquid chromatography of this extract yielded seven fractions (A to G) which were subjected to all aforementioned experiments. The highest total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activites were present in the same sample (Fraction D) but the only statistically significant correlation between TPC and EC50 values was observed for BCB. PMID:25237350

Hatami, Tayyebe; Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Miraghaee, Sayyed Shahram; Mojarrab, Mahdi

2014-01-01

214

Extracting parameters from Colour-Magnitude Diagrams  

E-print Network

We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M\\,67, NGC\\,6791, and NGC\\,2635, which are characterised by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

Bonatto, C; Kepler, S O; Bica, E

2015-01-01

215

Colour pairs for constraining the age and metallicity of stellar populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a widely used stellar-population synthesis model, we study the possibility of using pairs of AB system colours to break the well-known stellar age-metallicity degeneracy and to give constraints on two luminosity-weighted stellar-population parameters (age and metallicity). We present the relative age and metallicity sensitivities of the AB system colours that relate to the u,B,g,V,r,R,i, I,z,J,H and K bands, and we quantify the ability of various colour pairs to break the age-metallicity degeneracy. Our results suggest that a few pairs of colours can be used to constrain the above two stellar-population parameters. This will be very useful for exploring the stellar populations of distant galaxies. In detail, colour pairs [(r-K), (u-R)] and [(r-K), (u-r)] are shown to be the best pairs for estimating the luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities of galaxies. They can constrain two stellar-population parameters on average with age uncertainties less than 3.89 Gyr and metallicity uncertainties less than 0.34 dex for typical colour uncertainties. The typical age uncertainties for young populations (age < 4.6 Gyr) and metal-rich populations (Z >= 0.001) are small (about 2.26 Gyr) while those for old populations (age >= 4.6 Gyr) and metal-poor populations (Z < 0.001) are much larger (about 6.88 Gyr). However, the metallicity uncertainties for metal-poor populations (about 0.0024) are much smaller than for other populations (about 0.015). Some other colour pairs can also possibly be used for constraining the two parameters. On the whole, the estimation of stellar-population parameters is likely to be reliable only for early-type galaxies with small colour errors and globular clusters, because such objects contain less dust. In fact, no galaxy is totally dust-free and early-type galaxies are also likely have some dust [e.g. E(B- V) ~ 0.05], which can change the stellar ages by about 2.5 Gyr and metallicities (Z) by about 0.015. When we compare the photometric estimates with previous spectroscopic estimates, we find some differences, especially when comparing the stellar ages determined by two methods. The differences mainly result from the young populations of galaxies. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain the absolute values of stellar ages and metallicities, but the results are useful for obtaining some relative values. In addition, our results suggest that colours relating to both UBVRIJHK and ugriz magnitudes are much better than either UBVRIJHK or ugriz colours for breaking the well-known degeneracy. The results also show that the stellar ages and metallicities of galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey can be estimated via photometry data. The data are available at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strabourg (CDS) or on request to the authors. E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com

Li, Zhongmu; Han, Zhanwen

2008-04-01

216

The Colour of the Young Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VLT study gives insight on the evolution of the star formation rate Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has determined the colour of the Universe when it was very young. While the Universe is now kind of beige, it was much bluer in the distant past , at a time when it was only 2,500 million years old. This is the outcome of an extensive and thorough analysis of more than 300 galaxies seen within a small southern sky area, the so-called Hubble Deep Field South. The main goal of this advanced study was to understand how the stellar content of the Universe was assembled and has changed over time. Dutch astronomer Marijn Franx , a team member from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands), explains: "The blue colour of the early Universe is caused by the predominantly blue light from young stars in the galaxies. The redder colour of the Universe today is caused by the relatively larger number of older, redder stars." The team leader, Gregory Rudnick from the Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysics (Garching, Germany) adds: "Since the total amount of light in the Universe in the past was about the same as today and a young blue star emits much more light than an old red star, there must have been significantly fewer stars in the young Universe than there is now. Our new findings imply that the majority of stars in the Universe were formed comparatively late, not so long before our Sun was born, at a moment when the Universe was around 7,000 million years old." These new results are based on unique data collected during more than 100 hours of observations with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as part of a major research project, the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (FIRES) . The distances to the galaxies were estimated from their brightness in different optical near-infrared wavelength bands. PR Photo 34/03 : The Evolving Colour of the Universe . Observing the early Universe It is now well known that the Sun was formed some 4.5 billion years ago. But when did most of the other stars in our home Galaxy form? And what about stars in other galaxies? These are some of the key questions in present-day astronomy, but they can only be answered by means of observations with the world's largest telescopes. One way to address these issues is to observe the very young Universe directly - by looking back in time. For this, astronomers take advantage of the fact that light emitted by very distant galaxies travels a long time before reaching us. Thus, when astronomers look at such remote objects, they see them as they appeared long ago. Those remote galaxies are extremely faint, however, and these observations are therefore technically difficult. Another complication is that, due to the expansion of the Universe, light from those galaxies is shifted towards longer wavelengths [2], out of the optical wavelength range and into the infrared region. In order to study those early galaxies in some detail, astronomers must therefore use the largest ground-based telescopes, collecting their faint light during very long exposures. In addition they must use infrared-sensitive detectors. Telescopes as giant eyes The "Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S)" is a very small portion of the sky in the southern constellation Tucanae ( "the Toucan" ). It was selected for very detailed studies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and other powerful telescopes. Optical images of this field obtained by the HST represent a total exposure time of 140 hours. Many ground-based telescopes have also obtained images and spectra of objects in this sky area, in particular the ESO telescopes in Chile. A sky area of 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin 2 in the direction of HDF-S was observed in the context of a thorough study (the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey; FIRES, see ESO PR 23/02 ). It is slightly larger than the field covered by the WFPC2 camera on the HST, but still 100 times smaller than the area subtended by the full moon. Whenever this field was visible from the ESO Paranal Observatory and th

2003-12-01

217

The Influence of Colour on Memory Performance: A Review  

PubMed Central

Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information. An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can colour result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between colours, attention, and memory performance. The significance of colour in different settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory. The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next. The review of several studies on colours and memory are meant to explain some empirical works done in the area and related issues that arise from such studies. PMID:23983571

Dzulkifli, Mariam Adawiah; Mustafar, Muhammad Faiz

2013-01-01

218

Determination of inorganic and total mercury by vapor generation atomic absorption spectrometry using different temperatures of the measurement cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and inexpensive laboratory-built flow injection vapor generation system coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-VG AAS) for inorganic and total mercury determination has been developed. It is based on the vapor generation of total mercury and a selective detection of Hg 2 + or total mercury by varying the temperature of the measurement cell. Only the inorganic mercury is measured when the quartz cell is at room temperature, and when the cell is heated to 650 °C or higher the total Hg concentration is measured. The organic Hg concentration in the sample is calculated from the difference between the total Hg and Hg 2 + concentrations. Parameters such as the type of acid (HCl or HNO 3) and its concentration, reductant (NaBH 4) concentration, carrier solution (HCl) flow rate, carrier gas flow rate, sample volume and quartz cell temperature, which influence FI-VG AAS system performance, were systematically investigated. The optimized conditions for Hg 2 + and total Hg determinations were: 1.0 mol l - 1 HCl as carrier solution, carrier flow rate of 3.5 ml min - 1 , 0.1% (m/v) NaBH 4, reductant flow rate of 1.0 ml min - 1 and carrier gas flow rate of 200 ml min - 1 . The relative standard deviation (RSD) is lower than 5.0% for a 1.0 ?g l - 1 Hg solution and the limit of quantification (LOQ, 10 s) is 55 ng g - 1 . Certified samples of dogfish muscle (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and non-certified fish samples were analyzed, using a 6.0 mol l - 1 HCl solution for analyte extraction. The Hg 2 + and CH 3Hg + concentrations found were in agreement with certified ones.

Kaercher, Luiz Eduardo; Goldschmidt, Fabiane; Paniz, José Neri Gottfried; de Moraes Flores, Érico Marlon; Dressler, Valderi Luiz

2005-06-01

219

Colour-variable birds have broader ranges, wider niches and are less likely to be threatened.  

PubMed

Coloration fulfils a variety of adaptive functions in animals. Colour variability, both between and within species, can be caused by different colours being favoured for different functions and in different environments. Thus, species with highly variable coloration may have greater potential to persist in new and changing environments. As a consequence, such colour-variable species may be more able to adapt, colonize new areas and niches, occupy larger ranges, speciate more readily and in general be less vulnerable to environmental change and extinction. These predictions have been supported by comparative analyses on amphibians and reptiles. However, as coloration in ectotherms plays a key role in thermoregulation, it is unclear whether these results can be generalized to endotherms, such as birds and mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that more colour-variable endotherms occupy larger ranges/niches and are less vulnerable to the threat of extinction by focussing on colour variation in Australian parrots and passerine birds. As predicted, colour variability was correlated with range size (parrots and passerines) and niche breadth (dietary heterogeneity, parrots only). These relationships support the predicted link between colour variability and adaptability, whereby range size and niche breadth may be a cause of colour variability or vice versa. Irrespective, and as predicted, colour variability was lower in threatened species, even after statistically controlling for other confounding variables. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that colour-variable species in general are more resilient to environmental change. PMID:23663162

Delhey, K; Smith, J; Peters, A

2013-07-01

220

Synthetic food colours in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic colours as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the total 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one colour. The most prevalent colours were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these colours, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food colours, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these colours in restaurants. PMID:25116149

Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila; Amirpour, Mansooreh; AkbariAzam, Maryam

2015-03-01

221

Correlation between some nutritional components and the total antioxidant capacity measured with six different assays in eight horticultural crops.  

PubMed

The contents of antioxidant nutritional compounds, total soluble phenolics (TSP), vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and total carotenoids (TC), were correlated with the total antioxidant capacity (AOC) of hydrophilic (HPE) and lipophilic extracts (LPE) from eight horticultural crops, namely, guava, avocado, black sapote, mango, papaya, prickly pear fruit, cladodes, and strawberry. AOC was measured using six different assays: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), ferric-ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC). AOC values from HPE were about 95 times higher than LPE values. HPE of guava had the highest AOC value when evaluated with DMPD, DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, and TOSC assays, whereas with ORAC assay, black sapote had the highest value. HPE of papaya and prickly pear fruit presented the lowest AOC values with all assays. From HPE, vitamin C and TSP contents were highly correlated with AOC for all assays, while from LPE, TC and beta-carotene contents possessed a high correlation with AOC only in the DMPD assay. PMID:18956873

Corral-Aguayo, Rene D; Yahia, Elhadi M; Carrillo-Lopez, Armando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo

2008-11-26

222

Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror and exquisite image quality have resulted in a brand-new, very sharp view despite a total exposure time of just 5 seconds. This new image is one of the best ever taken of this cluster from the ground. The Jewel Box may be visually colourful in images taken on Earth, but observing from space allows the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to capture light of shorter wavelengths than can not be seen by telescopes on the ground. This new Hubble image of the core of the cluster represents the first comprehensive far ultraviolet to near-infrared image of an open galactic cluster. It was created from images taken through seven filters, allowing viewers to see details never seen before. It was taken near the end of the long life of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 ? Hubble's workhorse camera up until the recent Servicing Mission, when it was removed and brought back to Earth. Several very bright, pale blue supergiant stars, a solitary ruby-red supergiant and a variety of other brilliantly coloured stars are visible in the Hubble image, as well as many much fainter ones. The intriguing colours of many of the stars result from their differing intensities at different ultraviolet wavelengths. The huge variety in brightness of the stars in the cluster exists because the brighter stars are 15 to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the dimmest stars in the Hubble image are less than half the mass of the Sun. More massive stars shine much more brilliantly. They also age faster and make the transition to giant stars much more quickly than their faint, less-massive siblings. The Jewel Box cluster is about 6400 light-years away and is approximately 16 million years old. Notes [1] Open, or galactic, star clusters are not to be confused with globular clusters ? huge balls of tens of thousands of ancient stars in orbit around our galaxy and others. It seems that most stars, including our Sun, formed in open clusters. [2] The Coal Sack is a dark nebula in the Southern Hemisphere, near the Southern Cross, that can be seen with the unaided eye. A dark nebula is not the compl

2009-10-01

223

Quantitative Monitoring for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Using Double-Difference Waveform Inversion with Spatially-Variant Total-Variation Regularization  

SciTech Connect

Double-difference waveform inversion is a promising tool for quantitative monitoring for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The method uses time-lapse seismic data to jointly inverts for reservoir changes. Due to the ill-posedness of waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain reservoir changes accurately and efficiently, particularly when using timelapse seismic reflection data. To improve reconstruction, we develop a spatially-variant total-variation regularization scheme into double-difference waveform inversion to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. The new regularization scheme employs different regularization parameters in different regions of the model to obtain an optimal regularization in each area. We compare the results obtained using a spatially-variant parameter with those obtained using a constant regularization parameter. Utilizing a spatially-variant regularization scheme, the target monitoring regions are well reconstructed and the image noise is significantly reduced outside the monitoring regions. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the spatially-variant total-variation regularization scheme provides the flexibility to regularize local regions based on the a priori spatial information without increasing computational costs and the computer memory requirement.

Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Zhigang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

224

Inheritance of seed colour in Brassica campestris L. and breeding for yellow-seeded B. napus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed colour inheritance was studied in five yellow-seeded and one black-seeded B. campestris accessions. Diallel crosses between the yellow-seeded types indicated that the four var. yellow sarson accessions of Indian origin had the same genotype for seed colour but were different from the Swedish yellow-seeded breeding line. Black seed colour was dominant over yellow. The segregation patterns for seed colour

B. Y. Chen; W. K. Heneen

1992-01-01

225

Phylogeography of colour polymorphism in the coral reef fish Pseudochromis fuscus , from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body colour has played a significant role in the evolution of coral reef fishes, but the phylogenetic level at which colour\\u000a variation is expressed and the evolutionary processes driving the development and persistence of different colour patterns\\u000a are often poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic relationships between multiple colour morphs\\u000a of Pseudochromis fuscus (family

Vanessa Messmer; Lynne van Herwerden; Philip L. Munday; Geoffrey P. Jones

2005-01-01

226

Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of Colour Phenomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning colour phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral composition of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as total or zero. Eight…

Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.

2012-01-01

227

The clinical measurement of tooth colour and stain.  

PubMed

There are many contributory factors to tooth colour and different techniques for its measurement. The aim of this paper is to evaluate methods of tooth colour and stain measurement, with an emphasis on recent advances in objective clinical measurement techniques. The overall colour effect of natural teeth is created by a combination of light which is reflected and scattered by tooth enamel and the underlying dentine. Developmental defects of the dentition can affect the intrinsic discolouration of teeth, for example, amelogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta. Extrinsic discolouration is predominantly caused by stain build up on a tooth surface from bacteria, foodstuffs or metalic compounds. Tooth colour and stain measurement are currently assessed using a wide range of measurement methods divided into subjective (visual shade matching) and objective instrumental assessment such as by colourimetry, spectrophotometry and digital image analysis. The most popular method of assessing tooth colour clinically is visual shade matching, as this approach is quick and simple to use. However, variation in results can occur as a consequence of the subjective nature of this method. The instrumental approaches including quantitative light-induced fluorescence remove or significantly reduce the subjective component. Image analysis appears to be the most suitable method for tooth colour measurement and further work is being carried out to establish this approach. PMID:17992918

Brook, A H; Smith, R N; Lath, D J

2007-10-01

228

Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.  

PubMed

Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25234604

Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

2014-11-01

229

Aqueous two-phase based on ionic liquid liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous determination of five synthetic food colourants in different food samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A rapid and effective method of aqueous two-phase systems based on ionic liquid microextraction for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic food colourants (tartrazine, sunset yellow, amaranth, ponceau 4R and brilliant blue) in food samples was established. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector of variable wavelength was used for the determinations. 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the extraction reagent. The extraction efficiency of the five colourants in the proposed system is influenced by the types of salts, concentrations of salt and [CnMIM]Br, as well as the extracting time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction efficiencies for these five colourants were above 95%. The phase behaviours of aqueous two-phase system and extraction mechanism were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. This method was applied to the analysis of the five colourants in real food samples with the detection limit of 0.051-0.074 ng/mL. Good spiked recoveries from 93.2% to 98.9% were obtained. PMID:25529695

Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

2015-05-01

230

Wildfire-ash: Relationships between colour, water repellency and organic carbon content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a forest fire, a layer of vegetative ash is often deposited over soil surface. The amount of ash deposited as well as its physical and chemical properties are highly variable. These parameters are influenced particularly by vegetation type and fire severity, resulting in a differing ash colour. This ash remains over the soil until it is redistributed by water or wind erosion or incorporated into the soil profile. Throughout that time, the ash layer can affect the runoff, infiltration and erosion rates. However, up to now, its effects on soil hydrology are still controversial. In some studies ash is reported to be highly hydrophilic, aiding infiltration, in others, ash is argued to reduce infiltration by clogging soil pores. No studies to date have focussed on the potential water repellency of ash. The aim of this work was to assess the water repellency of different ash types and their possible relationship with the total organic carbon and colour. Ash samples were collected from 5 different wildfires in the Mediterranean region (n=48). These samples were taken almost immediately after the fire and before any rain (except for one site). Water repellency (WDPT test), total organic carbon (TOC) and colour (Munsell colour chart) were measured in laboratory in all ash samples. The results obtained show that 33% of the ash samples exhibited water repellent properties (WDPT > 5 s), with half of those having WDPTs > 300 s. Carbon content varied from 8 to 37%. There was no strong relationship between water repellency and TOC although all samples with more than 20% of TOC were water repellent. Colour was found not to be a good indicator of either the carbon content or the water repellency; however, there is a general tendency for darker ash to be more water repellent and to containing more organic carbon. These findings demonstrate that the previous held notion of ash being hydrophilic is not always correct. For certain vegetation types and combustion scenarios, particularly black ash may contribute to fire-induced or enhanced soil water repellency at the surface and perhaps also when incorporated into the soil.

Bodí, M. B.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.; Cerdà, A.

2009-04-01

231

The Colours of HII Galaxies  

E-print Network

We present high spatial resolution CCD surface photometry study in the optical V, R and I filters of 15 HII galaxies from the Nordic Optical Telescope and the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope at Canary Islands. The colours of the starburst continuum and of the underlying galaxy are measured. The distribution of colours of the underlying galaxy in HII galaxies is similar to the colours of other late type low surface brightness galaxies which suggests a close kinship of these with the quiescent phases of HII galaxies. However, comparison with recent evolutionary population synthesis models show that the observational errors and the uncertainties in the models are still too large to put strict constraints on their past star formation history.

Eduardo Telles; Roberto Terlevich

1995-11-21

232

Ecological genomics in full colour.  

PubMed

Colour patterns in animals have long offered an opportunity to observe adaptive traits in natural populations. Colour plays myriad roles in interactions within and among species, from reproductive signalling to predator avoidance, leading to multiple targets of natural and sexual selection and opportunities for diversification. Understanding the genetic and developmental underpinnings of variation in colour promises a fuller understanding of these evolutionary processes, but the path to unravelling these connections can be arduous. The advent of genomic techniques suitable for nonmodel organisms is now beginning to light the way. Two new studies in this issue of Molecular Ecology use genomic sequencing of laboratory crosses to map colour traits in cichlid fishes, a remarkably diverse group in which coloration has played a major role in diversification. They illustrate how genomic approaches, specifically RAD sequencing, can rapidly identify both simple and more complex genetic variation underlying ecologically important traits. In the first, Henning et al. () detect a single locus that appears to control in a Mendelian fashion the presence of horizontal stripes, a trait that has evolved in numerous cichlid lineages. In the second, Albertson et al. () identify several genes and epistatic interactions affecting multiple colour traits, as well as a novel metric describing integration across colour traits. Albertson et al. () go further, by quantifying differential expression of parental alleles at a candidate locus and by relating differentiation among natural populations at mapped loci to trait divergence. Herein lies the promise of ecological genomics - efficiently integrating genetic mapping of phenotypes with population genomic data to both identify functional genes and unravel their evolutionary history. These studies offer guidance on how genomic techniques can be tailored to a research question or study system, and they also add to the growing body of empirical examples addressing basic questions about how ecologically important traits evolve in natural populations. PMID:25330852

Hohenlohe, Paul A

2014-11-01

233

Colour variability of asteroids in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a detection of statistically significant colour variations for a sample of 7531 multiply observed asteroids that are listed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog. Using five-band photometric observations accurate to ~0.02 mag, we detect colour variations in the range 0.06-0.11 mag (rms). These variations appear to be uncorrelated with the physical characteristics of the asteroids, such as diameter (in the probed 1-10 km range), taxonomic class and family membership. Despite this lack of correlation, which implies a random nature for the cause of colour variability, a suite of tests suggest that the detected variations are not instrumental effects. In particular, the observed colour variations are incompatible with photometric errors, and, for objects observed at least four times, the colour change in the first pair of observations is correlated with the colour change in the second pair. These facts strongly suggest that the observed effect is real, and also indicate that colour variations are larger for some asteroids than for others. The detected colour variations can be explained as being due to inhomogeneous albedo distribution over an asteroid's surface. Although relatively small, these variations suggest that fairly large patches with different colour than their surroundings exist on a significant fraction of asteroids. This conclusion is in agreement with spatially resolved colour images of several large asteroids obtained by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

Szabó, Gy. M.; Ivezi?, Ž.; Juri?, M.; Lupton, R.; Kiss, L. L.

