Sample records for total colour difference

  1. Geometric algebra colour image representations and derived total orderings for morphological operators Part I: Colour quaternions

    E-print Network

    Angulo,Jesús

    operators ­ Part I: Colour quaternions Jesús Angulo * CMM ­ Centre de Morphologie Mathématique mathematical morphology Colour quaternion Quaternion total ordering Nonlinear colour filtering Colour feature extraction Colour image representation Hypercomplex representation Colour potential function Quaternion

  2. Distribution and photobiology of Symbiodinium types in different light environments for three colour morphs of the coral Madracis pharensis: is there more to it than total irradiance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frade, P. R.; Englebert, N.; Faria, J.; Visser, P. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The role of symbiont variation in the photobiology of reef corals was addressed by investigating the links among symbiont genetic diversity, function and ecological distribution in a single host species, Madracis pharensis. Symbiont distribution was studied for two depths (10 and 25 m), two different light habitats (exposed and shaded) and three host colour morphs (brown, purple and green). Two Symbiodinium genotypes were present, as defined by nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) variation. Symbiont distribution was depth- and colour morph-dependent. Type B15 occurred predominantly on the deeper reef and in green and purple colonies, while type B7 was present in shallow environments and brown colonies. Different light microhabitats at fixed depths had no effect on symbiont presence. This ecological distribution suggests that symbiont presence is potentially driven by light spectral niches. A reciprocal depth transplantation experiment indicated steady symbiont populations under environment change. Functional parameters such as pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence and cell densities were measured for 25 m and included in multivariate analyses. Most functional variation was explained by two photobiological assemblages that relate to either symbiont identity or light microhabitat, suggesting adaptation and acclimation, respectively. Type B15 occurs with lower cell densities and larger sizes, higher cellular pigment concentrations and higher peridinin to chlorophyll a ratio than type B7. Type B7 relates to a larger xanthophyll-pool size. These unambiguous differences between symbionts can explain their distributional patterns, with type B15 being potentially more adapted to darker or deeper environments than B7. Symbiont cell size may play a central role in the adaptation of coral holobionts to the deeper reef. The existence of functional differences between B-types shows that the clade classification does not necessarily correspond to functional identity. This study supports the use of ITS2 as an ecological and functionally meaningful marker in Symbiodinium.

  3. Quaternion colour representations and derived total orderings for morphological operators

    E-print Network

    Angulo,Jesús

    Quaternion colour representations and derived total orderings for morphological operators Jes, in par- ticular in this paper we focus on real quaternions. The paper presents two main contributions quaternions. On the other hand, several total lexi- cographic orderings for quaternions according

  4. Colloidal approach to prepare colour blends from colourants with different solubility profiles.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Heussen, P C M; Dorst, E; Hazekamp, J; Velikov, K P

    2013-11-15

    Food colouring plays a vital and a determining role in the processing and the manufacturing of food products because the appearance of products is critical for attracting consumers and influencing their food choices. However, factors such as legislative restrictions, limited number of approved colourants and the processing, formulation and stability issues of the natural colourants severely limits the application of food colouring in actual product formats. Hence, finding alternatives to the currently utilised formulation practises, represents an important area of research. Here, we report a simple colloidal approach to prepare colour blends by co-incorporating colourants with contrasting aqueous solubility profiles in composite colloidal particles. Curcumin and indigocarmine were selected as water insoluble and water soluble food-grade colourants respectively and incorporated in the colloidal particles prepared from food protein-zein. Composite particles obtained by loading of curcumin and indigocarmine (at different ratios) had mean particle size ranging from 76 to 300nm. The spherical shape of the colloidal particles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and the colloidal dispersions were further characterised using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of colourants in colloidal particles led to the generation of different shade of colour in yellow-green-blue range. The encapsulation also led to the stabilization of individual pigments against photodegradation. Such composite colloidal particles could potentially serve as an approach for developing tuneable colouring system for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23790940

  5. Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

  6. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, glucosinolates and colour parameters of rapeseed cultivars.

    PubMed

    Szyd?owska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Karlovi?, Igor; Karlovits, György; Sz?yk, Edward

    2011-07-15

    The antioxidant capacity of twenty nine rapeseed varieties was determined by using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Mean FRAP (3190-6326?mol Trolox/100g) and DPPH (3194-6346?mol Trolox/100g) values for methanolic extracts of rapeseed cultivars did not differ significantly. Moreover, the total content of phenolics (756-1324mg sinapic acid/100g), glucosinolates (4.2-87.5?mol/g, respectively), erucic acid (0.0-56.1%) and colour parameters of the studied rapeseed cultivars were analysed. Antioxidant capacity determined by FRAP and DPPH methods correlated significantly with total phenolic content (TPC) in rapeseed cultivars (r=0.9332, 0.9339, p<0.001). Also, significant, inverse correlations were found between antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and luminosity (L(?)) or red colour intensity (a(?)) of rapeseed cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the rapeseed varieties to be differentiated based on their antioxidant capacities, total amounts of phenolics, glucosinolates, erucic acid and colour parameters. PMID:23140700

  7. Noise removal in three-fringe photoelasticity by adaptive colour difference estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, K. R.; Ramesh, K.

    2007-01-01

    Three-fringe photoelasticity (TFP) can give the total fringe order from a single-colour isochromatic fringe field. In TFP, the total fringe order is obtained by comparing the colour of the unknown photoelastic fringe pattern with a calibration specimen. Comparison is conventionally done by minimising the colour difference error. This leads to misidentification of fringe order in some regions. A new colour difference formula is proposed with an additional term, which ensures continuity of fringe order data over the domain. Fringe order data obtained by conventional TFP is used as base data and the new method is termed as refined TFP. To enable applicability of the technique to arbitrary geometries, a new boundary identification technique is developed. The new method is demonstrated with some example problems.

  8. Marked colour divergence in the gliding membranes of a tropical lizard mirrors population differences in the colour of falling leaves.

    PubMed

    Klomp, D A; Stuart-Fox, D; Das, I; Ord, T J

    2014-12-01

    Populations of the Bornean gliding lizard, Draco cornutus, differ markedly in the colour of their gliding membranes. They also differ in local vegetation type (mangrove forest versus lowland rainforest) and consequently, the colour of falling leaves (red and brown/black in mangrove versus green, brown and black in rainforest). We show that the gliding membranes of these lizards closely match the colours of freshly fallen leaves in the local habitat as they appear to the visual system of birds (their probable predators). Furthermore, gliding membranes more closely resembled colours of local fallen leaves than standing foliage or fallen leaves in the other population's habitat. This suggests that the two populations have diverged in gliding membrane coloration to match the colours of their local falling leaves, and that mimicking falling leaves is an adaptation that functions to reduce predation by birds. PMID:25540157

  9. Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information

    PubMed Central

    Ligon, Russell A.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male–male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively). PMID:24335271

  10. Degradation Kinetics of Colour and Total Carotenoids in Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) Bulb Slices During Hot Air Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alok Saxena; Tanushree Maity; P. S. Raju; A. S. Bawa

    The kinetics of colour and carotenoids degradation in jackfruit bulb slices was evaluated during hot air drying at 50, 60\\u000a and 70 °C. Visual colour as well as total carotenoids (TC) content was found to be influenced by the drying process. Tri-stimulus\\u000a colour parameters such as Hunter L and b values decreased and a value increased during drying. The combination of

  11. Interference and holography with femtosecond laser pulses of different colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odoulov, Serguey; Shumelyuk, Alexandr; Badorreck, Holger; Nolte, Stefan; Voit, Kay-Michael; Imlau, Mirco

    2015-02-01

    Interferometry and holography are two domains that are based on observation and recording of interference fringes from two light beams. While the aim of the first technique is to reveal and map the phase difference of two wave fronts, the main task of the second technique is to reconstruct one of the two recording waves via diffraction of the other wave from the recorded fringe pattern (hologram). To create fringes, mutually coherent waves from the same laser are commonly used. It is shown here that fringes can be observed and holograms can be recorded with ultrashort, sub-picosecond pulses even of different colour, generated in our experiment with two parametric amplifiers seeded, both by the same mode-locked Ti-sapphire laser. The appearance of permanent and transient gratings is confirmed by recording of an image-bearing hologram, by observation of two-beam coupling gain in a pump–probe experiment and by frequency conversion in Raman–Nath self-diffraction from a moving grating.

  12. Colour stability of denture teeth submitted to different cleaning protocols and accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Freire, T S; Aguilar, F G; Garcia, L da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, F de Carvalho Panzeri

    2014-03-01

    Acrylic resin is widely used for artificial teeth manufacturing due to several important characteristics; however, this material do not present acceptable colour stability over the course of time. This study evaluated the effect of different cleaning protocols and accelerated artificial aging on colour stability of denture teeth made of acrylic resin. Sixty denture teeth in dark and light shades were used, and separated according to the treatment to which they were submitted. Results demonstrated that colour stability of artificial teeth is influenced by the cleaning solution and artificial aging, being dark teeth more susceptible to colour alteration than lighter ones. PMID:24922996

  13. Colour stability of temporary restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Silame, F D J; Tonani, R; Alandia-Roman, C C; Chinelatti, M; Panzeri, H; Pires-de-Souza, F C P

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the colour stability of temporary prosthetic restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging. The occlusal surfaces of 40 molars were grinded to obtain flat enamel surfaces. Twenty acrylic resin specimens [Polymethyl methacrylate (Duralay) and Bis-methyl acrylate (Luxatemp)] were made with two different thicknesses, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm. Temporary restorations were fixed on enamel and CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of each specimen were assessed before and after artificial accelerated aging. All groups showed colour alterations above the clinically acceptable limit. Luxatemp showed the lowest colour alteration regardless its thickness and Duralay showed the greatest alteration with 0.5 mm. PMID:24479216

  14. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    PubMed

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects. PMID:11234250

  15. The influence of slope and peatland vegetation type on riverine dissolved organic carbon and water colour at different scales.

    PubMed

    Parry, L E; Chapman, P J; Palmer, S M; Wallage, Z E; Wynne, H; Holden, J

    2015-09-15

    Peatlands are important sources of fluvial carbon. Previous research has shown that riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are largely controlled by soil type. However, there has been little work to establish the controls of riverine DOC within blanket peatlands that have not undergone major disturbance from drainage or burning. A total of 119 peatland catchments were sampled for riverine DOC and water colour across three drainage basins during six repeated sampling campaigns. The topographic characteristics of each catchment were determined from digital elevation models. The dominant vegetation cover was mapped using 0.5m resolution colour infrared aerial images, with ground-truthed validation revealing 82% accuracy. Forward and backward stepwise regression modelling showed that mean slope was a strong (and negative) determinant of DOC and water colour in blanket peatland river waters. There was a weak role for plant functional type in determining DOC and water colour. At the basin scale, there were major differences between the models depending on the basin. The dominance of topographic predictors of DOC found in our study, combined with a weaker role of vegetation type, paves the way for developing improved planning tools for water companies operating in peatland catchments. Using topographic data and aerial imagery it will be possible to predict which tributaries will typically yield lower DOC concentrations and which are therefore more suitable and cost-effective as raw water intakes. PMID:26003614

  16. Difference between the optical flickering colours of cataclysmic variables and symbiotic recurrent novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanov, R.; Boeva, S.; Latev, G.; Stoyanov, K. A.; Tsvetkova, S. V.

    2015-02-01

    We performed simultaneous observations in 3 bands (UBV) of the flickering variability of the recurrent novae RS Oph and T CrB at quiescence. Using new and published data, we compare the colours of the flickering in cataclysmic variables and symbiotic recurrent novae. We find a difference between the colours of the flickering source in these two types of accreting white dwarfs. The detected difference is highly significant with p-values ? 2 {×} 10-6 for the distributions of (U-B)_0 colour and p ? 3 {×} 10-5 on an (U-B) versus (B-V) diagram. The possible physical reasons are briefly discussed. The data are available upon request from the authors. Based on observations obtained at National Astronomical Observatory Rozhen and Belogradchik Observatory, Bulgaria.

  17. Spectrally selective solar absorbers in different non-black colours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Crnjak Orel; M. Klanjšek Gunde; M. G. Hutchins

    2005-01-01

    Silicon paints were prepared from yellow, ochre, dark ochre, green and blue pigments. To improve the solar absorptance, as, of these coatings, an existing black paint was admixed in different ratios. The optical properties of the mixed paints thus formed are expressed in terms of the Kubelka–Munk absorption and scattering coefficients in the spectral region 400–17000nm. The scattering coefficient obtained

  18. The genetic architecture of male colour differences between a sympatric Lake Malawi cichlid species pair.

    PubMed

    Barson, N J; Knight, M E; Turner, G F

    2007-01-01

    The genetic basis of traits involved in reproductive isolation is a key parameter in models of sympatric speciation by sexual selection, a potential mechanism driving the explosive radiation of East African cichlids. Analysis of hybrid crosses between two sympatric Lake Malawi cichlid species, representing the extremes of the extant colour distribution, generated Castle-Wright estimates of four to seven loci controlling colour differences. Segregation patterns deviated from a purely additive model with a significant contribution from dominance, and possibly also epistasis. Evidence was found for a strong influence of autosomal loci. As departures from simple additive variation could effect the operation of models of sympatric speciation, dominance and epistasis should not be neglected. PMID:17209998

  19. Usage pattern of synthetic food colours in different states of India and exposure assessment through commodities preferentially consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Purshottam, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, Mukul

    2011-08-01

    Exposure studies in children are emphasized nowadays given children's higher consumption vulnerability. The present study generated national-level data covering 16 major states of India on the usage pattern of colours and it identified food commodities through which a particular colour has the scope to exceed ADI limits. Out of the total analysed samples, 87.8% contained permitted colours, of which only 48% adhered to the prescribed limit of 100?mg?kg(-1). The majority of candyfloss, sugar toys, beverages, mouth fresheners, ice candy and bakery product samples exceeded the prescribed limit. Non-permitted colours were mostly prevalent in candyfloss and sugar toy samples. Though sunset yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and tartrazine were the two most popular colours, many samples used a blend of two or more colours. The blend of SSYFCF and tartrazine exceeded the prescribed limit by a factor of 37 in one sample, and the median and 95th percentile levels of this blend were 4.5- and 25.7-fold, respectively. The exposure assessment showed that the intake of erythrosine exceeded the ADI limits by two to six times at average levels of detected colours, whereas at the 95th percentile level both SSYFCF and erythrosine exceeded the respective ADI limits by three- to 12-fold in all five age groups. Thus, the uniform prescribed limit of synthetic colours at 100?mg?kg(-1) under Indian rules needs to be reviewed and should be governed by consumption profiles of the food commodities to check the unnecessary exposure of excessive colours to those vulnerable in the population that may pose a health risk. PMID:21790487

  20. Should a water colour parameter be included in lake total phosphorus prediction models used for the Water Framework Directive?

    PubMed

    Vinogradoff, Susan I; Oliver, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    Under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) lakes are classified according to a variety of criteria. This classification facilitates state of the environment assessments and helps identify work needed to achieve the objectives of the WFD, which are broadly to maintain and/or restore water quality and ecological status at a level recognised as good or high. To achieve high or good status, lakes must meet a criterion for total phosphorus (TP) that is linked to a predicted reference condition value that is derived by various models. Lakes which fail to meet good status may require expensive remedial actions to be undertaken, thus accurate identification of the reference condition TP concentration is vital for effective environmental management. However, the models currently employed could be improved for some regions, particularly those with carbon rich soils. By examining 19 reference condition lakes (i.e. lakes essentially non-impacted by humans) in peaty areas of Scotland, we found that a simple parameter linked to water colour and humic substances was a better predictor of TP than the currently employed models (R(2) 0.585 vs R(2) < 0.01). Therefore, for Scotland and elsewhere, in regions with carbon rich soils and lakes with humic waters the TP predictive models could be improved by development and incorporation of a parameter related to water colour and humic components. PMID:25262390

  1. Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Özcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core–veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm?min?1). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)?(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)?(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia–veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal–ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core–veneer adhesion. Metal–ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia–veneer ceramics tested. PMID:24158142

  2. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity of different materials by two-colour pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Vinay C.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    An experimental investigation is performed to substantiate the capability of a charge coupled device camera to measure local temperature and emissivity of different materials heated to temperatures above 500 °C by two-colour pyrometric technique using colorimetric method. Materials investigated are Inconel 718 with pyromark (high temperature paint), Inconel 718, stainless steel SS 304 and SS 316. Centerline temperature and emissivity distribution is obtained for target plates maintained at constant temperature by AC heating while complete temperature and emissivity distribution is provided for plates heated by flame impingement. The obtained results are compared with a calibrated infrared camera and thermocouples and the temperature distribution is found to be in close agreement. These results pertain to partially oxidized metal alloys covered in this study. Deviation in the measurement of emissivity can be attributed to its dependence on wavelength range, oxidation, and sensitivity of the image detector.

  3. Change in Colour and Antioxidant Content of Tomato Cultivars Following Forced-Air Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Kerkhofs; C. E. Lister; G. P. Savage

    2005-01-01

    Three New Zealand grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars, Aranka, Encore, and Flavourine, were analysed for colour (CIELAB L?a?b? values), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, lycopene, and total antioxidant activity (ABTS assay). Colour analyses of the air-dried tomatoes showed that the colour degradation as measured by the L?a?b? values was minimal, and the colour was not significantly different (p p ?C

  4. Does colour constancy exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Foster

    2003-01-01

    For a stable visual world, the colours; of objects should appear the same under different lights. This property of colour constancy has been assumed to be fundamental to vision, and many experimental attempts have been made to quantify it. I contend here, however, that the usual methods of measurement are either too coarse or concentrate not on colour constancy itself,

  5. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = ?0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = ?0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125

  6. Colour and antioxidant capacity stability in grape, strawberry and plum peel model juices at different pHs and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the anthocyanin sources potential as natural food colouring. Model juices (MJs) of grape, strawberry and plum peel were stored during 8weeks in darkness at 6 and 23°C. The colour stability was evaluated at pH 2.4, 3.1, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.1, and the antioxidant capacity at pH 4.0. The plum peel MJ showed the best and more stable colour parameters. The grape MJs presented a high stability although the chroma values were very low. The storage of strawberry MJ demonstrated a low stability at 23°C. The vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity in grape, strawberry and plum peel MJs was 7, 40 and 50mg/L, respectively. The strawberry MJ stability was very low. Total phenolics and anthocyanins ranged between 18-101 and 2-62mg/L of MJ, respectively. The determination coefficient was R(2)=0.745 between the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics. PMID:24518333

  7. Genetics of eye colours in different rural populations on the Silk Road.

    PubMed

    Ulivi, Sheila; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Eye colour is a highly transmissible and discernible trait in humans. A genome-wide association scan for variants associated to eye pigmentation was carried out on a large group of individuals coming from the Silk Road. Significant associations were detected not only with HERC2 (P-value=4.99 × 10(-37)) and OCA2 (P-value=4.51 × 10(-9)) genes but also with CTNNA2 gene (P-value=4.06 × 10(-8)). Moreover, the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis clearly showed the effect of HERC2 haplotype over OCA2 mostly associated with SNP, thus enabling a highly accurate eye-colour prediction. Finally, the regression tree analysis showed that individuals carrying a given combination of haplotypes have a significant probability to show a blue or green/grey iris colour as compared with brown, with a gradient from west to east. PMID:23486544

  8. Genetics of eye colours in different rural populations on the Silk Road

    PubMed Central

    Ulivi, Sheila; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Eye colour is a highly transmissible and discernible trait in humans. A genome-wide association scan for variants associated to eye pigmentation was carried out on a large group of individuals coming from the Silk Road. Significant associations were detected not only with HERC2 (P-value=4.99 × 10?37) and OCA2 (P-value=4.51 × 10?9) genes but also with CTNNA2 gene (P-value=4.06 × 10?8). Moreover, the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis clearly showed the effect of HERC2 haplotype over OCA2 mostly associated with SNP, thus enabling a highly accurate eye-colour prediction. Finally, the regression tree analysis showed that individuals carrying a given combination of haplotypes have a significant probability to show a blue or green/grey iris colour as compared with brown, with a gradient from west to east. PMID:23486544

  9. Paradox lost: variable colour-pattern geometry is associated with differences in movement in aposematic frogs

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Bibiana; Devillechabrolle, Jennifer; Endler, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aposematic signal variation is a paradox: predators are better at learning and retaining the association between conspicuousness and unprofitability when signal variation is low. Movement patterns and variable colour patterns are linked in non-aposematic species: striped patterns generate illusions of altered speed and direction when moving linearly, affecting predators' tracking ability; blotched patterns benefit instead from unpredictable pauses and random movement. We tested whether the extensive colour-pattern variation in an aposematic frog is linked to movement, and found that individuals moving directionally and faster have more elongated patterns than individuals moving randomly and slowly. This may help explain the paradox of polymorphic aposematism: variable warning signals may reduce protection, but predator defence might still be effective if specific behaviours are tuned to specific signals. The interacting effects of behavioural and morphological traits may be a key to the evolution of warning signals.

  10. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  11. Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.

    PubMed

    Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

    2013-12-01

    Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added. PMID:23871038

  12. Shape and colour measurement of colourful objects by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David P.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method to measure shape and colour information of a colourful object by projecting separate red, green and blue colour fringe patterns onto the object surface. With regard to the object surface's colour, the modulation at each pixel position in the three colour channels has different values. For example, when projecting blue fringe patterns onto a red point, the corresponding pixel has too low a fringe modulation to accurately calculate the phase (shape) information; but with red fringe patterns a high fringe modulation is obtained. Therefore, phase information of the red point can be calculated by projecting red fringe patterns. For each object point, by comparing the modulation values from the three colour channels, it is possible to choose the channel having maximum modulation, and hence phase information can be reliably obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm. The fringe order information is obtained by using the optimum three-frequency selection method, so there is a maximum reliability in determining the fringe order and the 3-D shape of an object with step or large slopes on the surface. Since three colour channels are used, colour information of the object surface can be extracted with high dynamic range from the same fringe patterns. Chromatic aberration between colour channels is unavoidable and can be eliminated by a software-based method. Using the recently developed colour fringe projection system, separate colour fringe patterns are projected onto a mug having different colour patterns, a colourful box and plate, and a colour checker card to test the proposed method. The results show the range of colours that can be measured and that shape and colour information of colourful objects can be reliably obtained.

  13. Colour Spaces for Colour Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Reinhard; Tania Pouli

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Colour transfer algorithms aim to apply a colour palette, mood or style from one image to another, operating either in a three-dimensional\\u000a colour space, or splitting the problem into three simpler one-dimensional problems. The latter class of algorithms simply\\u000a treats each of the three dimensions independently, whether justified or not. Although they rarely introduce spatial artefacts,\\u000a the quality of the

  14. Effects of grass feeding systemson ruminant meat colour and flavour. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Priolo; Didier Micol; Jacques Agabriel

    2001-01-01

    Grass feeding has been reported to affect several meat quality characteristics, in particular colour and flavour. In this paper we have reviewed some differences in meat colour and flavour between ruminants fed concentrates and animals allowed to graze pasture. The possible factors influ- encing the differences have been also examined. We have examined a total of 35 experiments which report

  15. Colour and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-03-15

    The correlation of carotenoid changes with colour degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in colour were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(?), a(?), b(?), ?E(?), Cab(?) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all colour parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of ?-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible colour change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for colour degradation of orange juice during storage. PMID:25308677

  16. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  17. Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.