2004-03-01

234

Evaluation of Fenton method and ozone-based processes for colour and organic matter removal from biologically pre-treated swine manure.  

PubMed

This work evaluates the efficiency of different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton method, O3, H2O2 and O3/H2O2) for removing total COD (TCOD) and colour from biologically pre-treated swine manure. The Fenton process with a dosage of 100 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 800 mg L(-1) of H2O2 resulted in about 78% TCOD and 96% colour reductions at an initial pH=3 after a reaction time of 30 min. Coagulation, rather than oxidation process, was identified as a crucial mechanism for removing pollutants. Otherwise, single ozonation achieved only 27-30% TCOD and 53-88% colour removals for ozone dosages ranging between 0.7 and 4.3 g O3 h(-1) at the original wastewater pH (pH=8.1) after 30 min reaction time. The combined treatment with O3/H2O2 at pH=8.1 did not produce any significant TCOD or colour reduction improvement. Therefore, direct reactions with ozone rather than radical reactions were elucidated as the main removal mechanisms in the ozone-based processes. Finally, a rough estimation of the operational costs involved in each process was also performed to compare their economic feasibility. The findings suggested that the Fenton process was more suitable than ozonation for reducing TCOD and colour from the biologically pre-treated swine manure. PMID:25058844

Riaño, Berta; Coca, Mónica; García-González, Mari Cruz

2014-12-01

235

Differences in proteolytic activity and gene profiles of fungal strains isolated from the total parenteral nutrition patients.  

PubMed

Fungal infections constitute a serious clinical problem in the group of patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. The majority of species isolated from infections of the total parenteral nutrition patients belong to Candida genus. The most important factors of Candida spp. virulence are the phenomenon of "phenotypic switching," adhesins, dimorphism of fungal cells and the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinases and lipases, including aspartyl proteinases. We determined the proteolytic activity of yeast-like fungal strains cultured from the clinical materials of patients receiving total parenteral nutrition and detected genes encoding aspartyl proteinases in predominant species Candida glabrata--YPS2, YPS4, and YPS6, and Candida albicans--SAP1-3, SAP4, SAP5, and SAP6. C. albicans released proteinases on the various activity levels. All C. glabrata strains obtained from the clinical materials of examined and control groups exhibited secretion of the proteinases. All 13 isolates of C. albicans possessed genes SAP1-3. Gene SAP4 was detected in genome of 11 C. albicans strains, SAP5 in 6, and SAP6 in 11. Twenty-six among 31 of C. glabrata isolates contained YPS2 gene, 21 the YPS4 gene, and 28 the YPS6 gene. We observed that clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata differed in SAPs and YPSs gene profiles, respectively, and displayed differentiated proteolytic activity. We suppose that different sets of aspartyl proteinases genes as well as various proteinase-activity levels would have the influence on strains virulence. PMID:21455781

Sikora, M; Dabkowska, M; Swoboda-Kopec, E; Jarzynka, S; Netsvyetayeva, I; Jaworska-Zaremba, M; Pertkiewicz, M; Mlynarczyk, G

2011-03-01

236

Colour Spaces for Colour Transfer Erik Reinhard and Tania Pouli  

E-print Network

, Correlation 1 Introduction Colour is one of the main image attributes used in art, photography and visuali of that reference. In essence this operation can be seen as a function that, given two images, produces a third to decorrelate its input. Wh

Reinhard, Erik

237

Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves.  

PubMed

The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years) are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November). In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years) and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of G. biloba leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of G. biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars. PMID:22949862

Yao, Xin; Shang, Erxin; Zhou, Guisheng; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shulan; Jin, Chun; Qian, Dawei; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-Ao

2012-01-01

238

Power-Colours: Simple X-ray Binary Variability Comparison  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a new method of variability classification using observations of black hole X-ray binaries. Using `power colours' -- ratios of integrated power in different Fourier frequency bands -- we can clearly differentiate different canonical black hole states as the objects evolve during outburst. We analyse (~ 2400) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of 12 transient low mass black hole X-ray binaries and find that the path taken around the power colour-colour diagram as the sources evolve is highly consistent from object to object. We discuss how the consistency observed in the power colour-colour diagram between different objects allows for easy state classification based on only a few observations, and show how the power-spectral shapes can be simply classified using a single parameter, the power-spectral `hue'. To illustrate the benefits of our simple model-independent approach, we show that the persistent high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-1 shows very similar power-spectral evolution to the transi...

Heil, L M; Klein-Wolt, M

2014-01-01

239

Texture Variations Suppress Suprathreshold Brightness and Colour Variations  

PubMed Central

Discriminating material changes from illumination changes is a key function of early vision. Luminance cues are ambiguous in this regard, but can be disambiguated by co-incident changes in colour and texture. Thus, colour and texture are likely to be given greater prominence than luminance for object segmentation, and better segmentation should in turn produce stronger grouping. We sought to measure the relative strengths of combined luminance, colour and texture contrast using a suprathreshhold, psychophysical grouping task. Stimuli comprised diagonal grids of circular patches bordered by a thin black line and contained combinations of luminance decrements with either violet, red, or texture increments. There were two tasks. In the Separate task the different cues were presented separately in a two-interval design, and participants indicated which interval contained the stronger orientation structure. In the Combined task the cues were combined to produce competing orientation structure in a single image. Participants had to indicate which orientation, and therefore which cue was dominant. Thus we established the relative grouping strength of each cue pair presented separately, and compared this to their relative grouping strength when combined. In this way we observed suprathreshold interactions between cues and were able to assess cue dominance at ecologically relevant signal levels. Participants required significantly more luminance and colour compared to texture contrast in the Combined compared to Separate conditions (contrast ratios differed by about 0.1 log units), showing that suprathreshold texture dominates colour and luminance when the different cues are presented in combination. PMID:25502555

Schofield, Andrew J.; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

2014-01-01

240

Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse association between consumption of fruits and vegetables and morbidity and mortality from degenerative diseases. The antioxidant content of fruits and vegetables may contribute to the protection they offer from disease. Because plant foods contain many different classes and types of antioxidants, knowledge of their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which is the cumulative capacity of food components to scavenge free radicals, would be useful for epidemiologic purposes. To accomplish this, a variety of foods commonly consumed in Italy, including 34 vegetables, 30 fruits, 34 beverages and 6 vegetable oils, were analyzed using three different assays, i.e., Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP). These assays, based on different chemical mechanisms, were selected to take into account the wide variety and range of action of antioxidant compounds present in actual foods. Among vegetables, spinach had the highest antioxidant capacity in the TEAC and FRAP assays followed by peppers, whereas asparagus had the greatest antioxidant capacity in the TRAP assay. Among fruits, the highest antioxidant activities were found in berries (i.e., blackberry, redcurrant and raspberry) regardless of the assay used. Among beverages, coffee had the greatest TAC, regardless of the method of preparation or analysis, followed by citrus juices, which exhibited the highest value among soft beverages. Finally, of the oils, soybean oil had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by extra virgin olive oil, whereas peanut oil was less effective. Such data, coupled with an appropriate questionnaire to estimate antioxidant intake, will allow the investigation of the relation between dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress-induced diseases. PMID:12949370

Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Serafini, Mauro; Colombi, Barbara; Del Rio, Daniele; Salvatore, Sara; Bianchi, Marta; Brighenti, Furio

2003-09-01

241

Sources of Differences in On-Orbit Total Solar Irradiance Measurements and Description of Proposed Laboratory Intercomparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a 5 W/sq m (about 0.35 %) difference between current on-orbit Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) measurements. On 18-20 July 2005, a workshop was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland that focused on understanding possible reasons for this difference, through an examination of the instrument designs, calibration approaches, and appropriate measurement equations. The instruments studied in that workshop included the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor III (ACRIM III) on the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor SATellite (ACRIMSAT), the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), the Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS). Presentations for each instrument included descriptions of its design, its measurement equation and uncertainty budget, and the methods used to assess on-orbit degradation. The workshop also included a session on satellite- and ground-based instrument comparisons and a session on laboratory-based comparisons and the application of new laboratory comparison techniques. The workshop has led to investigations of the effects of diffraction and of aperture area measurements on the differences between instruments. In addition, a laboratory-based instrument comparison is proposed that uses optical power measurements (with lasers that underEll the apertures of the TSI instruments), irradiance measurements (with lasers that overfill the apertures of the TSI instrument), and a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer as a standard for comparing the instruments. A summary of the workshop and an overview of the proposed research efforts are presented here.

Butler, J.J.; Johnson, B. C.; Rice, J. P.; Shirley, E. L.; Barnes, R.A.

2008-01-01

242

Cross-modal associations in synaesthesia: Vowel colours in the ear of the beholder  

PubMed Central

Human speech conveys many forms of information, but for some exceptional individuals (synaesthetes), listening to speech sounds can automatically induce visual percepts such as colours. In this experiment, grapheme–colour synaesthetes and controls were asked to assign colours, or shades of grey, to different vowel sounds. We then investigated whether the acoustic content of these vowel sounds influenced participants' colour and grey-shade choices. We found that both colour and grey-shade associations varied systematically with vowel changes. The colour effect was significant for both participant groups, but significantly stronger and more consistent for synaesthetes. Because not all vowel sounds that we used are “translatable” into graphemes, we conclude that acoustic–phonetic influences co-exist with established graphemic influences in the cross-modal correspondences of both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes. PMID:25469218

Moos, Anja; Smith, Rachel; Miller, Sam R.; Simmons, David R.

2014-01-01

243

The Colour of Butterflies' Wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN making some experiments a short time ago, I came across a fact of which I was hitherto ignorant. I wished to test the effect of acid on the colours of the wings of a butterfly or moth, and with this view applied muriatic acid to a dried and set specimen of the Six-spotted Burnet [Zygæna filipendulæ). The red parts

F. E. v

1870-01-01

244

Stability and Degradation Kinetics of Bioactive Compounds and Colour in Strawberry Jam during Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of storage time and temperature on degradation of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, total\\u000a phenols, colour and total antioxidant capacity of strawberry jam were investigated. The results indicated that lightness (L) value decreased significantly (p?colour degradation

Ankit Patras; Nigel P. Brunton; B. K. Tiwari; Francis Butler

245

Addition table of colours: additive and subtractive mixtures described using a single reasoning model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students’ misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts—due to the different domains of knowledge involved—make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single conceptual model and presents colour as a perceptual response to light. The ATC was used as the focus of an introduction to colour phenomena in a middle class setting, showing significant educational gains among the students.

Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

2014-01-01

246

The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses colour vision in mate choice  

PubMed Central

Although the role of colour in mate choice is well known, few tests of colour vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use colour vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws differing in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of colour vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366

Detto, Tanya

2007-01-01

247

Colouration in crab spiders: substrate choice and prey attraction.  

PubMed

Australian crab spiders Thomisus spectabilis ambush pollinating insects, such as honeybees (Apis mellifera) on flowers, and can change their body colour between yellow and white. It is traditionally assumed that the spiders change their colour to match the flower colour, thus rendering them cryptic to insect prey. Here, we test this assumption combining state-of-the-art knowledge of bee vision and behavioural experiments. In the field, yellow spiders are only found on yellow daisies (Chrysanthemum frutescens), whereas white spiders are found on yellow and white daisies. These field patterns were confirmed in the laboratory. When given the choice between white and yellow daisies, yellow spiders preferred yellow daisies, whereas white spiders showed only a slight but non-significant preference for white flowers. Thus, T. spectabilis select background colours according to their own body colour. When viewed from a distance, bees use an achromatic signal produced by their green receptors for target detection. Through this visual channel, white spiders on white flowers, and yellow spiders on yellow flowers are virtually undetectable. From a closer distance of a few centimetres, when bees evaluate colour contrast, the combination of spider colour against different flower backgrounds affected the response of honeybees, but not in ways predicted by a classical crypsis/conspicuousness interpretation. Yellow spiders on yellow flowers are not perfectly matched when interpreted through the colour vision of a honeybee. Nevertheless, honeybees showed indifference to the presence of a spider, equally landing on vacant or spider-occupied flowers. Likewise, white spiders are poorly hidden on white flowers, as white spiders reflect ultraviolet light strongly, while white flowers do not. Surprisingly, bees are attracted to this contrast, and significantly more honeybees preferred white flowers occupied by white spiders. White spiders on yellow flowers produce the highest colour contrast and bees again preferred spider-occupied flowers. Yellow spiders on white flowers were the only pairing where bees rejected spider-occupied flowers, especially in cases where the contrast between the two was relatively strong. Thus, T. spectabilis select flower colours adaptively in a way that deceives honeybees, or at least does not deter them. PMID:15879060

Heiling, Astrid M; Chittka, Lars; Cheng, Ken; Herberstein, Marie E

2005-05-01

248

Prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection and its role in total immunoglobulin pattern in Iranian patients with different subtypes of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease characterized by multifocal areas of inflammatory demyelination within the central nervous system. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has a complex pathobiology and in most cases is simply asymptomatic. There is some recent controversy over the role of CMV in the pathology of MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate active CMV infection and its effect on the humoral immunity in patients with MS. Serum, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), saliva and urine collected from MS patients (n=78) and healthy subjects (n=123) were screened for the presence of anti-CMV antibodies and CMV-DNA by nephelometric and PCR methods. Concentrations of total antibodies in MS subtypes were measured using both nephelometric and enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) techniques. The results extend the observation of an increased frequency of CMV-DNA in patients, in contrast with controls (p<0.001). Furthermore, systemic CMV infections were found in 25.5% of patients and only 3.2% of controls (p<0.001). There was significant difference in the titers of anti-CMV IgG and total IgE in patient and controls (P<0.001). These results support the hypothesis that CMV may contribute to MS thought to establish systemic infection process and induce immune response. PMID:21811746

Sanadgol, Nima; Ramroodi, Nourollah; Ahmadi, Ghasem Ali; Komijani, Majid; Moghtaderi, Ali; Bouzari, Majid; Rezaei, Marzieh; Kardi, Mohammad Taghi; Dabiri, Soroush; Moradi, Malek; Sanadgol, Ehsan

2011-07-01

249

Search for colour singlet and colour reconnection effects in hadronic Z decays at LEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z-decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production or of colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

Achard, P.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S. V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillère, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Böhm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J. G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J. A.; de Asmundis, R.; Déglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degré, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M. A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z. F.; Grenier, G.; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberr?´a, I.; Käfer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, J. K.; Kirkby, J.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kräber, M.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krüger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y. S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R. R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muanza, G. S.; Muijs, A. J. M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Nowak, H.; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M. A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, K.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, S.; Rosenbleck, C.; Rubio, J. A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X. W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, C.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K. L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R. T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S. C.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, J.

2004-02-01

250

Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

P Achard; O Adriani; M Aguilar-Benítez; J Alcaraz; G Alemanni; James V Allaby; A Aloisio; M G Alviggi; H Anderhub; V P Andreev; F Anselmo; A Arefev; T Azemoon; T Aziz; P Bagnaia; A Bajo; G Baksay; L Baksay; S V Baldew; S Banerjee; A Barczyk; R Barillère; P Bartalini; M Basile; N Batalova; R Battiston; A Bay; F Becattini; U Becker; F Behner; L Bellucci; R Berbeco; J Berdugo; P Berges; B Bertucci; B L Betev; M Biasini; M Biglietti; A Biland; J J Blaising; S C Blyth; Gerjan J Bobbink; A Böhm; L Boldizsar; B Borgia; S Bottai; D Bourilkov; Maurice Bourquin; S Braccini; J G Branson; F Brochu; J D Burger; W J Burger; X D Cai; M Capell; G Cara Romeo; G Carlino; A M Cartacci; J Casaus; F Cavallari; N Cavallo; C Cecchi; M Cerrada; M Chamizo-Llatas; Y H Chang; M Chemarin; A Chen; G Chen; H F Chen; H S Chen; G Chiefari; Luisa Cifarelli; F Cindolo; I Clare; R Clare; G Coignet; N Colino; S Costantini; B de la Cruz; S Cucciarelli; J A van Dalen; R De Asmundis; P L Déglon; J Debreczeni; A Degré; K Dehmelt; K Deiters; D Della Volpe; E Delmeire; P Denes; F De Notaristefani; A De Salvo; M Diemoz; M Dierckxsens; C Dionisi; M Dittmar; A Doria; M T Dova; D Duchesneau; M Duda; B Echenard; A Eline; A El-Hage; H El-Mamouni; A Engler; F J Eppling; P Extermann; M A Falagán; S Falciano; A Favara; J Fay; O Fedin; M Felcini; T Ferguson; H S Fesefeldt; E Fiandrini; J H Field; F Filthaut; P H Fisher; W Fisher; I Fisk; G Forconi; Klaus Freudenreich; C Furetta; Yu Galaktionov; S N Ganguli; P García-Abia; M Gataullin; S Gentile; S Giagu; Z F Gong; G Grenier; O Grimm; M W Grünewald; M Guida; R van Gulik; V K Gupta; A Gurtu; L J Gutay; D Haas; D Hatzifotiadou; T Hebbeker; A Hervé; J Hirschfelder; H Hofer; M Hohlmann; G Holzner; S R Hou; Y Hu; B N Jin; L W Jones; P de Jong; I Josa-Mutuberria; D Käfer; M Kaur; M N Kienzle-Focacci; J K Kim; Jasper Kirkby; E W Kittel; A Klimentov; A C König; M Kopal; V F Koutsenko; M H Kräber; R W Krämer; A Krüger; A Kunin; P Ladrón de Guevara; I Laktineh; G Landi; M Lebeau; A Lebedev; P Lebrun; P Lecomte; P Lecoq; P Le Coultre; J M Le Goff; R Leiste; M Levtchenko; P M Levchenko; C Li; S Likhoded; C H Lin; W T Lin; Frank L Linde; L Lista; Z A Liu; W Lohmann; E Longo; Y S Lü; C Luci; L Luminari; W Lustermann; Ma Wen Gan; L Malgeri; A Malinin; C Maña; J Mans; J P Martin; F Marzano; K Mazumdar; R R McNeil; S Mele; L Merola; M Meschini; W J Metzger; A Mihul; H Milcent; G Mirabelli; J Mnich; G B Mohanty; G S Muanza; A J M Muijs; B Musicar; M Musy; S Nagy; S Natale; M Napolitano; F Nessi-Tedaldi; H Newman; A Nisati; T Novák; H Nowak; R A Ofierzynski; G Organtini; I Pal; C Palomares; P Paolucci; R Paramatti; G Passaleva; S Patricelli; T Paul; M Pauluzzi; C Paus; Felicitas Pauss; M Pedace; S Pensotti; D Perret-Gallix; B Petersen; D Piccolo; F Pierella; M Pioppi; P A Piroué; E Pistolesi; V Plyaskin; M Pohl; V Pozhidaev; J Pothier; D Prokofev; D O Prokofiev; J Quartieri; G Rahal-Callot; M A Rahaman; P Raics; N Raja; R Ramelli; P G Rancoita; R Ranieri; A V Raspereza; P A Razis; D Ren; M Rescigno; S Reucroft; S Riemann; K Riles; B P Roe; L Romero; A Rosca; S Rosier-Lees; S Roth; C Rosenbleck; J A Rubio; G Ruggiero; H Rykaczewski; A Sakharov; S Saremi; S Sarkar; J Salicio; E Sánchez; C Schäfer; V Shchegelskii; Herwig Franz Schopper; D J Schotanus; C Sciacca; L Servoli; S Shevchenko; N Shivarov; V Shoutko; E Shumilov; A V Shvorob; D Son; C Souga; P Spillantini; M Steuer; D P Stickland; B Stoyanov; A Strässner; K Sudhakar; G G Sultanov; L Z Sun; S Sushkov; H Suter; J D Swain; Z Szillási; X W Tang; P Tarjan; Ludwig Tauscher; L Taylor; B Tellili; D Teyssier; C Timmermans; Samuel C C Ting; S M Ting; S C Tonwar; J Tóth; C Tully; K L Tung; J Ulbricht; E Valente; R T Van de Walle; R Vásquez; V Veszpremi; G Vesztergombi; I Vetlitskii; D Vicinanza; Gert M Viertel; S Villa; M Vivargent; S Vlachos; I Vodopyanov; H Vogel; H Vogt; I Vorobev; A A Vorobyov; M Wadhwa; Q Wang; X L Wang; Z M Wang; M Weber; P Wienemann; H Wilkens; S Wynhoff; L Xia; Z Z Xu; J Yamamoto; B Z Yang; C G Yang; H J Yang; M Yang; S C Yeh; A Zalite; Yu Zalite; Z P Zhang; J Zhao; G Y Zhu; R Y Zhu; H L Zhuang; A Zichichi; B Zimmermann; M Zöller

2003-01-01

251

Cost effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: comparison of devices with differing bearing surfaces and modes of fixation.  

PubMed

Many different designs of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with varying performance and cost are available. The identification of those which are the most cost-effective could allow significant cost-savings. We used an established Markov model to examine the cost effectiveness of five frequently used categories of THA which differed according to bearing surface and mode of fixation, using data from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales. Kaplan-Meier analyses of rates of revision for men and women were modelled with parametric distributions. Costs of devices were provided by the NHS Supply Chain and associated costs were taken from existing studies. Lifetime costs, lifetime quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) and the probability of a device being cost effective at a willingness to pay £20 000/QALY were included in the models. The differences in QALYs between different categories of implant were extremely small (< 0.0039 QALYs for men or women over the patient's lifetime) and differences in cost were also marginal (£2500 to £3000 in the same time period). As a result, the probability of any particular device being the most cost effective was very sensitive to small, plausible changes in quality of life estimates and cost. Our results suggest that available evidence does not support recommending a particular device on cost effectiveness grounds alone. We would recommend that the choice of prosthesis should be determined by the rate of revision, local costs and the preferences of the surgeon and patient. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:449-57. PMID:25820881

Pulikottil-Jacob, R; Connock, M; Kandala, N-B; Mistry, H; Grove, A; Freeman, K; Costa, M; Sutcliffe, P; Clarke, A

2015-04-01

252

Effect of cooking on the antioxidant properties of coloured peppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) has long been recognized as an excellent source of antioxidants, being rich in ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the antioxidant properties of coloured peppers. Six varieties of peppers were subjected to different cooking methods, such as microwave heating, stir-frying and boiling in water,

Ai Mey Chuah; Ya-Chi Lee; Tomoko Yamaguchi; Hitoshi Takamura; Li-Jun Yin; Teruyoshi Matoba

2008-01-01

253

Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

2010-01-01

254

Ultraviolet Colour Vision and Ornamentation in Bluethroats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many birds see in the ultraviolet (300-400 nm), but there is limited evidence for colour communication (signalling by spectral shape independently of brightness) in this 'hidden' waveband. Such data are critical for the understanding of extravagant plumage colours, some of which show considerable UV reflectance. We investigated UV colour vision in female social responses to the male UV\\/violet ornament in

Staffan Andersson; Trond Amundsen

1997-01-01

255

Colour space models for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil colour is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil colour are commonly made using the Munsell soil colour charts. A number

R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney

2006-01-01

256

Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision  

E-print Network

Chapter 13 Polymorphism and Adaptation of Primate Colour Vision Amanda D. Melin, Chihiro Hiramatsu levels. Primates have evolved a unique ability for trichromatic colour vision from a dichromatic in extensive colour vision variability in New World monkeys, where trichromats and dichromats are found

Fedigan, Linda M.

257

Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques.  

PubMed

Elimination of bacteria by ozonation in combination with charcoal or slow sand filtration for advanced sewage treatment to improve the quality of treated sewage and to reduce the potential risk for human health of receiving surface waters was investigated in pilot scale at the sewage treatment plant Eriskirch, Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany. To determine the elimination of sewage bacteria, inflowing and leaving wastewater of different treatment processes was analysed in a culture-based approach for its content of Escherichia coli, enterococci and staphylococci and their resistance against selected antibiotics over a period of 17 month. For enterococci, single species and their antibiotic resistances were identified. In comparison to the established flocculation filtration at Eriskirch, ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration (pilot-scale) reduced the concentrations of total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci. However, antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci apparently survived ozone treatment better than antibiotic sensitive strains. Neither vancomycin resistant enterococci nor methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were detected. The decreased percentage of antibiotic resistant enterococci after ozonation may be explained by a different ozone sensitivity of species: Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which determined the resistance-level, seemed to be more sensitive for ozone than other Enterococcus-species. Overall, ozonation followed by charcoal or sand filtration led to 0.8-1.1 log-units less total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci, as compared to the respective concentrations in treated sewage by only flocculation filtration. Thus, advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration after common sewage treatment is an effective tool for further elimination of microorganisms from sewage before discharge in surface waters. PMID:25497174

Lüddeke, Frauke; Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert

2015-02-01

258

Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women  

PubMed Central

Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638

2012-01-01

259

Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.

Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

2010-05-01

260

Uncertainty analysis of total phosphorus spatial-temporal variations in the Yangtze River Estuary using different interpolation methods.  

PubMed

Interpolation processes and results are generally accompanied by uncertainty which affects the spatial and temporal properties of pollutants. Based on the 4 period sample data of total phosphorus (TP) collected from the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in 2010 and 2011, the uncertainty of spatial-temporal variation was analyzed with interpolation methods of inverse distance weighted (IDW), local polynomial interpolation (LPI), ordinary kriging (OK) and disjunctive kriging (DK). The root mean square errors (RMSE) and the mean relative errors (MRE) were used to analyze the accuracy of different interpolation methods. The results showed that the uncertainty of DK was the lowest and the uncertainty of LPI was the highest among the 4 methods. The subtraction results between different interpolation methods showed that there was some distinct area of value in the disparate interval (not in [-0.05, 0.05] (mg/L)) in the 4 seasonal results, which was mainly distributed in the boundary region and around some sample sites. Both standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variance (CV) in August 2010 were the highest in the 4 seasons and annual mean. The uncertainty may be caused by choice of interpolation methods, spatial data discrepancy and the lack of sample data. PMID:25113104

Liu, Ruimin; Chen, Yaxin; Sun, Chengchun; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

2014-09-15

261

The impact of different types of physical activity on total and regional bone mineral density in young Brazilian athletes.  

PubMed

Bone turnover is affected by exercise throughout the lifespan, especially during childhood and adolescence. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of different sports on total and regional bone mineral density in male Brazilian adolescent athletes. Forty-six adolescents aged 10-18 years participated in the study: 12 swimmers, 10 tennis players, 10 soccer players, and 14 sedentary individuals. The athletes had engaged in physical activities for more than 10 h per week in the previous 6 months. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), left proximal femur region, and whole body was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results showed higher mean values in the proximal femur region of tennis and soccer players (1.02 ± 0.18; 0.96 ± 0.16, respectively) than swimmers and controls (0.91 ± 0.14 and 0.87 ± 0.06, respectively) (P < 0.05). In relation to the impact of sporting activities based on bone age determination, we observed significant differences in bone mineral density at all evaluated sites at the end of puberty (16-18 years) compared with 10-12 years, with increases of 78% in the lumbar spine, 47% in the proximal femur, and 38% in the whole body. PMID:21170799

Silva, Carla C; Goldberg, Tamara B L; Teixeira, Altamir S; Dalmas, José C

2011-02-01

262

Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.  

PubMed

Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

2003-08-01

263

Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

2014-01-01

264

Training Grapheme-Colour Associations Produces a Synaesthetic Stroop Effect, but Not a Conditioned Synaesthetic Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to investigate whether behavioural and physiological consequences of synaesthesia can be elicited by training specific letter-colour associations. Towards this goal 20 non-synaesthetic individuals were trained for 10 min on 7 consecutive days to associate four different letters with four specific colours. After training,…

Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

2009-01-01

265

Predicted HST FOC and broad band colours for young and intermediate Simple Stellar Populations  

E-print Network

This paper presents theoretical HST and broad band colours from population synthesis models based on an homogeneous set of stellar evolutionary tracks as computed under canonical (no overshooting) assumptions, covering the range of cluster ages from t=8 Myr to t=5 Gyr for three different metallicities (Z=0.02, 0.006, and 0.001). Statistical fluctuations in the cluster population have been investigated, assessing the predicted fluctuations of the various colours as a function of the cluster integrated absolute magnitude. We show that the red leak in HST UV filters deeply affects the predicted fluxes and colours. However, we find that for F152M-F307M < 0.5 and for F170M-F278M < 0.5 (which means ages lower than 1 Gyr) the HST UV colours can still be used to infer reliable indications on the age of distant clusters. Moreover, one finds that the age calibration of these colours is scarcely affected by the amount of original helium or by the assumed IMF. On this basis, we present a calibration of the HST UV two-colours (F152M-F307M vs F170M-F278M) in terms of cluster ages for the three above quoted metallicities. We suggest the combined use of HST UV colours and IR colours (V-K in particular) to disentangle the metallicity-age effect in integrated colours of young stellar populations (t< 1 Gyr).

E. Brocato; V. Castellani; G. Raimondo; M. Romaniello

1998-12-18

266

Colours of isolated galaxies from 2MIG  

E-print Network

The properties of isolated galaxies are mainly driven by intrinsic evolution and not by the external influence of their environments. Therefore the isolated galaxy sample may be considered as a reference sample to study different environmental effects. We made detailed comparisons between the near-infrared (2MASS) and optical (SDSS) colours of the 2MASS XSC selected sample of isolated 2MIG galaxies and with other objects from the wide range of denser environments (field, groups/clusters, triplets and pairs). We found that early type galaxies show similar (J-H)rest and (g-r)rest colours practically in all types of environments. Exception is for the massive early type galaxies located in compact pairs with high velocity difference (dV~180 km/s), which are significantly redder and brighter than isolated galaxies. We assume that these pairs are located in the centres of more populated groups and clusters. In general, galaxies in groups and pairs of spiral and late morphological types have redder near-infrared col...

Melnyk, O; Karachentseva, V

2013-01-01

267

Composition of pigments and colour changes in green table olives related to processing type.  

PubMed

Brownish colourations in Natural green table olives (non-treated with alkali) make this product less attractive to consumers than Spanish-style green table olives (treated with alkali), which develop a more appreciated bright golden-yellow colour. These colour differences were studied in relation to changes in the composition of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, as well as polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO) activity. Natural green olives showed a different chlorophyll profile than Spanish-style. However, all the chlorophyll pigments formed in both processing types were Mg-free derivatives (mostly pheophytins) with similar colourations, ranging from grey to green brownish. In the carotenoid fraction no appreciable differences were found between both processing types. The fruit's brownish colour was mainly due to polymeric substances with a size of >1000 daltons and polyphenolic nature, resulting from an enzymatic oxidation by PPO of the o-diphenolic compounds present in the fresh fruits. PMID:25053036

Ramírez, Eva; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes

2015-01-01

268

Colour dependence of zodiacal light models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

1973-01-01

269

Colour Stability of Heat and Cold Cure Acrylic Resins  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Materials and Methods: Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. Results: The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. Conclusion: ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes. PMID:25738078

Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A.V. Rajesh; Sivakumar, G

2015-01-01

270

Implant based differences in adverse local tissue reaction in failed total hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical differences may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and differences in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common total hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N?=?54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N?=?14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p?differences in implant performance. Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p?=?0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p?=?0.066). Qualitative differences in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T-cell relative to B-cell markers in the DMN relative to the MoM group (p?=?0.032). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both implant classes display common features of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis with a CD4 and GATA-3 rich inflammatory infiltrate. Qualitative differences in corrosion product appearance, macrophage morphology, and lymphocyte distributions were seen between the two implant types. Our data suggests that ALTR represents a histological spectrum with implant-based features. PMID:25242891

2014-01-01

271

Individual quality explains association between plumage colouration, arrival dates and mate acquisition in yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia)  

PubMed Central

Background In many bird species colour traits influence social dominance and breeding success. In our study we first evaluated whether the colour of the basic plumage (tail feathers grown at the end of the breeding season), that provides an index of individual quality, influenced winter habitat use by yellow warblers. We then evaluated whether winter habitat use (inferred using ?13C and ?15N signatures of winter grown greater-coverts) influenced alternate plumage colouration, after controlling for individual quality using basic plumage colouration. Finally, we investigated whether basic and alternate plumage colouration influenced arrival dates, mate acquisition, breeding phenology and reproductive success of yellow warblers breeding in southern (Revelstoke, B.C.) and arctic (Inuvik, N.W.T.) Canada. Results The colour (chroma and hue) of tail feathers, grown on the breeding grounds, was not related to subsequent winter habitat use. Greater covert and tail feather colour (chroma and hue) were correlated, suggesting genetics and/or individual quality played a role in pigment deposition. After controlling for individual difference in tail colour, ?13C values did not explain any variation in greater covert colour, but birds with high ?15N signatures had greater coverts with higher chroma. Male arrival dates varied with tail chroma in Revelstoke and tail hue in Inuvik. Males that arrived early paired with older and/or more colourful mates that initiated clutches earlier, and at one site (Revelstoke) were more likely to fledge young. In addition, in Revelstoke (but not Inuvik) males with high tail hue also acquired more colourful mates. In contrast, after controlling for individual differences in tail colour, greater covert colour did not affect male arrival date, the quality of the mate obtained or reproductive success in either population. Conclusions Our results suggest that plumage colour effects on breeding phenology and mate acquisition result from differences in the intrinsic quality of individuals rather than a carry-over effect of winter habitat use. PMID:24886073

2014-01-01

272

Matrix models and graph colouring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study an edge-colouring problem on random planar graphs which is one of the simplest vertex models that may be analyzed by standard methods of large N matrix models. The main features of the saddle point solution and its critical behaviour are described. At the critical value of the coupling gcr the eigen value density u(?)M is found to vanish at the border of the support as ?-a2/3.

Cicuta, Giovanni M.; Molinari, Luca; Montaldi, Emilio

1993-06-01

273

Supersymmetric strings and colour confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The (infinite-dimensional) supersymmetry algebra in 1 + 1 space-time dimension is extended in order to incorporate, in a non-trivial way, an internal symmetry. It turns out that this requirement implies that the internal symmetry is realized as a local gauge symmetry. Moreover, it is possible to construct string-like models with this underlying symmetry, where colour confinement is exactly realized as

M. Ademollo; L. Brink; A. D'Adda; R. D'Auria; E. Napolitano; S. Sciuto; E. del Giudice; P. di Vecchia; S. Ferrara; F. Gliozzi; R. Musto; R. Pettorino

1976-01-01

274

Colour Reconnections and Rapidity Gaps  

E-print Network

The success of recently proposed models for describing rapidity-gap events in DIS at HERA, in terms additional colour exchange between the struck system and the proton remnant in boson-gluon fusion events, are found to rely heavily on the absence or artificial suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the forward region. A model without such suppression is presented, which cannot describe the rapidity-gap events without a pomeron-inspired mechanism.

Leif Lonnblad

1995-12-20

275

Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library.

Trambitckii, K.; Anding, K.; Musalimov, V.; Linß, G.

2015-02-01

276

Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with different dietary triacylglycerol and total lipids levels.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9 days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with different lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of total lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no difference in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059

Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M

2014-12-01

277

Ocean colour analysis in coastal waters by airborne sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for ocean colour analysis in coastal zones through airborne sensors is introduced and applied to multispectral data gathered at different altitude over test sites in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Data obtained by the Ocean Color Radiometer (working in the same bands of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner) and the Six Channel Radiometer (working in the spectral region characterized

G. Zibordi; G. Maracci; P. Schlittenhardt

1990-01-01

278

COLOUR ASSESSMENT ON BREAD WHEAT AND TRITICALE FRESH PASTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although durum wheat is the cereal of choice for pasta production, in many areas of Argentina pasta is made from bread wheat, since durum wheat is cultivated only in a small region of the country. The purpose of this work was determining the influence of different bread flours on the colour of laminated fresh pasta. Triticale flour was also studied.

C. S. Martinez; P. D. Ribotta; A. E. Leon; M. C. Añon

2011-01-01

279

Strange Quark Matter and Colour Superconducting Phases of QCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the evolution of the bubbles of quark matter which survive from the first-order confinement phase transition till the increase of the internal pressure stops their contraction. We also show that at low temperature and high pressure a quark matter composition u d s is preferred to u d d. We finally describe the different colour superconducting phases which

Luis Masperi

2003-01-01

280

Practice and Colour-Word Integration in Stroop Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Congruency effects were examined using a manual response version of the Stroop task in which the relationship between the colour word and its hue on incongruent trials was either kept constant or varied randomly across different pairings within the stimulus set. Congruency effects were increased in the condition where the incongruent hue-word…

Gul, Amara; Humphreys, Glyn W.

2015-01-01

281

Original article Heritability of colour patterns in a closed population  

E-print Network

(Apis mellifera) queens, workers and drones, the offspring of the 10th generation of 20 queen families classifications were made for queens, workers and drones. The heritability of the colour of queens was 0.21 to 0.23; of workers 0.32, and drones 0.39, all significantly different from zero. It may be possible to breed honeybee

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

RGB-NDVI colour composites for visualizing forest change dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and logical technique was developed to display and quantify forest change using three dates of satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was computed for each date of imagery to define high and low vegetation biomass. Colour composites were generated by combining each date of NDVI with either the red, green, or blue (RGB) image planes in

S. A. SADER; J. C. WINNE

1992-01-01

283

Coevolution and the adaptive value of autumn tree colours: colour preference and growth rates of a southern beech aphid.  