    PubMed

    Farup, Ivar

    2014-05-19

    It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems. PMID:24921355

  18. Same trait, different receiver response: unlike females, male American goldfinches do not signal status with bill colour

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Troy G.

    ornamentation genetic correlation social competition Spinus tristis status signal In species in which both sexes that carotenoid-based bill colour of female American goldfinches, Spinus tristis, functions as a signal of status

  19. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. da Silva; J. G. Oliveira; A. P. Vitoria; S. F. Corrêa; M. G. Pereira; E. Campostrini; E. O. Santos; A. Cavalli; H. Vargas

    2005-01-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (`Formosa' and `Solo') were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time

  20. Microstructure and bioaccessibility of different carotenoid species as affected by high pressure homogenisation: a case study on differently coloured tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Agnese; Lemmens, Lien; Van Loey, Ann; Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina; Hendrickx, Marc

    2013-12-15

    The effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH) on structure (Bostwick consistency, particle size distribution and microstructure) and carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility of different tomato pulps was investigated. HPH decreased tomato particle size due to matrix disruption and increased product consistency, probably due to the formation of a fibre network. Homogenisation also resulted in a decrease of in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene, ?-carotene, and lutein. Such decrease was attributed to the structuring effect of HPH. An inverse relation between tomato consistency and carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility was found. This dependency was affected by carotenoid species and its localisation within the matrix. It could be observed that one matrix (e.g. (homogenised) red tomato pulp) can contain carotenoids with a very low bioaccessibility (lycopene) as well as carotenoids with a very high bioaccessibility (lutein), indicating that carotenoid bioaccessibility is not solely dependent on the matrix. PMID:23993590

  1. Cryptic differences in colour among Mullerian mimics: how can the visual capacities of predators and prey shape the evolution

    E-print Network

    and prey shape the evolution of wing colours? V. LLAURENS*, M. JORON* & M. TH ERY *Institut de Systematique the variation in wing coloration among comimetic butterflies from distantly related lineages. We focused on seven morphs of the polymor- phic species Heliconius numata and the seven corresponding comimetic

  2. A comparison of two different instruments for measuring venison CIELAB values and colour assessment by a trained panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Stevenson; I. L. Weatherall; R. P. Litilejohn; D. L. Seman

    1991-01-01

    Venison colour was measured with a Minolta Chroma Meter CR200b portable filter colorimeter to give CIE (1976) Lab (CIELAB) values the results were compared with those obtained with a Hunter LabScan 6000 scanning reflectance spectrocolorimeter and a sensory evaluation panel. The values obtained depended on the instrument used, but the variations from one instrument to another were systematic, enabling the

  3. Differences in the expression of the ASIP gene are involved in the recessive black coat colour pattern in sheep: evidence from the rare Xalda sheep breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Royo; I. Álvarez; J. J. Arranz; I. Fernández; A. Rodríguez; L. Pérez-Pardal; F. Goyache

    2008-01-01

    Summary Here we have tested the hypothesis of association between different levels of agouti signalling peptide (ASIP) mRNA and the recessive black coat colour in the rare Xalda breed of sheep. To deal with this task, we first tested the possible action of both the dominant black extension allele (ED) and a 5-bp deletion (X99692:c.100_104del; Adel) in the ovine ASIP

  4. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  5. Male-male competition and speciation: aggression bias towards differently coloured rivals varies between stages of speciation in a Lake Victoria cichlid species complex.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P D; Seehausen, O; Pierotti, M E R; Groothuis, T G G

    2007-03-01

    Sympatric speciation driven by sexual selection by female mate choice on a male trait is a much debated topic. The process is problematic because of the lack of negative frequency-dependent selection that can facilitate the invasion of a novel colour phenotype and stabilize trait polymorphism. It has recently been proposed that male-male competition for mating territories can generate frequency-dependent selection on male colouration. Rare male cichlid fish would enjoy a fitness advantage if territorial defenders bias aggression towards male cichlid fish of their own colour. We used blue (ancestral type) and red phenotypes of the Lake Victoria cichlid species complex Pundamilia. We tested the aggression bias of wild-caught territorial blue male cichlid fish from five separate populations for blue vs. red rival male cichlid fish using simulated intruder choice tests. The different populations vary in the frequency of red male cichlid fish, and in the degree of reproductive isolation between red and blue, reflecting different stages of speciation. Blue male cichlid fish from a population that lack red phenotypes biased aggression towards blue stimulus male cichlid fish. The same was found in two populations where blue and red are reproductively isolated sister species. This aggression bias may facilitate the invasion of a novel colour phenotype and species coexistence. Blue male cichlid fish from two populations where red and blue are hybridizing incipient species biased aggression towards red stimulus male cichlid fish. Thus, after a successful invasion of red, aggression bias alone is not likely to generate frequency dependence required to stabilize the coexistence of phenotypes. The findings show that aggression bias varies between stages of speciation, but is not enough to stabilize the process of speciation. PMID:17305815

  6. In vitro assessment of ultraviolet protection of coloured cotton knitted fabrics with different structures under stretched and wet conditions.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Y; Lam, J K C; Kan, C W; Postle, R

    2015-04-01

    Clothing provides intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) protection that can be improved by colouration. However, the daily wearing condition can undermine the UV protection of coloured clothing wherein garments are stretched by body movement and/or wetted by perspiration of wearers. Knitwear is an indispensable clothing in summer, but its UV protection against wearing conditions lacks extensive study especially in a fabric structural approach. This article aimed at narrowing the research gap by focusing on the UV protection against stretch and wetness provided by various knitted fabric constructions incorporating the knit, tuck and miss stitches. The results show that the black knitted fabrics exhibit a significant reduction in the UV protection factor by 53 % on average at a 10 % stretch level. Knitted fabrics with miss stitches retained good UV protection even when the fabrics were stretched by 20 % of its original dimensions. PMID:25205834

  7. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

  8. Missense and nonsense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene of different goat breeds: association with red and black coat colour phenotypes but with unexpected evidences

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Agouti and Extension loci control the relative amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin production in melanocytes that, in turn, affects pigmentation of skin and hair. The Extension locus encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose permanent activation, caused by functional mutations, results in black coat colour, whereas other inactivating mutations cause red coat colour in different mammals. Results The whole coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced in goats of six different breeds showing different coat colours (Girgentana, white cream with usually small red spots in the face; Maltese, white with black cheeks and ears; Derivata di Siria, solid red; Murciano-Granadina, solid black or solid brown; Camosciata delle Alpi, brown with black stripes; Saanen, white; F1 goats and the parental animals). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: one nonsense mutation (p.Q225X), three missense mutations (p.A81V, p.F250V, and p.C267W), and one silent mutation. The stop codon at position 225 should cause the production of a shorter MC1R protein whose functionality may be altered. These SNPs were investigated in a larger sample of animals belonging to the six breeds. The Girgentana breed was almost fixed for the p.225X allele. However, there was not complete association between the presence of red spots in the face and the presence of this allele in homozygous condition. The same allele was identified in the Derivata di Siria breed. However, its frequency was only 33%, despite the fact that these animals are completely red. The p.267W allele was present in all Murciano-Granadina black goats, whereas it was never identified in the brown ones. Moreover, the same substitution was present in almost all Maltese goats providing evidence of association between this mutation and black coat colour. Conclusion According to the results obtained in the investigated goat breeds, MC1R mutations may determine eumelanic and pheomelanic phenotypes. However, they are probably not the only factors. In particular, the surprising not complete association of the nonsense mutation (p.Q225X) with red coat colour raises a few hypotheses on the determination of pheomelanic phenotypes in goats that should be further investigated. PMID:19706191

  9. Results of different surgical procedures on total knee arthroplasty infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray C. Wasielewski; Regina M. Barden; Aaron G. Rosenberg

    1996-01-01

    Seventy-six consecutive infected total knee arthroplasties in 74 patients were treated between December 1981 and March 1990. The average follow-up period was 57 months (range, 24–121 months). No patients were lost to follow-up evaluation and 12 patients died from unrelated causes. Patients were classified, based on the duration of their symptoms prior to treatment, as acutely infected ( 2 weeks).

  10. About acyclic edge colourings of planar graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Fiedorowicz; Mariusz Haluszczak; Narayanan Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be any finite simple graph. A mapping C:E?[k] is called an acyclic edge k-colouring of G, if any two adjacent edges have different colours and there are no bichromatic cycles in G. In other words, for every pair of distinct colours i and j, the subgraph induced by all the edges which have either colour i or j

  11. Molecular Characterisation of Colour Formation in the Prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Nicole G.; Elizur, Abigail; Brooks, Peter; Kuballa, Anna V.; Anderson, Trevor A.; Knibb, Wayne R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. Results Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05) and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05) lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. Conclusions This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation. PMID:23441225

  12. Rehabilitation of a Total Maxillectomy Patient by Three Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh; Kumar, C.Dinesh; Sharma, Neeraj; S, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Rehabilitation of a patient with orbital defect is highly a challenging task, requiring an individualized design of the technique for each patient. The disfigurement associated with the loss of facial structures causes significant emotional stress and physical burdens.Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is the use of implants. Although implant-supported orbital prosthesis has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all the patients due to economic factors. The treatment of choice includes the silicone orbital prosthesis due to its life-like appearance. This article describes three different techniques, it’s advantages and limitations of fabricating a silicone orbital prosthesis for the same patient to achieve ideal fit and aesthetics. PMID:25478462

  13. Colour Guided Colour Image Steganography

    E-print Network

    Amirtharajan, R; Swarup, Motamarri Abhilash; K, Mohamed Ashfaaq; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2010-01-01

    Information security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic eavesdropping. Capacity, robustness and invisibility are important parameters in information hiding and are quite difficult to achieve in a single algorithm. This paper proposes a novel steganography technique for digital color image which achieves the purported targets. The professed methodology employs a complete random scheme for pixel selection and embedding of data. Of the three colour channels (Red, Green, Blue) in a given colour image, the least two significant bits of any one of the channels of the color image is used to channelize the embedding capacity of the remaining two channels. We have devised three approaches to achieve various levels of our desired targets. In the first approach, Red is the default guide but it results in localization of MSE in the remaining two channels, which makes it slightly vulnerable. In the second approach, user gets the liberty to select the guiding channel (Red, Green or Blue) to guide the r...

  14. Minimizing unsatisfaction in colourful neighbourhoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. Y. Michael; Saad, David

    2008-08-01

    Colouring sparse graphs under various restrictions is a theoretical problem of significant practical relevance. Here we consider the problem of maximizing the number of different colours available at the nodes and their neighbourhoods, given a predetermined number of colours. In the analytical framework of a tree approximation, carried out at both zero and finite temperatures, solutions obtained by population dynamics give rise to estimates of the threshold connectivity for the incomplete to complete transition, which are consistent with those of existing algorithms. The nature of the transition as well as the validity of the tree approximation are investigated.

  15. Inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape ( Brassica campestris L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schwetka

    1982-01-01

    The inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. Moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. Seed colour was predominantly but

  16. Subtle design changes control the difference in colour reflection from the dorsal and ventral wing-membrane surfaces of the damselfly Matronoides cyaneipennis.

    PubMed

    Nixon, M R; Orr, A G; Vukusic, P

    2013-01-28

    The hind wings of males of the damselfly Matronoides cyaneipennis exhibit iridescence that is blue dorsally and green ventrally. These structures are used semiotically in agonistic and courtship display. Transmission electron microscopy reveals these colours are due to two near-identical 5-layer distributed Bragg reflectors, one placed either side of the wing membrane. Interestingly the thicknesses of corresponding layers in each distributed Bragg reflector are very similar for all but the second layer from each outer surface. This one key difference creates the significant disparity between the reflected spectra from the distributed Bragg reflectors and the observed colours of either side of the wing. Modelling indicates that modifications to the thickness of this layer alone create a greater change in the peak reflected wavelength than is observed for similar modifications to the thickness of any other layer. This results in an optimised and highly effective pair of semiotic reflector systems, based on extremely comparable design parameters, with relatively low material and biomechanical costs. PMID:23389130

  17. Unusual effect colourants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Summaries  An unusual effect colourant is one that exhibits a colour change or some other unusual effect outside the traditional colour-imparting\\u000a properties of a colourant. Il also includes novel ways of producing colour.\\u000a \\u000a Many such effects are known and commercialised. For example, holograms and optically-variable pigments, which utilise the\\u000a interference of visible light, and the electrostatic and photoconductive effects used in

  18. INVESTIGATION OF RESPONSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have long been used to estimate the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) found in raw and finished drinking water. In recent years, computer automation and improved instrumental analysis technologies have created a ...

  19. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  20. Total Factor Productivity, Human Capital, and Outward Orientation: Differences by Stage of Development and Geographic Regions

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Total Factor Productivity, Human Capital, and Outward Orientation: Differences by Stage 2002 Abstract: Do openness and human capital accumulation promote economic growth? While intuition factor productivity that include, among many others, human capital, openness, and distortion of domestic

  1. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

  2. A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-10-01

    A novel colour-sensitive semiconductor detector is proposed. The device (named Transverse Field Detector (TFD)) can be used to measure the colour of the incident light without any colour filter. The device is completely compatible with standard CMOS processes and is suitable to be integrated in a pixel array for imaging purposes. The working principle is based on the capability of this device to collect at different superficial junctions the carriers, generated at different depths, by means of suitable transverse electric fields. The transverse components of the electric field are generated inside the depleted region by a suitable bias of the superficial junctions. Thanks to the differences in the light absorption coefficients at different wavelengths, the device performs colour separation. Among the advantages of this approach are the capability of an active tuning of the pixel colour response, which can be obtained just by changing the biasing values of collecting junctions, and foreseen higher colour fidelity, thanks to the easy extension to four colour pixels. First test structures of three colours TFD pixels were designed and built in a standard CMOS 90 nm technology. Operative principles of the device and first experimental results are presented.

  3. Colour polymorphism in birds: causes and functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Galeotti; D. Rubolini; P. O. Dunn; M. Fasola

    2003-01-01

    We studied polymorphism in all species of birds that are presently known to show intraspecific variation in plumage colour. At least three main mecha- nisms have been put forward to explain the maintenance of polymorphism: apostatic, disruptive and sexual selection. All of them make partly different predictions. Our aims were to investigate evolutionary causes and adaptive functions of colour polymorphism

  4. Colour mathematics: with graphs and numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2009-07-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just attempting to memorize them.

  5. Colour Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    The most common property to measure quality of any material is its appearance. Appearance includes colour, shape, size and surface conditions. The analysis of colour is especially an important consideration when determining the efficacy of variety of postharvest treatments. Consumers can easily be influenced by preconceived ideas of how a particular fruit or vegetable or a processed food should appear, and marketers often attempt to improve upon what nature has painted. Recently colour measurements have also been used as quality parameters and indicator of some inner constituents of the material. In spite of the significance of colour in food industries, many continue to analyze it inadequately. This chapter deals with theory of colour, colour scales and its measurement, sampling techniques, and modeling of colour values for correlating them with some internal quality parameters of selected fruits.

  6. Across light: through colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  7. East-West Coast differences in total electron content over the continental US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun-Rong Zhang; John C. Foster; Anthea J. Coster; Philip J. Erickson

    2011-01-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements made by a network of dense GPS receivers over the continental US are used to investigate ionospheric longitudinal differences. We find that the evening TEC is substantially higher on the US east coast than on the west, and vice versa for the morning TEC; the longitudinal difference displays a clear diurnal variation. Through an analysis

  8. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Chris J; Wilts, Bodo D; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J; Glover, Beverley J; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector. PMID:26139470

  9. The effect of colour space on tracking robustness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sebastian; Yap Vooi Voon; R. Comley

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of colour space on the performance of tracking algorithms. The colour spaces that were investigated were grayscale, RGB, YCbCr and HSV. The performance of a normalised cross correlation tracking algorithm was measured to determine robustness and accuracy in the different colour spaces. Track Detection Rate (TDR) and Object Tracking Standard Deviation (OTStd) were used to

  10. Three Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry using Colour Coded Light Sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. McGregor; B. Jeffries; D. J. Spence; D. W. Coutts

    Coding of depth in an image by use of multiple-coloured stacked-light sheets and digital colour imaging enables full three-dimensional analysis of particle fields. We present a reliable method of colour decoding using pixel hue to discern regions of different colour. We have used a Foveon™ X3 image sensor which exhibits a smoothly varying monotonic decrease in pixel hue over the

  11. Total electronic energy by tight binding approximation and experimental toughness of three different hybrid polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Olivi-Tran; A. Ferchichi; S. Calas; P. Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We computed by a modified tight binding approximation, the total electronic energy of three different hybrid polymers: $H-SiO_2$, $CH_3-SiO_2$ and $C_6H_5-SiO_2$. We made the hypothesis that the structures of these polymers are amorphous. Computational results regarding the total electronic energy and experimental data \\\\cite{ferchichi} on the toughness of these three hybrid polymers were compared. A good qualitative agreement was found

  12. Use of Descartes Folium Equation for Deriving a Relation between Total Aperture of Fractures after Uniaxial Compression and Strain Parameters of Different Rocks Exhibiting Negative Total Volumetric Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchik, V.

    2014-11-01

    The axial, crack and total volumetric strains, porosity, elastic constants, crack damage stresses, uniaxial compressive strengths, as well as fracture apertures and number of fracture traces in rock samples surface after compression were defined for different chalk, basalt, dolomite, granite, limestone and sandstone samples exhibiting negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is established that the total (summed) aperture of vertical fractures obtained on the lateral surface of rock sample is related to three characteristic strain parameters: axial strain at the onset of negative total volumetric strain, axial failure strain and negative total volumetric strain at failure. The relation is based on Descartes folium equation, where the length of the loop of folium is equal to axial strain coordinate at the onset of negative total volumetric strain. This relation shows that the total aperture increases according to power law with increasing difference between axial failure strain and axial strain at the onset of negative total volumetric strain. Simultaneously, an increase in this difference leads to an increase in the value of negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is found that a direct correlation between total aperture of fractures and negative total volumetric strain at failure is relatively weak. Nevertheless, total aperture of fractures tends to increase with increasing absolute value of negative total volumetric strain at failure. It is revealed that there is no connection between the number of fracture traces and negative total volumetric strain at failure.

  13. Colour constancy as counterfactual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Cohen

    2008-01-01

    There is nothing in this World constant but Inconstancy.[Swift 1711: 258]In this paper I argue that two standard characterizations of colour constancy are inadequate to the phenomenon. This inadequacy matters, since, I contend, philosophical appeals to colour constancy as a way of motivating illumination-independent conceptions of colour turn crucially on the shortcomings of these characterizations. After critically reviewing the standard

  14. Total quality management in the West, East and Russia: Are we different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Selivanova; Jan Eklöf

    2001-01-01

    The article is devoted to an analysis of the main differences and similarities in total quality management (TQM) practice in Western, Russian and Asian companies. Analytical results are based on comparative studies of data collected in 12 countries, Russia, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Australia, India, Sweden, England and New Zealand, in the 1990s. It is shown in the

  15. COMMUNITY SCALE STREAM TAXA SENSITIVITIES TO DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OF EXCESS TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Model stream chronic dosing studies (42 d) were conducted with three total dissolved solids (TDS) recipes. The recipes differed in composition of major ions. Community scale emergence was compared with single-species responses conducted simultaneously using the whole effluent tox...

  16. In vivo or in vitro application of vitamin E and the colour stability of low-oxygen packaged, sliced, pasteurised, differently cured pork shoulder model products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques H. Houben; Clemens V. M. Gerris

    2002-01-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin E vs the in vitro addition of vitamin E on the colour stability of pasteurised comminuted pork shoulder model products was studied. Products were either manufactured with normal amounts of nitrite and ascorbate or with reduced levels of the additives. Half of the samples of sliced products from control meat (CON), from control

  17. Consumer assessment of the effect of electrical stimulation on the colour and colour stability of Semimembranosus muscles.

    PubMed

    Powell, V H; Dickinson, R F; Shorthose, W R; Jones, P N

    1996-11-01

    The influence of effective low voltage electrical stimulation on the colour stability of beef topside (semimembranosus) muscles, during storage and retail display was studied using objective measurements and subjective assessments. Earlier results obtained from objective measurements demonstrated that during a three day retail display period, stimulated topsides had a greater loss of colour than non-stimulated topsides, and primal cuts aged for 33 days at 0 °C before display suffered faster changes to colour during retail presentation than cuts aged for 5 days. To relate results obtained using objective methods to consumer perceptions of meat quality, consumer perceptions of samples of meat displayed for 3 days in the retail cabinets of a major local supermarket were recorded. A total of 960 consumers were asked to evaluate topside steaks for meat and fat colour, meat discolouration and acceptability. During 3 days of retail display, consumers did not perceive differences in the extent of discolouration of topside steaks from electrically stimulated and non-stimulated carcasses; for the majority of the treatment groups (high or low pH muscles, 5 or 33 day ageing, 1-3 day retail display) there were no significant differences, for any of the scored attributes, between stimulated and non-stimulated samples. However, for samples in the fresh (5 days ageing), high pH (5.8-6.0) treatments group, lean meat colour and acceptability for the stimulated samples were, on some of the days on display, given significantly (P < 0.05) better ratings by the consumers than those from corresponding non-stimulated samples. PMID:22060831

  18. Multi-coloured stereograms unveil two binocular colour mechanisms in human vision

    E-print Network

    van Ee, Raymond

    in the two eyes be- cause of slightly different positions of the light source relative to the eyes. Anaglyphs patches placed in anaglyphs containing differ- ent colour combinations (Fig. 1a). It may take minutes

  19. Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

  20. Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to differing ozone regimes having identical total exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, Robert C.; Younglove, Theodore; McCool, Patrick M.

    Protocols were designed to test for differences in response of plants to ozone treatments having equal total exposure (concentration × time) but different exposure profiles Kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. California Dark Red) were exposed to ozone in controlled fumigation chambers within a greenhouse Four different ozone exposure profiles were used, each having the same total cumulative exposure (SUM00) and the same 7, 12 and 24 h seasonal means. The three exposure profiles which incorporated peak concentrations more severely impacted response parameters compared to a steady-state profile which did not exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Significant differences were found in percent necrotic leaf area, number of pods and top dry weight between exposure profiles. In additional analyses, the response parameters were regressed against seasonal cumulative ozone concentrations raised to powers of 0.33 and from 0.5 to 4 in steps of 0.5 in order to increase effective weighting of the higher concentrations. Total dry weight and leaf necrosis were best fit with the sum of the squared concentrations ( n = 2) while number of pods was best fit by the summed concentrations to the 3.5 power ( n = 3.5). These analyses suggest the peak ozone concentrations are important in determining plant response.

  1. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

  2. The many colours of 'the dress'.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Bloj, Marina; Toscani, Matteo

    2015-06-29

    There has been an intense discussion among the public about the colour of a dress, shown in a picture posted originally on Tumblr (http://swiked.tumblr.com/post/112073818575/guys-please-help-me-is-this-dress-white-and; accessed on 10:56 am GMT on Tue 24 Mar 2015). Some people argue that they see a white dress with golden lace, while others describe the dress as blue with black lace. Here we show that the question "what colour is the dress?" has more than two answers. In fact, there is a continuum of colour percepts across different observers. We measured colour matches on a calibrated screen for two groups of observers who had reported different percepts of the dress. Surprisingly, differences between the two groups arose mainly from differences in lightness, rather than chromaticity of the colours they adjusted to match the dress. We speculate that the ambiguity arises in the case of this particular image because the distribution of colours within the dress closely matches the distribution of natural daylights. This makes it more difficult to disambiguate illumination changes from those in reflectance. PMID:25981790

  3. Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J.; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies.

  4. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    PubMed Central

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; King, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality. PMID:12379153

  5. Colour Stability of Veneering Composites after Accelerated Aging

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Sarafianou, Aspasia; Hatzikyriakos, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the colour stability of four indirect composite restorative materials after accelerated aging. Methods: Four indirect composites (Gradia, Signum+, HFO and Adoro) were used. For each material, six specimens were prepared and subjected to accelerated aging (Suntest CPS+, Atlas, Chicago, IL, USA) according to ISO 7491. A Dr. Lange Microcolor Data Station colorimeter (Braive Instruments, Liege, Belgium) was used to measure specimen colour before and after aging. Measurements were performed according to the CIE L*a*b* system, and the mean L*, a* and b* values for each material were calculated. The equation ?E = [(?L*)2 + (?a*)2 + (?b*)2]1/2 was used to measure the total colour change (?E), where ?L*, ?a* and ?b* are the differences in the respective values before and after aging. One-way ANOVA were used to determine statistically significant differences in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E among the materials tested (P?L*=.063; P?a*=.521; P?b*=.984 and P?E=.408). After aging, Gradia specimens showed an increase in lightness (?L*=0.36) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.18, ?b*=0.6), while Signum+ specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=0.5) and a green-blue shift (?a*=?0.9, ?b*=?0.45). HFO specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=0.75) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.3, ?b*=0.06), and Adoro specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=2.07) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.3, ?b*=0.68). Conclusions: Colour changes were found to be within accepted values of perceptibility and clinical acceptance after accelerated aging, and no statistically significant differences were found in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E among the materials tested. PMID:20396443

  6. Seeing in colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotto, R. Beau; Clarke, Richard; Corney, David; Purves, Dale

    2011-03-01

    Understanding perception of colour is challenging because what we see is not always what is there, which is a phenomenon we call illusions. Here we review the nature of colour vision, and the problems facing most current models and explanations. Focusing on our recent research on humans, bees and computers, we describe a new, more ecologically based explanation that provides a clear framework for why we see what we do.

  7. Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model

    PubMed Central

    Gumbert, A.; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions at five ecologically distinct sites near Berlin, Germany. Bee-subjective colours were quantified for all 168 species. A model of colour vision was used to predict how similar the colours of sympatric and simultaneously blooming flowers were for bees. We then compared flower colour differences in the real habitats with those of random plant communities. We did not find pronounced deviations from chance when we considered common plants. When we examined rare plants, however, we found significant divergence in two of the five plant communities. At one site, similarly coloured species were found to be more frequent than expected, and at the other two locations, flower colours were indistinguishable from a random distribution. These results fit theoretical considerations that rare plants are under stronger selective pressure to secure pollination than common plants. Our study illustrates the power of linking such distinct biological traditions as community ecology and the neuroethology of bee vision.