PubMed

The evolutionary explanation for the change in leaf colour during autumn is still debated. Autumn colours could be a signal of defensive commitment towards insects (coevolution) or an adaptation against physical damage because of light at low temperatures (photoprotection). These two hypotheses have different predictions: (1) under the coevolution hypothesis, insects should not prefer red leaves in autumn and grow better in spring on trees with green autumn leaves; and (2) under the photoprotection hypothesis, insects should prefer and grow better on trees with red leaves because they provide better nutrition. Studying colour preference in autumn and growth rates in spring of a southern beech aphid species (Neuquenaphis staryi) on Nothofagus alessandrii, we found preference for green leaves in autumn but no differential performance of aphids in spring. We suggest that aphid preference for green might have evolved to exploit better their host during the autumn rather than to improve their performance in spring. PMID:18034803

Ramírez, C C; Lavandero, B; Archetti, M

2008-01-01

284

The original colours of fossil beetles  

PubMed Central

Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

McNamara, Maria E.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Orr, Patrick J.; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

2012-01-01

285

Organic and total mercury in muscle tissue of five aquatic birds with different feeding habits from the SE Gulf of California, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured organic and total Hg in muscle tissue of five species of aquatic birds from the south-eastern gulf of California region, Mexico. Concentrations of total and organic Hg measured in Pelecanus occidentalis were the highest (2.85 and 2.68?gg?1); lowest values of organic Hg (0.20?gg?1) and total Hg (0.47?gg?1) were detected in Anas discors and Anas clypeata, respectively. Differences of

J. Ruelas-Inzunza; J. Hernández-Osuna; F. Páez-Osuna

2009-01-01

286

Carotenoid accumulation strategies for becoming a colourful House Finch: analyses of plasma and liver pigments in wild moulting birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Male House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) colour their sexually selected plumage with carotenoid pigments, and there has been much interest in the factors that affect their ability to become bright red rather than drab yellow. 2. There is good support for the notions that health, nutritional condition and total carotenoid intake influence colour expression, but there are also suggestions

K. J. MCGRAW; P. M. NOLAN; O. L. CRINO

2006-01-01

287

AFLP genome scans suggest divergent selection on colour patterning in allopatric colour morphs of a cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Genome scan-based tests for selection are directly applicable to natural populations to study the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms behind phenotypic differentiation. We conducted AFLP genome scans in three distinct geographic colour morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus moorii to assess whether the extant, allopatric colour pattern differentiation can be explained by drift and to identify markers mapping to genomic regions possibly involved in colour patterning. The tested morphs occupy adjacent shore sections in southern Lake Tanganyika and are separated from each other by major habitat barriers. The genome scans revealed significant genetic structure between morphs, but a very low proportion of loci fixed for alternative AFLP alleles in different morphs. This high level of polymorphism within morphs suggested that colour pattern differentiation did not result exclusively from neutral processes. Outlier detection methods identified six loci with excess differentiation in the comparison between a bluish and a yellow-blotch morph and five different outlier loci in comparisons of each of these morphs with a red morph. As population expansions and the genetic structure of Tropheus make the outlier approach prone to false-positive signals of selection, we examined the correlation between outlier locus alleles and colour phenotypes in a genetic and phenotypic cline between two morphs. Distributions of allele frequencies at one outlier locus were indeed consistent with linkage to a colour locus. Despite the challenges posed by population structure and demography, our results encourage the cautious application of genome scans to studies of divergent selection in subdivided and recently expanded populations. PMID:22625655

Mattersdorfer, Karin; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M

2012-07-01

288

Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.  

PubMed

Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjøvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

2012-01-20

289

Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.  

PubMed

Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice. PMID:25014019

Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

2015-02-01

290

Physical studies of asteroids. XXXII. Rotation periods and UBVRI-colours for selected asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present lightcurves of selected asteroids. Most of the asteroids were included to obtain refined spin periods. Enhanced periods were determined for 11 Parthenope, 306 Unitas and 372 Palma. We confirmed the spin periods of 8 Flora, 13 Egeria, 71 Niobe, 233 Asterope, 291 Alice, 409 Aspasia, 435 Ella and 512 Taurinensis. We determined also BV-colours for most of the included asteroids and UBVRI-colours for a total of 22 asteroids.

Piironen, J.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Erikson, A.; Oja, T.; Magnusson, P.; Festin, L.; Nathues, A.; Gaul, M.; Velichko, F.

1998-03-01

291

Male-male competition and nuptial-colour displacement as a diversifying force in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

We propose a new mechanism for diversification of male nuptial-colour patterns in the rapidly speciating cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. Sympatric closely related species often display nuptial colours at opposite ends of the spectrum with males either blue or yellow to red. Colour polymorphisms within single populations are common too. We propose that competition between males for breeding sites promotes such colour diversification, and thereby speciation. We hypothesize that male aggression is primarily directed towards males of the common colour, and that rare colour morphs enjoy a negatively frequency-dependent fitness advantage. We test our hypothesis with a large dataset on the distributions and nuptial colorations of 52 species on 47 habitat islands in Lake Victoria, and with a smaller dataset on the within-spawning-site distributions of males with different coloration. We report that territories of males of the same colour are negatively associated on the spawning site, and that the distribution of closely related species over habitat islands is determined by nuptial coloration in the fashion predicted by our hypothesis. Whereas among unrelated species those with similar nuptial colour are positively associated, among closely related species those with similar colour are negatively associated and those with different colour are positively associated. This implies that negatively frequency-dependent selection on nuptial coloration among closely related species is a sufficiently strong force to override other effects on species distributions. We suggest that male-male competition is an important and previously neglected agent of diversification among haplochromine cichlid fishes. PMID:15306332

Seehausen, Ole; Schluter, Dolph

2004-07-01

292

The Leaning Tower of Pisa effect: an illusion mediated by colour, brightness, and motion.  

PubMed

We report a novel, easily observed, and extraordinarily striking optical illusion mediated by interactions of colour, brightness, form, and motion perception--the Leaning Tower of Pisa (LTOP) illusion. Under some circumstances, the perception of orientation of coloured forms is radically altered by rotary movement. We demonstrate that this kinetic effect--easily reproduced with a common record turntable--is optimised by particular colour and brightness differences between foreground and background with an illusory tilt of 8 degrees and more. The described illusions can be easily studied at home by downloading the colour figures from www.perceptionweb.com/perc1000/ditzinger, printing them on a common colour printer and placing them on a rotating record turntable. PMID:11220216

Ditzinger, T; Billock, V A; Kelso, J A; Holtz, J

2000-01-01

293

QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.  

PubMed

Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ?SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ?SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding purposes. PMID:23604470

Emebiri, Livinus C

2013-07-01

294

Changes in energy cost and total external work of muscles in elite race walkers walking at different speeds.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy) depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers. The study involved 12 competitive race walkers aged 24.9 4.10 years with 6 to 20 years of experience, who achieved a national or international sports level. Their aerobic endurance was determined by means of a direct method involving an incremental exercise test on the treadmill. The participants performed three tests walking each time with one of the three speeds according to the same protocol: an 8-minute walk with at steady speed was followed by a recovery phase until the oxygen debt was repaid. To measure exercise energy cost, an indirect method based on the volume of oxygen uptake was employed. The gait of the participants was recorded using the 3D Vicon opto-electronic motion capture system. Values of changes in potential energy and total kinetic energy in a gate cycle were determined based on vertical displacements of the centre of mass. Changes in mechanical energy amounted to the value of total external work of muscles needed to accelerate and lift the centre of mass during a normalised gait cycle. The values of average energy cost and of total external work standardised to body mass and distance covered calculated for technical speed, threshold and racing speeds turned out to be statistically significant (p 0.001). The total energy cost ranged from 51.2 kJ.m-1 during walking at technical speed to 78.3 kJ.m-1 during walking at a racing speed. Regardless of the type of speed, the total external work of muscles accounted for around 25% of total energy cost in race walking. Total external work mainly increased because of changes in the resultant kinetic energy of the centre of mass movement. PMID:25713673

Chwa?a, Wies?aw; Klimek, Andrzej; Mirek, Wac?aw

2014-12-01

295

Intrinsic colour indices of Be stars obtained from 2MASS photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is based on 2MASS photometry (JHK_s magnitudes) of 1172 Be stars. The observed mean intrinsic colours have been derived with aid of two-colour diagrams for Be stars of luminosity classes Ie-IIe, IIIe and IVe-Ve. The obtained results are the first determinations of their intrinsic colours in the astronomical literature. The smoothed infrared colours are compared with those obtained for ``normal'' B stars. Several two-colour diagrams and plots of observed and smoothed intrinsic colour versus spectral type of luminosity classes Ie-IIe, IIIe and IVe-Ve are presented. Generally the determined infrared intrinsic colours of Be stars (V-J)_0, (V-H)_0, and (V-K_s)_o differ substantially from those of ``normal'' B stars. It is found that the intrinsic colours of B stars are generally bluer than Be stars of corresponding spectral type and luminosity class. The mean absolute visual magnitude M_v of 528 Be stars for luminosity classes Iae, Ibe-Iabe, IIe, IIIe and IVe-Ve is derived from HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The M_v calibration is compared with the existing ones. The Be stars are generally brighter than ``normal'' B stars of corresponding spectral types.

Wegner, W.

2015-02-01

296

Molecular genetics of coat colour variations in White Galloway and White Park cattle.  

PubMed

White Galloway cattle exhibit three different white coat colour phenotypes, that is, well marked, strongly marked and mismarked. However, mating of individuals with the preferred well or strongly marked phenotype also results in offspring with the undesired mismarked and/or even fully black coat colour. To elucidate the genetic background of the coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle, we analysed four coat colour relevant genes: mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (KIT), KIT ligand (KITLG), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and tyrosinase (TYR). Here, we show that the coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle are caused by a KIT gene (chromosome 6) duplication and aberrant insertion on chromosome 29 (Cs29 ) as recently described for colour-sided Belgian Blue. Homozygous (Cs29 /Cs29 ) White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle exhibit the mismarked phenotype, whereas heterozygous (Cs29 /wt29 ) individuals are either well or strongly marked. In contrast, fully black individuals are characterised by the wild-type chromosome 29. As known for other cattle breeds, mutations in the MC1R gene determine the red colouring. Our data suggest that the white coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle are caused by a dose-dependent effect based on the ploidy of aberrant insertions and inheritance of the KIT gene on chromosome 29. PMID:23418861

Brenig, B; Beck, J; Floren, C; Bornemann-Kolatzki, K; Wiedemann, I; Hennecke, S; Swalve, H; Schütz, E

2013-08-01

297

Filling schemes at submicron scale: Development of submicron sized plasmonic colour filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pixel size imposes a fundamental limit on the amount of information that can be displayed or recorded on a sensor. Thus, there is strong motivation to reduce the pixel size down to the nanometre scale. Nanometre colour pixels cannot be fabricated by simply downscaling current pixels due to colour cross talk and diffraction caused by dyes or pigments used as colour filters. Colour filters based on plasmonic effects can overcome these difficulties. Although different plasmonic colour filters have been demonstrated at the micron scale, there have been no attempts so far to reduce the filter size to the submicron scale. Here, we present for the first time a submicron plasmonic colour filter design together with a new challenge - pixel boundary errors at the submicron scale. We present simple but powerful filling schemes to produce submicron colour filters, which are free from pixel boundary errors and colour cross- talk, are polarization independent and angle insensitive, and based on LCD compatible aluminium technology. These results lay the basis for the development of submicron pixels in displays, RGB-spatial light modulators, liquid crystal over silicon, Google glasses and pico-projectors.

Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Balaur, Eugeniu; Minovich, Alexander; Collins, Sean; James, Timothy D.; Djalalian-Assl, Amir; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Kandasamy, Sasikaran; Skafidas, Efstratios; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Mulvaney, Paul; Roberts, Ann; Prawer, Steven

2014-09-01

298

Ontogenetic colour changes in an insular tree species: signalling to extinct browsing birds?  

PubMed

* Animals often use colours to hide from predators (crypsis) or advertise defences (aposematism), but there is little evidence for colour-based defence in plants. * Here, we test whether ontogenetic changes in leaf colour of lancewood (Pseudopanax crassifolius) may have been part of a defensive strategy against flightless browsing birds called moa, which were once the only large herbivores in New Zealand. We tested this hypothesis by conducting spectrographic measurements on different-sized plants grown in a common garden. We also compared these results with observations on a closely related, derived species that evolved in the absence of moa on the Chatham Islands. * Spectrographic analyses showed that birds would have difficulty distinguishing seedling leaves against a background of leaf litter. Conversely, brightly coloured tissues flanking spines on sapling leaves are highly conspicuous to birds. Once above the reach of the tallest known moa, adults produce leaves that are typical in appearance to adult leaves. The Chatham Island species lacks ontogenetic colour changes entirely. * Overall, the results indicate that P. crassifolius goes through a remarkable series of colour changes during development, from cryptically coloured seedlings to aposematically coloured saplings, which may have formed a defensive strategy to protect against giant browsing birds. PMID:19674327

Fadzly, Nik; Jack, Cameron; Schaefer, H Martin; Burns, K C

2009-10-01

299

Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme

2010-11-01

300

Environmental and Genetic Effects on Pigment-Based vs. Structural Component of Yellow Feather Colouration  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoid plumage is of widespread use in bird communication. Carotenoid-based feather colouration has recently been shown to be dependent on both pigment concentration and feather structure. If these two components are determined differently, one plumage patch may potentially convey different aspects of individual quality. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on carotenoid-based yellow breast colouration of Great Tit (Parus major) nestlings. By partial cross-fostering, we separated the genetic and pre-natal vs. post-natal parental effects on both the structural and the pigment-based component of carotenoid-based plumage colouration. We also simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching environment by brood size manipulation. The structural component of nestling colouration reflected features of female colouration. On the other hand, the pigment-based component was more affected by rearing conditions presumably representing food quality. While the structural component was related to both origin- and environment-related factors, the pigment-based component seemed to be environment-dependent only. These results support the notion that pigment-based and structural components of feather colouration are determined differently. Conclusions/Significance Chromatic and achromatic components of carotenoid-based feather colouration reflected different aspects of individual quality and history, and thus may potentially form a multicomponent signal. PMID:22590581

Matrková, Jana; Remeš, Vladimír

2012-01-01

301

Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

aposematism; caecilians; colour; crypsis; evolution; Gymnophiona; independent contrasts; pattern; selection. Abstract The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so, their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature

K. C. WOLLENBERG; G. JOHN MEASEY

2009-01-01

302

PCB CONGENERS AND HEXACHLOROBENZENE BIOTA SEDIMENT ACCUMULATING FACTORS FOR MACOMA NASUTA EXPOSED TO SEDIMENTS WITH DIFFERENT TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Deposit-feeding marine clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 119d to three sediment types that varied in total organic carbon (TOC) from 0.8 to 2.5%. ediments were spiked with equal concentrations of 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and hexachlorobenzene. issue residues wer...

303

Generic health-related quality of life amongst patients employing different voice restoration methods following total laryngectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods of voice restoration—tracheosophageal speech (TEP), oesophageal speech, electrolarynx—are available following total laryngectomy. TEP produces better voice quality compared with other methods and is assumed to result in better quality of life. Little evidence exists to support the relationship between voice quality and quality of life, however. Advertising this study through several leading laryngectomy charities resulted in the completion

Paul Farrand; Fiona Duncan

2007-01-01

304

A Markov Random Field Framework for Finding Shadows in a Single Colour Image  

E-print Network

, and for a given Lambertian surface imaged by a camera whose sensors are fairly narrowband (as for an ideal delta moves along a straight line. It follows that if a target consisting of different colour surfaces

Drew, Mark S.

305

Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

2013-01-01

306

Skin colour and bilirubin in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between the yellow colour of the skin and serum bilirubin concentration, reserve albumin concentration, and pH was investigated in 76 icteric neonates. Significant linear correlation existed between yellow colour of the skin and serum bilirubin concentration, reciprocal of the reserve albumin concentration, and the squared hydrogen ion concentration. Furthermore, the basic yellowness of the skin at birth correlated

A Knudsen; R Brodersen

1989-01-01

307

Mineralization in Rust-coloured Acarospora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper cortex and extracellular hyphal wall matrix are mineralized in both rust-coloured Acarospora sinopica and the paler A. smaragdula ‘f. subochracea’ in the form of microgranular or microbotryoidal phases. Analysis confirmed the distinctive colours are not simply due to hydrated iron oxides, as previously believed, and suggests mixed sulphide and oxide phases with little crystallinity, as well as other

O. William Purvis; Anton Kearsley; Gordon Cressey; Anna T. Crewe; Mats Wedin

2008-01-01

308

The Aurora Borealis and its Colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN reference to Mr. Backhouse's letter last week (p. 145) we have nowhere stated that ``similarity in colour in electric discharges is sufficient to indicate similarity of constitution, eyen when their spectra are quite unlike'' If Mr. Backhouse will again read our paper on the Auroræ, he will see that we say that in the same gas the colour of

Warren de La Rue; Hugo Müller

1880-01-01

309

Teaching Colour: From Canvas to Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid basic knowledge on colour is important in various fields: art, physics, chemistry, biology, and technology. Even psychological aspects of colour perception should be considered when we approach this matter. This paper has the aim to help teachers to present science through an ITC approach that helps students to develop interest in science and to learn. We present a

Rosa Maria; Melià Avià; Sant Adrià del Besòs. Spain; Octavi Plana Cobeta

310

Rapidity gaps from colour string topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA and diffractive W and jet production at the Tevatron are well described by soft colour exchange models. Their essence is the variation of colour string-field topologies giving both gap and no-gap events, with a smooth transition and thereby a unified description of all final states.

G. Ingelman; A. Edin; R. Enberg; J. Rathsman; N. Timneanu

1999-01-01

311

Rapidity Gaps from Colour String Topologies  

E-print Network

Diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA and diffractive W and jet production at the Tevatron are well described by soft colour exchange models. Their essence is the variation of colour string-field topologies giving both gap and no-gap events, with a smooth transition and thereby a unified description of all final states.

G. Ingelman; A. Edin; R. Enberg; J. Rathsman; N. Timneanu

1999-12-29

312

Three Dimensional Colour Pickers Yingxin Wu Masahiro Takatsuka  

E-print Network

and Munsell colour spaces. The colour palette is a slice cut off by a translucent plane from 3-D colour solids Council Copyright © 2005, Australian Computer Society, Inc. This paper appeared at the Asia Pacific

Hong,Seokhee

313

Tooth, skin, hair and eye colour interrelationships in Greek young adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible interrelationships of teeth, skin, eye and hair colour. A portable colorimeter (Shade Eye NCC/Shofu) was used to record the colour in the CIELAB system of the upper right incisors in 150 dental school students, along with their skin colour at three different areas. Natural hair and eye colour was classified into several categories by a trained examiner (ICC 0.93-0.99). One-way ANOVA and correlation tests were used to statistically analyse the data. Skin was found to have significantly higher L*, b* but lower a* values than teeth (p < 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.05) of teeth to skin L* and a*colour coordinate was found, but not to b* coordinate (p > 0.05). Hair tones were not correlated to teeth L* or b*, but only to a*coordinate. Teeth and eye colour coordinates were not correlated (p > 0.05). Eye and hair tones were found to have the highest significant correlation (? = 0.369). In conclusion, teeth of this cohort were found to be lighter, less red and yellow than the skin. Teeth colour was not related to eye colour, but lighter teeth were found to be associated with lighter skins, and redder lateral incisors to lighter hair. Darker facial skins or yellower forehead areas were also associated with darker hair and vice versa. The clinical relevance of the study is that the investigated facial characteristics are inter-correlated weakly to moderately, and for this reason predicting the colour parameters of one facial characteristic by another would not be accurate, but helpful for a rough colour selection as associations show. PMID:22349932

Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Tsamali, Ioana; Papadopoulou, Christine; Polyzois, Gregory

2013-01-01

314

Organic and total mercury in muscle tissue of five aquatic birds with different feeding habits from the SE Gulf of California, Mexico.  

PubMed

We measured organic and total Hg in muscle tissue of five species of aquatic birds from the south-eastern gulf of California region, Mexico. Concentrations of total and organic Hg measured in Pelecanus occidentalis were the highest (2.85 and 2.68 microgg(-1)); lowest values of organic Hg (0.20 microgg(-1)) and total Hg (0.47 microgg(-1)) were detected in Anas discors and Anas clypeata, respectively. Differences of Hg levels were related to feeding habits, being concentrations in birds of piscivorous habits more elevated than corresponding values in non-piscivorous species. PMID:19419748

Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Hernández-Osuna, J; Páez-Osuna, F

2009-07-01

315

Performance of high producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations.  

PubMed

Forty-five Holsteins cows in early to mid lactation were used to compare three feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations (TMR) on animal performance in a 21-wk repeated-measures experiment. The three treatments were: 1) pasture plus concentrate (PC), 2) pasture plus partial TMR (pTMR), and 3) TMR (non-pasture). Total dry matter intake, using chromic oxide as a marker, was 21.6, 25.2, and 26.7 kg/d for PC, pTMR, and TMR, respectively. Milk production was highest for TMR (38.1 kg/d), lowest on PC (28.5 kg/d), and intermediate for pTMR (32.0 kg/d). Cows on pTMR and TMR had higher milk fat and true protein percentages than cows on PC. Cows on PC gained less body weight and lost more body condition compared with cows on pTMR and TMR. Initial concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids were higher on PC (302 microeq/L) than on pTMR (130 microeq/L) and TMR (225 microeq/L). Plasma and milk urea nitrogen were lower on both pTMR and TMR than on PC. Combining pasture and TMR resulted in higher milk production, milk fat and protein percentage, and maintenance in body condition score compared to pasture plus concentrate. The TMR feeding system resulted in the highest total dry matter intake and milk production. PMID:12487461

Bargo, F; Muller, L D; Delahoy, J E; Cassidy, T W

2002-11-01

316

The perception of isoluminant coloured stimuli of amblyopic eye and defocused eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In routine eye examination the visual acuity usually is determined using standard charts with black letters on a white background, however contrast and colour are important characteristics of visual perception. The purpose of research was to study the perception of isoluminant coloured stimuli in the cases of true and simulated amlyopia. We estimated difference in visual acuity with isoluminant coloured stimuli comparing to that for high contrast black-white stimuli for true amblyopia and simulated amblyopia. Tests were generated on computer screen. Visual acuity was detected using different charts in two ways: standard achromatic stimuli (black symbols on a white background) and isoluminant coloured stimuli (white symbols on a yellow background, grey symbols on blue, green or red background). Thus isoluminant tests had colour contrast only but had no luminance contrast. Visual acuity evaluated with the standard method and colour tests were studied for subjects with good visual acuity, if necessary using the best vision correction. The same was performed for subjects with defocused eye and with true amblyopia. Defocus was realized with optical lenses placed in front of the normal eye. The obtained results applying the isoluminant colour charts revealed worsening of the visual acuity comparing with the visual acuity estimated with a standard high contrast method (black symbols on a white background).

Krumina, Gunta; Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis

2008-09-01

317

Adaptive colour polymorphism of Acrida ungarica H. (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in a spatially heterogeneous environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intra-specific colour polymorphism provides a cryptic camouflage from predators in heterogeneous habitats. The orthoptera species, Acrida ungarica (Herbst, 1786) possess two well-distinguished colour morphs: brown and green and displays several disruptive colouration patterns within each morph to improve the crypsis. This study focused on how the features of the background environment relate to the proportion of the two morphs and to the intensity of disruptive colouration patterns in A. ungarica. As the two sexes are very distinct with respect to mass and length, we also distinctively tested the relationship for each sex. In accordance with the background matching hypothesis, we found that, for both sexes, the brown morph was in higher proportion at sites with a brown-dominant environment, and green morphs were in higher proportion in green-dominant environments. Globally, individuals in drier sites and in the drier year also had more intense disruptive colouration patterns, and brown morphs and females were also more striped. Colour patterns differed largely between populations and were significantly correlated with relevant environmental features. Even if A. ungarica is a polymorphic specialist, disruptive colouration still appears to provide strong benefits, particularly in some habitats. Moreover, because females are larger, they are less able to flee, which might explain the difference between sexes.

Pellissier, Loïc; Wassef, Jérôme; Bilat, Julia; Brazzola, Gregory; Buri, Pierrick; Colliard, Caroline; Fournier, Bertrand; Hausser, Jacques; Yannic, Glenn; Perrin, Nicolas

2011-03-01

318

Effects of extraction temperature on the phenolic and parthenolide contents, and colour of aqueous feverfew ( Tanacetum parthenium) extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of extraction temperature on the colour as well as on the phenolic and parthenolide content of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) aqueous extracts, with a view to incorporating the extracts into a beverage. Results showed that extraction temperatures of 20–70°C yielded dark-coloured extracts with low total phenol and a relatively high total

Eunice N. Marete; Jean Christophe Jacquier; Dolores O’Riordan

2009-01-01

319

Changes in VO2 Max. Resulting from Bicycle Training at Different Intensities Holding Total Mechanical Work Constant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of different training intensities on oxygen intake were determined in this study. Sixteen male subjects aged 16-18 were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control group. The training groups trained 3 days per week on bicycle ergometers at different intensities (85 percent, 75 percent, or 65 percent of heart rate…

Burke, Edmund A., Jr.; Franks, B. Don

320

Inspiring future experimental scientists through questions related to colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, it can be stated that unfortunately in most countries the number of students interested in traditional scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, etc.) for his/her future professional careers has considerably decreased during the past years. It is likely that among the reasons of this trend we can find that many students feel that these disciplines are particularly difficult, complex, abstract, and even boring, while they consider applied sciences (e.g. engineering) as much more attractive options to them. Here we aim to attract people of very different ages to traditional scientific disciplines, and promote scientific knowledge, using a set of colour questions related to everyday experiences. From our answers to these questions we hope that people can understand and learn science in a rigorous, relaxed and amusing way, and hopefully they will be inspired to continue exploring on their own. Examples of such colour questions can be found at the free website http://whyiscolor.org from Mark D. Fairchild. For a wider dissemination, most contents of this website have been recently translated into Spanish language by the authors, and published in the book entitled "La tienda de las curiosidades sobre el color" (Editorial University of Granada, Spain, ISBN: 9788433853820). Colour is certainly multidisciplinary, and while it can be said that it is mainly a perception, optics is a key discipline to understand colour stimuli and phenomena. The classical first approach in colour science as the result of the interaction of light, objects, and the human visual system will be also reviewed.

Fairchild, Mark D.; Melgosa, Manuel

2014-07-01

321

Comparison of global ocean colour data records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extending record of ocean colour derived information, an important asset for the study of marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, presently relies on individual satellite missions launched by several space agencies with differences in sensor design, calibration strategies and algorithms. In this study we present an extensive comparative analysis of standard products obtained from operational global ocean colour sensors (SeaWiFS, MERIS, MODIS-Aqua, MODIS-Terra), on both global and regional scales. The analysis is based on monthly mean chlorophyll a (Chl-a) sea surface concentration between 2002 and 2009. Based on global statistics, the Chl-a records appear relatively consistent. The root mean square (RMS) difference ? between (log-transformed) Chl-a from SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua amounts to 0.137, with a bias of 0.074 (SeaWiFS Chl-a higher). The difference between these two products and MERIS Chl-a is approximately 0.15. Restricting the analysis to 2007 only, ? between MODIS Aqua and Terra is 0.142. This global convergence is significantly modulated regionally. Statistics for biogeographic provinces representing a partition of the global ocean, show ? values varying between 0.08 and 0.3. High latitude regions, as well as coastal and shelf provinces are generally the areas with the largest differences. Moreover, RMS differences and biases are modulated in time, with a coefficient of variation of ? varying between 10% and 40%, with clear seasonal patterns in some provinces. The comparison of the province-averaged time series obtained from the various satellite products also shows a level of agreement that is geographically variable. Overall, the Chl-a SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua series appear to have similar levels of variance and display high correlation coefficients, an agreement likely favoured by the common elements shared by the two missions. These results are degraded if the MERIS series is compared to either SeaWiFS or MODIS Aqua. An important outcome of the study is that the results of the inter-comparison analysis are variable with time and location, and therefore globally averaged statistics are not necessarily applicable on a seasonal or regional basis.

Djavidnia, S.; Mélin, F.; Hoepffner, N.

2010-01-01

322

Total mercury distribution in different tissues of six species of freshwater fish from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana.  

PubMed

Total mercury concentrations were determined in seven tissues of 38 fish samples comprising six species from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Mercury concentration in all the tissues ranged from 0.005 to 0.022 ?g/g wet weight. In general, the concentration of mercury in all the tissues were decreasing in the order; liver?>?muscle?>?intestine?>?stomach?>?gonad?>?gill?>?swim bladder. Mercury concentration was generally greater in the tissues of high-trophic-level fish such as Clarotes laticeps, Mormyrops anguilloides and Chrysichthys aurutus whereas low-trophic-level fish such as Oreochromis niloticus recorded low mercury concentration in their tissues. The results obtained for total mercury concentration in the muscle tissues analysed in this study are below the WHO/FAO threshold limit of 0.5 ?g/g. This suggests that the exposure of the general public to Hg through fish consumption can be considered negligible. PMID:21713471

Atta, Alhassan; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Agorku, Eric Selorm

2012-05-01

323

Analysis of estuarine colour components during non-monsoon period through Ocean Colour Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous acquisition of water samples, radiance and irradiance measurements were carried out from 40 stations in the Mandovi-Zuari estuaries during February to May 2002. From the samples collected, inherent and apparent optical properties (IOP and AOP) such as absorption coefficient ( a), upwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient ( ku) and subsurface reflectance ( R) were derived. Using these optical properties, radiative transfer at each water column is examined. On the basis of the radiative transfer outcome, band-ratio algorithms are derived for three optically active substances (OAS), viz, chlorophyll- a, suspended sediment and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The respective algorithms are 670/555, 490/670 and 412/670 nm for chlorophyll- a, suspended sediment and CDOM. These algorithms are applied to Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM), onboard Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS)-Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (P4), scenes (digital data), to synoptically analyze these OAS. The synoptic analysis of OAS revealed different hydrodynamic characteristics of the estuaries during non-monsoon seasons.

Menon, H. B.; Lotliker, A. A.; Nayak, S. R.

2006-02-01

324

Maximal strength, number of repetitions, and total volume are differently affected by static-, ballistic-, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.  

PubMed

Stretching exercises have been traditionally incorporated into warm-up routines before training sessions and sport events. However, the effects of stretching on maximal strength and strength endurance performance seem to depend on the type of stretching employed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching (SS), ballistic stretching (BS), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on maximal strength, number of repetitions at a submaximal load, and total volume (i.e., number of repetitions × external load) in a multiple-set resistance training bout. Twelve strength-trained men (20.4 ± 4.5 years, 67.9 ± 6.3 kg, 173.3 ± 8.5 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. All of the subjects completed 8 experimental sessions. Four experimental sessions were designed to test maximal strength in the leg press (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) after each stretching condition (SS, BS, PNF, or no-stretching [NS]). During the other 4 sessions, the number of repetitions performed at 80% 1RM was assessed after each stretching condition. All of the stretching protocols significantly improved the range of motion in the sit-and-reach test when compared with NS. Further, PNF induced greater changes in the sit-and-reach test than BS did (4.7 ± 1.6, 2.9 ± 1.5, and 1.9 ± 1.4 cm for PNF, SS, and BS, respectively). Leg press 1RM values were decreased only after the PNF condition (5.5%, p < 0.001). All the stretching protocols significantly reduced the number of repetitions (SS: 20.8%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.8%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.7%, p < 0.001) and total volume (SS: 20.4%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.9%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.4%, p < 0.001) when compared with NS. The results from this study suggest that, to avoid a decrease in both the number of repetitions and total volume, stretching exercises should not be performed before a resistance training session. Additionally, strength-trained individuals may experience reduced maximal dynamic strength after PNF stretching. PMID:22914099

Barroso, Renato; Tricoli, Valmor; Santos Gil, Saulo Dos; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton

2012-09-01

325

Inter-session reliability and sex-related differences in hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time during eccentric isokinetic contractions in recreational athlete.  

PubMed

The purposes were twofold: (a) to ascertain the inter-session reliability of hamstrings total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time; and (b) to examine sex-related differences in the hamstrings reaction times profile. Twenty-four men and 24 women completed the study. Biceps femoris and semitendinosus total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measured during eccentric isokinetic contractions were recorded on three different occasions. Inter-session reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CVTE), percentage change in the mean (CM) and intraclass correlations (ICC). For both biceps femoris and semitendinosus, total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time measures demonstrated moderate inter-session reliability (CVTE<10%; CM<3%; ICC>0.7). The results also indicated that, although not statistically significant, women reported consistently longer hamstrings total reaction time (23.5ms), pre-motor time (12.7ms) and motor time (7.5ms) values than men. Therefore, an observed change larger than 5%, 9% and 8% for total reaction time, pre-motor time and motor time respectively from baseline scores after performing a training program would indicate that a real change was likely. Furthermore, while not statistically significant, sex differences were noted in the hamstrings reaction time profile which may play a role in the greater incidence of ACL injuries in women. PMID:24418224

Ayala, Francisco; De Ste Croix, Mark; Sainz de Baranda, Pilar; Santonja, Fernando

2014-04-01

326

Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2007-11-01

327

Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour.  

PubMed

Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum. PMID:17534588

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2007-11-01

328

Colouration and Colour Changes of the Fiddler Crab, Uca capricornis: A Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Colour changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their colour and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in colour and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the colour patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in colour pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the colour pattern with increasing size, although females are more colourful and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid colour changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme colour polymorphism and the relative stability of the colour patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition. PMID:18286186

Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

2008-01-01

329

Geographically distinct Escherichia coli O157 isolates differ by lineage, Shiga toxin genotype, and total shiga toxin production.  

PubMed

While the differential association of Escherichia coli O157 genotypes with animal and human hosts has recently been well documented, little is known about their distribution between countries and how this might affect regional disease rates. Here, we used a 48-plex single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay to segregate 148 E. coli O157 isolates from Australia, Argentina, and the United States into 11 SNP lineages. We also investigated the relationship between SNP lineages, Shiga toxin (Stx) gene profiles, and total Stx production. E. coli O157 isolates clearly segregated into SNP lineages that were differentially associated with each country. Of the 11 SNP lineages, seven were detected among isolates from a single country, two were detected among isolates from all three countries, and another two were detected only among U.S. and Argentinean isolates. A number of Australian (30%) and Argentinean (14%) isolates were associated with novel, previously undescribed SNP lineages that were unique to each country. Isolates within SNP lineages that were strongly associated with the carriage of stx2a produced comparatively more Stx on average than did those lacking the stx2a subtype. Furthermore, the proportion of isolates in stx2a-associated SNP lineages was significantly higher in Argentina and the United States than Australia (P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the geographic divergence of E. coli O157 and for a prominent role of stx2a in total Stx production. These results also highlight the need for more comprehensive studies of the global distribution of E. coli O157 lineages and the impacts of regionally predominant E. coli O157 lineages on the prevalence and severity of disease. PMID:25502531

Mellor, Glen E; Fegan, Narelle; Gobius, Kari S; Smith, Helen V; Jennison, Amy V; D'Astek, Beatriz A; Rivas, Marta; Shringi, Smriti; Baker, Katherine N K; Besser, Thomas E

2015-02-01

330

Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation for chronic pancreatitis: do patients with prior pancreatic surgery have different outcomes?  

PubMed

Total pancreatectomy with immediate islet autotransplantation (IAT) can be an effective therapy in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Patient selection criteria for radical resection are not well defined. The impact of prior pancreatic surgery on quality of life outcomes in patients undergoing IAT is evaluated. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patients undergoing pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation was undertaken. Patients having undergone prior pancreatic resection and/or drainage procedures were compared with those without prior pancreatic operative history. Sixty-one patients underwent pancreatectomy with IAT for pancreatitis. Twenty-three patients had a prior history of pancreatic surgery (Group S); 38 had no prior history of pancreatic surgery (Group NS). Demographics between the groups were similar. Patients in Group S took more daily oral morphine equivalents and had a lower psychological quality of life preoperatively. Operative times and blood loss were similar between the patient groups. Islet yields were lower for patients in Group S. Postoperatively, daily insulin requirements at 6 months and 1 year trended higher in Group S. Postoperative quality of life scores at 6 months were improved and similar between the groups. Quality of life metrics continued to improve beyond 1 year of follow-up, with a trend toward greater improvement in the NS Group. Total pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis improves quality of life in patients with and without a prior history of pancreatic surgery. This study demonstrates that IAT without preceding pancreatic surgery may enhance outcomes measured by long term insulin requirements and quality of life. PMID:22856498

Morgan, Katherine A; Theruvath, Tom; Owczarski, Stefanie; Adams, David B

2012-08-01

331

On the roles of colour and scent in a specialized floral mimicry system  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Sexually deceptive orchids achieve cross-pollination by mimicking the mating signals of female insects, generally hymenopterans. This pollination mechanism is often highly specific as it is based primarily on the mimicry of mating signals, especially the female sex pheromones of the targeted pollinator. Like many deceptive orchids, the Mediterranean species Ophrys arachnitiformis shows high levels of floral trait variation, especially in the colour of the perianth, which is either green or white/pinkinsh within populations. The adaptive significance of perianth colour polymorphism and its influence on pollinator visitation rates in sexually deceptive orchids remain obscure. Methods The relative importance of floral scent versus perianth colour in pollinator attraction in this orchid pollinator mimicry system was evaluated by performing floral scent analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and behavioural bioassays with the pollinators under natural conditions were performed. Key Results The relative and absolute amounts of behaviourally active compounds are identical in the two colour morphs of O. arachnitiformis. Neither presence/absence nor the colour of the perianth (green versus white) influence attractiveness of the flowers to Colletes cunicularius males, the main pollinator of O. arachnitiformis. Conclusion Chemical signals alone can mediate the interactions in highly specialized mimicry systems. Floral colour polymorphism in O. arachnitiformis is not subjected to selection imposed by C. cunicularius males, and an interplay between different non-adaptive processes may be responsible for the maintenance of floral colour polymorphism both within and among populations. PMID:19692390

Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Schiestl, Florian P.

2009-01-01

332

Avoidance of achromatic colours by bees provides a private niche for hummingbirds.  

PubMed

That hummingbird-pollinated plants predominantly have red flowers has been known for decades, but well-investigated research studies are still rare. Preference tests have shown that hummingbirds do not have an innate preference for red colours. In addition, hummingbirds do not depend solely upon red flowers, because white-flowered hummingbird-pollinated plants are also common and temporarily abundant. Here we show that both white and red hummingbird-pollinated flowers differ from bee-pollinated flowers in their reflection properties for ultraviolet (UV) light. Hummingbird-pollinated red flowers are on average less UV reflective, and white hummingbird-pollinated flowers are more UV reflective than the same coloured bee-pollinated ones. In preference tests with artificial flowers, neotropical orchid bees prefer red UV-reflecting artificial flowers and white UV-nonreflecting flowers over red and white flowers with the opposite UV properties. By contrast, hummingbirds showed no preference for any colour in the same tests. Plotting floral colours and test stimuli into the honeybees' perceptual colour space suggests that the less attractive colours are achromatic for bees and therefore more difficult to detect against the background. This underlying colour preference in bees might provide hummingbirds with a private niche that is not attractive to bees. PMID:21490268

Lunau, Klaus; Papiorek, Sarah; Eltz, Thomas; Sazima, Marlies

2011-05-01

333

Light-emitting diodes with variable colours from polymer blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE range of materials now available for polymer-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is such that electroluminescence can be obtained throughout the visible spectrum1 12. Here we show that, by blending polymers with different emission and charge-transport characteristics, LEDs can be fabricated in which the emission col-our varies as a function of the operating voltage. This phenomenon arises from the self-organizing properties

M. Berggren; O. Inganäs; G. Gustafsson; J. Rasmusson; M. R. Andersson; T. Hjertberg; O. Wennerström

1994-01-01

334

Strategies for prompt searches for GRB afterglows: the discovery of the GRB 001011 optical/near-infrared counterpart using colour-colour selection  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of the optical and near-infrared counterparts to GRB 001011. The GRB 001011 error box determined by Beppo-SAX was simultaneously imaged in the near-infrared by the 3.58-m New Technology Telescope and in the optical by the 1.54-m Danish Telescope ~8 hr after the gamma-ray event. Here we implement the colour-colour discrimination technique proposed by Rhoads (2001) and extend it using near-IR data as well. We present the results provided by an automatic colour-colour discrimination pipe-line developed to discern the different populations of objects present in the GRB 001011 error box. Our software revealed three candidates based on single-epoch images. Second-epoch observations carried out ~3.2 days after the burst revealed that the most likely candidate had faded, thus identifying it with the counterpart to the GRB. In deep R-band images obtained 7 months after the burst a faint (R=25.38+/-0.25) elongated object, presumably the host galaxy of GRB 001011, was detected at the position of the afterglow. The GRB 001011 afterglow is the first discovered with the assistance of colour-colour diagram techniques. We discuss the advantages of using this method and its application to error boxes determined by future missions.