  8. Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Denton, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

  9. Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Denton, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

  10. Detection of colour changes in a moving object.

    PubMed

    Kreegipuu, Kairi; Murd, Carolina; Allik, Jüri

    2006-05-01

    The colour-changing stimulus paradigm is based on a tacit assumption that kinematic attributes (velocity, movement direction) do not affect the detection of colour change (). In this study three experiments are reported that clearly demonstrate that the time needed to detect changes in colouration of a moving stimulus becomes shorter with its velocity. The reduction of reaction time with increase of velocity is a purely kinematic effect independent on the reduction of reaction time caused by the stimulus uncertainty effects. It is concluded that colour coding mechanisms are not totally ignorant about movement parameters. PMID:16387343

  11. Modelling kinetics of thermal degradation of colour in peach puree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. L. B. Ávila; C. L. M. Silva

    1999-01-01

    Optimisation of thermal processes relies on adequate degradation kinetic models for food safety and quality. In order to use peach puree as a model food to further validate calculated optimal conditions, isothermal experiments, using peach puree, were performed between 110°C and 135°C. Colour was quantified using the L, a, b system. Two combinations of these parameters, La\\/b and Total Colour

  12. Colour Matching in Decorative Thermally Sprayed Glass Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Thierry; Bertrand, Pierre; Coddet, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Coloured coatings were obtained on steel by plasma spraying without severe in-flight alteration of pigments, taking profit of the low thermal conductivity of the glassy matrix of glaze particles. Colour matching was studied by mixing 3 different glazes, comparing Grassmann and Kubelka-Munk based algorithms. Results suggest that the latter method should be preferred upon Grassmann method, particularly when the light absorption/dispersion ratios of coloured feedstocks are very different.

  13. Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation

    PubMed Central

    Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

  14. Colour fluctuations in grapheme-colour synaesthesia: The effect of clinical and non-clinical mood changes.

    PubMed

    Kay, Collette L; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ruffell, Henry E; Simner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme-colour synaesthetes (who experience colours from letters/digits) and elicited their synaesthetic colours, as well as their mood and depression states, in two different testing sessions. In each session, participants completed the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1999) and the BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II), and chose their synaesthetic colours for letters A-Z from an interactive colour palette. We found that negative mood significantly decreased the luminance of synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 2, we showed that synaesthetic colours were also less luminant for synaesthetes with anxiety disorder, versus those without. Additional evidence suggests that colour saturation, too, may inversely correlate with depressive symptoms. These results show that fluctuations in mood within both a normal and clinical range influence synaesthetic colours over time. This has implications for our understanding about the longitudinal stability of synaesthetic experiences, and of how mood may interact with the visual (imagery) systems. PMID:25413977

  15. Revision of late periprosthetic infections of total hip endoprostheses: pros and cons of different concepts

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Many concepts have been devised for the treatment of late periprosthetic infections of total hip prostheses. A two-stage revision with a temporary antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and a cemented prosthesis appears to be the most preferred procedure although, in recent times, there seems to be a trend towards cementless implants and a shorter period of antibiotic treatment. Because of the differences in procedure, not only between studies but also within studies, it cannot be decided which period of parenteral antibiotic treatment and which spacer period is the most suitable. The fact that comparable rates of success can be achieved with different treatment regimens emphasises the importance of surgical removal of all foreign materials and the radical debridement of all infected and ischaemic tissues and the contribution of these crucial procedures to the successful treatment of late periprosthetic infections. PMID:19834595

  16. Evaluation of the total fetomaternal vitamin D relationships at term: evidence for racial differences.

    PubMed

    Hollis, B W; Pittard, W B

    1984-10-01

    The present study assessed the total fetomaternal vitamin D relationship at term in 12 white and 10 black mothers and their infants. Antirachitic sterols were extracted from plasma, chromatographed, and finally quantitated using competitive protein binding assays. Compounds quantitated included vitamins D2 and D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. There was a strong correlation between maternal and neonatal plasma concentrations of all antirachitic sterols measured with the exception of vitamins D2 and D3. Vitamins D2 and D3, although detectable in maternal plasma, were undetectable in neonatal plasma. Racial comparisons demonstrated that vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 25,26-(OH)2-D3 were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in white than in black mothers. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-hydroxyvitamin D were also significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in white than in black mothers. A similar pattern was found in black and white infants except for 25,26-(OH)2-D3. Black mothers and their infants had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D3 compared to the white subjects, although total 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D was not different between races. No significant racial (P greater than 0.05) differences were found for any of the vitamin D2 compounds. The results support the concept that fetomaternal vitamin D status are intimately related. Further, they strongly suggest that fetal metabolism begins with 25-hydroxyvitamin D rather than vitamin D. Finally, racial factors appear to influence the overall vitamin D status of both mother and fetus, and may influence antirachitic sterol metabolism. PMID:6090493

  17. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

  18. Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

    2005-04-01

    Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods. PMID:15808892

  19. Are hip hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty infections different entities? The importance of hip fractures.

    PubMed

    del Toro, M D; Nieto, I; Guerrero, F; Corzo, J; del Arco, A; Palomino, J; Nuño, E; Lomas, J M; Natera, C; Fajardo, J M; Delgado, J; Torres-Tortosa, M; Romero, A; Martín-Rico, P; Muniain, M Á; Rodríguez-Baño, J

    2014-08-01

    Hip hemiarthroplasty (HHA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) infections are usually considered as one entity; however, they may show important differences. We analyze these differences, as well as predictors of treatment failure (TF) and poor functional status among patients with prosthetic hip infections (PHIs). A multicenter cohort study of consecutive patients with PHIs was performed. The main outcome variable was TF after the first surgical treatment performed to treat the infection. Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors of TF. A total of 127 patients with PHI were included (43 HHA, 84 THA). Patients with HHA infections were more frequently women (88% vs. 54%; p?differences in epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome. Although patients with HHA infections had a higher risk of TF, this was related to the reason for hip implant: a hip fracture. Success of the initial management of infection is a predictor of better clinical and functional outcome. PMID:24671411

  20. Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S; Dick, F; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J; Soutar, A; Seaton, A; Haites, N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate loss of colour vision related to exposure to solvents and the role of three enzyme polymorphisms in modifying the risk in exposed workers.?METHODS—A sample was studied of 68 male dockyard workers and 42 male community controls with and without neuropsychological symptoms from a previous cross sectional study. Indices of cumulative and intensity based exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested by Lanthony D15d colour vision test. Genotype of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined.?RESULTS—The relation between impairment of colour vision and exposure to solvents was investigated with multiple regression techniques. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was significantly associated with reduced colour vision (p=0.029). Impairment of colour vision was not associated with neuropsychological symptoms as measured by the Q16 solvent symptom questionnaire. No significant association was found between acquired impairment of colour vision and genetic polymorphisms when GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 phenotypes were included in the analyses.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment in colour vision, the risk increases with increasing exposure. The risk of impairment of colour vision was not altered in this study by the presence of different GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 polymorphisms.???Keywords: colour vision; organic solvents; genetic polymorphisms PMID:10935938

  1. Bending of light caused by gravitation: the same result via totally different philosophies

    E-print Network

    Tolga Yarman; Alexander Kholmetskii; Metin Arik

    2014-01-14

    We offer a concise and direct way to derive the bending angle of light (i.e. as generally called, gravitational lensing), while light grazes a star, through the approach suggested earlier by the first author, which is fundamentally based on the energy conservation law and the weak equivalence principle. We come out with the same result as that of the general theory of relativity (GTR), although the philosophies behind are totally different from each other. We emphasize that in our approach, there is no need to draw a distinction between light and ordinary matter, which makes our approach of gravity potentially compatible with quantum mechanics. Furthermore, our equation that furnishes gravitational lensing, also furnishes the result about the precession of the perihelion of a planet. The results obtained are discussed.

  2. Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

  3. OCoc- from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, B.; Overduin, P. P.; Schirrmeister, L.; Lantuit, H.; Doerffer, R.

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced permafrost warming and increased arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. The ‘OCoc-from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon’ project (IPY-project 1176), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), is an Ocean Colour study joined with the Arctic Coastal Dynamics ACD network and Arctic Circum-polar Coastal Observatory Network ACCO-Net (IPY-project 90). OCoc uses Ocean Colour satellite data for synoptical monitoring of organic matter fluxes from fluvial and coastal sources. Initial results from German-Russian expeditions at the southeastern Laptev Sea Coast (Arctic Siberia, Russia) in August 2008 and August 2009 are presented. Large parts of this coastal zone are characterized by highly erosive organic-rich material. Ocean Colour MERIS Reduced Resolution (RR)-LIB data of the have been processed towards optical aquatic parameters using Beam-Visat4.2 and the MERIS case2 regional processor for coastal application (C2R). Calculated aquatic parameters are absorption and backscattering coefficients, apparent optical properties such as the first attenuation depth (‘Z90’) and calculated concentrations of chlorophyll, total suspended matter and coloured dissolved organic matter absorption from the water leaving reflectances. Initial comparisons with expedition data (Secchi depths, cDOM) show that the MERIS-C2R optical parameters ’total absorption’ and the first attenuation depth, ’Z90’, seem adequately to represent true conditions. High attenuation values in the spectral blue wavelength range may serve as tracer for the organic-rich terrigenous input. The synoptic information of Ocean Colour products will provide valuable spatial and dynamical information on the Organic Carbon and sediment fluxes from the Siberian permafrost coast.

  4. Colour and translucency of tooth-coloured orthodontic brackets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Keun Lee

    SUMMARY The objective of this study was to determine the refl ected and transmitted colours and the diffuse light transmittance of tooth-coloured brackets. Four ceramic and four plastic brands were evaluated and fi ve brackets of each brand were tested. Refl ected colour and spectral refl ectance of the labial surface of the brackets were measured according to the Commission

  5. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    E-print Network

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-06-17

    documented the role of water in the modification of structural colour. For example, iridescent 154 feathers of mourning doves Zenaida macroura increased in overall reflectance by almost 50% 155 following the addition of water 38. The cuticle of Chondrus... -of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci 371 USA, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323611111 (2014). 372 38 Shawkey, M. D. et al. Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of 373 iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura...

  6. Investigation of Hemispherical Differences in Total Electron Content During Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, K. R.; Coster, A. J.; Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of geomagnetic storms on the total electron content (TEC) varies as a function of longitude, season, and hemisphere. None of these differences in TEC are fully understood. Using the TEC data from the ground-based GPS receiver network in the Madrigal database, we analyze the data from 2009 until 2014 in the polar regions from 60 to 90 degrees and -60 to -90 degrees, in the mid-latitudes from 30 to 60 degrees and -30 to -60 degrees, and the equatorial regions from 0 to 30 degrees and 0 to -30 degrees. Our processing started in 2009 due to the better coverage in the GPS ground network in the southern hemisphere in this solar cycle. Case studies are selected from different seasons and longitudes to compare and contrast quiet-time TEC and storm-associated TEC in both hemispheres. We first identify a seasonal dependence of the hourly TEC by analyzing hourly averages in a three-day period around the solstices and equinoxes from 2009 to 2013. Then, we examine storm-time effects on the TEC by examining the hourly averaged TEC in a three day window around a particular storm. We investigate a hypothesis that 1900 UT and 700 UT are favorable times for storm enhanced density (SED) in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively.

  7. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age. PMID:22317623

  8. A comparison of the closed-face cassette at different orientations while measuring total particles.

    PubMed

    Cook, David M; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

    2015-01-01

    The current method for sampling aerosols using the 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) sampler is based on the orientation of the cassette at ?45° from horizontal. There is some concern as to whether this method is appropriate and may be underestimating exposures. An alternative orientation at ?0° (horizontal) has been discussed. This research compared the CFC's orientation at 45° from horizontal to the proposed orientation at horizontal, 0° in a controlled laboratory setting. The particles used in this study were fused alumina oxide in four sizes, approximately 9.5 ?m, 12.8 ?m, 18 ?m, and 44.3 ?m in aerodynamic diameter. For each test, one aerosol was dispersed in a wind tunnel operating at 0.2 m/s with samplers mounted in the breathing zone of a rotating mannequin. A sampling event consisted of four pairs of samplers, placed side by side (one pair at 45° and another at 0° cassette orientation), and exposed for a period of 45 minutes. A total of 12 sampling events, 3 sample events per particle size, were conducted with a total of 94 samples collected. Mass concentration measurements were compared to assess the relationship between the sampler orientations of the cassettes. In addition, the relationship between the mass collected on the cassette filter and on the interior walls of the cassette was also assessed. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the measured concentrations based on the orientation of the CFCs. The amount of mass collected on the interior walls of the cassettes was relatively low (<5%) compared to expected (up to 100%) wall losses for both orientations. PMID:25337937

  9. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been found to be of great value in assessing blood flow in many clinical conditions. Although the method for obtaining the velocity information is in many ways similar to the method for obtaining the anatomical information, it is technically more demanding for a number of reasons. It also has a number of weaknesses, perhaps the greatest being that in conventional systems, the velocities measured and thus displayed are the components of the flow velocity directly towards or away from the transducer, while ideally the method would give information about the magnitude and direction of the three-dimensional flow vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new techniques that seek to overcome the vector problem mentioned above are described. Finally, some examples of vector velocity images are presented. PMID:22866227

  10. Learning of colour and position cues in domestic chicks: Males are better at position, females at colour.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, G

    1996-06-01

    Male and female chicks were trained to discriminate between two boxes for food reinforcement. The correct box was indicated by a colour cue (red or brown) and a position cue (right or left). After learning, the colour and the position cues were dissociated: the right-left location of the two boxes was alternated between trials according to a semi-random sequence.The chicks were thus retrained to discriminate either on the basis of colour (irrespective of position) or on the basis of position (irrespective of colour). There were no sex differences, during training, with both position and colour cues. However, during re-training females performed better on the colour learning task and males performed better on the position learning task. PMID:24896877

  11. The acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty. Evaluation of different fixation principles.

    PubMed

    Thanner, J

    1999-08-01

    Initial stability is necessary for permanent fixation of acetabular cups. Biologic reactions to submicron particles such as localized bone resorption may lead to implant failure. The aim of the study was to evaluate different fixation principles of acetabular components. Four randomized studies and one case-control study were performed to evaluate different bone cements, different cup designs, use of ceramic coating or not, different type of screws and the need of additional screw fixation or not. Radiostereometry (RSA) makes it possible to analyze small translations and rotations of implants with a high accuracy. This method is suitable for evaluation of early stability and was used in four of the studies. Clinical and radiological follow-up were performed regularly. The cements were tested in the laboratory. 30 patients (mean age 71 years, range: 63-76) received total hip arthroplasties and were randomised to fixation with Boneloc (14) or Palacos cum gentamicin (16) bone cement. The curing temperature was 23 degrees lower for the Boneloc cement but the tensile strength was reduced and the elastic modulus was lower compared to Palacos. The proximal cup migration was greater in the Boneloc group up to 12 months (p 0.04) and these cups migrated medially in contrast to a small lateral migration seen in the Palacos group (p 0.04). Radiolucencies were more pronounced in the Boneloc group at 12 months (p 0.04). 155 patients (171 hips, mean age 50 years, range: 24-64) received uncemented hip arthroplasties. 84 hips were randomised to the PCA and 87 to the Harris-Galante I designs. The 10-year survival rates were 85% for the PCA and 99% for the Harris-Galante I cups (revision as end-point). The wear and clinical results did not differ. 43 patients (mean age 60 years, range 44-68) received uncemented porous cups with a titanium mesh in pure titanium (Harris-Galante II) and were randomised to additional fixation with either biodegradable screws (23, poly-L-lactic acid, PLLA) or screws made of titanium alloy (20). Increased proximal and medial-lateral translations (p 0.02, 0.04) but less rotation around the longitudinal axis (p 0.04) were seen in the PLLA group up to 2 years. There were also more pronounced radiolucencies anteriorly in this group at 2 years. The clinical results did not differ. 23 uncemented porous cups (Harris-Galante II) with hydroxyapatite-tricalciumphosphate coating (HA/TCP) were pair-wise matched to uncoated cups. Up to 2 years, decreased rotations around the horizontal axis were recorded in the HA/TCP-coated cups. Central postoperative gaps were more frequently seen in the HA/TCP group (p < 0.01), but at 2 years radiolucencies were more pronounced in the uncoated group (p < 0.01). The wear and clinical results did not differ. 62 patients (64 hips, mean age 56 years, range: 32-75) were randomized to porous Trilogy cups with (30) and without (34) cluster holes for additional screw fixation. Up to 2 years there were no differences in migration, wear, radiographic findings or clinical results. In conclusion Boneloc cement was associated with poor fixation due to inferior mechanical properties. The PLLA screws did not provide sufficient stability. Unacceptably high failure rates were recorded for the PCA cup. HA/TCP coating improved the fixation and the interface of porous cups. HA/TCP coated porous cups can be fixed without adjunctive screw fixation. PMID:10572504

  12. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy

    2013-01-01

    The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of colour traits, the function of colours in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of colour evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in colour, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of colour expression; (c) studies of colour-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of colour and colour patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) colour-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female colours are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on colour expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of colours in response to physiological stress and ageing and are hence likely to be appropriate models for work on the interactions between handicaps, indicator traits, parasitology and immunoecology. PMID:23578866

  13. Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. E. Siebeck; N. J. Marshall; A. Klüter; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of the extent of coral bleaching has become an important part of studies that aim to understand the condition of coral reefs. In this study a reference card that uses differences in coral colour was developed as an inexpensive, rapid and non-invasive method for the assessment of bleaching. The card uses a 6 point brightness\\/saturation scale within four colour

  14. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  15. Spatio-temporal colour correction of strongly degraded movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, A. B. M. Tariqul; Farup, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    The archives of motion pictures represent an important part of precious cultural heritage. Unfortunately, these cinematography collections are vulnerable to different distortions such as colour fading which is beyond the capability of photochemical restoration process. Spatial colour algorithms-Retinex and ACE provide helpful tool in restoring strongly degraded colour films but, there are some challenges associated with these algorithms. We present an automatic colour correction technique for digital colour restoration of strongly degraded movie material. The method is based upon the existing STRESS algorithm. In order to cope with the problem of highly correlated colour channels, we implemented a preprocessing step in which saturation enhancement is performed in a PCA space. Spatial colour algorithms tend to emphasize all details in the images, including dust and scratches. Surprisingly, we found that the presence of these defects does not affect the behaviour of the colour correction algorithm. Although the STRESS algorithm is already in itself more efficient than traditional spatial colour algorithms, it is still computationally expensive. To speed it up further, we went beyond the spatial domain of the frames and extended the algorithm to the temporal domain. This way, we were able to achieve an 80 percent reduction of the computational time compared to processing every single frame individually. We performed two user experiments and found that the visual quality of the resulting frames was significantly better than with existing methods. Thus, our method outperforms the existing ones in terms of both visual quality and computational efficiency.

  16. Measuring the colour of rendering mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

    2014-05-01

    When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (?E*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

  17. Total parenteral nutrition needs in different types of short bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Gouttebel; B. Saint-Aubert; C. Astre; H. Joyeux

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with short bowel syndrome after extensive small bowel resection, with or without associated partial or total colectomy, received continuous total parenteral nutrition followed by discontinuous parenteral nutrition. Home parenteral nutrition was introduced in 16 of these patients; in eight it was permanent. The assessment of nutritional status included body weight; standard urinary and blood studies; albumin, prealbumin, and

  18. Colour and translucency of tooth-coloured orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reflected and transmitted colours and the diffuse light transmittance of tooth-coloured brackets. Four ceramic and four plastic brands were evaluated and five brackets of each brand were tested. Reflected colour and spectral reflectance of the labial surface of the brackets were measured according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) colour scale and transmitted colour and diffuse spectral transmittance measured with a spectrophotometer. One-way analyses of variance were performed for the reflected and transmitted colour co-ordinates (CIE L*, a*, and b*) and for light transmittance according to bracket brand. The range for CIE L* (lightness) was 36.2-50.3, for a* (red-green parameter) -1.3-3.8 and for b* (yellow-blue parameter) -2.9-11.2. All these colour co-ordinates were influenced by bracket brand (P < 0.05). Diffuse light transmittance was also influenced by bracket brand and ranged from 44.9 to 75.9 per cent (P < 0.05). Colour and transmittance varied by bracket brand. Variations in optical properties influenced the aesthetic performance of the brackets and the degree of cure of the adhesive that is possible through the brackets. Further studies on the clinical implications of colour matching of tooth-coloured brackets with teeth should now be performed. PMID:18390838

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Jensen

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a Petri net model, called Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), where information is attached to each token.\\u000a The information can be inspected and modified when a transition fires. For most applications, this generalization of ordinary\\u000a Petri nets allows the user to make more manageable descriptions, due to the fact that equal subnets can be folded into each\\u000a other,

  20. Colouring Space -A Coloured Framework for Spatial Modelling in Systems Biology

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, David

    framework [20] ­ coloured qualitative Petri nets (QPNC ), coloured stochastic Petri nets (SPNC ), coloured continuous Petri nets (CPNC ), and coloured hybrid Petri nets (HPNC ); Fig. 1 recalls our coloured frameworkColouring Space - A Coloured Framework for Spatial Modelling in Systems Biology David Gilbert1

  1. Organic compounds of different extractability in total solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the total solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with different levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, ?-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.

  2. On the colour-colour properties of the Extremely Red Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, S.; Wiklind, T.

    2004-01-01

    The colours of the galaxy class known as Extremely Red Objects (EROs; R-K>5) are considered to be consistent with two distinct galaxy populations at high redshift: evolved ellipticals or young dusty starbursts. In this paper the properties of EROs, spanned by the five photometric bands RIJHK, are investigated as to the possibility to distinguish between these two galaxy populations using only broad band photometry. The broad band colours of elliptical and starburst galaxies at redshifts up to 5 are computed from synthetic spectra obtained using the spectral evolution synthesis programme PÉGASE.2. Two initial mass functions and a range of metallicities and extinctions are used. In order to be extremely red in the redshift range considered, the evolution of the R-K colour sets the requirement that ellipticals have to be less than 7-8 Gyr old, and that the starbursts must have colour excesses of E(B-V)>1, as derived from the nebular emission lines. In investigating the overlap in the different colour-colour planes as a function of redshift, it is found that the planes formed from permutations of the same three filters exhibit very similar overlap characteristics. In colour-colour planes formed within such triplets one of the filters will serve as a ``pivot'' band against which the two other bands are compared. The configuration where this pivot band lies between the other two bands has the best performance as a discriminator among the three possible configurations. A consistent behaviour cannot be found among the configurations formed by permuting four filters. The minimal filter configuration R-H vs. H-K is found to be the very best discriminator, working as such up to redshift 2.9.

  3. Demographic variation between colour patterns in a temperate protogynous hermaphrodite, the ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Fabeiro, Mariña; Bañón, Rafael; Saborido-Rey, Fran

    2013-01-01

    Fish populations are often treated as homogeneous units in typical fishery management, thereby tacitly ignoring potential intraspecific variation which can lead to imprecise management rules. However, intraspecific variation in life-history traits is widespread and related to a variety of factors. We investigated the comparative age-based demography of the two main colour patterns of Labrus bergylta (plain and spotted, which coexist in sympatry), a commercially valuable resource in the NE Atlantic. Individuals were aged based on otolith readings after validating the annual periodicity of annuli deposition. The relationships between the otolith weight and fish age and between otolith length and fish length were strong but differed between colour patterns. The fit of the growth models to the age and length data resulted in divergent growth curves between colour morphotypes and between sexes. Males and spotted individuals attained larger mean asymptotic sizes (Linf ) than females and plain individuals, respectively, but converged to them more slowly (smaller k). Estimates of mortality based on catch curves from two independent datasets provided a global total mortality (Z) of 0.35 yr(-1), although Z was larger in plain and female individuals. Overall, the results of this research have direct implications for management of L. bergylta and, as a precautionary measure, we recommend considering both colour patterns as two different management units. PMID:24058404

  4. Demographic Variation between Colour Patterns in a Temperate Protogynous Hermaphrodite, the Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Fabeiro, Mariña; Bañón, Rafael; Saborido-Rey, Fran

    2013-01-01

    Fish populations are often treated as homogeneous units in typical fishery management, thereby tacitly ignoring potential intraspecific variation which can lead to imprecise management rules. However, intraspecific variation in life-history traits is widespread and related to a variety of factors. We investigated the comparative age-based demography of the two main colour patterns of Labrus bergylta (plain and spotted, which coexist in sympatry), a commercially valuable resource in the NE Atlantic. Individuals were aged based on otolith readings after validating the annual periodicity of annuli deposition. The relationships between the otolith weight and fish age and between otolith length and fish length were strong but differed between colour patterns. The fit of the growth models to the age and length data resulted in divergent growth curves between colour morphotypes and between sexes. Males and spotted individuals attained larger mean asymptotic sizes (Linf) than females and plain individuals, respectively, but converged to them more slowly (smaller k). Estimates of mortality based on catch curves from two independent datasets provided a global total mortality (Z) of 0.35 yr–1, although Z was larger in plain and female individuals. Overall, the results of this research have direct implications for management of L. bergylta and, as a precautionary measure, we recommend considering both colour patterns as two different management units. PMID:24058404

  5. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

  6. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

    2008-01-01

    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

  7. Optimality of the basic colour categories for classification

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lewis D

    2005-01-01

    Categorization of colour has been widely studied as a window into human language and cognition, and quite separately has been used pragmatically in image-database retrieval systems. This suggests the hypothesis that the best category system for pragmatic purposes coincides with human categories (i.e. the basic colours). We have tested this hypothesis by assessing the performance of different category systems in a machine-vision task. The task was the identification of the odd-one-out from triples of images obtained using a web-based image-search service. In each triple, two of the images had been retrieved using the same search term, the other a different term. The terms were simple concrete nouns. The results were as follows: (i) the odd-one-out task can be performed better than chance using colour alone; (ii) basic colour categorization performs better than random systems of categories; (iii) a category system that performs better than the basic colours could not be found; and (iv) it is not just the general layout of the basic colours that is important, but also the detail. We conclude that (i) the results support the plausibility of an explanation for the basic colours as a result of a pressure-to-optimality and (ii) the basic colours are good categories for machine vision image-retrieval systems. PMID:16849219

  8. Ploidy analysis of azalea flower colour sports.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, S; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; Debergh, P

    2001-01-01

    Flower colour variegation is not only a phenomenon of importance to horticulture, the phenotype involved is also often used as a scientific model system for the study of complex gene regulation processes. In the course of such studies on azalea, we observed a correlation between flower colour patterns, flower morphology and somatic polyploidy. Using high-resolution flow cytometry of nuclear DNA, the ploidy level was determined in flowers of different azalea sport families. Sports exhibiting variegated flowers with broad (> 7mm), differently coloured, petal edges (picotee type) proved to be tetraploid in the petal edge while diploid in the rest of the flower tissue. Neither flower colour pattern nor ploidy differences are chimeral in origin, but seem to be correlated with the topographic location of the cells within the flower tissue, i.e. the margin of the petals. The possible role of gene dosage effects and cell size involved in the remarkable correlation between somatic polyploidy, (flavonoid) gene expression and the flower morphology is discussed. PMID:15954634

  9. Dichromats Detect Colour-Camouflaged Objects that are not Detected by Trichromats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Morgan; A. Adam; J. D. Mollon

    1992-01-01

    To explain the surprisingly high frequency of congenital red--green colour blindness, the suggestion has been made that dichromats might be at an advantage in breaking certain kinds of colour camouflage. We have compared the performance of dichromats and normal observers in a task in which texture is camouflaged by colour. The texture elements in a target area differed in either

  10. Odour and colour polymorphism in the food-deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza romana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Salzmann; F. P. Schiestl

    2007-01-01

    The food deceptive orchid, Dactylorhiza romana (Sebastiani) Soó exhibits a colour polymorphism with yellow, red, and intermediate orange morphs. In this study we tested\\u000a if floral odour differed among the three distinct colour morphs. We identified 23 odour compounds in D. romana, and all of them occurred in the three colour morphs. Monoterpenes dominated the floral scent. On the basis

  11. Introduction The skin, scales, feathers, and fur of animals can be coloured

    E-print Network

    Montgomerie, Bob

    #12;380 Introduction The skin, scales, feathers, and fur of animals can be coloured by feather nanostructures, termed structural colours, can be further subdivided into iridescent and non by coherent scattering of light waves within feathers, but these two types of colouration differ

  12. [Estimation of the total and active microbial biomass in burial mound paleosoils of a different age].

    PubMed

    Khomutova, T E; Demkina, T S; Demkin, V A

    2004-01-01

    Microorganisms that were isolated from steppe soils buried below kurgans from 5800 to 750 years ago were analyzed for the completeness of isolation, total biomass (the sum of glucose-reactivated and resting microbial cells), and active biomass (metabolically active cells). The metabolic state of microbial communities in buried and modern background soils was estimated from the proportion of active and total biomasses. The paleosoils were found to be characterized by lower total and active biomasses and a lower proportion of active microorganisms as compared to the modern background soils. The age-dependent decrease in the content of active microorganisms in the microbial communities of palesoils was not monotonic. For instance, the 4000-year-old paleosoil was characterized by a high total biomass and a relatively low content of active microorganisms, whereas the 1950-year-old paleosoil was characterized by a relatively low total biomass and a relatively high content of active microorganisms. This could reflect the temporal dynamics of paleoclimatic conditions in the geographic region under study. PMID:15198037

  13. Coloured marking inside glass by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligbado, Grace; Horn, Alexander; Kreutz, Ernst W.; Krauss, Manfred M.; Siedow, Norbert; Hensel, Hartmut

    2005-11-01

    Laser labelling inside glass induces micro-cracks by high energy densities in the focus. The micro-cracks reduce the mechanical stability of glass. Light scattering allows the observer to perceive the cracks as white pixels. Coloured marking of glass in this manner is not possible. Coloured marking inside glass by changing the oxidation state of the metal ions locally in the focus does not weaken the mechanical properties of the glass. Two kind of glass systems, lime-natron-silicate and borosilicate with 0.5 % mass-content of doping are investigated. The simultaneous presence of donators and acceptors allows a transition of electrons between polyvalent ions, and can lead to permanent colour-centres inside the glass, due to the fact that the absorption of the polyvalent ions is changed by the laser-induced conversion process. For this purpose a 3 ? Nd:YAG (wavelength ?L = 355 nm, pulse duration t = 10 to 80 ns) and a Ti:Sapphire solid-state laser (wavelength ?L = 810 nm, pulse duration t = 200 fs) are used. The radiation parameters and the chemical composition of the glass (mainly doping) are the dominant factors to generate coloured marking. The transmittance as a function of the fluence and the change of the absorption coefficient is measured and gives a statement of the colourshade. Further the difference between lime-natron-silicate and borosilicate glass (same doping variety) is examined. Actually mauve, yellow, red-brown an grey colouring can be produced. Cracks in the microstructure of glass can also be the cause for brown colour-centres generating.

  14. Colour misbinding during motion rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Ryan T.; Lam, Sarah K.; Clifford, Colin W. G.

    2013-01-01

    When two dissimilar colours are displayed to the two eyes at overlapping retinal locations, binocular rivalry typically results: a fluctuating struggle for perceptual dominance of each eye's stimulus. We found instead that isoluminant counter-rotating patterns consisting of coloured and achromatic portions can promote an illusory colour ‘misbinding’, where the colours from both eyes were perceived within a single rotating pattern. The achromatic portion of one rotating pattern thus appeared to take on the colour of the other, oppositely rotating pattern. The results suggest that the neural mechanisms of colour binding can operate even while representations of the same patterns' motions are undergoing rivalry, and support the idea that rivalry can occur in isolation within the motion system. PMID:23173191

  15. Total body potassium differs by sex and race across the adult age span1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing He; Moonseong Heo; Stanley Heshka; Jack Wang; Richard N Pierson Jr; Jeanine Albu; Zimian Wang; Steven B Heymsfield; Dympna Gallagher

    Background: Total body potassium (TBK) is an index of fat-free mass. Data describing changes in TBK in African American, Asian, or Hispanic populations have not been reported. Objective: The aim was to investigate possible sex and racial dif- ferences in TBK in adults over an age range of 70 y. Design: The study used longitudinal and cross-sectional data col- lected

  16. Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2015-03-01

    All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness. PMID:25452008

  17. Lighting environment predicts the relative abundance of male colour morphs in bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) populations.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Rebecca C

    2002-01-01

    Animal communication occurs when an animal emits a signal, the signal is transmitted through the environment, and then detected by the receiver. The environment in which signalling occurs should govern the efficacy of this process. In this study, I examine the relationship of lighting environment (light transmission and tree cover), location and the relative abundances of male colour morphs across seven drainages and 30 populations in the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei. I found that males with blue anal fins were more common in populations with low transmission of ultraviolet (UV) and blue wavelengths. By contrast, males with red anal fins (and to a lesser extent, males with yellow anal fins) were more common in populations with high transmission of UV and blue wavelengths. High UV-blue light transmission should create a blue visual background and may make blue males less conspicuous and red males more conspicuous to conspecifics. Colour contrast with the visual background may be more important than total brightness of the colour pattern. These results indicate that natural selection for effective intraspecific communication drives the relative abundance of male colour morphs in different lighting habitats. PMID:12137575

  18. Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

  19. Total parenteral nutrition needs in different types of short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gouttebel, M C; Saint-Aubert, B; Astre, C; Joyeux, H

    1986-07-01

    Thirty-nine patients with short bowel syndrome after extensive small bowel resection, with or without associated partial or total colectomy, received continuous total parenteral nutrition followed by discontinuous parenteral nutrition. Home parenteral nutrition was introduced in 16 of these patients; in eight it was permanent. The assessment of nutritional status included body weight; standard urinary and blood studies; albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin serum levels; and both urinary and fecal nitrogen. A statistically significant correlation (P less than 0.001) was observed between the length of the remaining small bowel and the necessary duration of nutritional support. Multivariate analysis allowed us to classify patients into three groups as a function of remaining gut length and the duration of required nutritional support. This study should help to define the best nutritional support protocol for patients with various short bowel syndromes in order to ensure the best possible intestinal adaptation and to improve their quality of life. PMID:3087714

  20. Maximum total organic carbon limits at different DWPF melter feed maters (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The document presents information on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits that are allowable in the DWPF melter feed without forming a potentially flammable vapor in the off-gas system were determined at feed rates varying from 0.7 to 1.5 GPM. At the maximum TOC levels predicted, the peak concentration of combustible gases in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the lower flammable limit during a 3X off-gas surge, provided that the indicated melter vapor space temperature and the total air supply to the melter are maintained. All the necessary calculations for this study were made using the 4-stage cold cap model and the melter off-gas dynamics model. A high-degree of conservatism was included in the calculational bases and assumptions. As a result, the proposed correlations are believed to by conservative enough to be used for the melter off-gas flammability control purposes.

  1. Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

  2. Total Mercury Concentrations among Fish and Crayfish Inhabiting Different Trophic Levels in Lake Whatcom, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl W. Mueller; David M. Serdar

    2002-01-01

    Tissue samples from six species of fish and one species of crayfish from Lake Whatcom, Washington were analyzed for total mercury content in late spring 2000. Predaceous smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) displayed the highest levels of mercury (mean ± SE, range = 0.49 ± 0.03, 0.10 ? 1.84 mg\\/kg, n = 95), followed by omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens; 0.20

  3. Patellofemoral complications after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: A comparison of 2 different implant designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Anderson; David L. Becker; Travis Kieckbusch

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective review of 2 consecutive series of posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) to evaluate patellofemoral complications, in particular, significant patellofemoral crepitance or patellar clunk syndrome. Twenty posterior-stabilized Axiom PSK (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN) TKAs (group 1) were compared with 20 posterior cruciateNsacrificed Advance medial pivot (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN) TKAs (group 2). The average age

  4. A colourful clock.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Hester C; Foster, Russell G; Meijer, Johanna H

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains) the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4). The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned. PMID:25996907

  5. Background matching ability and the maintenance of a colour polymorphism in the red devil cichlid.

    PubMed

    Sowersby, W; Lehtonen, T K; Wong, B B M

    2015-02-01

    The evolution and maintenance of colour polymorphisms remains a topic of considerable research interest. One key mechanism thought to contribute to the coexistence of different colour morphs is a bias in how conspicuous they are to visual predators. Although individuals of many species camouflage themselves against their background to avoid predation, differently coloured individuals within a species may vary in their capacity to do so. However, to date, very few studies have explicitly investigated the ability of different colour morphs to plastically adjust their colouration to match their background. The red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) is a Neotropical cichlid fish with a stable colour polymorphism, with the gold morph being genetically dominant and having a myriad of documented advantages over the dark morph. However, gold individuals are much rarer, which may be related to their heightened conspicuousness to would-be predators. Here, we tested the ability of differently coloured individuals to phenotypically adjust the shade of their body colour and patterns to match their background. In particular, we filmed dark, gold and mottled (a transitioning phase from dark to gold) individuals under an identical set-up on light vs. dark-coloured substrates. We found that, in contrast to individuals of the dark morph, gold and mottled individuals were less capable of matching their body colouration to their background. As a result, gold individuals appeared to be more conspicuous. These results suggest that a difference in background matching ability could play an important role in the maintenance of colour polymorphisms. PMID:25510628

  6. A generalised mimicry system involving angiosperm flower colour, pollen and bumblebees’ innate colour preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Heuschen; A. Gumbert; K. Lunau

    2005-01-01

    Flower colour is a major advertisement signal of zoophilous plants for pollinators. Bees, the main pollinators, exhibit innate colour preferences, which have often been attributed to only one single floral colour, though most flowers display a pattern of two or several colours. The existing studies of floral colour patterns are mostly qualitative studies. Using a model of bee colour vision

  7. Total cholesterol concentration and mortality at a relatively young age: do men and women differ?

    PubMed Central

    Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Kromhout, D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, non-cardiovascular causes, and all causes. DESIGN--Population based cohort study. SUBJECTS--23,000 men and 26,000 women aged 30-54 years examined between 1974 and 1980. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mortality for the above mentioned end points for fifths of cholesterol distribution, and relative risks estimated by using Cox's proportional hazard (survival) analysis. Adjustment was made for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. RESULTS--Mortality from coronary heart disease in men was five times higher than that in women. A strong positive association between total cholesterol concentration and mortality from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular diseases was observed in both men and women. The relative risk for the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution was for mortality from coronary heart disease (3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 5.1) in men and 3.8 (1.1 to 13.1) in women) and for mortality from cardiovascular disease (2.8 (1.8 to 4.2) in men and 2.9 (1.4 to 6.0) in women). No increase of non-cardiovascular mortality at low cholesterol concentration was observed. All cause mortality was significantly higher in the highest compared with the lowest fifth of the cholesterol distribution: relative risk 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) in men and 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9) in women. CONCLUSION--Total cholesterol concentration is a strong predictor of mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in women as well as in men. Low cholesterol concentrations are not associated with increased mortality from non-cardiovascular causes. PMID:7580439

  8. The influence of dopamine on the incorporation of different sugars into total proteins of hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Jork, R; Lössner, B; Matthies, H

    1980-08-01

    Dopamine increases the incorporation of L-fucose and of D-mannose to a similar significant degree, whereas the incorporation of D-galactose as well as of N-acetyl-D-glucosamin into the total proteins of hippocampal slices was only slightly enhanced. The incorporation of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid was not influenced by dopamine. The results suggest that the effect of dopamine on glycoprotein formation seems mainly to depend on the kind of nucleotides necessary for activation of sugars and not on the sugar's final position in the glycan chain. PMID:7191117

  9. Spectral sensitivity of a colour changing spider.

    PubMed

    Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Warrant, Eric J; Casas, Jérôme

    2011-04-01

    Vision plays a paramount role in some spider families such as the Salticidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae, as it is involved in prey hunting, orientation or choice of substrate. In the thomisid Misumena vatia, for which the substrate colour affects the body colour, vision seems to mediate morphological colour changes. However, nothing is known about which component of visual signals from the substrate might be perceived, nor whether M. vatia possesses the physiological basis for colour vision. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the vision of this spider species by measuring the spectral sensitivities of the different pairs of eyes using electrophysiological methods. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings combined with selective adaptation revealed the presence of two classes of photoreceptor cells, one sensitive in the UV region of the spectrum (around 340 nm) and one sensitive in the green (around 520 nm) regions in the four pairs of eyes. We conclude that M. vatia possesses the physiological potential to perceive both chromatic and achromatic components of the environment. PMID:21300067

  10. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. PMID:24495279

  11. The Colours of Arctic Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Meldola

    1885-01-01

    THE white colour of Arctic mammals and birds has hitherto been generally ascribed by evolutionists to protective resemblance, the adaptation to a snow-covered country being attributed to the preservation of individuals which by assimilating to their environment in colour, either escaped detection by their foes, or, on the other hand, were by this means enabled to secure their prey more

  12. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. PMID:23863442

  13. Colouring mechanism of dyed KDP crystal by quantum chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Asakuma; Motosuke Nishimura; Qin Li; H. Ming Ang; Moses Tade; Kouji Maeda; Keisuke Fukui

    2007-01-01

    Dye adsorption mechanism, in particular, colouring mechanism of KDP (KH2PO4) crystal was investigated by quantum chemistry in this study. Phenomena, such as different preferentially coloured faces of KDP when co-crystallised with different dyes, are explained by the minimum and maximum values of electrostatic potential (ESP). Furthermore, it is found that the ESP distribution of a dye molecule may not necessarily

  14. Improved Detection of Quantitative Differences Using a Combination of Spectral Counting and MS/MS Total Ion Current

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Dana M.

    2013-01-01

    Label-free quantitative strategies are commonly used in shot-gun proteomics to detect differences in protein abundance between biological sample groups. Here, we have employed a combination of two such approaches, spectral counting (SpC) and average MS/MS total ion current (MS2 TIC), for the analysis of rat kidney mitochondria in response to metabolic acidosis. In total, forty nine proteins were observed to be significantly altered in response to metabolic acidosis (p-value < 0.05). Of these, 32 proteins were uniquely observed as significantly different by SpC, 14 by MS2 TIC, and only 3 by both approaches. Western blot analysis was performed on a subset of these proteins to validate the observed abundance differences. This study illustrates the utility and ease of combining these two label-free quantitative approaches to increase the number of detected protein abundance differences in the shot-gun analysis of complex biological samples. PMID:23445521

  15. Colour Changes on the Surface of the Rock Materials Due to UV-A and UV-B Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binal, Adil; Ayderman, Aykut; Sel, Aylin

    2015-04-01

    The colour of the rocks used in the current buildings, and historical monuments is an important parameter in architecture and engineering. In addition, engineering geologists use the colour in order to identify the weathering class of rock material. The main colour of the stone, especially, are affected by the mineral size, the colour of the primary minerals and matrix material, as well as the colour of the accessory minerals. Due to atmospheric effects, changes in the outer surface colour of the rocks used as siding materials occur with over time. Factors causing the colour change are carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), sulphate (SO2, SO3) and nitrate (NOx) from the atmosphere with aerosols as well as UV rays from the sun. There is no more work in the literature on colour changes caused by UV-A and UV-B rays. In this study, the effects of ultraviolet in the colour of the surfaces of basalt, limestone, ignimbrite, travertine and sandstone have been simulated with a new experimental device in the laboratory medium. Lutron colour analyser (RGB-1002) was used for the measurements of RGB colours. Colour differences between the beginning and end of tests were determined with the standard practice for calculation of colour tolerances and colour differences from instrumentally measured colour coordinates (ASTM D2244). As a result of the experiments performed, lighten that seem on dark-grey micritic limestone (colour change ratio, CCR: 17.06) and basalt samples (CCR: 8.24) become even visually noticeable. Black and red ignimbrite samples having high porosity were presented the lower rate of colour changes. Finally, colour darkening has been observed in the light-coloured travertine (CCR: 13.8) and sandstone samples (CCR: 20.99).

  16. Polarized infrared attenuated total reflection study of sapphire crystals with different crystallographic planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Ng, S. S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Dumelow, T.

    2015-04-01

    Polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements were performed on c- (polar) and r-plane (semi-polar) sapphire crystals. For c-plane sapphire crystal, spectral features due to the surface phonon polariton (SPhP) modes are only observable in the p-polarized ATR spectrum. Calculation of the SPhP dispersion spectra revealed that the SPhP modes of r-plane sapphire crystal are possible to be observed in both the s- and p-polarized ATR spectra. ATR measurements verified that excitation of the SPhP modes are still easier in the p-polarized ATR spectra. Taking into account the effects of anisotropy and the crystal orientation of hexagonal crystal system, the ATR spectra of r-plane sapphire crystal with arbitrary orientations were simulated. Through a best fit of experimental with simulated spectra, information about the crystal orientation of sapphire crystals was deduced.

  17. Changes of bone mineral density after cementless total hip arthroplasty with two different stems.

    PubMed

    Sano, Keiji; Ito, Kouji; Yamamoto, Kengo

    2008-04-01

    Cementless total hip arthroplasty has achieved reliable long-term results since porous coatings were developed, but postoperative changes around the stem remain poorly documented. In this study, changes of the bone mineral density (BMD) were compared between two types of cementless stem. In group B (28 patients with 31 hips), a straight tapered stem with porous plasma spray coating on the proximal 1/4 was used, while group S (24 patients with 26 hips) was given a fluted, tri-slot stem with porous hydroxyapatite coating on the proximal 1/3. In group B, there was an early decrease of BMD, which recovered after 12 months, indicating that stress shielding was minimal. In group S, however, BMD continued to decrease without recovery. The stem shape and radiological findings suggested that the cause of stress shielding in group S was distal fixation. PMID:17225187

  18. A novel illumination-invariant colour constancy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Méndez, L. A.; Quiñones Muñoz, M. L.; Olaya-Benítez, E. J.

    2011-08-01

    The human brain is able to extract the colour of objects no matter the existing illumination conditions which may affect the appearance of their colour. For a person, an object that is red, it will be red regardless of the type of illumination source. However, for a computer algorithm to achieve the same task is not as simple. For vision and robotics applications were feature extraction is essential having such an algorithm is crucial. It is well known from the literature that the colour of an object does not only depend on the chemical composition and shape of its surface but also on the illumination conditions, the intensity, number, location and colour of the sources of illumination as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of the sensor used. Based on that knowledge, we propose a simple colour constancy algorithm that uses the quaternion representation of each pixel in the image instead of the commonly used RGB model. We assume linearity in the reception of the luminance spectrum of the charge-coupled device of the camera before variations in the illumination. We have tested our colour constancy algorithm in a variety of images containing different colour objects under different illumination conditions. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  19. Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2012-13 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Research)

    E-print Network

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2012-13 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Research) Aut: BIOS 200 The Nucleus (8 units) MI 250* Frontiers in Microbiology & Immunology (1 The Responsible Conduct of Research (1 unit) Spr: MI 204 Innate Immunology (3 units) MI 215 Principles

  20. Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2013-14 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Graduate Research)

    E-print Network

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2013-14 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses Foundations in Experimental Biology 6 units MI 250* Frontiers in Microbiology & Immunology 1 unit MI 399 of Research 1 unit Spring MI 204 Innate Immunology 3 units MI 215 Principles of Biological Technologies 3

  1. Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2014-15 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses, not including Graduate Research)

    E-print Network

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.

    Microbiology and Immunology Requirements 2014-15 Course requirements (Total of 8 different courses Foundations in Experimental Biology 6 units MI 250* Frontiers in Microbiology & Immunology 1 unit MI 399 The Responsible Conduct of Research 1 unit Spring MI 204 Innate Immunology 3 units MI 215 Principles of Biological

  2. Investigation of effect of different total area coverage values of inks on reflection spectra and color gamut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents investigation of the effect of different values of total area coverage of inks (TAC) on reflection spectra and color gamut. Total area coverage is a key factor for achieving of maximal volume of color gamut. The reflection spectra of color surfaces in entire visible spectrum are used for determination the effect of different values of TAC. For study the effect of TAC values on color gamut, we have used special test form that contains many components and test charts with over 1500 color patches. According to measurement of reflectance spectrum of test charts, we have compared the color gamuts with different values of TAC to obtain comprehensive information of all colors, which could be reproduced in the specific conditions. In addition we have converted the reflection spectra data to CIE L*a*b* coordinates, and we have calculated the color difference ?E* ab to determine the effect of TAC on color reproduction accuracy. The main goal of this study is development of methodology, which gives objective and analytical assessment, for determining the optimal value of total area coverage (TAC). A practical implementation of the correct and optimal value of total area coverage should improve the printability, better ink layers adhesion, biggest number of trapping values and reduce the quantity of process inks. The optimal value of the TAC determined by this new methodology helps to achieve a significant reduction of ink cost and a maximal color gamut volume, i.e. improve the quality of printed image and reduce financial costs.

  3. Comparison of the effects of different types of soya milk on the total antioxidant capacity of black tea infusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Ryan; Sheera Sutherland

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence has shown that the polyphenols in black tea exhibit strong antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. The objective of the present study was to analyse and compare the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of five brands of tea and to evaluate whether the addition of different varieties of soya milk decreased the TAC compared to semi-skimmed bovine milk.