J. Gorosabel; J. U. Fynbo; J. Hjorth; C. Wolf; M. I. Andersen; H. Pedersen; L. Christensen; B. L. Jensen; P. Moller; J. Afonso; M. A. Treyer; G. Mallen-Ornelas; A. J. Castro-Tirado; A. Fruchter; J. Greiner; E. Pian; P. M. Vreeswijk; F. Frontera; L. Kaper; S. Klose; C. Kouveliotou; N. Masetti; E. Palazzi; E. Rol; I. Salamanca; N. Tanvir; R. A. M. J. Wijers; E. van den Heuvel

2001-11-14

335

Strategies for Prompt Searches for GRB Afterglows: The Discovery of GRB 001011 Optical/Near-Infrared Counterpart Using Colour-Colour Selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the discovery of the optical and near-infrared counterpart to GRB 001011. The GRB 001011 error box determined by Beppo-SAX was simultaneously imaged in the near-infrared by the 3.58-m. New Technology Telescope and in the optical by the 1.54-m Danish Telescope - 8 hr after the gamma-ray event. We implement the colour-colour discrimination technique proposed by Rhoads (2001) and extend it using near-IR data as well. We present the results provided by an automatic colour-colour discrimination pipe-line developed to discern the different populations of objects present in the GRB 001011 error box. Our software revealed three candidates based on single-epoch images. Second-epoch observations carried out approx. 3.2 days after the burst revealed that the most likely candidate had faded thus identifying it with the counterpart to the GRB. In deep R-band images obtained 7 months after the burst a faint (R=25.38 plus or minus 0.25) elongated object, presumably the host galaxy of GRB 001011, was detected at the position of the afterglow. The GRB 001011 afterglow is the first discovered with the assistance of colour-colour diagram techniques. We discuss the advantages of using this method and its application to boxes determined by future missions.

Gorosabel, J.; Fynbo, J. U.; Hjorth, J.; Wolf, C.; Andersen, M. I.; Pedersen, H.; Christensen, L.; Jensen, B. L.; Moller, P.; Afonso, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

336

Does Equating Total Volume of Work between Two Different Exercise Conditions Matter when Examining Exercise-Induced Feeling States?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two different…

Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.

2004-01-01

337

The calculation of small molecular interactions by the differences of separate total energies. Some procedures with reduced errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new direct difference method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors. It appears that these new features can give a strong reduction in the error of the interaction energy, and they seem to be particularly suitable for computations in the important region

S. F. Boys; F. Bernardi

1970-01-01

338

Two spinefoot colour morphs: mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are synonyms.  

PubMed

Mottled spinefoot Siganus fuscescens and white-spotted spinefoot Siganus canaliculatus are two similar species that differ subtly in colouration and morphology. Three major mtDNA clades were identified for these species, but individuals were clustered by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) according to geography rather than morphology, suggesting that the colour morphs are interbreeding. PMID:22026611

Hsu, T-H; Adiputra, Y T; Burridge, C P; Gwo, J-C

2011-11-01

339

Ozonation of seawater from different locations: formation and decay of total residual oxidant--implications for ballast water treatment.  

PubMed

Ballast water is a likely cause for worldwide transfer of non-indigenous aquatic species because of the large volumes and frequency of possible inoculations. Ozone is one treatment option being considered for eliminating non-indigenous species in ballast water. When ozone is applied to seawater, secondary disinfectants are formed, commonly measured and expressed as total residual oxidant (TRO). The goal of this study was to determine those variables most likely to affect the rate of TRO increase during ozonation and the subsequent TRO decline that occurs over time. These parameters strongly influence the efficacy of ozone treatments aimed to eliminate organisms present in ballast water. Seawater was obtained from Puget Sound, Washington; Cape Fear, North Carolina; and San Francisco Bay. Results indicated that seawater characteristics, including the organic content and ammonia, affect the amount of ozone required to achieve a desired TRO level and rate of TRO decay, and therefore need to be considered in determining ozone requirements for ballast water treatment. PMID:16540126

Perrins, Jake C; Cooper, William J; van Leeuwen, J; Herwig, Russell P

2006-09-01

340

Does colour polymorphism enhance survival of prey populations?  

PubMed

That colour polymorphism may protect prey populations from predation is an old but rarely tested hypothesis. We examine whether colour polymorphic populations of prey exposed to avian predators in an ecologically valid visual context were exposed to increased extinction risk compared with monomorphic populations. We made 2976 artificial pastry prey, resembling Lepidoptera larvae, in four different colours and presented them in 124 monomorphic and 124 tetramorphic populations on tree trunks and branches such that they would be exposed to predation by free-living birds, and monitored their 'survival'. Among monomorphic populations, there was a significant effect of prey coloration on survival, confirming that coloration influenced susceptibility to visually oriented predators. Survival of polymorphic populations was inferior to that of monomorphic green populations, but did not differ significantly from monomorphic brown, yellow or red populations. Differences in survival within polymorphic populations paralleled those seen among monomorphic populations; the red morph most frequently went extinct first and the green morph most frequently survived the longest. Our findings do not support the traditional protective polymorphism hypothesis and are in conflict with those of earlier studies. As a possible explanation to our findings, we offer a competing 'giveaway cue' hypothesis: that polymorphic populations may include one morph that attracts the attention of predators and that polymorphic populations therefore may suffer increased predation compared with some monomorphic populations. PMID:19324729

Wennersten, Lena; Forsman, Anders

2009-06-22

341

Optimisation of colour schemes to accurately display mass spectrometry imaging data based on human colour perception.  

PubMed

The choice of colour scheme used to present data can have a dramatic effect on the perceived structure present within the data. This is of particular significance in mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), where ion images that provide 2D distributions of a wide range of analytes are used to draw conclusions about the observed system. Commonly employed colour schemes are generally suboptimal for providing an accurate representation of the maximum amount of data. Rainbow-based colour schemes are extremely popular within the community, but they introduce well-documented artefacts which can be actively misleading in the interpretation of the data. In this article, we consider the suitability of colour schemes and composite image formation found in MSI literature in the context of human colour perception. We also discuss recommendations of rules for colour scheme selection for ion composites and multivariate analysis techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:25649999

Race, Alan M; Bunch, Josephine

2015-03-01

342

Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.  

PubMed

The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin. PMID:21462404

Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

2009-05-01

343

Investigating of Memory - Colours of Intellectually Disabled Children and Virtual Game Addict Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an investigation of memory colours. For this investigation Flash test software was developed. 75 observers used this test software in 4 groups: average elementary school children (aged: 8-9 years), intellectually disabled children (age: 9-15), virtual game addict university students (average age: 20) and university students who play with VR games rarely or never (average age: 20). In this pilot test we investigated the difference of memory colours of these 4 groups.

Sik Lányi, Cecília

344

Kinetic models for colour changes in pear puree during heating at relatively high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of thermal treatments on 11° Brix pear purée were studied at temperatures from 80°C to 98°C. Changes in colour measured with colorimetric parameters (reflectance spectra, colour difference, L*, a* and b* parameters), and the variation in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and sugars (hexoses and sucrose) content were used to evaluate non-enzymatic browning. A kinetic model based on a two-stage mechanism

A. Ibarz; J. Pagán; S. Garza

1999-01-01

345

Two-colour free electron laser with wide frequency separation using a single monoenergetic electron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of a broad bandwidth, two-colour free electron laser (FEL) amplifier using one monoenergetic electron beam are presented. The two-colour FEL interaction is achieved using a series of undulator modules alternately tuned to two well-separated resonant frequencies. Using the broad bandwidth FEL simulation code Puffin, the electron beam is shown to bunch strongly and simultaneously at the two resonant frequencies. Electron bunching components are also generated at the sum and difference of the resonant frequencies.

Campbell, L. T.; McNeil, B. W. J.; Reiche, S.

2014-10-01

346

Two-Colour Free Electron Laser with Wide Frequency Separation using a Single Monoenergetic Electron Beam  

E-print Network

Studies of a broad bandwidth, two-colour FEL amplifier using one monoenergetic electron beam are presented. The two-colour FEL interaction is achieved using a series of undulator modules alternately tuned to two well-separated resonant frequencies. Using the broad bandwidth FEL simulation code Puffin, the electron beam is shown to bunch strongly and simultaneously at the two resonant frequencies. Electron bunching components are also generated at the sum and difference of the resonant frequencies.

Campbell, L T; Reiche, S

2014-01-01

347

Changes of cone electroretinograms to colour flash stimuli after successful retinal detachment surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine the changes in the short wavelength (S) and mixed long (L) and middle (M) wavelength sensitive cone (L,M-cone) electroretinograms (ERGs) after successful retinal detachment surgery.METHODSCone ERGs elicited by different colour flashes were recorded from 19 eyes with unilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated successfully by conventional buckling surgery. Ganzfeld colour flashes on a bright white background were used to

M Hayashi; S Yamamoto

2001-01-01

348

Prevention of infection in children with acute leukaemia. No major difference between total and selective bowel decontamination.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effect of total bowel decontamination (TD) and selective bowel decontamination (SD) in a non-protective environment clinical and laboratory data of children treated for acute leukaemia between 1983 and 1991 were analysed retrospectively. From 1983 until 1989 34 patients [18 acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia (ANLL) patients, 16 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients] received TD and 31 patients (8 ANLL patients, 23 ALL patients) received SD from 1987 until 1991. TD consisted of colistin sulphate, neomycin, cephaloridine and amphotericin B orally as well as Orabase and sterilized food, while the patients were nursed in a single room. SD consisted of oral colistin sulphate, neomycin and amphotericin B. Those patients with ANLL were nursed in a single room; patients with ALL were nursed in a single room during remission induction therapy only. All patients except those with ANLL receiving TD received Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole. Because the two groups were heterogeneous for diagnosis and chemotherapy the occurrence of fever (central body temperature at least 38.5 degrees C) and major infections (septicaemia of infections of the deep tissues or organs) were registered during periods of neutropenia (neutrophilic granulocytes < or = 500/mm3 for at least 8 days). Patients on TD had 55 periods of neutropenia, patients on SD 80. Patients on TD had 89.1 periods of fever/100 periods of neutropenia whereas patients on SD had 56.3. Also patients on TD had 27.3 major infections/100 periods of neutropenia whereas patients on SD had 11.3. Major infections predominantly consisted of septicaemia caused by gram-positive bacteria. We conclude that, in this study, TD in a non-protective environment does not offer better protection against major infections that SD in patients with ALL or ANLL. PMID:8739653

Muis, N; Kamps, W A; Dankert, J

1996-05-01

349

Observation of even-parity autoionization states of uranium by three-colour photoionization optogalvanic spectroscopy in U-Ne hollow cathode discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-colour three-step photoionization spectroscopy of uranium has been performed in a U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube by temporally resolving three-colour photoionization optogalvanic (PIOG) signal from the normal optogalvanic (OG) signal using three tunable pulsed dye lasers. U-Ne hollow cathode discharge tube has been used as a source of uranium atomic vapours and photoionization detector. Using this technique, photoionization spectra of uranium have been investigated systematically in the energy region 52,150-52,590cm-1, through three different excitation pathways, originating from its ground state, 0cm-1(5Lo6). By analysing the three-colour photoionization spectra sixty new even-parity autoionization resonances of uranium have been identified and their probable total angular momentum (J) values have been assigned according to the J-momentum selection rule. The J-value of five autoionization resonances, which have been observed either through all three excitation pathways or through two different excitation pathways where J-value of the second excited levels differs by two, has been assigned uniquely.

Mandal, P. K.; Seema, A. U.; Das, R. C.; Shah, M. L.; Dev, Vas; Suri, B. M.

2013-07-01

350

David R. Hilbert Colour, Theories of  

E-print Network

views as Democritus and Galileo. Although the metaphysics is no longer atomistic in a strict sense, many be a property of external objects as were Democritus and Galileo. Colours as perceived are commonly seen

Hilber, David

351

Colour vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.  

PubMed

In the last one hundred years, colour vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280

Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J

2013-12-01

352

The on-line each hour and each minute automatically correction data of total NM intensity and different multiplicities on snow effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our report Dorman et al. “Snow effect for total NM intensity and different multiplicities on Mt. Hermon during 1998 - 2014”, we described the method to determine the snow effect in the total NM intensity and different multiplicities. By using regression coefficients obtained for the long period of observations, obtained in this paper, we developed method of automatically correction on-line each hour and each minute data of total NM intensity and different multiplicities on snow effect. We show that expected average errors in this method for one hour observation is about 0.2%, what is comparable with the statistical error. We show also how to correct on-line automatically one-minute data on snow effect. Corrected on-line one minute data can be now used for the forecasting of great radiation hazards from solar flares and estimation of expected total fluency and radiation hazards for satellites electronics and astronauts health, as well as for people and electronics on regular airlines at altitudes about 10 km. Corrected on-line one hour data can be now used for the forecasting of great magnetic storms, dangerous for satellites, technologies, and people health. https://www.cospar-assembly.org/user/download2.php?id=29566&type=preview

Lev, Dorman; Zukerman, Igor; Pustilnik, Lev; Dai, Uri; Shternlib, Abracham; Shai Applbaum, David; Kazantsev, Vasilii; Kozliner, Lev; Ben Israel, Isaac

353

Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

2008-01-01

354

Fano colourings of cubic graphs and the Fulkerson Conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fano colouring is a colouring of the edges of a cubic graph by points of the Fano plane such that the colours of any three mutually adjacent edges form a line of the Fano plane. It has recently been shown by Holroyd and Skoviera (J. Combin. Theory Ser. B, to appear) that a cubic graph has a Fano colouring

Edita Mácajová; Martin Skoviera

2005-01-01

355

INTRODUCTION Animal colouration depends on an interplay of selective forces.  

E-print Network

sensitivity, the spectral properties of the fish and its background, and the light which illuminates them­male competition, may have driven evolution of male nuptial colouration in these fish. In cichlids, male colour brightly coloured than the females of most Lake Malawi species. However, several factors affect how colour

Carleton, Karen L.

356

Rapidity Gaps in DIS through Soft Colour Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mechanism for the creation of large rapidity gaps in DIS events at HERA. Soft colour interactions between perturbatively produced partons and colour-charges in the proton remnant, modifies the colour structure for hadronization giving colour singlet systems that are well separated in rapidity. An explicit model is presented that, although the detailed results depend on the initial

A. Edin; G. Ingelman; J. Rathsman

1995-01-01

357

Angle-Insensitive Structural Colours based on Metallic Nanocavities and Coloured Pixels beyond the Diffraction Limit  

PubMed Central

To move beyond colorant-based pigmentation display technologies, a variety of photonic and plasmonic crystal based structures have been designed and applied as colour filters. Nanostructure based colour filtering offers increased efficiencies, low power consumption, slim dimensions, and enhanced resolution. However, incident angle tolerance still needs to be improved. In this work, we propose a new scheme through localized resonance in metallic nanoslits by light funneling. Angle insensitive colour filters up to ±80 degrees have been achieved, capable of wide colour tunability across the entire visible band with pixel size beyond the diffraction limit (~?/2). This work opens the door to angle insensitive manipulation of light with structural filtering. PMID:23378925

Wu, Yi-Kuei Ryan; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Zhang, Cheng; Guo, L. Jay

2013-01-01

358

Colour Reagent for Paper Chromatography of Steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR the paper chromatography of steroids several colour reagents are used, such as 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine, Zimmermann's reagent, phosphomolybdic acid, antimony trichloride, etc. Their common defect is that the reagent gives some colour with the paper itself, and so the contrast between spot and paper is too small. We have found that acid aniline phthalate in alcoholic solution-the reagent Partridge used for

A. Bodánszky; J. Kollonitsch

1955-01-01

359

Caramel colours--a historical introduction.  

PubMed

Caramel colours used in the manufacture of a wide variety of foods and beverages have been an item of commerce for more than one hundred years. The regulatory history of these additives in the US, the UK, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EC is reviewed, and an introduction to the safety studies of caramel colours in this issue of Food and Chemical Toxicology is provided. PMID:1644375

Chappel, C I; Howell, J C

1992-05-01

360

Performance evaluation of local colour invariants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are based. We compare the discriminative power and invariance of grey-value invariants to that of colour

Gertjan J. Burghouts; Jan-mark Geusebroek

2009-01-01

361

Seasonal colour and antipredator behaviour in Etheostoma (Percidae).  

PubMed

This study examined how colour varies across season and sex in the fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare and the banded darter Etheostoma zonale. Etheostoma flabellare has male-only parental care and exhibited slight sexual dimorphism in overall colour, with no discernible effect of season on colour; whereas E. zonale does not have parental care and exhibited substantial sexual dimorphism in colour, but only in the breeding season. Additionally, antipredator behaviour of E. zonale was compared between males that were fully coloured during the breeding season and males that were partially coloured at that time, but the effects of colour and season were not consistent across males. PMID:24588710

Moran, R L; von Ende, C N; King, B H

2014-04-01

362

A seasnake's colour affects its susceptibility to algal fouling  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary transitions from terrestrial to aquatic life modify selective forces on an animal's coloration. For example, light penetrates differently through water than air, and a new suite of predators and visual backgrounds changes the targets of selection. We suggest that an aquatic animal's coloration may also affect its susceptibility to algal fouling. In a colour-polymorphic field population of seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) in New Caledonia, black individuals supported higher algal cover than did banded conspecifics. In experimental tests, black snake models (plastic tubes) accumulated more algae than did banded models. Algal cover substantially reduced snake activity (in the field) and swimming speeds (in the laboratory). Effects of algal cover on a snake's hydrodynamic efficiency and/or its rate of cutaneous gas exchange thus may impose selection on the colours of aquatic organisms. PMID:20375055

Shine, R.; Brischoux, F.; Pile, A. J.

2010-01-01

363

Pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy: a randomized cross-over clinical trial comparing two different heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs).  

PubMed

Post-laryngectomy heat and moisture exchanger (HME) use is known to have a beneficial effect on tracheal climate, pulmonary symptoms and related aspects. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical effects between the first and second generation Provox HMEs. The second generation (Provox XtraHME) has better humidification properties than the first generation (Provox HME), and has been shown to further improve tracheal climate. Forty-five laryngectomized patients, who were already using an HME, participated in a prospective, randomized cross-over clinical study in which each HME was used for 6 weeks. Results showed that for most parameters studied, the second generation HME performed equally well or better than the first generation HME. The improvement in tracheal climate translated into patients reporting significantly less tracheal dryness with the second generation than with the first generation (p = 0.039). Using an HME with better humidification properties is related to a reduction in tracheal dryness in our study population. PMID:23595617

Herranz, Jesús; Espiño, María Alvarez; Morado, Carolina Ogen

2013-09-01

364

A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2009-01-01

365

3D shape measurement for moving scenes using an interlaced scanning colour camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fourier transform deinterlacing algorithm (FTDA) is proposed to eliminate the blurring and dislocation of the fringe patterns on a moving object captured by an interlaced scanning colour camera in phase measuring profilometry (PMP). Every frame greyscale fringe from three colour channels of every colour fringe is divided into even and odd field fringes respectively, each of which is respectively processed by FTDA. All of the six frames deinterlaced fringes from one colour fringe form two sets of three-step phase-shifted greyscale fringes, with which two 3D shapes corresponding to two different moments are reconstructed by PMP within a frame period. The deinterlaced fringe is identical with the exact frame fringe at the same moment theoretically. The simulation and experiments show its feasibility and validity. The method doubles the time resolution, maintains the precision of the traditional phase measurement profilometry, and has potential applications in the moving and online object’s 3D shape measurements.

Cao, Senpeng; Cao, Yiping; Lu, Mingteng; Zhang, Qican

2014-12-01

366

Colour cues proved to be more informative for dogs than brightness  

PubMed Central

The results of early studies on colour vision in dogs led to the conclusion that chromatic cues are unimportant for dogs during their normal activities. Nevertheless, the canine retina possesses two cone types which provide at least the potential for colour vision. Recently, experiments controlling for the brightness information in visual stimuli demonstrated that dogs have the ability to perform chromatic discrimination. Here, we show that for eight previously untrained dogs colour proved to be more informative than brightness when choosing between visual stimuli differing both in brightness and chromaticity. Although brightness could have been used by the dogs in our experiments (unlike previous studies), it was not. Our results demonstrate that under natural photopic lighting conditions colour information may be predominant even for animals that possess only two spectral types of cone photoreceptors. PMID:23864600

Kasparson, Anna A.; Badridze, Jason; Maximov, Vadim V.

2013-01-01

367

Colour coding for blood collection tube closures - a call for harmonisation.  