  4. Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H

    1983-01-01

    The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception. PMID:6603509

  5. Colours Core palette Colours Core palette APPLYING THE GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    ) (web and screen) Bright aqua 3262 C81 M0 Y36 K0 r0 G192 B181 #00C0B5 Dark aqua 309 C99 M27 Y22 K80 r0 G THE GUIDELINES Colours Colour breakdowns for print and web Colour Pantone® CMYK RGB Hex (special) (professional and desktop printing) (web and screen) (web and screen) university red 187 C0 M91 Y72 K23 r171 G31 B45 #B01C2e

  6. Load transfer in Christensen(®) TMJ in alloplastic total joint replacement for two different mouth apertures.

    PubMed

    Ramos, António; Mesnard, Michel

    2014-10-01

    This study analyses load transfer in the fossa component based on two numerical models of total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) implants for two mouth openings. The TMJ articulation is a very complex system with muscles, ligaments and cartilage. Until now, studies of TMJ implants have analysed only condylar behaviour. The finite element models were constructed based on CT scans of a cadaveric mandible and cranium, considering the bone geometry and position. The influence of five principal muscle actions was simulated for two mouth positions, 5 mm and 15 mm openings at the incisive tooth support. Strain distributions into the surrounding bone tissue were analysed in both models in the condyle and fossa components. The results demonstrate that in Christensen(®) TJR of the temporomandibular joint the fossa component is the more critical part, presenting more stress near the screw holes and contact regions with the cranium. The most critical region is around the first two screws and the least critical is in the condyle component. For the mandible condyle reconstructed with a Christensen(®) prosthesis, the 15 mm mouth opening was more critical, as compression was increased, but for the fossa component the most critical situation occurred with the 5 mm opening. The micromovements observed suggest that the number of screws could be reduced to increase osteointegration of screws in the mandible condyle. PMID:24954763

  7. Patellofemoral complications after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty: a comparison of 2 different implant designs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael J; Becker, David L; Kieckbusch, Travis

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a retrospective review of 2 consecutive series of posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) to evaluate patellofemoral complications, in particular, significant patellofemoral crepitance or patellar clunk syndrome. Twenty posterior-stabilized Axiom PSK (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN) TKAs (group 1) were compared with 20 posterior cruciate-sacrificed Advance medial pivot (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN) TKAs (group 2). The average age in group 1 was 69 years and in group 2 was 70 years. Preoperative valgus alignment in group 1 was 7.5 degrees and in group 2 was 1.3 degrees. Postoperative valgus alignment for the 2 groups was 4.8 degrees and 5.3 degrees valgus. Postoperative patellar tilt for the 2 groups was 0.9 degrees lateral tilt and 8 degrees lateral tilt. Patellofemoral signs of crepitance > or =2+ and significant box impingement complaints of either snapping or clunking decreased significantly postoperatively from 5 of 20 (25%) in group 1 to 0 of 20 in group 2 (P=.0079). PMID:12066270

  8. 1. Two boxes contain between them 65 balls of several different sizes. Each ball is white, black, red or yellow. If you take any 5 balls of the same colour at least two of them will always be

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    , black, red or yellow. If you take any 5 balls of the same colour at least two of them will always be of the same size (radius). Prove that there are at least 3 balls which lie in the same box have the same colour and have the same size (radius). 2. For all positive real numbers a, b, c prove that a b + c + b c

  9. Comparison of the defined features at different locations on the track during total solar eclipse 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guineva, Veneta; Despirak, Irina; Kozelov, Boris

    2015-03-01

    All-sky camera data obtained at Apatity (Kola Peninsula) during 2012/2013 winter season and during December 2013 have been used to study the variation of substorm development during different conditions of the interplanetary medium. Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters were taken from CDAWeb (http://cdaweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/cdaweb/ istp_public/). Using WIND satellite data for the examined periods, the different solar wind streams were revealed: high speed streams from coronal magnetic holes (HSS) and magnetic clouds (MC) connected with non-stationary processes at the Sun. It is known that these solar wind structures are the sources of geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, the storms originating from these sources differ in intensity, recovery phase duration etc. We investigated substorm development during storms and during quiet conditions. Substorm onset time and further development were verified by ground-based data of IMAGE magnetometers network and Apatity all-sky camera. The particularities in the behaviour of substorms observed during storms and during quiet conditions are discussed.

  10. Seasonal skin colour changes in a sample teenage population measured by reflection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-11-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized reflectance spectra. Measurements made upon the inner forearm and the back of the hand produce results which indicate a decrease in total reflectance (increase in absorption) corresponding to different levels of tanning for limited and extended exposure to ambient sunlight, respectively. The rate of change of skin colour qualitatively matches that of the solar illuminance.

  11. Knee kinematics during walking at different speeds in people who have undergone total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E; Feller, Julian A; Menz, Hylton B

    2011-06-01

    People who have undergone total knee replacement (TKR) experience difficulties in some daily activities including walking. Walking at faster speeds requires more knee flexion and may therefore present a greater challenge following TKR. The aim of this study was to compare the knee kinematics of patients following TKR and unimpaired controls during comfortable and fast walking speeds. Forty patients (22 women, 18 men) 12 months following TKR and 40 control participants (matched for age and sex) were assessed during walking at self-selected comfortable and fast speeds using three dimensional motion analysis. The group averages of spatiotemporal and peak kinematic characteristics in the sagittal, coronal and transverse movement planes were compared using univariate analysis of variance with walking speed as a co-variate. The TKR group walked with significantly reduced cadence (p < 0.001 at both speeds) and reduced stride length (p < 0.001 at both speeds), less knee flexion during stance and swing phases (p < 0.001 for both speeds) and less knee extension during stance phase (p < 0.024 for comfortable speed; p < 0.042 for fast speed). The TKR group also walked with less peak knee external rotation than controls at both speeds (p < 0.001 for both speeds). Both groups increased their velocity, cadence and stride length by a similar proportion when walking at fast speed. When walking at a faster speed, spatiotemporal gait parameters and knee motion are altered in a similar manner for both TKR patients and controls. However, at both walking speeds, TKR patients exhibit residual deficits 12 months following surgery. PMID:20537900

  12. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of morphology and colour on environment

    E-print Network

    Steven P. Bamford; Robert C. Nichol; Ivan K. Baldry; Kate Land; Chris J. Lintott; Kevin Schawinski; Anze Slosar; Alexander S. Szalay; Daniel Thomas; Mehri Torki; Dan Andreescu; Edward M. Edmondson; Christopher J. Miller; Phil Murray; M. Jordan Raddick; Jan Vandenberg

    2008-11-14

    We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for over 100,000 objects from Galaxy Zoo, the largest sample of visually classified morphologies yet compiled. We conclusively show that colour and morphology fractions are very different functions of environment. Both are sensitive to stellar mass; however, at fixed stellar mass, while colour is also highly sensitive to environment, morphology displays much weaker environmental trends. Only a small part of both relations can be attributed to variation in the stellar mass function with environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments and irrespective of their morphology. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments, but mostly red in high-density environments, again irrespective of their morphology. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morphology, in particular the fraction of spiral galaxies that have red colours, and especially at low stellar masses. We demonstrate that our red spirals primarily include galaxies with true spiral morphology. We clearly show there is an environmental dependence for colour beyond that for morphology. Before using the Galaxy Zoo morphologies to produce the above results, we first quantify a luminosity-, size- and redshift-dependent classification bias that affects this dataset, and probably most other studies of galaxy population morphology. A correction for this bias is derived and applied to produce a sample of galaxies with reliable morphological type likelihoods, on which we base our analysis.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a scattered distribution of autumn colours

    PubMed Central

    Archetti, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf colour in autumn is rarely considered informative for taxonomy, but there is now growing interest in the evolution of autumn colours and different hypotheses are debated. Research efforts are hindered by the lack of basic information: the phylogenetic distribution of autumn colours. It is not known when and how autumn colours evolved. Methods Data are reported on the autumn colours of 2368 tree species belonging to 400 genera of the temperate regions of the world, and an analysis is made of their phylogenetic relationships in order to reconstruct the evolutionary origin of red and yellow in autumn leaves. Key Results Red autumn colours are present in at least 290 species (70 genera), and evolved independently at least 25 times. Yellow is present independently from red in at least 378 species (97 genera) and evolved at least 28 times. Conclusions The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that autumn colours have been acquired and lost many times during evolution. This scattered distribution could be explained by hypotheses involving some kind of coevolutionary interaction or by hypotheses that rely on the need for photoprotection. PMID:19126636

  14. Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour.

    PubMed

    Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K W

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies. PMID:25369035

  15. Improving the Rainbow Attack by Reusing Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, Martin; Johansson, Thomas; Hell, Martin

    Hashing or encrypting a key or a password is a vital part in most network security protocols. The most practical generic attack on such schemes is a time memory trade-off attack. Such an attack inverts any one-way function using a trade-off between memory and execution time. Existing techniques include the Hellman attack and the rainbow attack, where the latter uses different reduction functions ("colours") within a table.

  16. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  17. Introduction Colour-impaired vision, where certain colours cannot be

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    these colours. Dark green, brown, orange, and dark red in the first row appear as almost indistinguishable olive, where he produces print graphics for daily publication and interactive web graphics. nvkelso

  18. Evolutionary genetics of dorsal wing colour in Colias butterflies.

    PubMed

    Ellers, J; Boggs, C L

    2004-07-01

    The evolution of butterfly wing colouration is strongly affected by its multiple functions and by the correlated evolution of wing colour elements. Both factors may prevent local adaptation to ecological conditions. We investigated one aspect of wing colouration, the degree of dorsal wing melanization, in the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle across an elevational gradient and its correlation with another aspect of wing colouration, ventral wing melanization. Dorsal wing melanization increased with elevation and these differences persisted in a common environment. Full-sibling analysis revealed high heritability for males but only intermediate heritability for females. The correlation between ventral and dorsal melanization showed significant elevational and sex-specific differences. In males the two traits were highly correlated, whereas in females the strength of the correlation decreased with increasing elevation. We conclude that uncoupling of ventral and dorsal melanization has evolved in females but not in males and discuss possible mechanisms underlying uncoupling. PMID:15271074

  19. Colour image segmentation using unsupervised clustering technique for acute leukemia images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, N. H. Abd; Mashor, M. Y.; Nasir, A. S. Abdul; Mustafa, N.; Hassan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Colour image segmentation has becoming more popular for computer vision due to its important process in most medical analysis tasks. This paper proposes comparison between different colour components of RGB(red, green, blue) and HSI (hue, saturation, intensity) colour models that will be used in order to segment the acute leukemia images. First, partial contrast stretching is applied on leukemia images to increase the visual aspect of the blast cells. Then, an unsupervised moving k-means clustering algorithm is applied on the various colour components of RGB and HSI colour models for the purpose of segmentation of blast cells from the red blood cells and background regions in leukemia image. Different colour components of RGB and HSI colour models have been analyzed in order to identify the colour component that can give the good segmentation performance. The segmented images are then processed using median filter and region growing technique to reduce noise and smooth the images. The results show that segmentation using saturation component of HSI colour model has proven to be the best in segmenting nucleus of the blast cells in acute leukemia image as compared to the other colour components of RGB and HSI colour models.