PubMed

Abstract At least one in 10 patients experience adverse events while receiving hospital care. Many of the errors are related to laboratory diagnostics. Efforts to reduce laboratory errors over recent decades have primarily focused on the measurement process while pre- and post-analytical errors including errors in sampling, reporting and decision-making have received much less attention. Proper sampling and additives to the samples are essential. Tubes and additives are identified not only in writing on the tubes but also by the colour of the tube closures. Unfortunately these colours have not been standardised, running the risk of error when tubes from one manufacturer are replaced by the tubes from another manufacturer that use different colour coding. EFLM therefore supports the worldwide harmonisation of the colour coding for blood collection tube closures and labels in order to reduce the risk of pre-analytical errors and improve the patient safety. PMID:25324449

Simundic, Ana-Maria; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Theodorsson, Elvar; Panteghini, Mauro

2015-02-01

368

Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines. PMID:24679795

González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela

2014-08-15

369

Effects of different temperatures on the total carbohydrate, lipid and protein amounts of the bean beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of different temperatures on the total carbohydrate, lipid and protein amounts of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, which is a common cereal pest. Studies have been carried out under laboratory conditions at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 60 +/- 5% relative humidity. No specific photoperiodic regimen has been used throughout the study. Total carbohydrate, protein and lipid amounts for females at 20 degrees C were 61.74, 35.77 and 83.79 microg/individual, respectively, whereas the amounts for males were 34.94, 29.53 and 57.98 microg/individual, respectively. At 30 degrees C, total carbohydrate, protein and lipid amounts for females were 92.00, 42.18 and 83.26 microg/individual, respectively. The amounts at the same temperature for males were 43.34, 34.08 and 52.19 microg/individual, respectively. In both sexes, total carbohydrate and protein amounts at 30 degrees C were higher than those at 20 degrees C whereas this was not true for total lipid amounts. PMID:18817220

Sönmez, Evrim; Gülel, Adem

2008-07-15

370

The development of responses to novel-coloured objects in male and female domestic chicks.  

PubMed

Male and female domestic chicks were trained to peck on a small coloured (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different colour (unfamiliar) and their preferences were assessed in a simultaneous free choice test. The novel colour was green in chicks trained with a red box and red in chicks trained with a green box. Chicks showed marked variations in their preferences for familiarity and novelty as a function of age and sex. In chicks trained with a green box preferences for the familiar colour were stronger in females than in males at all ages of test. A similar sex difference was observed in chicks trained with a red box, except that at around day 9, when males showed temporarily stronger preferences for familiarity than females. When comparing males and females of red-trained chicks to those of green-trained chicks, a shift in colour prefernce, from red to green, was apparent from day 9 in both sexes, though temporarily stronger in females than in males. Levels of preference for the familiar object showed a peak (centred at around day 5/6) and two dips (centred at around day 4/5 and day 10/11) in both sexes irrespective of colour. Results are discussed in relation to current evidence for simultaneous changes in the brain and in the behaviour of young chicks during development. PMID:24924935

Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Zanforlin, M

1994-04-01

371

Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)  

PubMed Central

Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male–male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male–male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success. PMID:21715397

Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

2011-01-01

372

Colouring cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100?nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue colour that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400?nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100?K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is different for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes. PMID:19240328

McGeehan, John; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Murray, James W.; Owen, Robin Leslie; Cipriani, Florent; McSweeney, Sean; Weik, Martin; Garman, Elspeth F.

2009-01-01

373

Sex differences in cardiovascular and total mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic individuals with or without history of myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We investigated the associations of type 2 diabetes and a history of myocardial infarction (MI) with coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular and total mortality, and whether these effects are different in men and women.Methods  Study cohorts included 51,735 Finnish men and women aged 25–74 years. Smoking status and the history of MI and type 2 diabetes were recorded, and height, weight,

G. Hu; P. Jousilahti; Q. Qiao; S. Katoh; J. Tuomilehto

2005-01-01

374

Time course and extent of functional recovery during the first postoperative year after minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty with two different surgical approaches—a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

While others have reported short-term comparisons between various minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches to total hip arthroplasty (THA) and their conventional analogues, longer-term data is lacking, as is information indicating whether MIS approaches to THA provide a biomechanically complete recovery. Furthermore, different MIS approaches have not been compared. Our approaches of interest were a one-incision modified Watson-Jones, and a two-incision

Kharma C. Foucher; Markus A. Wimmer; Kirsten C. Moisio; Madelaine Hildebrand; Martin C. Berli; Matthew R. Walker; Richard A. Berger; Jorge O. Galante

2011-01-01

375

Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF=22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein=15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates=38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2)=0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2)=0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2)=0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2)=0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. PMID:25648802

Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

2015-04-01

376

Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour  

PubMed Central

Background Colour is a consequence of the optical properties of an object and the visual system of the animal perceiving it. Colour is produced through chemical and structural means, but structural colour has been relatively poorly studied in plants. Scope This Botanical Briefing describes the mechanisms by which structures can produce colour. In plants, as in animals, the most common mechanisms are multilayers and diffraction gratings. The functions of structural colour are then discussed. In animals, these colours act primarily as signals between members of the same species, although they can also play roles in camouflaging animals from their predators. In plants, multilayers are found predominantly in shade-plant leaves, suggesting a role either in photoprotection or in optimizing capture of photosynthetically active light. Diffraction gratings may be a surprisingly common feature of petals, and recent work has shown that they can be used by bees as cues to identify rewarding flowers. Conclusions Structural colour may be surprisingly frequent in the plant kingdom, playing important roles alongside pigment colour. Much remains to be discovered about its distribution, development and function. PMID:20142263

Glover, Beverley J.; Whitney, Heather M.

2010-01-01

377

Environment-contingent sexual selection in a colour polymorphic fish.  

PubMed

Sexual selection could be a driving force in the maintenance of intraspecific variation, but supporting observations from nature are limited. Here, we test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity of the visual environment can influence sexual selection on colourful male secondary traits such that selective advantage is environment contingent. Using a small fish endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia (Telmatherina sarasinorum) that has five male colour morphs varying in frequency between two visually distinct mating habitats, we used direct behavioural observations to test the environment-contingent selection hypothesis. These observations were combined with measurements of the visual environment, fish coloration and the sensitivity of visual photopigments to determine whether differential morph conspicuousness was associated with reproductive success across habitats. We found that blue and yellow males are most conspicuous in different habitats, where they also have the highest reproductive fitness. A less conspicuous grey morph also gained high reproductive success in both habitats, raising the possibility that alternative behaviours may also contribute to reproductive success. In a comprehensive analysis, conspicuousness was strongly correlated with reproductive success across morphs and environments. Our results suggest an important role for spatially heterogeneous environments in the maintenance of male colour polymorphism. PMID:18445554

Gray, Suzanne M; Dill, Lawrence M; Tantu, Fadly Y; Loew, Ellis R; Herder, Fabian; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

2008-08-01

378

Colour-dependence of cone responses in the turtle retina  

PubMed Central

1. Responses to monochromatic lights were recorded intracellularly from red cones, green cones, and luminosity horizontal cells (L-cells) in the retinae of turtles. 2. Both types of cones responded to small fields of illumination with graded hyperpolarizations. Red cones were only moderately more sensitive to deep red (680 nm) than to green (550 nm) light while green cones were much more sensitive to the green light than to the red. L-cells produced small responses for flashes of either colour covering small fields. 3. Stimulation of large fields with monochromatic lights of moderate or high intensity evoked large L-cell responses and composite responses in cones. These latter include the hyperpolarizing action of the light absorbed by the cone itself (direct response), its enhancement by illumination of the near surround, and the depolarizing effects of L-cell feed-back. 4. L-cells respond primarily to the activity of red cones; with sufficient intensity of the light, however, their responses are influenced also by green cones. As a result, if a red and a green light stimulate red cones equally, the L-cell response is larger for the green stimulus. 5. Green cones were depolarized by deep red lights of moderate intensity applied over large fields. These depolarizing responses include oscillations which follow closely oscillations in L-cells. Green light applied to the same large fields produced hyperpolarization of green cones. 6. Red cones were hyperpolarized by red or green light covering large fields, but the time course of their responses differed for the two colours, reflecting a corresponding difference in L-cell activity. 7. Red light in the form of an annulus produced large responses in central L-cells without eliciting direct responses in central green cones. In these conditions green cones developed depolarizing waves which included a large, sharp transient. 8. It is concluded from these and other results that the direct response of each cone is modified by two interactions: enhancement only from nearby cones of the same colour and depression controlled (through L-cell feed-back) by cones of all colours. In this way the response of any cone will change as the proportion of responses in cones of different colours changes, this proportion being a function of the wave-length of the light. PMID:4766220

Fuortes, M. G. F.; Schwartz, E. A.; Simon, E. J.

1973-01-01

379

Melanic body colour and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).  

PubMed

Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body colour can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-colour expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body colour) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body colour). The two colour morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural differences. Mating behaviour and colour are correlated traits. Mating behaviour differs markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive colour expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very different selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under different conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under different conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype. PMID:12803892

Horth, Lisa

2003-05-22

380

Local adaptation and divergence in colour signal conspicuousness between monomorphic and polymorphic lineages in a lizard.  

PubMed

Population differences in visual environment can lead to divergence in multiple components of animal coloration including signalling traits and colour patterns important for camouflage. Divergence may reflect selection imposed by different receivers (conspecifics, predators), which depends in turn on the location of the colour patch. We tested for local adaptation of two genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages of a rock-inhabiting lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, by comparing the visual contrast of colour patches to different receivers in native and non-native environments. The lineages differ most notably in male throat coloration, which is polymorphic in the northern lineage and monomorphic in the southern lineage, but also differ in dorsal and lateral coloration, which is visible to both conspecifics and potential predators. Using models of animal colour vision, we assessed whether lineage-specific throat, dorsal and lateral coloration enhanced conspicuousness to conspecifics, increased crypsis to birds or both, respectively, when viewed against the predominant backgrounds from each lineage. Throat colours were no more conspicuous against native than non-native rock but contrasted more strongly with native lichen, which occurs patchily on rocks inhabited by C. decresii. Conversely, neck coloration (lateral) more closely matched native lichen. Furthermore, although dorsal coloration of southern males was consistently more conspicuous to birds than that of northern males, both lineages had similar absolute conspicuousness against their native backgrounds. Combined, our results are consistent with local adaptation of multiple colour traits in relation to multiple receivers, suggesting that geographic variation in background colour has influenced the evolution of lineage-specific coloration in C. decresii. PMID:25330209

McLean, C A; Moussalli, A; Stuart-Fox, D

2014-12-01

381

Lambmeat colour values (HunterLab CIE and reflectance) are influenced by aperture size (5 mm v. 25 mm).  

PubMed

The effect of aperture size on the assessment of lamb meat colour values (L*, a*, b* and R630/580)was investigated. Two experiments using 2 HunterLab MiniScan colorimeters (large [25 mm] and small [5 mm] apertures) were conducted: 1) coloured tiles were measured and 2) unaged lamb (n = 65) m. longissimus lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were measured over 2.5 d under simulated retail display. For Experiment three, 2 different colorimeters were used on lamb (n = 36) LL aged for 6 weeks before measurement over 4 don simulated retail display. Coloured tile a* and b* values were unaffected by aperture size, but L* values and the R630/580 ratio were influenced by aperture size. The effect of aperture size on lamb meat colour measurements varied with display time and muscle type. The large aperture size generally provided the highest colorimetric values, and is recommended for measuring lamb meat colour. PMID:25460126

Holman, Benjamin W B; Ponnampalam, Eric N; van de Ven, Remy J; Kerr, Matthew G; Hopkins, David L

2015-02-01

382

Coloured loops in 4D and their effective field representation  

E-print Network

Gaining insight about ensembles of magnetic configurations, that could originate the confining string tension between quarks, constitutes a major concern in current lattice investigations. This interest also applies to a different approach, where gauge models with spontaneous symmetry breaking are constructed to describe the confining string as a smooth vortex solution. In this article, we initially show how to incorporate non Abelian information into an ensemble of monopoles in $4D$, characterized by phenomenological parameters. Next, using some recent techniques developed for polymers, we were able to relate the coloured ensemble with a non Abelian gauge model. This could offer an interesting perspective to discuss some of the different approaches to describe confinement.

L. E. Oxman; G. C. Santos Rosa; B. F. I. Teixeira

2014-07-21

383

Dichromatic colour vision in wallabies as characterised by three behavioural paradigms.  

PubMed

Despite lacking genetic evidence of a third cone opsin in the retina of any Australian marsupial, most species tested so far appear to be trichromatic. In the light of this, we have re-examined colour vision of the tammar wallaby which had previously been identified as a dichromat. Three different psychophysical tests, based on an operant conditioning paradigm, were used to confirm that colour perception in the wallaby can be predicted and conclusively explained by the existence of only two cone types. Firstly, colour-mixing experiments revealed a Confusion Point between the three primary colours of a LCD monitor that can be predicted by the cone excitation ratio of the short- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones. Secondly, the wavelength discrimination ability in the wallaby, when tested with monochromatic stimuli, was found to be limited to a narrow range between 440 nm and 500 nm. Lastly, an experiment designed to test the wallaby's ability to discriminate monochromatic lights from a white light provided clear evidence for a Neutral Point around 485 nm where discrimination consistently failed. Relative colour discrimination seemed clearly preferred but it was possible to train a wallaby to perform absolute colour discriminations. The results confirm the tammar wallaby as a dichromat, and so far the only behaviourally confirmed dichromat among the Australian marsupials. PMID:24489742

Ebeling, Wiebke; Hemmi, Jan M

2014-01-01

384

Evaluation of the Haemoglobin Colour Scale and comparison with the HemoCue haemoglobin assay.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Haemoglobin Colour Scale developed by WHO for estimating haemoglobin concentration and to compare the results obtained using it and the HemoCue assay with those determined using a reference method, the Technicon H3 analyser. METHODS: The Colour Scale and HemoCue assay were used to test 408 blood samples. Subsequently, Bland-Altman plots were determined and the proximity of the test results to those obtained using the reference method was determined. FINDINGS: The mean difference between the Haemoglobin Colour Scale and the reference method was 0.19 g/dl (95% confidence interval: 3.50 g/dl below to 3.11 g/dl above); the corresponding value for the HemoCue assay was 0.50 g/dl (1.16 g/dl below to 0.16 g/dl above). Only 46.08% of the results obtained by means of the Colour Scale were within 1.0 g/dl of the reference method, whereas 95.34% of the HemoCue results fell within this limit; 22.79% of the Colour Scale results but none of the HemoCue results lay more than 2.0 g/dl from the reference method. CONCLUSION: The Haemoglobin Colour Scale test is too inaccurate for general use, particularly if devices such as the HemoCue are available. PMID:12471402

Paddle, J. J.

2002-01-01

385

Colour space influence for vegetation image classification application to Caribbean forest and agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a comparison of different colour space in order to improve high resolution images classification. The background of this study is the measure of the agriculture impact on the environment in islander context. Biodiversity is particularly sensitive and relevant in such areas and the follow-up of the forest front is a way to ensure its preservation. Very high resolution satellite images are used such as QuickBird and IKONOS scenes. In order to segment the images into forest and agriculture areas, we characterize both ground covers with colour and texture features. A classical unsupervised classifier is then used to obtain labelled areas. As features are computed on coloured images, we can wonder if the colour space choice is relevant. This study has been made considering more than fourteen colour spaces (RGB, YUV, Lab, YIQ, YCrCs, XYZ, CMY, LMS, HSL, KLT, IHS, I1I2I3, HSV, HSI, etc.) and shows the visual and quantitative superiority of IHS on all others. For conciseness reasons, results only show RGB, I1I2I3 and IHS colour spaces.

Abadi, M.; Grandchamp, E.

2008-10-01

386

Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.  

PubMed

Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

2003-08-01

387

The Impact of Biochemistry vs. Population Membership on Floral Scent Profiles in Colour Polymorphic Hesperis matronalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Studies of floral scent evolution often attribute variation in floral scent to differences in pollinator behaviour, ignoring the potential for shared biochemistry between floral scent and floral colour to dictate patterns of phenotypic variation in scent production. To determine the relative effects of shared biochemistry and/or localized population-level phenomena on floral scent phenotype, floral scent composition and emission rate were examined in five wild populations of colour polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae). Methods Floral scent was collected by in situ dynamic headspace extraction on purple and white colour morphs in each of five wild populations. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of extracts allowed determination of floral scent composition and emission rate for all individuals, which were examined by non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively, to determine the contributions of floral colour and population membership to scent profile variation. Key Results Despite the fact that colour morph means were very similar in some populations and quite different in other populations, colour morphs within populations did not differ from each other in terms of scent composition or emission rate. Populations differed significantly from one another in terms of both floral scent composition and emission rate. Conclusions Shared biochemistry alone cannot explain the variation in floral scent phenotype found for H. matronalis. Such a result may suggest that the biochemical association between floral scent and floral colour is complex or dependent on genetic background. Floral scent does vary significantly with population membership; several factors, including environmental conditions, founder effects and genetics, may account for this differentiation and should be considered in future studies. PMID:18819948

Majetic, Cassie J.; Raguso, Robert A.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2008-01-01

388

Detection of coloured stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees Apis mellifera were trained to distinguish between the presence and the absence of a rewarded coloured spot, presented on a vertical, achromatic plane in a Y-maze. They were subsequently tested with different subtended visual angles of that spot, generated by different disk diameters and different distances from the decision point in the device. Bees were trained easily to detect

M. Giurfa; M. Vorobyev; P. Kevan; R. Menzel

1996-01-01

389

Mineralisation of coloured aqueous solutions by ozonation in the presence of activated carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of organic matter in coloured solutions of different classes of dyes by ozonation in the presence of activated carbon is investigated. The kinetics of the decolourisation and mineralisation of three different dyes solutions (CI Acid Blue 113, CI Reactive Red 241 and CI Basic Red 14) were studied in a laboratory scale reactor by three different processes: adsorption

Patrícia C. C. Faria; José J. M. Órfão; Manuel Fernando R. Pereira

2005-01-01

390

Multi-Colour Braid-Monoid Algebras  

E-print Network

We define multi-colour generalizations of braid-monoid algebras and present explicit matrix representations which are related to two-dimensional exactly solvable lattice models of statistical mechanics. In particular, we show that the two-colour braid-monoid algebra describes the Yang-Baxter algebra of the critical dilute A-D-E models which were recently introduced by Warnaar, Nienhuis, and Seaton as well as by Roche. These and other solvable models related to dense and dilute loop models are discussed in detail and it is shown that the solvability is a direct consequence of the algebraic structure. It is conjectured that the Yang-Baxterization of general multi-colour braid-monoid algebras will lead to the construction of further solvable lattice models.

Uwe Grimm; Paul A. Pearce

1993-03-30

391

Transcriptome sequencing and metabolite analysis reveals the role of delphinidin metabolism in flower colour in grape hyacinth  

PubMed Central

Grape hyacinth (Muscari) is an important ornamental bulbous plant with an extraordinary blue colour. Muscari armeniacum, whose flowers can be naturally white, provides an opportunity to unravel the complex metabolic networks underlying certain biochemical traits, especially colour. A blue flower cDNA library of M. armeniacum and a white flower library of M. armeniacum f. album were used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 89 926 uni-transcripts were isolated, 143 of which could be identified as putative homologues of colour-related genes in other species. Based on a comprehensive analysis relating colour compounds to gene expression profiles, the mechanism of colour biosynthesis was studied in M. armeniacum. Furthermore, a new hypothesis explaining the lack of colour phenotype of the grape hyacinth flower is proposed. Alteration of the substrate competition between flavonol synthase (FLS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) may lead to elimination of blue pigmentation while the multishunt from the limited flux in the cyanidin (Cy) synthesis pathway seems to be the most likely reason for the colour change in the white flowers of M. armeniacum. Moreover, mass sequence data obtained by the deep sequencing of M. armeniacum and its white variant provided a platform for future function and molecular biological research on M. armeniacum. PMID:24790110

Lou, Qian; Liu, Yali; Qi, Yinyan; Jiao, Shuzhen; Tian, Feifei; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yuejin

2014-01-01

392

Multi-colour detection of gravitational arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong gravitational lensing provides fundamental insights into the understanding of the dark matter distribution in massive galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the background cosmology. Despite their importance, few gravitational arcs have been discovered so far. The urge for more complete, large samples and unbiased methods of selecting candidates increases. Several methods for the automatic detection of arcs have been proposed in the literature, but large amounts of spurious detections retrieved by these methods force observers to visually inspect thousands of candidates per square degree to clean the samples. This approach is largely subjective and requires a huge amount of checking by eye, especially considering the actual and upcoming wide-field surveys, which will cover thousands of square degrees. In this paper we study the statistical properties of the colours of gravitational arcs detected in the 37 deg2 of the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey (CARS). Most of them lie in a relatively small region of the (g' - r', r' - i') colour-colour diagram. To explain this property, we provide a model that includes the lensing optical depth expected in a ?CDM cosmology that, in combination with the sources' redshift distribution of a given survey, in our case CARS, peaks for sources at redshift z ~ 1. By furthermore modelling the colours derived from the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies that dominate the population at that redshift, the model reproduces the observed colours well. By taking advantage of the colour selection suggested by both data and model, we automatically detected 24 objects out of 90 detected by eye checking. Compared with the single-band arcfinder, this multi-band filtering returns a sample complete to 83% and a contamination reduced by a factor of ~6.5. New gravitational arc candidates are also proposed.

Maturi, Matteo; Mizera, Sebastian; Seidel, Gregor

2014-07-01

393

Colours of isolated galaxies selected from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of isolated galaxies are driven mainly by intrinsic evolution and not by the external influence of their environments. Therefore, the sample of isolated galaxies can be considered as a reference sample to study different environmental effects. We have made detailed comparisons between the near-infrared (Two-Micron All-Sky Survey, 2MASS) and optical (Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS) colours of the 2MASS Isolated Galaxies (2MIG) sample selected from the 2MASS Extended Source Catalogue and with other objects from the wide range of denser environments (field, groups/clusters, triplets and pairs). We have found that early-type galaxies show similar (J - H)rest and (g - r)rest colours in practically all types of environments, except for the massive early-type galaxies located in compact pairs with high velocity difference (dV ˜ 180 km s-1), which are significantly redder and brighter than isolated galaxies. We assume that these pairs are located in the centres of more populated groups and clusters. In general, galaxies in groups and pairs of spiral and late morphological types have redder near-infrared colours (J - H)rest than 2MIG isolated galaxies. The (g - r)rest colours of galaxies in groups and pairs with high velocity difference are also significantly redder than the corresponding colours of 2MIG isolated galaxies. In contrast, the members of most compact pairs (dV ˜ 50 km s-1, R ˜ 30 kpc) show the same (g - r)rest colour and even tend to be bluer than 2MIG isolated galaxies. In summary, our results show that the colours of galaxies depend very much on external factors.

Melnyk, O.; Mitronova, S.; Karachentseva, V.

2014-02-01

394

Neutron total cross section of ⁴°Ca and cross section difference of ⁴⁴Ca-⁴°Ca  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a 100-MeV electron linac and neutron time-of-flight facility to measure the neutron total cross section of ⁴°Ca and the cross section difference of ⁴⁴Ca- ⁴°Ca for incident neutron energies of 6--60 MeV. Optical model calculations of ⁴°Ca sigma\\/sub T\\/ have been made and compared to the data. Modifications of a global set of optical model parameters necessary

H. S. Camarda; T. W. Phillips; R. M. White

1986-01-01

395

Female-specific colouration, carotenoids and reproductive investment in a dichromatic species, the upland goose Chloephaga picta leucoptera  

PubMed Central

Although studies on the evolution and function of female ornaments have become more numerous in the last years, the majority of these studies were carried out in cases where female ornaments were a smaller and duller version of the ornaments found in males. There are substantially fewer studies on species with female-specific ornaments. However, no study so far investigated the potential of female-specific colouration as a quality signal in birds with conventional sex roles. We studied female-specific ornamentation in a strongly sexually dichromatic species, the upland goose Chloephaga picta leucoptera, in two consecutive years. Male upland geese have white head and breast feathers and black legs, whereas females have reddish-brown head and breast feathers and conspicuous yellow-orange legs. We found that female-specific colouration in upland geese can reliably indicate different aspects of female phenotypic quality. Females with more orange coloured legs and more red-like head colours had higher clutch and egg volumes than females with a paler leg and head colouration, and a more reddish plumage colouration was related to a higher body condition. These relationships provide the theoretic possibility for males to assess female phenotypic quality on the basis of colouration. Furthermore, the females with a more orange-like tarsus colouration had higher plasma carotenoid levels. Both tarsus colouration and carotenoid concentrations of individual females were highly correlated across years, indicating that tarsus colour is a stable signal. Despite this correlation, small individual differences in plasma carotenoid concentrations between the two study years were related to differences in tarsus colouration. We thus show for the first time in a wild bird and under natural conditions that carotenoid-based integument colouration remains consistent between individuals in consecutive years and is also a dynamic trait reflecting individual changes in carotenoid levels. In this species, where pairs form life-long bonds, the honesty of the carotenoid-based integument colouration suggests that it may be a sexually selected female ornament that has evolved through male mate choice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-010-0990-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20976290

Gladbach, David Joachim; Kempenaers, Bart; Quillfeldt, Petra

2010-01-01

396

Ruminal digestion and fermentation of high-producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations.  

PubMed

Six multiparous Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used to study the effect of three feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations (TMR) on ruminal digestion in a 21-wk repeated measures experiment. The three treatments were: 1) pasture plus concentrate (PC), 2) pasture plus partial TMR (pTMR), and 3) TMR (nonpasture). Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower on both the pTMR and TMR treatments (10.2 +/- 0.5 mg/dL) than on the PC treatment (19.9 +/- 0.5 mg/dL). Ruminal pH was not affected by treatments and averaged 5.87. Neither total volatile fatty acid concentration (137.5 mmol/L) nor individual volatile fatty acid proportions (63.1,20.6, and 12.0 mol/ 100 mol for acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively) differed among treatments. The pTMR treatment reduced the total potentially degradable fraction of dry matter (85.5 vs. 82.3%) and the potentially digestible fraction of neutral detergent fiber (82.1 vs. 74.9%) of pasture compared to the PC treatment. Ruminal NH3-N losses were reduced when combining pasture and TMR; however this combination decreased the ruminal digestion of pasture, indicating the presence of associative effects in the rumen. PMID:12487462

Bargo, F; Muller, L D; Varga, G A; Delahoy, J E; Cassidy, T W

2002-11-01

397

Ripening of salami: assessment of colour and aspect evolution using image analysis and multivariate image analysis.  

PubMed

During ripening of salami, colour changes occur due to oxidation phenomena involving myoglobin. Moreover, shrinkage due to dehydration results in aspect modifications, mainly ascribable to fat aggregation. The aim of this work was the application of image analysis (IA) and multivariate image analysis (MIA) techniques to the study of colour and aspect changes occurring in salami during ripening. IA results showed that red, green, blue, and intensity parameters decreased due to the development of a global darker colour, while Heterogeneity increased due to fat aggregation. By applying MIA, different salami slice areas corresponding to fat and three different degrees of oxidised meat were identified and quantified. It was thus possible to study the trend of these different areas as a function of ripening, making objective an evaluation usually performed by subjective visual inspection. PMID:25437453

Fongaro, Lorenzo; Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina

2015-03-01

398

Advances in methods for colour marking of mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Different techniques are available for colour marking insects and each technique may be suitable for different insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of colour marking mosquitoes were described in detail and the impact of both methods on the survival and host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was investigated. Methods Mosquitoes were marked in groups with fluorescent powder or fluorescent dye. The powder was applied by creating a cloud of powder in a paper cup and the dye was applied with an airbrush. The effect of marking on the survival of mosquitoes of different age groups was tested under controlled conditions. The effect of marking on the host seeking response of the mosquitoes was tested in an olfactometer with human and cow odour as baits. Results No effect of either of the marking methods was found on the survival of mosquitoes that were treated 1 or 3 days after emergence, however, the survival of mosquitoes treated 5 or 9 days after emergence was significantly reduced. The host-seeking response of mosquitoes to human or cow odour was tested in a dual-port olfactometer and was not found to be affected by treatment with fluorescent powder or dye. Conclusions Both methods are suitable for colour marking large groups of mosquitoes. Marking with fluorescent powder, however, is preferred because the method is simpler, visible without a UV light and no specific materials are required. PMID:23835091

2013-01-01

399

Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and assimilated total ozone data sets - evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech) and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were assimilated and combined to investigate differences between the particular data sets over Central Europe, the NH mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961-2010 of observations. The assimilation has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and assimilated data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961-1985). In the post-Pinatubo (1994-2010) era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The assimilated and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA database at http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.779819.

Vaní?ek, K.; Metelka, L.; Sk?ivánková, P.; Stan?k, M.

2012-05-01

400

Dobson, Brewer, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim original and merged total ozone data sets - evaluation of differences: a case study, Hradec Králové (Czech), 1961-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogenized data series of total ozone measurements taken by the regularly and well calibrated Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers at Hradec Králové (Czech) and the data from the re-analyses ERA-40 and ERA-Interim were merged and compared to investigate differences between the particular data sets originated in Central Europe, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mid-latitudes. The Dobson-to-Brewer transfer function and the algorithm for approximation of the data from the re-analyses were developed, tested and applied for creation of instrumentally consistent and completed total ozone data series of the 50-yr period 1961-2010 of observations. This correction has reduced the well-known seasonal differences between Dobson and Brewer data below the 1% calibration limit of the spectrophotometers. Incorporation of the ERA-40 and ERA-Interim total ozone data on days with missing measurements significantly improved completeness and reliability of the data series mainly in the first two decades of the period concerned. Consistent behaviour of the original and corrected/merged data sets was found in the pre-ozone-hole period (1961-1985). In the post-Pinatubo (1994-2010) era the data series show seasonal differences that can introduce uncertainty in estimation of ozone recovery mainly in the winter-spring season when the effect of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments is expected. All the data sets confirm substantial depletion of ozone also in the summer months that gives rise to the question about its origin. The merged and completed data series of total ozone will be further analyzed to quantify chemical ozone losses and contribution of natural atmospheric processes to the ozone depletion over the region. This case study points out the importance of selection and evaluation of the quality and consistency of the input data sets used in estimation of long-term ozone changes including recovery of the ozone layer over the selected areas. Data are available from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779819.

Vaní?ek, K.; Metelka, L.; Sk?ivánková, P.; Stan?k, M.

2012-09-01

401

Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL.) hull and shell from different genotypes  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali

2015-01-01

402

Dual string with U(1) colour symmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The string model with a U(1) colour symmetry is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the critical dimension of this model is D = 2. There are no tachyons in the U(1) string. Moreover the massless ground state is the only physical particle of the spectrum. All other states are decoupled because of the gauge conditions. The n-point amplitudes

M. Ademollo; L. Brink; A. D'Adda; R. D'Auria; E. Napolitano; S. Sciuto; E. del Giudice; P. di Vecchia; S. Ferrara; F. Gliozzi; R. Musto; R. Pettorino; J. H. Schwarz

1976-01-01

403

Colour Coherence in Photon Induced Reactions  

E-print Network

Colour coherence in hard photoproduction is considered using the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and HERWIG. Significant effects in the parton shower are found using multijet observables for direct and resolved photon induced reactions. The particle flow in the interjet region of direct processes shows a strong influence of string fragmentation effects.

A. Lebedev; L. Sinclair; E. Strickland; J. Vazdik

1996-09-04

404

Colour-responsive fluorescent oxy radical sensors.  

PubMed

A series of fluorene-fused benzoquinones (Q1-Q5) were prepared by thermolysis of 4-fluorenyl-4-hydroxycyclobutenones. Red fluorescence observed for Q2 is switched by reduction to blue fluorescence by formation of the hydroquinone. Reaction with hydrogen peroxide restores the original fluorescence colour. The potential use of compound Q2 as a reactive oxygen species detector is discussed. PMID:22222712

Yucel, Baris; Sanli, Bahar; Akbulut, Huseyin; Ozbey, Suheyla; Benniston, Andrew C

2012-03-01

405

All the colours of the rainbow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our perception of colour has always been a source of fascination, so it's little wonder that studies of the phenomenon date back hundreds of years. What, though, can modern scientists learn from medieval literature -- and how do we go about it?

Smithson, Hannah E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; McLeish, Tom C. B.

2014-08-01

406

Quantum entanglement of quark colour states  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of quantum entanglement between the states of static colour charges in the vacuum of pure Yang-Mills theory is carried out. Hilbert space of physical states of the fields and the charges is endowed with a direct product structure by attaching an infinite Dirac string to each charge.

Buividovich, P. V. [JIPNR, National Academy of Science, 220109 Belarus, Minsk, Acad. Krasin str. 99 (Belarus); ITEP, 117218 Russia, Moscow, B. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25 (Russian Federation); Kuvshinov, V. I. [JIPNR, National Academy of Science, 220109 Belarus, Minsk, Acad. Krasin str. 99 (Belarus)

2010-03-24

407

The cause of 50 million-year-old colour.  

PubMed

Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' colours in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural colour, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original colours from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original colours of other (particularly arthropod) extinct species. PMID:14667366

Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R

2003-11-01

408

Colour-scent associations in a tropical orchid: three colours but two odours.  

PubMed

Colour and scent are the major pollinator attractants to flowers, and their production may be linked by shared biosynthetic pathways. Species with polymorphic floral traits are particularly relevant to study the joint evolution of floral traits. We used in this study the tropical orchid Calanthe sylvatica from Réunion Island. Three distinct colour varieties are observed, presenting lilac, white or purple flowers, and named respectively C. sylvaticavar.lilacina (hereafter referred as var. lilacina), C. sylvaticavar. alba (var. alba) and C. sylvatica var. purpurea (var. purpurea). We investigated the composition of the floral scent produced by these colour varieties using the non-invasive SPME technique in the wild. Scent emissions are dominated by aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, the presence of the terpenoid (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triène (DMNT) is diagnostic of var. purpurea, with the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by some individuals containing up to 60% of DMNT. We evidence specific colour-scent associations in C. sylvatica, with two distinct scent profiles in the three colour varieties: the lilacina-like profile containing no or very little DMNT (<2%) and the purpurea-like profile containing DMNT (>2%). Calanthe sylvatica var. alba individuals group with one or the other scent profile independently of their population of origin. We suggest that white-flowered individuals have evolved at least twice, once from var. lilacina and at least once from var. purpurea after the colonisation of la Réunion. White-flowered individuals may have been favoured by the particular pollinator fauna characterising the island. These flowering varieties of C. sylvatica, which display three colours but two scents profiles prove that colour is not always a good indicator of odour and that colour-scent associations may be complex, depending on pollination ecology of the populations concerned. PMID:21377705

Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Juillet, Nicolas; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Grison, Claude; Barthes, Nicolas; Pailler, Thierry; Dormont, Laurent; Schatz, Bertrand

2011-06-01

409

The effect of neutral and negative colour photographs on children's item directed forgetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional forgetting is an active process relying on cognitive mechanisms (e.g., rehearsal strategies and inhibition) developing during the elementary school years. Colour photographs might be rehearsed differently in memory than words, and therefore result in a different developmental pattern of intentional forgetting than previously acknowledged. Moreover, negative material is thought to be particularly reliant upon inhibitory mechanisms in order not

Else-Marie Augusti; Annika Melinder

2012-01-01

410

On Representation and Matching of MultiColoured Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new representation for objects with multiple colours-the colour adjacency graph (CAG)-is proposed. Each node of the CAG represents a single chromatic component of the image defined as a set of pixels forming a unimodal cluster in the chromatic scattergram. Edges encode information about adjacency of colour components and their reflectance ratio. The CAG is related to both the histogram

Jiri Matas; R. Marik; Josef Kittler

1995-01-01

411

Then and now: James Clerk Maxwell and colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the researches of James Clerk Maxwell into the production and perception of colour is presented, and links to a selection of present day applications of colour science are indicated. Although false colour photography was not known in Maxwell's time, aspects of his work, suitably interpreted, have a bearing on the wide applicability of the technique. An outline

Richard C. Dougal; Clive A. Greated; Alan E. Marson

2006-01-01

412

Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured  

E-print Network

Chapter 9 Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets The paper Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets pre- sented in this chapter has been published as a workshop changes. 89 #12; 90 Chapter 9. Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets #12; 9

Mailund, Thomas

413

Colouring Cubic Graphs by Small Steiner Triple Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a Steiner triple system S, we say that a cubic graph G is S-colourable if its edges can be coloured by points of S in such way that the colours of any three edges meeting at a vertex form a triple of S. We prove that there is Steiner triple system U of order 21 which is universal in

David P ´

414

Research article The potential for selection on pollen colour dimorphisms  

E-print Network

Research article The potential for selection on pollen colour dimorphisms in Nigella degenii: morph in pollen colour and vary extensively in frequency of the two morphs in natural populations. Here we investigate the role of selection on pollen colour during the pollination phase in the two subspecies and its

Petanidou, Theodora

415

Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog  

E-print Network

Note Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery, Stephens known as roan. dog genetics / coat colour / field spaniel / breed Résumé - Hérédité de la couleur du for the heredity of coat colour in the dog (Little, 1957; Robinson, 1990), it has become apparent as work

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Qudit Colour Codes and Gauge Colour Codes in All Spatial Dimensions  

E-print Network

Two-level quantum systems, qubits, are not the only basis for quantum computation. Advantages exist in using qudits, d-level quantum systems, as the basic carrier of quantum information. We show that colour codes---a class of topological quantum codes with remarkable transversality properties---can be generalised to the qudit paradigm. In recent developments it was found that in three spatial dimensions a qubit colour code can support a transversal non-Clifford gate, and that in higher spatial dimensions additional non-Clifford gates can be found, saturating Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)]. Furthermore, by using gauge fixing techniques, an effective set of Clifford gates can be achieved, removing the need for state distillation. We show that the qudit colour code can support the qudit analogues of these gates, and show that in higher spatial dimensions a colour code can support a phase gate from higher levels of the Clifford hierarchy which can be proven to saturate Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound in all but a finite number of special cases. The methodology used is a generalisation of Bravyi and Haah's method of triorthogonal matrices [Phys. Rev. A 86 052329 (2012)], which may be of independent interest. For completeness, we show explicitly that the qudit colour codes generalise to gauge colour codes, and share the many of the favourable properties of their qubit counterparts.

Fern H. E. Watson; Earl T. Campbell; Hussain Anwar; Dan E. Browne

2015-03-30

417

Comparison of total tract digestibility, development of visceral organs and digestive tract of Mong cai and Yorkshire x Landrace piglets fed diets with different fibre sources.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of piglet age and dietary fibre source on the development of visceral organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and on growth performance and total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) in local [pure-breed Mong cai (MC)] and exotic [Landrace x Yorkshire (LY)] piglets. The experimental diets contained different fibre sources: C (basal diet), RB (basal diet + rice bran), SPVM (basal diet + sweet potato vine meal) and CReM (basal diet + cassava residue meal). The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content in diet C and the fibrous diets was 8.8% and 17.1%-17.7% respectively (dry matter basis). Collection of faecal samples to determine TTAD was carried out for five consecutive days before the experiment was finished (63 days). The piglets were killed at the age of 10 days (before being given the same solid feed), 30 days (weaning, 20 days after solid feed introduced) and 63 days (33 days after being given the different fibrous diets) when the length of intestinal segments, weight of organs (liver, heart, kidneys) and empty weight of the GIT (stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon + rectum) were measured. As the age of animals increased, the relative weight of organs and the length of intestines (expressed on a mass-specific basis) decreased (p < 0.05), and the weight of GIT increased (p < 0.001). The piglets fed fibrous diets had heavier GIT than those fed diet C with the highest values in CReM (p < 0.05). The colon + rectum length was not significantly different among C, RB and SPVM, but was shorter than in CReM (p < 0.05). Coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients in the fibrous diets was lower than in C (p < 0.01). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in C, RB and CReM were not different and were better than in SPVM (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the weights of organs between the two breeds at day 10, 30 and 63 (p > 0.05). The weight and length of GIT were not significantl