  20. A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Igor V.; Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to identify blue galaxies at unknown redshifts. We show that adding the near ultraviolet (NUV) colour [Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) NUV ?eff= 227 nm] to the optical (g - r versus Mr) CMD reveals a tight relation in the 3D colour-colour-magnitude space smoothly continuing from the 'blue cloud' to the 'red sequence'. We found that 98 per cent of 225 000 low-redshift (Z < 0.27) galaxies follow a smooth surface ? with a standard deviation of 0.03-0.07 mag making it the tightest known galaxy photometric relation, given the ˜0.9 mag range of k-corrected g - r colours. Similar relations exist in other NUV-optical colours. There is a strong correlation between morphological types and integrated ? colours of galaxies, while the connection with g - r is ambiguous. Rare galaxy classes such as E+A or tidally stripped systems become outliers that occupy distinct regions in the 3D parameter space. Using stellar population models for galaxies with different star formation histories, we show that (a) the (?) distribution at a given luminosity is formed by objects having constant and exponentially declining star formation rates with different characteristic time-scales with the red sequence part consistent also with simple stellar population; (b) colour evolution for exponentially declining models goes along the relation suggesting a weak evolution of its shape up to a redshift of 0.9; (c) galaxies with truncated star formation histories have very short transition phase offset from the relation thus explaining the rareness of E+A galaxies. This relation can be used as a powerful galaxy classification tool when morphology remains unresolved. Its mathematical consequence is the possibility of precise and simple redshift estimates from only three broad-band photometric points. We show that this simple approach being applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data works better than most existing photometric redshift techniques applied to multicolour data sets. Therefore, the relation can be used as an efficient search technique for galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < Z < 0.8) using optical imaging surveys. Footnotes<label>1</label> <label>2</label> <label>3</label> <label>4</label></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525191"><span id="translatedtitle">Floral scent emitted by white and <span class="hlt">coloured</span> morphs in orchids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Polymorphism of floral signals, such as <span class="hlt">colour</span> and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three <span class="hlt">different</span> orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific <span class="hlt">differences</span> in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not <span class="hlt">differ</span> overall between white- and <span class="hlt">coloured</span>-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited <span class="hlt">different</span> volatile profiles between the two <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than <span class="hlt">coloured</span> ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. PMID:24525191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607564"><span id="translatedtitle">The Categorisation of Non-Categorical <span class="hlt">Colours</span>: A Novel Paradigm in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cropper, Simon J.; Kvansakul, Jessica G. S.; Little, Daniel R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we investigate a new paradigm for studying the development of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> ‘signal’ by having observers discriminate and categorize the same set of controlled and calibrated cardinal <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli. Notably, in both tasks, each observer was free to decide whether two pairs of colors were the same or belonged to the same category. The use of the same stimulus set for both tasks provides, we argue, an incremental behavioural measure of <span class="hlt">colour</span> processing from detection through discrimination to categorisation. The measured data spaces are <span class="hlt">different</span> for the two tasks, and furthermore the categorisation data is unique to each observer. In addition, we develop a model which assumes that the principal <span class="hlt">difference</span> between the tasks is the degree of similarity between the stimuli which has <span class="hlt">different</span> constraints for the categorisation task compared to the discrimination task. This approach not only makes sense of the current (and associated) data but links the processes of discrimination and categorisation in a novel way and, by implication, expands upon the previous research linking categorisation to other tasks not limited to <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. PMID:23536899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.sfu.ca/~colour/publications/AIC05/Quaternion_Proceedings_WEB_version.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">To Appear: Tenth Congress of the International <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Association AIC <span class="hlt">Colour</span> 2005, Granada, Spain, May 2005. Quaternion <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Texture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Funt, Brian</p> <p></p> <p>, May 2005. Page 1 Quaternion <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Texture Lilong Shi, Brian Funt School of Computing Science, Simon processing; quaternion principal component analysis, <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture; image segmentation; <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture in a given image is derived via quaternion principal component analysis of a training set of <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9534E..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative to <span class="hlt">colour</span> feature classification using <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast ocurrence matrix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez, R. A.; Richard, N.; Fernandez, C.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Texture discrimination was the second more important task studied after <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception and characterization. Nevertheless, <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture assessment and characterization was few studied and no vector processing was proposed to assess this important visual information. In this work we show the construction of a new vector that integrates fully the information of texture and color. This vector is based on Julesz psico-physics conjectures and the Haralick cooccurrence matrix. A <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture image in the CIEL*a* b* <span class="hlt">colour</span> space is characterizing in a 3D matrix, from which it is possible to visually some variations in chromaticity. The performance of this vector had evaluated in tasks of classification in front of other developments that mix the texture and <span class="hlt">colour</span> information. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast occurrence matrix (C2O) has the best classification rates in three of the four image database evaluated as OUTEX, VISTEX, STEX and ALOT. C2O texture classification was evaluated in front of co-occurrence matrix (GLMC), run-length matrix (RLM) and local binary patterns (LBP) approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4409037"><span id="translatedtitle">Serum C-Reactive Protein Distribution in Minimally Invasive <span class="hlt">Total</span> Knee Arthroplasty Do Not <span class="hlt">Differ</span> with Distribution in Conventional <span class="hlt">Total</span> Knee Arthroplasty</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yombi, Jean Cyr; Schwab, Pierre Emmanuel; Thienpont, Emmanuel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Minimally invasive <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasty (MITKA) has been developed to reduce surgical trauma and facilitate rehabilitation after arthroplasty. A plausible hypothesis is that this reduced trauma results in lower concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). In this study, we compared CRP concentrations in patients undergoing MITKA to those undergoing conventional TKA (CTKA). Eight hundred and seven patients undergoing MITKA were prospectively recruited. CRP was measured before operation and on days 2, 4, 21, and 42 after operation. Two hundred and forty-seven patients who had CTKA were collected retrospectively, with the same inclusion and exclusion criteria as those who had MITKA. We found in both groups, that CRP values rose abruptly after operation, with peak values reached on day 2 or 4. Values then declined so that by days 21 and 42 they were only modestly above baseline values. Throughout the entire study period, mean CRP in MITKA patients did not <span class="hlt">differ</span> significantly from those in CTKA patients. However, a significantly higher proportion of CTKA patients than of MITKA patients had peak CRP values at day 4 rather than at day 2 (76.8% vs 42.5%), a <span class="hlt">difference</span> that was more pronounced in women. Also, by day 42, CRP values were still above baseline in 18.5% of MITKA patients and 28.8% of CTKA patients without known complications. In conclusion, CRP distribution pattern was similar in patients who received MITKA or CTKA,. CRP values remained slightly elevated in both MITKA and CTKA patients for as long 42 days after operation. These findings suggest that MITKA is no less traumatic than CTKA, as determined by CRP values, and the patterns of postoperative CRP may be useful in the management of TKA patients. PMID:25910083</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700793"><span id="translatedtitle">Melanin-based <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism responding to climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roulin, Alexandre</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Climate warming leads to a decrease in biodiversity. Organisms can deal with the new prevailing environmental conditions by one of two main routes, namely evolving new genetic adaptations or through phenotypic plasticity to modify behaviour and physiology. Melanin-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> has important functions in animals including a role in camouflage and thermoregulation, protection against UV-radiation and pathogens and, furthermore, genes involved in melanogenesis can pleiotropically regulate behaviour and physiology. In this article, I review the current evidence that <span class="hlt">differently</span> <span class="hlt">coloured</span> individuals are differentially sensitive to climate change. Predicting which of dark or pale <span class="hlt">colour</span> variants (or morphs) will be more penalized by climate change will depend on the adaptive function of melanism in each species as well as how the degree of <span class="hlt">colouration</span> covaries with behaviour and physiology. For instance, because climate change leads to a rise in temperature and UV-radiation and dark <span class="hlt">colouration</span> plays a role in UV-protection, dark individuals may be less affected from global warming, if this phenomenon implies more solar radiation particularly in habitats of pale individuals. In contrast, as desertification increases, pale <span class="hlt">colouration</span> may expand in those regions, whereas dark <span class="hlt">colourations</span> may expand in regions where humidity is predicted to increase. Dark <span class="hlt">colouration</span> may be also indirectly selected by climate warming because genes involved in the production of melanin pigments confer resistance to a number of stressful factors including those associated with climate warming. Furthermore, darker melanic individuals are commonly more aggressive than paler conspecifics, and hence they may better cope with competitive interactions due to invading species that expand their range in northern latitudes and at higher altitudes. To conclude, melanin may be a major component involved in adaptation to climate warming, and hence in animal populations melanin-based <span class="hlt">colouration</span> is likely to change as an evolutionary or plastic response to climate warming. PMID:24700793</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......506M"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and Performance Characterization of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Star Trackers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McVittie, Geoffrey</p> <p></p> <p>Star trackers provide an essential component to a satellite mission requiring high-precision and high-accuracy attitude measurements. A star tracker operates by taking pictures of the celestial sphere and attempting to identify the stars in the image using a combination of the geometric and brightness patterns. The star-positions in the image then determine the attitude of the sensor in the inertial frame. I propose extending the capability of star trackers by including the <span class="hlt">colour</span> properties of the stars into the star identification process; hence, <span class="hlt">colour</span> star tracking. Current generation star trackers exist in a variety of forms, with a variety of additional potential designs and operational algorithms proposed in the literature. However, they all share the common trait of using a combination of geometric and monochrome brightness derived patterns to identify stars. Including <span class="hlt">colour</span> information with the geometric and brightness properties into the identification process represents a new branch in the field of star tracker design. The process of measuring <span class="hlt">colour</span> also causes a reduction in the amount of light gathered by the sensor, decreasing the number of stars observed. The challenge in <span class="hlt">colour</span> star tracking becomes establishing that the additional information provided by <span class="hlt">colour</span> to star patterns is greater than the loss of observable stars due to the measurement process. While superficially brief, accomplishing it touches upon a wide range of topic areas. This includes most research developed for monochromatic star trackers including imaging hardware, optics, noise rejection, parameter estimation, signal detection, data mining, pattern matching, and astronomy. Additionally, using <span class="hlt">colour</span> necessitates introducing the topics of stellar photometry, spectral filtering, and <span class="hlt">colour</span> imaging. The approach to <span class="hlt">colour</span> star tracker development, presented here, considers three aspects to the operation of the technology: <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement, star detection, and star pattern matching. In the measurement of <span class="hlt">colour</span> analysis, a new set of estimation techniques are developed to estimate the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and position of stars using <span class="hlt">colour</span>-filter-array and trichroic prism cameras. Validation of the proposed techniques is achieved through a combination of laboratory and nigh-sky testing of hardware prototypes. The detection performance of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> star tracker designs centres on a comparison with equivalent monochrome designs. By considering primitive detection algorithms, essentially raw thresholding, allows for a fair determination of the relative performance. Numerical simulations of potential designs examine the percentage of the celestial sphere where sufficient quantity of stars can be observed to yield an identification. Finally, extending the results of the detection analysis allows for a determination of the ambiguity within observed star scenes. While not explicitly pattern matching, this analysis establishes a baseline for the performance to be expected from practical pattern matching algorithms. Together, the combined results establish the overall expected increase in performance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> star tracking over equivalent monochrome designs. A critical goal of any star tracker design is to maximize the region of sky where the star tracker can successfully return an attitude solution. Additionally, the reliability of achieving correct attitude solutions must also be a factor. The work presented demonstrates that, given the correct design circumstances, <span class="hlt">colour</span> star trackers can supersede their monochrome counterparts in these two aspects. Specifically by resolving formerly ambiguous scenes and increasing the <span class="hlt">total</span> number of scenes that can yield a solution. As a consequence, <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement should now become a viable and explicit consideration in future star tracker design processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25237350"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Extracts and Fractions from the Aerial Parts of Artemisia biennis Willd.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hatami, Tayyebe; Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Miraghaee, Sayyed Shahram; Mojarrab, Mahdi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Total</span> phenolic contents (TPC) of five <span class="hlt">different</span> extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and ethanol-water) of Artemisia biennis Willd were measured in this work. The antioxidant activity was investigated by three <span class="hlt">different</span> methods: ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) test, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Among all the extracts analyzed, the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a significantly higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity than other samples. Vacuum liquid chromatography of this extract yielded seven fractions (A to G) which were subjected to all aforementioned experiments. The highest <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content and free radical scavenging activites were present in the same sample (Fraction D) but the only statistically significant correlation between TPC and EC50 values was observed for BCB. PMID:25237350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1720587"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of congenital <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision defects on occupation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cumberland, P; Rahi, J; Peckham, C</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Aims: To investigate whether there is an association between congenital <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision defects (CVD) and occupational choice and employment history, in order to inform the debate about the value of universal childhood screening for these disorders. Methods: Participants were 6422 males and 6112 females from the 1958 British birth cohort, followed from birth to 33 years, whose <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision was assessed (Ishihara test) at 11 years. Results: A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 431 males (6.7%) had CVD. Men with CVD had pursued some careers for which normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision is currently regarded as essential; for example, eight men (3.1%) with CVD were in the police, armed forces, or fire-fighting service at 33 years compared to 141 men (3.8%) with normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. They were, however, under-represented compared to those with normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision, in other occupations; for example, no men with CVD were employed in electrical and electronic engineering at 33 years compared to 15 men (0.4%) with normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest there is little to be gained by continuing with existing school screening programmes for CVD, whose primary purpose is to advise affected children against certain careers. Other ways of informing young people about potential occupational difficulties and pathways for referral for specialist assessment are likely to be more useful. PMID:15914497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3810273"><span id="translatedtitle">Co-Housing Rodents with <span class="hlt">Different</span> Coat <span class="hlt">Colours</span> as a Simple, Non-Invasive Means of Individual Identification: Validating Mixed-Strain Housing for C57BL/6 and DBA/2 Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walker, Michael; Fureix, Carole; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Standard practice typically requires the marking of laboratory mice so that they can be individually identified. However, many of the common methods compromise the welfare of the individuals being marked (as well as requiring time, effort, and/or resources on the part of researchers and technicians). Mixing strains of <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> within a cage would allow them to be readily visually identifiable, negating the need for more invasive marking techniques. Here we assess the impact that mixed strain housing has on the phenotypes of female C57BL/6 (black) and DBA/2 (brown) mice, and on the variability in the data obtained from them. Mice were housed in either mixed strain or single strain pairs for 19 weeks, and their phenotypes then assessed using 23 <span class="hlt">different</span> behavioural, morphological, haematological and physiological measures widely used in research and/or important for assessing mouse welfare. No negative effects of mixed strain housing could be found on the phenotypes of either strain, including variables relevant to welfare. <span class="hlt">Differences</span> and similarities between the two strains were almost all as expected from previously published studies, and none were affected by whether mice were housed in mixed- or single-strain pairs. Only one significant main effect of housing type was detected: mixed strain pairs had smaller red blood cell distribution widths, a measure suggesting better health (findings that now need replicating in case they were Type 1 errors resulting from our multiplicity of tests). Furthermore, mixed strain housing did not increase the variation in data obtained from the mice: the standard errors for all variables were essentially identical between the two housing conditions. Mixed strain housing also made animals very easy to distinguish while in the home cage. Female DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice can thus be housed in mixed strain pairs for identification purposes, with no apparent negative effects on their welfare or the data they generate. This suggests that there is much value in exploring other combinations of strains. PMID:24204864</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37892135"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> as visual rhetoric in financial reporting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>John K. Courtis</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Visual rhetoric within communication seeks to persuade through the use of picturing and encompasses words and <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Visual rhetoric is present within annual reports. The specific role of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in financial reporting is a neglected field of enquiry. A survey of 100 Hong Kong annual reports related <span class="hlt">colour</span> usage to profitability change and found companies used more <span class="hlt">colour</span> when profitability</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l1j2167l0462283r.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> preferences of flower-naive honeybees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Their landings on twelve <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli were recorded. Results after one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sunlight&id=EJ848932"><span id="translatedtitle">What <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Is a Shadow?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, S. W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>What <span class="hlt">colour</span> is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other <span class="hlt">colour</span>? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18808407"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> Penrose tiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>X. Z. Li; J. M. Dusois; K. H. Kuo</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Penrose tiling is a two-dimensional quasiperiodic pattern, which is composed of two tiles, namely thick and thin rhombi. In this letter, white and black <span class="hlt">colours</span> are given to the tiles to distinguish their top and bottom surfaces. Then, a two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> Penrose tiling is yielded by the white black rhombi. The new pattern is a three-dimensional array and its projection is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.385.1270L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> pairs for constraining the age and metallicity of stellar populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhongmu; Han, Zhanwen</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Using a widely used stellar-population synthesis model, we study the possibility of using pairs of AB system <span class="hlt">colours</span> to break the well-known stellar age-metallicity degeneracy and to give constraints on two luminosity-weighted stellar-population parameters (age and metallicity). We present the relative age and metallicity sensitivities of the AB system <span class="hlt">colours</span> that relate to the u,B,g,V,r,R,i, I,z,J,H and K bands, and we quantify the ability of various <span class="hlt">colour</span> pairs to break the age-metallicity degeneracy. Our results suggest that a few pairs of <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be used to constrain the above two stellar-population parameters. This will be very useful for exploring the stellar populations of distant galaxies. In detail, <span class="hlt">colour</span> pairs [(r-K), (u-R)] and [(r-K), (u-r)] are shown to be the best pairs for estimating the luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities of galaxies. They can constrain two stellar-population parameters on average with age uncertainties less than 3.89 Gyr and metallicity uncertainties less than 0.34 dex for typical <span class="hlt">colour</span> uncertainties. The typical age uncertainties for young populations (age < 4.6 Gyr) and metal-rich populations (Z >= 0.001) are small (about 2.26 Gyr) while those for old populations (age >= 4.6 Gyr) and metal-poor populations (Z < 0.001) are much larger (about 6.88 Gyr). However, the metallicity uncertainties for metal-poor populations (about 0.0024) are much smaller than for other populations (about 0.015). Some other <span class="hlt">colour</span> pairs can also possibly be used for constraining the two parameters. On the whole, the estimation of stellar-population parameters is likely to be reliable only for early-type galaxies with small <span class="hlt">colour</span> errors and globular clusters, because such objects contain less dust. In fact, no galaxy is <span class="hlt">totally</span> dust-free and early-type galaxies are also likely have some dust [e.g. E(B- V) ~ 0.05], which can change the stellar ages by about 2.5 Gyr and metallicities (Z) by about 0.015. When we compare the photometric estimates with previous spectroscopic estimates, we find some <span class="hlt">differences</span>, especially when comparing the stellar ages determined by two methods. The <span class="hlt">differences</span> mainly result from the young populations of galaxies. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain the absolute values of stellar ages and metallicities, but the results are useful for obtaining some relative values. In addition, our results suggest that <span class="hlt">colours</span> relating to both UBVRIJHK and ugriz magnitudes are much better than either UBVRIJHK or ugriz <span class="hlt">colours</span> for breaking the well-known degeneracy. The results also show that the stellar ages and metallicities of galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey can be estimated via photometry data. The data are available at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strabourg (CDS) or on request to the authors. E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.450.2500B"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting parameters from <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonatto, C.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.; Bica, E.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and <span class="hlt">colour</span> excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M 67, NGC 6791 and NGC 2635, which are characterized by <span class="hlt">different</span> ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983571"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> on memory performance: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzulkifli, Mariam Adawiah; Mustafar, Muhammad Faiz</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information. An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can <span class="hlt">colour</span> result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between <span class="hlt">colours</span>, attention, and memory performance. The significance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in <span class="hlt">different</span> settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory. The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next. The review of several studies on <span class="hlt">colours</span> and memory are meant to explain some empirical works done in the area and related issues that arise from such studies. PMID:23983571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25116149"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic food <span class="hlt">colours</span> in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila; Amirpour, Mansooreh; AkbariAzam, Maryam</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic <span class="hlt">colours</span> as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the <span class="hlt">total</span> 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The most prevalent <span class="hlt">colours</span> were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these <span class="hlt">colours</span>, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food <span class="hlt">colours</span>, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these <span class="hlt">colours</span> in restaurants. PMID:25116149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013592"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Monitoring for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Using Double-<span class="hlt">Difference</span> Waveform Inversion with Spatially-Variant <span class="hlt">Total</span>-Variation Regularization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Zhigang [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Double-<span class="hlt">difference</span> waveform inversion is a promising tool for quantitative monitoring for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The method uses time-lapse seismic data to jointly inverts for reservoir changes. Due to the ill-posedness of waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain reservoir changes accurately and efficiently, particularly when using timelapse seismic reflection data. To improve reconstruction, we develop a spatially-variant <span class="hlt">total</span>-variation regularization scheme into double-<span class="hlt">difference</span> waveform inversion to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. The new regularization scheme employs <span class="hlt">different</span> regularization parameters in <span class="hlt">different</span> regions of the model to obtain an optimal regularization in each area. We compare the results obtained using a spatially-variant parameter with those obtained using a constant regularization parameter. Utilizing a spatially-variant regularization scheme, the target monitoring regions are well reconstructed and the image noise is significantly reduced outside the monitoring regions. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the spatially-variant <span class="hlt">total</span>-variation regularization scheme provides the flexibility to regularize local regions based on the a priori spatial information without increasing computational costs and the computer memory requirement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009eso..pres...40."><span id="translatedtitle">Opening up a <span class="hlt">Colourful</span> Cosmic Jewel Box</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror and exquisite image quality have resulted in a brand-new, very sharp view despite a <span class="hlt">total</span> exposure time of just 5 seconds. This new image is one of the best ever taken of this cluster from the ground. The Jewel Box may be visually <span class="hlt">colourful</span> in images taken on Earth, but observing from space allows the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to capture light of shorter wavelengths than can not be seen by telescopes on the ground. This new Hubble image of the core of the cluster represents the first comprehensive far ultraviolet to near-infrared image of an open galactic cluster. It was created from images taken through seven filters, allowing viewers to see details never seen before. It was taken near the end of the long life of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 ? Hubble's workhorse camera up until the recent Servicing Mission, when it was removed and brought back to Earth. Several very bright, pale blue supergiant stars, a solitary ruby-red supergiant and a variety of other brilliantly <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stars are visible in the Hubble image, as well as many much fainter ones. The intriguing <span class="hlt">colours</span> of many of the stars result from their <span class="hlt">differing</span> intensities at <span class="hlt">different</span> ultraviolet wavelengths. The huge variety in brightness of the stars in the cluster exists because the brighter stars are 15 to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the dimmest stars in the Hubble image are less than half the mass of the Sun. More massive stars shine much more brilliantly. They also age faster and make the transition to giant stars much more quickly than their faint, less-massive siblings. The Jewel Box cluster is about 6400 light-years away and is approximately 16 million years old. Notes [1] Open, or galactic, star clusters are not to be confused with globular clusters ? huge balls of tens of thousands of ancient stars in orbit around our galaxy and others. It seems that most stars, including our Sun, formed in open clusters. [2] The Coal Sack is a dark nebula in the Southern Hemisphere, near the Southern Cross, that can be seen with the unaided eye. A dark nebula is not the compl</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40979218"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation of <span class="hlt">total</span> FOS, <span class="hlt">total</span> IOS, inulin and their related-metabolizing enzymes in burdock roots ( Arctium lappa L.) stored under <span class="hlt">different</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Y. Ishiguro; S. Onodera; N. Benkeblia; N. Shiomi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Burdock roots were stored for six weeks at three temperatures, 0, 15 and 20°C, and activity of sucrose hydrolase (SH), 1-kestose hydrolase (1-KH), inulin hydrolase (InH), sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructoslytransferase (1-FFT) were assessed. Simultaneously, <span class="hlt">total</span> fructooligosaccharides (FOS), <span class="hlt">total</span> inulooligosaccharides (IOS) and inulin were also assessed during storage. During storage, SH showed an irregular variation at 15 and 20°C,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50402632"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating a sinusoid in low SNR <span class="hlt">coloured</span> noise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Barry G. Quinn</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We propose a procedure for locating a spectral line, when the signal to noise ratio is so small that the line is obscured in the periodogram (power spectrum) by the <span class="hlt">coloured</span> background noise. The procedure can be <span class="hlt">totally</span> automated, and most, if not all, of the computations can be done in the frequency domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pigment&pg=2&id=EJ993848"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral composition of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as <span class="hlt">total</span> or zero. Eight…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1401.4897v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> and Partial Fragmentation Cross-Section of 500 MeV/nucleon Carbon Ions on <span class="hlt">Different</span> Target Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Behcet Alpat; Ercan Pilicer; Sandor Blasko; Diego Caraffini; Francesco Di Capua; Vasile Postolache; Giorgio Saltanocchi; Mauro Menichelli; Laurent Desorgher; Marco Durante; Radek Pleskac; Chiara La Tessa</p> <p>2014-01-20</p> <p>By using an experimental setup based on thin and thick double-sided microstrip silicon detectors, it has been possible to identify the fragmentation products due to the interaction of very high energy primary ions on <span class="hlt">different</span> targets. Here we report <span class="hlt">total</span> and partial cross-sections measured at GSI (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung), Darmstadt, for 500 MeV/n energy $^{12}C$ beam incident on water (in flasks), polyethylene, lucite, silicon carbide, graphite, aluminium, copper, iron, tin, tantalum and lead targets. The results are compared to the predictions of GEANT4 (v4.9.4) and FLUKA (v11.2) Monte Carlo simulation programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752009"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of gender stereotyping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted <span class="hlt">colour</span>-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped <span class="hlt">colours</span> (Experiment 1); (2) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. PMID:21752009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9893862"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision in AIDS patients without HIV retinopathy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sommerhalder, J; Baglivo, E; Barbey, C; Hirschel, B; Roth, A; Pelizzone, M</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Patients suffering from AIDS develop ocular complications, the most frequent being HIV retinopathy. It is however not clear, if functional visual impairments can be observed as early indicators of ocular complications, before clinical diagnosis of HIV retinopathy is made at fundus examination. To address this issue, we measured <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in a group of 49 AIDS subjects with normal clinical fundi using the 'two equation method'. This method, combining red-green Rayleigh and the blue-green Moreland metameric matches, enables more complete and quantitative assessments of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision than those based on pigmentary tests. Data were collected on our computer controlled colorimeter and compared to those of normal subjects. While most AIDS subjects without HIV retinopathy demonstrated normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision, a significant portion of them had wider matches than normal subjects (11% for the Rayleigh equation and 16% for the Moreland equation). Furthermore, matching ranges of the Moreland equation were significantly correlated with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Patients with low CD4 values tended to produce larger matching ranges than the patients with high CD4 values. A within subject study on 17 patients confirmed this trend and showed that the patients who increased/decreased their CD4 blood counts generally improved/impaired their <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination in the Moreland match. No such correlation was found between the matching ranges of the Rayleigh equation and the CD4 counts. These results show that <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination is slightly reduced in some AIDS subjects, although there are no detectable ocular complications. They also suggest two <span class="hlt">different</span> types of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision impairments in AIDS patients without retinopathy: one reversible process affecting <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination in the blue-green range; and another irreversible process affecting <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination in the red-green range. PMID:9893862</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2023B"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on <span class="hlt">colour</span> holography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bjelkhagen, H. I.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A review of recent progress in <span class="hlt">colour</span> holography is provided with new applications. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk <span class="hlt">colour</span> holograms, and digitally-printed <span class="hlt">colour</span> holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in <span class="hlt">colour</span> holography by holographers and companies in <span class="hlt">different</span> countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AcSpe..56.2127S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span>-reflection X-ray fluorescence — a tool to obtain information about <span class="hlt">different</span> air masses and air pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmeling, Martina</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>Atmospheric aerosols are solid particles dissolved in air and change their chemical composition frequently depending on various parameters. In order to identify regional air circulation atmospheric aerosol filter samples were taken at Loyola University Chicago's Lake Shore Campus during the months of July and August 2000 with sampling times ranging between 1 and 2 h. The samples were digested in a microwave oven and analyzed by <span class="hlt">total</span>-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. One diurnal variation comprising five consecutive sampling events was selected and discussed as well as 4 days experiencing <span class="hlt">different</span> meteorology were compared to exemplify the variation in trace elemental concentration according to air mass movements and highlight the capability of <span class="hlt">total</span>-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. It was found that due to changes in meteorological conditions particularly wind direction and wind speed, trace elemental compositions varied rapidly and could be used to distinguish between 'Lake Michigan air' and 'metropolitan Chicago air' on such short-term time scale like one hour. Back trajectory analysis was applied to support and corroborate the results. The outcome of this study clearly shows that <span class="hlt">total</span>-reflection X-ray fluorescence is an optimal tool for analysis of atmospheric aerosols.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25529695"><span id="translatedtitle">Aqueous two-phase based on ionic liquid liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous determination of five synthetic food <span class="hlt">colourants</span> in <span class="hlt">different</span> food samples by high-performance liquid chromatography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A rapid and effective method of aqueous two-phase systems based on ionic liquid microextraction for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic food <span class="hlt">colourants</span> (tartrazine, sunset yellow, amaranth, ponceau 4R and brilliant blue) in food samples was established. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector of variable wavelength was used for the determinations. 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the extraction reagent. The extraction efficiency of the five <span class="hlt">colourants</span> in the proposed system is influenced by the types of salts, concentrations of salt and [CnMIM]Br, as well as the extracting time. Under the optimal conditions, the extraction efficiencies for these five <span class="hlt">colourants</span> were above 95%. The phase behaviours of aqueous two-phase system and extraction mechanism were investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. This method was applied to the analysis of the five <span class="hlt">colourants</span> in real food samples with the detection limit of 0.051-0.074 ng/mL. Good spiked recoveries from 93.2% to 98.9% were obtained. PMID:25529695</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25820881"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost effectiveness of <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty in osteoarthritis: comparison of devices with <span class="hlt">differing</span> bearing surfaces and modes of fixation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pulikottil-Jacob, R; Connock, M; Kandala, N-B; Mistry, H; Grove, A; Freeman, K; Costa, M; Sutcliffe, P; Clarke, A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">different</span> designs of <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty (THA) with varying performance and cost are available. The identification of those which are the most cost-effective could allow significant cost-savings. We used an established Markov model to examine the cost effectiveness of five frequently used categories of THA which <span class="hlt">differed</span> according to bearing surface and mode of fixation, using data from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales. Kaplan-Meier analyses of rates of revision for men and women were modelled with parametric distributions. Costs of devices were provided by the NHS Supply Chain and associated costs were taken from existing studies. Lifetime costs, lifetime quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) and the probability of a device being cost effective at a willingness to pay £20 000/QALY were included in the models. The <span class="hlt">differences</span> in QALYs between <span class="hlt">different</span> categories of implant were extremely small (< 0.0039 QALYs for men or women over the patient's lifetime) and <span class="hlt">differences</span> in cost were also marginal (£2500 to £3000 in the same time period). As a result, the probability of any particular device being the most cost effective was very sensitive to small, plausible changes in quality of life estimates and cost. Our results suggest that available evidence does not support recommending a particular device on cost effectiveness grounds alone. We would recommend that the choice of prosthesis should be determined by the rate of revision, local costs and the preferences of the surgeon and patient. PMID:25820881</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21455781"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in proteolytic activity and gene profiles of fungal strains isolated from the <span class="hlt">total</span> parenteral nutrition patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sikora, M; Dabkowska, M; Swoboda-Kopec, E; Jarzynka, S; Netsvyetayeva, I; Jaworska-Zaremba, M; Pertkiewicz, M; Mlynarczyk, G</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Fungal infections constitute a serious clinical problem in the group of patients receiving <span class="hlt">total</span> parenteral nutrition. The majority of species isolated from infections of the <span class="hlt">total</span> parenteral nutrition patients belong to Candida genus. The most important factors of Candida spp. virulence are the phenomenon of "phenotypic switching," adhesins, dimorphism of fungal cells and the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinases and lipases, including aspartyl proteinases. We determined the proteolytic activity of yeast-like fungal strains cultured from the clinical materials of patients receiving <span class="hlt">total</span> parenteral nutrition and detected genes encoding aspartyl proteinases in predominant species Candida glabrata--YPS2, YPS4, and YPS6, and Candida albicans--SAP1-3, SAP4, SAP5, and SAP6. C. albicans released proteinases on the various activity levels. All C. glabrata strains obtained from the clinical materials of examined and control groups exhibited secretion of the proteinases. All 13 isolates of C. albicans possessed genes SAP1-3. Gene SAP4 was detected in genome of 11 C. albicans strains, SAP5 in 6, and SAP6 in 11. Twenty-six among 31 of C. glabrata isolates contained YPS2 gene, 21 the YPS4 gene, and 28 the YPS6 gene. We observed that clinical isolates of C. albicans and C. glabrata <span class="hlt">differed</span> in SAPs and YPSs gene profiles, respectively, and displayed differentiated proteolytic activity. We suppose that <span class="hlt">different</span> sets of aspartyl proteinases genes as well as various proteinase-activity levels would have the influence on strains virulence. PMID:21455781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3431860"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Characterization of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at <span class="hlt">Different</span> Ages, from <span class="hlt">Different</span> Cultivation Sources and Genders of Ginkgo biloba Leaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yao, Xin; Shang, Erxin; Zhou, Guisheng; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shulan; Jin, Chun; Qian, Dawei; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-Ao</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The extract from Ginkgo biloba leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on G. biloba leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years) are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November). In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years) and first comparatively analyze the <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at <span class="hlt">different</span> ages, from <span class="hlt">different</span> cultivation sources and genders of G. biloba leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of <span class="hlt">total</span> terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of G. biloba leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars. PMID:22949862</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999A%26AS..137..245M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> distributions in E-S0 galaxies . IV. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> data and dust in E's from Nieto's B, R frames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michard, R.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>The B-R <span class="hlt">colours</span> distributions (with R in Cousins's system) have been measured in 44 E classified galaxies in the Local Supercluster, from pairs of frames collected by Nieto and co-workers in 1989-91. These are nearly all from the CFHT, and of sub-arsec resolution. Great attention has been given to the effects of unequal PSF's in the B and R frames upon <span class="hlt">colour</span> distributions near centre; such effects are illustrated from model calculations and from pseudo-<span class="hlt">colours</span> obtained from pairs of frames taken in the same band but with <span class="hlt">different</span> seeing conditions. Appropriate corrections were systematically applied in order to derive central <span class="hlt">colours</span> and inner gradients, although still affected by the limited resolution of the frames. The radial <span class="hlt">colour</span> distributions have been measured in more detail than usual, considering separately the near major axis and near minor axis regions of the isophotal contours. Azimuthal <span class="hlt">colour</span> distributions, in rings limited by selected isophotes, were also obtained. Dust ``patterns", i.e. patches, lanes, arcs, ..., have been detected and mapped from the <span class="hlt">colour</span> distributions. An ad hoc dust pattern importance index (or DPII) in a scale of 0 to 3, has been introduced to qualify their size and contrast. We have tried to find evidence of a diffuse dust concentration towards the disk, if one is apparent. Positive results (noted by the dd symbol) have been obtained for disky E's, whenever the inclination of their disk to the line of sight is large enough, and eventually also in the small isolated disks sometimes present in both boxy and disky galaxies. The red central peak occurring in many E-galaxies might be the signature of a central concentration of dust, also in cases where this peak is isolated rather than embedded in some extensive <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern. The properties of the near centre <span class="hlt">colour</span> profiles have been related to a classification of nuclear photometric profiles into ``flat topped" and ``sharply peaked" (equivalent to ``core-like" and ``power-law" in the terminology of te[Faber et al. 1997).]{fab97} The published here data include the following: . Short descriptions and codes for the characters of the B-R distribution of each object, and comparison to the results of recent surveys. . A table of the mean B-R at the centre and at two selected isophotes, a ``core <span class="hlt">colour</span> gradient" and the usual logarithmic gradient. . Maps of near core B-R isochromes and B isophotes for comparison. Images of the B-R <span class="hlt">colour</span> distribution are made available in electronic form. Based on observations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and at the Observatoire du Pic du Midi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4778670"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive automated construction of hybrid heuristics for exam timetabling and graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Rong Qu; Edmund K. Burke; Barry Mccollum</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a random iterative graph based hyper-heuristic to produce a collection of heuristic sequences to construct solutions of <span class="hlt">different</span> quality. These heuristic sequences can be seen as dynamic hybridisations of <span class="hlt">different</span> graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> heuristics that construct solutions step by step. Based on these sequences, we statistically analyse the way in which graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> heuristics are automatically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4440272"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouring</span>, constraint satisfaction, and complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Pavol Hell; Jaroslav Nesetril</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Constraint satisfaction problems have enjoyed much attention since the early seventies, and in the last decade have become also a focus of attention amongst theoreticians. Graph <span class="hlt">colourings</span> are a special class of constraint satisfaction problems; they oer,a microcosm of many of the considerations that occur in constraint satisfaction. From the point of view of theory, they are well known</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14608249"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Colour</span> of Butterflies' Wings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>F. E. v</p> <p>1870-01-01</p> <p>IN making some experiments a short time ago, I came across a fact of which I was hitherto ignorant. I wished to test the effect of acid on the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the wings of a butterfly or moth, and with this view applied muriatic acid to a dried and set specimen of the Six-spotted Burnet [Zygæna filipendulæ). The red parts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/menzel/Pub_AGmenzel/Vorobyev_etal_ColorResearchandVision_2000.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colourful</span> Objects Through Animal Eyes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie</p> <p></p> <p>, bird plumage, and fish skin were used to calculate receptor quantum catches. The quantum catches were. To simulate <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy, we used a von Kries algorithm, i.e., the receptor quantum catches were scaled so by receptor adaptation, and so invokes the simplest physiological mech- anism; no special-purpose neural</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3227134"><span id="translatedtitle">The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in mate choice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Detto, Tanya</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Although the role of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in mate choice is well known, few tests of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws <span class="hlt">differing</span> in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848366"><span id="translatedtitle">The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in mate choice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Detto, Tanya</p> <p>2007-11-22</p> <p>Although the role of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in mate choice is well known, few tests of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws <span class="hlt">differing</span> in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3495758"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity from <span class="hlt">different</span> assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The association between dietary <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity (TAC) from <span class="hlt">different</span> assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using <span class="hlt">different</span> four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and <span class="hlt">total</span> radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results. PMID:23110638</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14892261"><span id="translatedtitle">Scotopic <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in nocturnal hawkmoths</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Almut Kelber; Anna Balkenius; Eric J. Warrant</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Humans are <span class="hlt">colour</span>-blind at night, and it has been assumed that this is true of all animals. But <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision is as useful for discriminating objects at night as it is during the day. Here we show, through behavioural experiments, that the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor uses <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision to discriminate <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli at intensities corresponding to dim starlight (0.0001cdm-2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5685197"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental instability and immune function in <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Emilio Civantos; Anders Forsman; Jonas Ahnesjö</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Random left minus right deviations from symmetry in otherwise bilaterally symmetric traits may arise due to developmental instability in response to environmental stress. Here we test for variation in developmental instability, measured as asymmetry of (femur) size, among individuals belonging to four <span class="hlt">different</span> genetically encoded <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs of the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix undulata (Sow.) (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae). Such a <span class="hlt">difference</span> is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7273P"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire severity effects on ash extractable <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phosphorous</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose <span class="hlt">different</span> severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash <span class="hlt">colour</span> and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash <span class="hlt">colour</span> was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 <span class="hlt">different</span> ash <span class="hlt">colours</span>, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> between extractable TP and ash <span class="hlt">colours</span>, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the <span class="hlt">differences</span> significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the extractable TP among the <span class="hlt">different</span> ash <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Hence, to identify specific <span class="hlt">differences</span> between each ash <span class="hlt">colour</span>, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3461038"><span id="translatedtitle">A Candidate-Gene Association Study for Berry <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Anthocyanin Content in Vitis vinifera L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cardoso, Silvana; Lau, Winston; Eiras Dias, José; Fevereiro, Pedro; Maniatis, Nikolas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were <span class="hlt">total</span> skin anthocyanin (TSA) concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) descriptors for berry and skin <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several <span class="hlt">different</span> types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp <span class="hlt">colour</span> were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST). Pulp <span class="hlt">colour</span> was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, MYCA, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHSA). Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYCB, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies. PMID:23029369</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40248579"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> space models for soil science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> are commonly made using the Munsell soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts. A number</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://kobus.ca/research/publications/96/ECCV-96/ECCV-96.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Barnard, Kobus</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination Kobus Barnard 1 , Graham Finlayson 2 surface reflectance and illumination variation to solve for <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy. Most <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy algorithms assume that the illumination across a scene is constant, but this is very often not valid for real</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.sfu.ca/~colour/publications/ECCV-96/ECCV-96.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Funt, Brian</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination Kobus Barnard1, Graham Finlayson2, and Brian surface reflectance and illumination variation to solve for <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy. Most <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy algorithms assume that the illumination across a scene is constant, but this is very often not valid for real</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2519328"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">colour</span> in image stitching applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David Hasler; Sabine Süsstrunk</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Digitally, panoramic pictures can be assembled from several individual, overlapping photographs. While the geometric alignment of these photographs has retained a lot of attention from the computer vision community, the mapping of <span class="hlt">colour</span>, i.e. the correction of <span class="hlt">colour</span> mismatches, has not been studied extensively. In this article, we analyze the <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendering of today's digital photographic systems, and propose a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11835380"><span id="translatedtitle">Memory for <span class="hlt">colours</span>: a reaction time experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>V. Bonnardel; J. Herrero</p> <p></p> <p>We used simultaneous and delayed match to sample tasks to investigate memory for 5 <span class="hlt">colour</span> tests (green, yellow, purple, pink and orange) in men and women. Stimuli were emulated Munsell <span class="hlt">colour</span> samples displayed on a CRT monitor. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> tests were presented with distracters that could vary either in hue or in saturation. Our results indicate that: 1) over the five</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39364650"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved maritime target tracker using <span class="hlt">colour</span> fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Paul Westall; Peter O'Shea; Jason J. Ford; Stefan Hrabar</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Searching for humans lost in vast stretches of ocean has always been a difficult task. This paper investigates a machine vision system that addresses this problem by exploiting the useful properties of alternate <span class="hlt">colour</span> spaces. In particular, the paper investigates the fusion of <span class="hlt">colour</span> information from the HSV, RGB, YCbCr and YIQ <span class="hlt">colour</span> spaces within the emission matrix of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24462488"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>It is often claimed that <span class="hlt">colour</span> (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the <span class="hlt">colour</span> itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the <span class="hlt">differently-coloured</span> components in a meal influence consumers' ratings of the pleasantness of a meal (across time) and, to a certain extent, might even affect their consumption behaviour as well. Typically, eating the same food constantly or repeatedly leads to a decrease in its perceived pleasantness, which, as a consequence, might lead to decreased intake of that food. However, variation within a meal (in one or several sensory attributes, or holistically) has been shown to slow down this process. In this review, we first briefly summarize the literature on how general variety in a meal influences these variables and the major theories that have been put forward by researchers to explain them. We then go on to evaluate the evidence of these effects based mainly on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the food explaining the <span class="hlt">different</span> processes that might affect <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based sensory-specific satiety and, in more detail, consumption behaviour. In addition, we also discuss the overlap in the definitions of these terms and provide additional hypothesis as to why, in some cases, the opposite pattern of results has been observed. PMID:24462488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17163926"><span id="translatedtitle">Hair <span class="hlt">colouring</span>, permanent styling and hair structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrison, S; Sinclair, R</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. <span class="hlt">Different</span> types of hair have varying affinity for the <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colouring</span> and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a <span class="hlt">different</span> affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair. PMID:17163926</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0811.3970v3"><span id="translatedtitle">Galaxy Zoo: Disentangling the Environmental Dependence of Morphology and <span class="hlt">Colour</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ramin A. Skibba; Steven P. Bamford; Robert C. Nichol; Chris J. Lintott; Dan Andreescu; Edward M. Edmondson; Phil Murray; M. Jordan Raddick; Kevin Schawinski; Anze Slosar; Alexander S. Szalay; Daniel Thomas; Jan Vandenberg</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>We analyze the environmental dependence of galaxy morphology and <span class="hlt">colour</span> with two-point clustering statistics, using data from the Galaxy Zoo, the largest sample of visually classified morphologies yet compiled, extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present two-point correlation functions of spiral and early-type galaxies, and we quantify the correlation between morphology and environment with marked correlation functions. These yield clear and precise environmental trends across a wide range of scales, analogous to similar measurements with galaxy <span class="hlt">colours</span>, indicating that the Galaxy Zoo classifications themselves are very precise. We measure morphology marked correlation functions at fixed <span class="hlt">colour</span> and find that they are relatively weak, with the only residual correlation being that of red galaxies at small scales, indicating a morphology gradient within haloes for red galaxies. At fixed morphology, we find that the environmental dependence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> remains strong, and these correlations remain for fixed morphology \\textit{and} luminosity. An implication of this is that much of the morphology--density relation is due to the relation between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and density. Our results also have implications for galaxy evolution: the morphological transformation of galaxies is usually accompanied by a <span class="hlt">colour</span> transformation, but not necessarily vice versa. A spiral galaxy may move onto the red sequence of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagram without quickly becoming an early-type. We analyze the significant population of red spiral galaxies, and present evidence that they tend to be located in moderately dense environments and are often satellite galaxies in the outskirts of haloes. Finally, we combine our results to argue that central and satellite galaxies tend to follow <span class="hlt">different</span> evolutionary paths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25854512"><span id="translatedtitle">A guide to the field of palaeo <span class="hlt">colour</span>: Melanin and other pigments can fossilise: Reconstructing <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns from ancient organisms can give new insights to ecology and behaviour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinther, Jakob</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Melanin, and other pigments have recently been shown to preserve over geologic time scales, and are found in several <span class="hlt">different</span> organisms. This opens up the possibility of inferring <span class="hlt">colours</span> and <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns ranging from invertebrates to feathered dinosaurs and mammals. An emerging discipline is palaeo <span class="hlt">colour</span>: <span class="hlt">colour</span> plays an important role in display and camouflage as well as in integumental strengthening and protection, which makes possible the hitherto difficult task of doing inferences about past ecologies, behaviours, and organismal appearance. Several studies and techniques have been presented in the last couple of years that have described ways to characterize pigment patterns. Here, I will review the available methods and the likely applications to understand past ecologies. A golden age of <span class="hlt">colourized</span> dinosaurs and other animals is now dawning upon us, which may elucidate the nature of ancient predator prey interactions and display structures. Also watch the Video Abstract. PMID:25854512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1143010"><span id="translatedtitle">A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING <span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> VISION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martin, L. C.</p> <p>1939-01-01</p> <p>A Lantern for lesting <span class="hlt">Colour</span>-Vision is arranged to show test <span class="hlt">colours</span> in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and <span class="hlt">colour</span>-defective subjects are described. PMID:18169586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21680465"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are <span class="hlt">colour</span>-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if <span class="hlt">colour</span> cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise <span class="hlt">colours</span> even under a changed illumination <span class="hlt">colour</span>. PMID:21680465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607147"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of the n-<span class="hlt">colour</span> printing process using the spot <span class="hlt">colour</span> overprint model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R</p> <p>2014-12-29</p> <p>This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot <span class="hlt">colours</span> using the n-<span class="hlt">colour</span> separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot <span class="hlt">colour</span> overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-<span class="hlt">colour</span> printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot <span class="hlt">colour</span> overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-<span class="hlt">colour</span> printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the <span class="hlt">colour</span> separation for n-<span class="hlt">colour</span> printing process. Finally the real-world spot <span class="hlt">colours</span> were reproduced using 7-<span class="hlt">colour</span> separation on lithographic offset printing process. The <span class="hlt">colours</span> printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot <span class="hlt">colours</span> to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target <span class="hlt">colours</span> and the printed <span class="hlt">colours</span> of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot <span class="hlt">colours</span>, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry. PMID:25607147</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41143774"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and acrylamide formation in coffee, wheat flour and potato chips during heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Vural Gökmen; Hamide Z. ?enyuva</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The effects of heating on <span class="hlt">colour</span> generation measured as CIE <span class="hlt">colour</span> space parameters of L*a*b* and acrylamide formation were studied in various food matrices including green coffee, wheat flour and potato chips at <span class="hlt">different</span> temperatures. Changes in both the acrylamide concentration and the redness parameter a* during heating at relatively higher temperatures followed a typical kinetic pattern in which an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345823"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetics of male nuptial <span class="hlt">colour</span> divergence between sympatric sister species of a Lake Victoria cichlid fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Magalhaes, I S; Seehausen, O</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The hypothesis of sympatric speciation by sexual selection has been contentious. Several recent theoretical models of sympatric speciation by disruptive sexual selection were tailored to apply to African cichlids. Most of this work concludes that the genetic architecture of female preference and male trait is a key determinant of the likelihood of disruptive sexual selection to result in speciation. We investigated the genetic architecture controlling male nuptial <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in a sympatric sibling species pair of cichlid fish from Lake Victoria, which <span class="hlt">differ</span> conspicuously in male <span class="hlt">colouration</span> and female mating preferences for these. We estimated that the <span class="hlt">difference</span> between the species in male nuptial red <span class="hlt">colouration</span> is controlled by a minimum number of two to four genes with significant epistasis and dominance effects. Yellow <span class="hlt">colouration</span> appears to be controlled by one gene with complete dominance. The two <span class="hlt">colours</span> appear to be epistatically linked. Knowledge on how male <span class="hlt">colouration</span> segregates in hybrid generations and on the number of genes controlling <span class="hlt">differences</span> between species can help us assess whether assumptions made in simulation models of sympatric speciation by sexual selection are realistic. In the particular case of the two sister species that we studied a small number of genes causing major <span class="hlt">differences</span> in male <span class="hlt">colouration</span> may have facilitated the divergence in male <span class="hlt">colouration</span> associated with speciation. PMID:20345823</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.bom.hik.se/ffoad/andersfwebsite/reprintspdf/expmanipulcolsurvJEB1999.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental manipulation reveals differential effects of <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern on survival in male and female pygmy grasshoppers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Appelqvist</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Populations of pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix subulata, exhibit genetically coded discontinuous variation in <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern. To determine whether the dynamics of this polymorphism is likely to be affected by selective processes, rather than by stochastic events, we experimentally manipulated <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns of free- ranging grasshoppers and then calculated and controlled for <span class="hlt">differences</span> in capture probabilities between categories of individuals before estimating</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://white.stanford.edu/~brian/papers/mri/colornat97.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> tuning in human visual cortex measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Stephen Engel; Xuemei Zhang; Brian Wandell</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The primate retina contains three classes of cones, the L, M and S cones, which respond preferentially to long-, middle- and short-wavelength visible light, respectively. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> appearance results from neural processing of these cone signals within the retina and the brain. Perceptual experiments have identified three types of neural pathways that represent <span class="hlt">colour</span>: a red-green pathway that signals <span class="hlt">differences</span> between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39286957"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic channel allocation for small wireless local area networks using graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> algorithm approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Petri Mähönen; Janne Riihijärvi; Marina Petrova</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Classical graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> and its generalisations have been used to model various frequency and channel allocation processes in <span class="hlt">different</span> radio and wireless network contexts for some time now. However, most of this work has targeted cellular networks and graphs with a relatively large number of nodes. In this article we demonstrate how graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> can be used as a theoretical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48293170"><span id="translatedtitle">Models of inheritance of flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> and extra petals in Potentilla fruticosa L</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Campbell G. Davidson; Louis M. Lenz</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Inheritance models for flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> and extra petals in Potentilla fruticosa L. were developed by conducting controlled crosses between <span class="hlt">different</span> cultivars and advanced selections. Parents were crossed in all combinations and floral character segregation of progenies were recorded. Preliminary models for flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> include two whitening genes (W1 and W2) and two yellowing genes (Y1 and Y2) with the action</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/30024346"><span id="translatedtitle">Impairment of <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity and neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S A Geier; U Kronawitter; J R Bogner; G Hammel; T Berninger; V Klauss; F D Goebel</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Ophthalmic and neurological complications are frequent findings in patients with AIDS. Little is known about neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in patients with HIV infection or AIDS. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> contrast sensitivity tests were performed on 75 patients (150 eyes) in <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of HIV infection. A highly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conditioning&pg=6&id=EJ859643"><span id="translatedtitle">Training Grapheme-<span class="hlt">Colour</span> Associations Produces a Synaesthetic Stroop Effect, but Not a Conditioned Synaesthetic Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate whether behavioural and physiological consequences of synaesthesia can be elicited by training specific letter-<span class="hlt">colour</span> associations. Towards this goal 20 non-synaesthetic individuals were trained for 10 min on 7 consecutive days to associate four <span class="hlt">different</span> letters with four specific <span class="hlt">colours</span>. After training,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41164278"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical and <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) during freezing and frozen storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>E. M. Gonçalves; R. M. S. Cruz; M. Abreu; T. R. S. Brandão; C. L. M. Silva</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The effects of water blanching, freezing, and frozen storage during 400 days at three <span class="hlt">different</span> temperatures (?7, ?15 and ?30°C), on watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) <span class="hlt">colour</span> Hunter Lab parameters, chlorophyll degradation, vitamin C content loss and peroxidase (POD) activity were evaluated. The blanching induced significant changes on <span class="hlt">colour</span> values and chlorophylls and vitamin C contents. POD activity was reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.academypublisher.com/jmm/vol03/no05/jmm03050918.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Applicability of White-Balancing Algorithms to Restoring Faded <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Slides: An Empirical Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Dennis Nikitenko; Michael Wirth; Kataline Trudel</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigated the applicability of commonly used white-balancing algorithms to restoring faded photographic <span class="hlt">colour</span> slides. We have used three sets of synthetic data that simulated <span class="hlt">colour</span> damage in Kodak Ektachrome slides, as well as three sets of real digitized faded Kodak Ektachrome slides. We have restored all the data sets using nine <span class="hlt">different</span> algorithms and evaluated restoration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169255"><span id="translatedtitle">Implant based <span class="hlt">differences</span> in adverse local tissue reaction in failed <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasties: a morphological and immunohistochemical study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple hip implant classes have been reported to result in ALTR, and clinical <span class="hlt">differences</span> may represent variation in the soft tissue response at the cellular and tissue levels. The purpose of this study was to describe similarities and <span class="hlt">differences</span> in periprosthetic tissue structure, organization, and cellular composition by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry in ALTR resulting from two common <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty (THA) implant classes. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with ALTR from two major hip implant classes (N?=?54 patients with Dual-Modular Neck implant; N?=?14 patients with Metal-on-Metal implant) were identified from our prospective Osteolysis Tissue Database and Repository. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, BMI, length of implantation, and serum metal ion levels were recorded. Retrieved synovial tissue morphology was graded using light microscopy and cellular composition was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results Length of implantation was shorter in the DMN group versus MoM THA group (21.3 [8.4] months versus 43.6 [13.8] months respectively; p?<?0.005) suggesting <span class="hlt">differences</span> in implant performance. Morphologic examination revealed a common spectrum of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis in both groups. Macrophages were more commonly present in diffuse sheets (Grade 3) in the MoM relative to DMN group (p?=?0.016). Perivascular lymphocytes with germinal centers (Grade 4) were more common in the DMN group, which trended towards significance (p?=?0.066). Qualitative <span class="hlt">differences</span> in corrosion product morphology were seen between the two groups. Immunohistochemistry showed features of a CD4 and GATA-3 rich lymphocyte reaction in both implants, with increased ratios of perivascular T-cell relative to B-cell markers in the DMN relative to the MoM group (p?=?0.032). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that both implant classes display common features of neo-synovial proliferation and necrosis with a CD4 and GATA-3 rich inflammatory infiltrate. Qualitative <span class="hlt">differences</span> in corrosion product appearance, macrophage morphology, and lymphocyte distributions were seen between the two implant types. Our data suggests that ALTR represents a histological spectrum with implant-based features. PMID:25242891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4449910"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">Colour</span>, Category Effects, and Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review of Studies and Further Longitudinal Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moreno-Martínez, F. Javier; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in object recognition is controversial; in this study, a critical review of previous studies, as well as a longitudinal study, was conducted. We examined whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> benefits the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC) when naming items <span class="hlt">differing</span> in <span class="hlt">colour</span> diagnosticity: living things (LT) versus nonliving things (NLT). Eleven AD patients were evaluated twice with a temporal interval of 3 years; 26 NC were tested once. The participants performed a naming task (<span class="hlt">colour</span> and greyscale photographs); the impact of nuisance variables (NVs) and potential ceiling effects were also controlled. Our results showed that (i) <span class="hlt">colour</span> slightly favoured processing of items with higher <span class="hlt">colour</span> diagnosticity (i.e., LT) in both groups; (ii) AD patients used <span class="hlt">colour</span> information similarly to NC, retaining this ability over time; (iii) NVs played a significant role as naming predictors in all the participants, relegating domain to a minor plane; and (iv) category effects (better processing of NLT) were present in both groups. Finally, although patients underwent semantic longitudinal impairment, this was independent of <span class="hlt">colour</span> deterioration. This finding provides better support to the view that <span class="hlt">colour</span> is effective at the visual rather than at the semantic level of object processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22886173"><span id="translatedtitle">Printing <span class="hlt">colour</span> at the optical diffraction limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The highest possible resolution for printed <span class="hlt">colour</span> images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual <span class="hlt">colour</span> elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ?100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple <span class="hlt">colourants</span> or fabricating structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-<span class="hlt">colourant</span> method that achieves bright-field <span class="hlt">colour</span> prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the individual pixels. Our <span class="hlt">colour</span>-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume <span class="hlt">colour</span> printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.0489v3"><span id="translatedtitle">Sampling <span class="hlt">Colourings</span> of the Triangular Lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Markus Jalsenius</p> <p>2010-10-26</p> <p>We show that the Glauber dynamics on proper 9-<span class="hlt">colourings</span> of the triangular lattice is rapidly mixing, which allows for efficient sampling. Consequently, there is a fully polynomial randomised approximation scheme (FPRAS) for counting proper 9-<span class="hlt">colourings</span> of the triangular lattice. Proper <span class="hlt">colourings</span> correspond to configurations in the zero-temperature anti-ferromagnetic Potts model. We show that the spin system consisting of proper 9-<span class="hlt">colourings</span> of the triangular lattice has strong spatial mixing. This implies that there is a unique infinite-volume Gibbs distribution, which is an important property studied in statistical physics. Our results build on previous work by Goldberg, Martin and Paterson, who showed similar results for 10 <span class="hlt">colours</span> on the triangular lattice. Their work was preceded by Salas and Sokal's 11-<span class="hlt">colour</span> result. Both proofs rely on computational assistance, and so does our 9-<span class="hlt">colour</span> proof. We have used a randomised heuristic to guide us towards rigourous results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033055"><span id="translatedtitle">Lifetime cost effectiveness of <span class="hlt">different</span> brands of prosthesis used for <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty: a study using the NJR dataset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pennington, M W; Grieve, R; van der Meulen, J H</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>There is little evidence on the cost effectiveness of <span class="hlt">different</span> brands of hip prostheses. We compared lifetime cost effectiveness of frequently used brands within types of prosthesis including cemented (Exeter V40 Contemporary, Exeter V40 Duration and Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee), cementless (Corail Pinnacle, Accolade Trident, and Taperloc Exceed) and hybrid (Exeter V40 Trilogy, Exeter V40 Trident, and CPT Trilogy). We used data from three linked English national databases to estimate the lifetime risk of revision, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost. For women with osteoarthritis aged 70 years, the Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee had the lowest risk of revision (5.9% revision risk, 9.0 QALYs) and the CPT Trilogy had the highest QALYs (10.9% revision risk, 9.3 QALYs). Compared with the Corail Pinnacle (9.3% revision risk, 9.22 QALYs), the most commonly used brand, and assuming a willingness-to-pay of £20 000 per QALY gain, the CPT Trilogy is most cost effective, with an incremental net monetary benefit of £876. <span class="hlt">Differences</span> in cost effectiveness between the hybrid CPT Trilogy and Exeter V40 Trident and the cementless Corail Pinnacle and Taperloc Exceed were small, and a cautious interpretation is required, given the limitations of the available information. However, it is unlikely that cemented brands are among the most cost effective. Similar patterns of results were observed for men and other ages. The gain in quality of life after <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty, rather than the risk of revision, was the main driver of cost effectiveness. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:762-70. PMID:26033055</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25463059"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with <span class="hlt">different</span> dietary triacylglycerol and <span class="hlt">total</span> lipids levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9 days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with <span class="hlt">different</span> lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of <span class="hlt">total</span> lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no <span class="hlt">difference</span> in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/344905"><span id="translatedtitle">Sampling, Resampling and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Constancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David A. Forsyth</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We formulate <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy as a problem ofBayesian inference, where one is trying to representthe posterior on possible interpretations given imagedata. We represent the posterior as a set of samples,drawn from that distribution using a Markov chainMonte Carlo method. We show how to build an efficientsampler.This approach has the advantage that it unifies theconstraints on the problem, and represents possibleambiguities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.588a2038T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trambitckii, K.; Anding, K.; Musalimov, V.; Linß, G.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project <span class="hlt">different</span> algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article <span class="hlt">colour</span> based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only <span class="hlt">colour</span> information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having <span class="hlt">colour</span> similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JPhD...36.2244H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tuning of emission <span class="hlt">colours</span> in strontium aluminate long persisting phosphor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haranath, D.; Shanker, Virendra; Chander, Harish; Sharma, Pooja</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Solid-state preparation, structure, and multi-<span class="hlt">colour</span> luminescence of Eu2+ doped strontium aluminate (SRA) phosphors have been reported in this paper. It has been observed that a slight modification in the processing parameters such as type of reducing atmosphere, stoichiometric excess of one or more constituents, nature of fluxes, and intentional addition of carbon or rare-earth halides can drastically shift the emission <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the SRA phosphor in the visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy observations of the samples revealed the formation of <span class="hlt">different</span> crystalline phases related to the SRA system. The luminescence measurements showed that the decay times varied with the emission <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1052381.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Practice and <span class="hlt">Colour</span>-Word Integration in Stroop Interference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gul, Amara; Humphreys, Glyn W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Congruency effects were examined using a manual response version of the Stroop task in which the relationship between the <span class="hlt">colour</span> word and its hue on incongruent trials was either kept constant or varied randomly across <span class="hlt">different</span> pairings within the stimulus set. Congruency effects were increased in the condition where the incongruent hue-word…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://decsai.ugr.es/vip/files/conferences/Chamorro_FuzzyIEEE2005.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuzzy Homogeneity Measures for Path-based <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Granada, Universidad de</p> <p></p> <p>Fuzzy Homogeneity Measures for Path-based <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation J. Chamorro-Martínez, D,daniel,belenps,elena}@decsai.ugr.es Abstract-- In this paper we study <span class="hlt">different</span> measures of path homogeneity for fuzzy path-based image segmentation. We pro- vide fuzzy semantics for the concept of homogeneity in two steps: first, we introduce</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42524643"><span id="translatedtitle">RGB-NDVI <span class="hlt">colour</span> composites for visualizing forest change dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. A. SADER; J. C. WINNE</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A simple and logical technique was developed to display and quantify forest change using three dates of satellite imagery. The normalized <span class="hlt">difference</span> vegetation index (NDVI) was computed for each date of imagery to define high and low vegetation biomass. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> composites were generated by combining each date of NDVI with either the red, green, or blue (RGB) image planes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6616E..2HF"><span id="translatedtitle">Profile detection by projection of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fontani, Daniela; Francini, Franco; Sansoni, Paola; Jafrancesco, David; Mercatelli, Luca</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The paper presents a study to detect the three-dimensional profile of an object using a technique based on the projection of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded lines. The accessibility at low-cost of projectors and digital photographic cameras has approved the employment and the development of these techniques. They provide information concerning the profile through the acquisition of a couple of images. The first one concerns a reference plane and it is captured only once, while the second one refers to the object image. The proposed methodology simplifies the individuation of homologous lines within the two images, when grating projection techniques are employed. Even though these methods are conceptually very simple, they are rarely applied because of this difficulty in stating the correspondence between observed deformation and projected line. The attribution of a <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> to every single line, or to a set of them, introduces an element useful for their selection. After the image acquisition, the data pertaining to the profile are extracted examining the image by means of an algorithm developed in Matlab language for this application. The research work is in progress beyond the results presented in this paper, which already represent a excellent starting point for further studies and evolutions of the technique.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21957131"><span id="translatedtitle">The original <span class="hlt">colours</span> of fossil beetles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui</p> <p>2012-03-22</p> <p>Structural <span class="hlt">colours</span>, the most intense, reflective and pure <span class="hlt">colours</span> in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the <span class="hlt">colours</span> have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of <span class="hlt">colours</span> is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic <span class="hlt">colours</span> in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved <span class="hlt">colours</span> are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> in this group. PMID:21957131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22625655"><span id="translatedtitle">AFLP genome scans suggest divergent selection on <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterning in allopatric <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs of a cichlid fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mattersdorfer, Karin; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sefc, Kristina M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Genome scan-based tests for selection are directly applicable to natural populations to study the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms behind phenotypic differentiation. We conducted AFLP genome scans in three distinct geographic <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs of the cichlid fish Tropheus moorii to assess whether the extant, allopatric <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern differentiation can be explained by drift and to identify markers mapping to genomic regions possibly involved in <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterning. The tested morphs occupy adjacent shore sections in southern Lake Tanganyika and are separated from each other by major habitat barriers. The genome scans revealed significant genetic structure between morphs, but a very low proportion of loci fixed for alternative AFLP alleles in <span class="hlt">different</span> morphs. This high level of polymorphism within morphs suggested that <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern differentiation did not result exclusively from neutral processes. Outlier detection methods identified six loci with excess differentiation in the comparison between a bluish and a yellow-blotch morph and five <span class="hlt">different</span> outlier loci in comparisons of each of these morphs with a red morph. As population expansions and the genetic structure of Tropheus make the outlier approach prone to false-positive signals of selection, we examined the correlation between outlier locus alleles and <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotypes in a genetic and phenotypic cline between two morphs. Distributions of allele frequencies at one outlier locus were indeed consistent with linkage to a <span class="hlt">colour</span> locus. Despite the challenges posed by population structure and demography, our results encourage the cautious application of genome scans to studies of divergent selection in subdivided and recently expanded populations. PMID:22625655</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015WRR....51.3681Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in dissolved organic carbon and <span class="hlt">total</span> dissolved nitrogen fluxes across subtropical forest ecosystems at <span class="hlt">different</span> successional stages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Wang, Wantong; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhou, Guoyi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Lateral transports of carbon and nitrogen are important processes linking terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems. Most previous studies made in temperate forests found that fluxes of carbon and nitrogen by runoff water varied in <span class="hlt">different</span> forests, but few studies have been made in subtropical forests. This study was to investigate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and <span class="hlt">total</span> dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes at the catchment scale along a subtropical forest succession gradient from pine forest (pioneer) to coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) to broadleaved forest (mature). Our results showed that DOC concentration significantly decreased (p<0.001) while TDN concentration significantly increased (p<0.001) in runoff water from pioneer to mature forests, which in turn resulted in a decrease in DOC flux and an increase in TDN flux, as mean annual runoff did not vary significantly among three succession forest catchments. The mean (±standard deviation) annual DOC flux was 118.1±43.6, 88.3±16.7 and 77.2±11.7 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively; and the mean annual TDN flux was 9.9 ±2.7, 18.2±3.0 and 21.2 ±4.5 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively. The mature forest reduced DOC flux by increased soil chemical adsorption and physical protection. An increase in TDN flux from pioneer to mature forests was consistent with the previous finding that mature forest was nitrogen saturated while pioneer forest was nitrogen limited. Therefore large-scale conversion of pioneer forests to transitional or mature forests in subtropical China will reduce DOC concentration and increase TDN concentration in the down-stream water, which may have significant impact on its water quality and aquatic biological activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24782092"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of genetic parameters for <span class="hlt">total</span> milk yield over multiple ages in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes using <span class="hlt">different</span> models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sesana, R C; Baldi, F; Borquis, R R A; Bignardi, A B; Hurtado-Lugo, N A; El Faro, L; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for accumulated 305-day milk yield (MY305) over multiple ages, from 24 to 120 months of age, applying random regression (RRM), repeatability (REP) and multi-trait (MT) models. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 4472 lactation records from 1882 buffaloes of the Murrah breed were utilized. The contemporary group (herd-year-calving season) and number of milkings (two levels) were considered as fixed effects in all models. For REP and RRM, additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual effects were included as random effects. MT considered the same random effects as did REP and RRM with the exception of permanent environmental effect. Residual variances were modeled by a step function with 1, 4, and 6 classes. The heritabilities estimated with RRM increased with age, ranging from 0.19 to 0.34, and were slightly higher than that obtained with the REP model. For the MT model, heritability estimates ranged from 0.20 (37 months of age) to 0.32 (94 months of age). The genetic correlation estimates for MY305 obtained by RRM (L23.res4) and MT models were very similar, and varied from 0.77 to 0.99 and from 0.77 to 0.99, respectively. The rank correlation between breeding values for MY305 at <span class="hlt">different</span> ages predicted by REP, MT, and RRM were high. It seems that a linear and quadratic Legendre polynomial to model the additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects, respectively, may be sufficient to explain more parsimoniously the changes in MY305 genetic variation with age. PMID:24782092</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29959045"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in the fretting corrosion of metal–metal and ceramic–metal modular junctions of <span class="hlt">total</span> hip replacements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Nadim James Hallab; Carlo Messina; Anastasia Skipor; Joshua J. Jacobs</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The use of modular interlocking components is a central design feature of <span class="hlt">total</span> joint replacements. In this investigation we hypothesized that clinically available ceramic–metal modular connections used in <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty release more metal through fretting corrosion than traditional metal–metal modular connections. This was investigated using an in vitro comparison of ceramic (zirconia, ZrO2) and metal (Co-alloy) femoral-head fretting upon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327...69C"><span id="translatedtitle">Dwarf elliptical galaxies: structure, star formation and <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carraro, Giovanni; Chiosi, Cesare; Girardi, Léo; Lia, Cesario</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to cast light on the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies by means of N-body hydrodynamical simulations that include star formation, feedback and chemical evolution. Particular attention is paid to the case of dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group which, thanks to their proximity and modern ground-based and space instrumentation, can be resolved into single stars so that independent determinations of their age and star formation history can be derived. Indeed, the analysis of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagram of their stellar content allows us to infer the past history of star formation and chemical enrichment, thus setting important constraints on galactic models. Dwarf galaxies are known to exhibit complicated histories of star formation ranging from a single very old episode to a series of bursts over most of the Hubble time. By understanding the physical process driving star formation in these objects, we might be able to infer the mechanism governing star formation in more massive elliptical galaxies. Given these premises, we start from virialized haloes of dark matter, and follow the infall of gas into the potential wells and the formation of stars. We find that in objects of the same <span class="hlt">total</span> mass, <span class="hlt">different</span> star formation histories are possible, if the collapse phase started at <span class="hlt">different</span> initial densities. We predict the final structure of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, their kinematics, their large-scale distribution of gas and stars, and their detailed histories of the star formation and metal enrichment. Using a population synthesis technique, star formation and metal enrichment rates are then adopted to generate the present <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams of the stellar populations hosted by dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The simulations are made assuming the redshift of galaxy formation zfor=5 and varying the cosmological parameters H0 and q0. The resulting <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams are then compared with the observational ones for some dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2324661"><span id="translatedtitle">Circular Statistics Applied to <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Allan Hanbury</p> <p></p> <p>Three methods for summarising the character- istics of <span class="hlt">colour</span> images are presented. They all rely on the ability to represent <span class="hlt">colours</span> in terms of a 3D-polar coordi- nate system having independent brightness and saturation coordinates. The methods discussed are: hue statistics and saturation-weighted hue statistics, saturation-weighted hue histograms, and <span class="hlt">colour</span> statistics histograms. The latter are a way of visualising hue,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23604470"><span id="translatedtitle">QTL dissection of the loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Emebiri, Livinus C</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under <span class="hlt">different</span> conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> (measured as the <span class="hlt">difference</span> in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ?SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> (low ?SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a <span class="hlt">total</span> of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green <span class="hlt">colour</span> during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding purposes. PMID:23604470</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRG..115.3024K"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative contributions of soil, foliar, and woody tissue respiration to <span class="hlt">total</span> ecosystem respiration in four pine forests of <span class="hlt">different</span> ages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khomik, Myroslava; Arain, M. Altaf; Brodeur, Jason J.; Peichl, Matthias; Restrepo-Coupé, Natalia; McLaren, Joshua D.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil, foliage, and live woody tissue were measured throughout the year in afforested, white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands (67, 32, 17, and 4 years old as of 2006), growing in a northern temperate climate. The data were used to estimate annual ecosystem respiration (Re) and its component fluxes, including soil, foliar, and woody tissue respiration; to investigate major environmental factors causing intersite and temporal variability in the observed fluxes; and to compare chamber-based Re estimates with eddy covariance-based estimates. While temperature was the dominant driving factor of temporal variability in component fluxes, intersite variability in CO2 emissions was attributed to <span class="hlt">differences</span> in stand physiological characteristics, such as the presence of the LFH soil horizon, its carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and the amount of canopy cover. Additional factors that contributed to flux variability included the frequency of precipitation events, vapor pressure deficit and stem diameter, depending on the component considered. Estimated annual chamber-based <span class="hlt">totals</span> of Re across the four stands were 1526 ± 137, 1278 ± 137, 1985 ± 293, and 773 ± 46 g C m-2 yr-1 for the 67-, 32-, 17-, and 4-year-old stands, respectively. Soil respiration dominated emissions at the 4-year-old stand, while foliar respiration dominated emissions at the 17-year-old stand. In contrast, at the two oldest stands, soil and foliar respirations were comparable. Soil respiration accounted for 44%, 44%, 26%, and 70% of annual Re, across the 67-, 32-, 17-, and 4-year-old stands, while foliar respiration accounted for 48%, 41%, 60%, and 30% of annual Re, across the respective sites. Wood respiration was the smallest component of annual Re across the stands (8%, 15%, 14%, and 0.1%, respectively). The chamber-based Re values were higher than tower-based eddy covariance Re estimates, on average by 18%, 70%, 18%, and 36% at the 67-, 32-, 17-, and 4-year-old stands, respectively. This study contributes to our general understanding of the age-related effects and the role of climate on carbon emissions from various components of afforested ecosystems. Our results suggest that foliar respiration could be comparable to or higher than soil respiration in its contribution to Re in young to mature, planted or afforested, ecosystems. They also suggest that site quality and stand age are important factors to be considered in future studies of carbon dynamics of afforested stands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4170198"><span id="translatedtitle">Filling schemes at submicron scale: Development of submicron sized plasmonic <span class="hlt">colour</span> filters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Balaur, Eugeniu; Minovich, Alexander; Collins, Sean; James, Timothy D.; Djalalian-Assl, Amir; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Kandasamy, Sasikaran; Skafidas, Efstratios; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Mulvaney, Paul; Roberts, Ann; Prawer, Steven</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The pixel size imposes a fundamental limit on the amount of information that can be displayed or recorded on a sensor. Thus, there is strong motivation to reduce the pixel size down to the nanometre scale. Nanometre <span class="hlt">colour</span> pixels cannot be fabricated by simply downscaling current pixels due to <span class="hlt">colour</span> cross talk and diffraction caused by dyes or pigments used as <span class="hlt">colour</span> filters. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> filters based on plasmonic effects can overcome these difficulties. Although <span class="hlt">different</span> plasmonic <span class="hlt">colour</span> filters have been demonstrated at the micron scale, there have been no attempts so far to reduce the filter size to the submicron scale. Here, we present for the first time a submicron plasmonic <span class="hlt">colour</span> filter design together with a new challenge - pixel boundary errors at the submicron scale. We present simple but powerful filling schemes to produce submicron <span class="hlt">colour</span> filters, which are free from pixel boundary errors and <span class="hlt">colour</span> cross- talk, are polarization independent and angle insensitive, and based on LCD compatible aluminium technology. These results lay the basis for the development of submicron pixels in displays, RGB-spatial light modulators, liquid crystal over silicon, Google glasses and pico-projectors. PMID:25242695</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3349711"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental and Genetic Effects on Pigment-Based vs. Structural Component of Yellow Feather <span class="hlt">Colouration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matrková, Jana; Remeš, Vladimír</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Carotenoid plumage is of widespread use in bird communication. Carotenoid-based feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> has recently been shown to be dependent on both pigment concentration and feather structure. If these two components are determined <span class="hlt">differently</span>, one plumage patch may potentially convey <span class="hlt">different</span> aspects of individual quality. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on carotenoid-based yellow breast <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of Great Tit (Parus major) nestlings. By partial cross-fostering, we separated the genetic and pre-natal vs. post-natal parental effects on both the structural and the pigment-based component of carotenoid-based plumage <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. We also simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching environment by brood size manipulation. The structural component of nestling <span class="hlt">colouration</span> reflected features of female <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. On the other hand, the pigment-based component was more affected by rearing conditions presumably representing food quality. While the structural component was related to both origin- and environment-related factors, the pigment-based component seemed to be environment-dependent only. These results support the notion that pigment-based and structural components of feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> are determined <span class="hlt">differently</span>. Conclusions/Significance Chromatic and achromatic components of carotenoid-based feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> reflected <span class="hlt">different</span> aspects of individual quality and history, and thus may potentially form a multicomponent signal. PMID:22590581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/emc26/MarthaWeiss/weissm/mweisspix/weiss1997.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Innate <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences and flexible <span class="hlt">colour</span> learning in the pipevine swallowtail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Martha R. Weiss</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The importance of innate preferences and learned associations in choice of flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> were investigated for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly,Battus philenor(Papilionidae). Naive butterflies showed innate <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences for yellow and, to a lesser extent, blue and purple. Apart from their innate preferences, they were able to learn within 10 flower visits to associate floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> with the presence of nectar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://john.measey.com/pdf/Wollenberg_Measey_2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Why <span class="hlt">colour</span> in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in caecilian amphibians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>K. C. WOLLENBERG; G. JOHN MEASEY</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>aposematism; caecilians; <span class="hlt">colour</span>; crypsis; evolution; Gymnophiona; independent contrasts; pattern; selection. Abstract The proximate functions of animal skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so, their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51322849"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Changes in <span class="hlt">Colour</span>: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin and Carotenoid-Based Plumage <span class="hlt">Colours</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Kaspar Delhey; Claudia Burger; Wolfgang Fiedler; Anne Peters; David Reby</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>BackgroundPlumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated <span class="hlt">colours</span> may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage <span class="hlt">colours</span> change after moult, although whether this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/88/89/10/PDF/hal-00888910.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> viable ruminal bacteria and volatile fatty acids in ruminants fed diets containing proteins of <span class="hlt">different</span> degradabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boyer, Edmond</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Total</span> viable ruminal bacteria and volatile fatty acids in ruminants fed diets containing proteins rumen degradability (DT%) on the ruminal microbial number in dairy cows was studied. Two Friesian cows of ruminal microflora and consequently the VFA content decreased, probably since the N and C sources</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPA-EIMS&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=41249"><span id="translatedtitle">PCB CONGENERS AND HEXACHLOROBENZENE BIOTA SEDIMENT ACCUMULATING FACTORS FOR MACOMA NASUTA EXPOSED TO SEDIMENTS WITH <span class="hlt">DIFFERENT</span> <span class="hlt">TOTAL</span> ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Deposit-feeding marine clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 119d to three sediment types that varied in <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon (TOC) from 0.8 to 2.5%. ediments were spiked with equal concentrations of 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and hexachlorobenzene. issue residues wer...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.massey.ac.nz/~kahawick/publications/KlossEtAlOnColourStability.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Stability in Live Image Capturing Guy K. Kloss, Napoleon H. Reyes and Ken A. Hawick</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hawick, Ken</p> <p></p> <p>; additionally the spectrum of the fluorescent light is composed <span class="hlt">differently</span>. Ideally the scene's <span class="hlt">colour</span> com sets, a person turns on fluorescent light in the room with yet another shade and light intensity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37430160"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective attention to words and <span class="hlt">colours</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>John Morton; Susan M. Chambers</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>In the Stroop test it is found that the presence of words interferes with the task of naming <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The usual account of this phenomenon is that the names of words are more readily obtained than are the names of <span class="hlt">colours</span> and that the production of the latter is interfered with by the spontaneous occurrence of the former. Treisman and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42550772"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralization in Rust-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> Acarospora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>O. William Purvis; Anton Kearsley; Gordon Cressey; Anna T. Crewe; Mats Wedin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The upper cortex and extracellular hyphal wall matrix are mineralized in both rust-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> Acarospora sinopica and the paler A. smaragdula ‘f. subochracea’ in the form of microgranular or microbotryoidal phases. Analysis confirmed the distinctive <span class="hlt">colours</span> are not simply due to hydrated iron oxides, as previously believed, and suggests mixed sulphide and oxide phases with little crystallinity, as well as other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39854568"><span id="translatedtitle">Instant <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography: chemistry and UV stabilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. M. Usmani; I. O. Salyer</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>An ultraviolet (UV) screening agent precursor, dinonylphenylisophthalate, applied as a component of a surface coating on instant <span class="hlt">colour</span> positive photographic prints stabilizes the dyes that are used and prevents the fading of <span class="hlt">colour</span> that otherwise occurs. It is believed that upon exposure to UV light the ester precursor rearrangesin situ to form substituted benzophenones, which are effective UV screening agents.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/ln7257v702116054.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertex-<span class="hlt">Colouring</span> Edge-Weightings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Louigi Addario-berry; Ketan Dalal; Colin Mcdiarmid; Bruce A. Reed; Andrew Thomason</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Abstract A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a <span class="hlt">colouring</span> of the vertices of G where the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of vertex v, denoted cv, is , e3v w(e). We show that the edges of every graph that does not contain a component isomorphic to K2 can be weighted from the set {1,..., 30} such that in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://elm.eeng.dcu.ie/~vsg/papers/imvip_11_tm.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing SURF Feature Matching Using <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Histograms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Whelan, Paul F.</p> <p></p> <p>Enhancing SURF Feature Matching Using <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Histograms Tony Marrero Barroso Centre for Image that enhances the local feature matching capabilities of the SURF descriptor by utilising <span class="hlt">colour</span> histograms space (equation 2, where denotes the mean of the channel and the standard deviation), had the best</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39538203"><span id="translatedtitle">PCB congeners and hexachlorobenzene biota sediment accumulation factors for Macoma nasuta exposed to sediments with <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon contents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Bruce L. Boese; H. II Lee; R. Randall; M. Winsor; S. Echols; J. Pelletier</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Deposit-feeding marine clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 119 d to three sediment types that varied in <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon (TOC) from 0.8 to 2.5%. Sediments were spiked with equal concentrations of 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and hexachlorobenzene. Tissue residues were measured, and steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), the corresponding lipid, and TOC-normalized biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A41B3038L"><span id="translatedtitle">Transmission in Solar UV and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Radiation for <span class="hlt">Different</span> conditions of Cloud, Aerosol and Ozone at Seoul</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In recent years there has been substantial attempts to model the radiative transfer for climatological and biological purposes. However, the incorporation of clouds, aerosols and ozone into the modeling process is one of the difficult tasks due to their variable transmission in both temporal and space domains. The purpose of this study is to develop a multiple linear regression model for <span class="hlt">total</span> transmission with respect to the clearness sky conditions and also to compare their individual transmissions of cloud, aerosol and ozone atmospheres seasonally, using the measured dataset at Seoul. The transmission for broadband solar radiation (GS) is the most sensitive among the three solar radiation components of GS, <span class="hlt">total</span> uv (TUV) and erythema uv (EUV), which is caused by the broadband covering visible through near infrared radiation. Clouds, on average, reduced TUV by 25 % and EUV by 22 % of the clear sky value, whereas reduces GS by 31 %. Similarly, aerosols reduced the two UV components by 21% on average, whereas reduced GS by 24 %. Ozone (<span class="hlt">total</span> ozone) reduced the EUV transmission to 78 % of the clear sky value, on average. Cloud transmissions was decreased with increasing cloud cover up to overcast condition (CC=10), reducing the transmission by average of 68 % , 56 % and 50 % of the clear sky's for GS, TUV and EUV radiation, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22349932"><span id="translatedtitle">Tooth, skin, hair and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> interrelationships in Greek young adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lagouvardos, Panagiotis E; Tsamali, Ioana; Papadopoulou, Christine; Polyzois, Gregory</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible interrelationships of teeth, skin, eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span>. A portable colorimeter (Shade Eye NCC/Shofu) was used to record the <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the CIELAB system of the upper right incisors in 150 dental school students, along with their skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> at three <span class="hlt">different</span> areas. Natural hair and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> was classified into several categories by a trained examiner (ICC 0.93-0.99). One-way ANOVA and correlation tests were used to statistically analyse the data. Skin was found to have significantly higher L*, b* but lower a* values than teeth (p < 0.05). A significant correlation (p < 0.05) of teeth to skin L* and a*<span class="hlt">colour</span> coordinate was found, but not to b* coordinate (p > 0.05). Hair tones were not correlated to teeth L* or b*, but only to a*coordinate. Teeth and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> coordinates were not correlated (p > 0.05). Eye and hair tones were found to have the highest significant correlation (? = 0.369). In conclusion, teeth of this cohort were found to be lighter, less red and yellow than the skin. Teeth <span class="hlt">colour</span> was not related to eye <span class="hlt">colour</span>, but lighter teeth were found to be associated with lighter skins, and redder lateral incisors to lighter hair. Darker facial skins or yellower forehead areas were also associated with darker hair and vice versa. The clinical relevance of the study is that the investigated facial characteristics are inter-correlated weakly to moderately, and for this reason predicting the <span class="hlt">colour</span> parameters of one facial characteristic by another would not be accurate, but helpful for a rough <span class="hlt">colour</span> selection as associations show. PMID:22349932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42822356"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Salinity on Micronutrients Release and Uptake from <span class="hlt">Different</span> Composts Applied on <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phosphorus Basis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Zahoor Ahmad; Toshimasa Honna; Sadahiro Yamamoto; Faridullah; Muhammad Irshad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Generation of <span class="hlt">different</span> biowastes is increasing day by day, and ultimate load on agricultural lands has increased. Concerns over increased phosphorus (P) application with nitrogen (N)–based compost application shifted the trend to P?based applications. But focus on only one or two nutritional elements will not serve the goals of sustainable agriculture. Full insight into nutrient availability from <span class="hlt">different</span> composts is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22917817"><span id="translatedtitle">The HIrisPlex system for simultaneous prediction of hair and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> from DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Wollstein, Andreas; Kovatsi, Leda; Ralf, Arwin; Kosiniak-Kamysz, Agnieszka; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Recently, the field of predicting phenotypes of externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from DNA genotypes with the final aim of concentrating police investigations to find persons completely unknown to investigating authorities, also referred to as Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), has started to become established in forensic biology. We previously developed and forensically validated the IrisPlex system for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> from DNA, and recently showed that all major hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> categories are predictable from carefully selected DNA markers. Here, we introduce the newly developed HIrisPlex system, which is capable of simultaneously predicting both hair and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> from DNA. HIrisPlex consists of a single multiplex assay targeting 24 eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> predictive DNA variants including all 6 IrisPlex SNPs, as well as two prediction models, a newly developed model for hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> categories and shade, and the previously developed IrisPlex model for eye <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The HIrisPlex assay was designed to cope with low amounts of template DNA, as well as degraded DNA, and preliminary sensitivity testing revealed full DNA profiles down to 63pg input DNA. The power of the HIrisPlex system to predict hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> was assessed in 1551 individuals from three <span class="hlt">different</span> parts of Europe showing <span class="hlt">different</span> hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> frequencies. Using a 20% subset of individuals, while 80% were used for model building, the individual-based prediction accuracies employing a prediction-guided approach were 69.5% for blond, 78.5% for brown, 80% for red and 87.5% for black hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> on average. Results from HIrisPlex analysis on worldwide DNA samples imply that HIrisPlex hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction is reliable independent of bio-geographic ancestry (similar to previous IrisPlex findings for eye <span class="hlt">colour</span>). We furthermore demonstrate that it is possible to infer with a prediction accuracy of >86% if a brown-eyed, black-haired individual is of non-European (excluding regions nearby Europe) versus European (including nearby regions) bio-geographic origin solely from the strength of HIrisPlex eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> probabilities, which can provide extra intelligence for future forensic applications. The HIrisPlex system introduced here, including a single multiplex test assay, an interactive tool and prediction guide, and recommendations for reporting final outcomes, represents the first tool for simultaneously establishing categorical eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> of a person from DNA. The practical forensic application of the HIrisPlex system is expected to benefit cases where other avenues of investigation, including STR profiling, provide no leads on who the unknown crime scene sample donor or the unknown missing person might be. PMID:22917817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CPL...627...64H"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding of the intrinsic <span class="hlt">difference</span> between normal- and perfluoro-alkyl compounds toward <span class="hlt">total</span> understanding of material properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasegawa, Takeshi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Molecular interaction of perfluoroalkyl (Rf) compounds has long been discussed on an extended theory of normal alkyl compounds. When Rf-specific bulk properties depending on the molecular packing structure are taken into account, however, the conventional polarizability theory has a big inconsistency especially with the high melting point. Here, we present a new viewpoint to <span class="hlt">totally</span> uniform the conventional theories for systematically accounting for the bulk properties of Rf compounds. With the organized theoretical framework, the conventional understanding based on polarizability proves to be partly true, but it misses the molecular orientation effect, which is specifically necessary for the Rf compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22914099"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximal strength, number of repetitions, and <span class="hlt">total</span> volume are <span class="hlt">differently</span> affected by static-, ballistic-, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barroso, Renato; Tricoli, Valmor; Santos Gil, Saulo Dos; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Roschel, Hamilton</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Stretching exercises have been traditionally incorporated into warm-up routines before training sessions and sport events. However, the effects of stretching on maximal strength and strength endurance performance seem to depend on the type of stretching employed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching (SS), ballistic stretching (BS), and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on maximal strength, number of repetitions at a submaximal load, and <span class="hlt">total</span> volume (i.e., number of repetitions × external load) in a multiple-set resistance training bout. Twelve strength-trained men (20.4 ± 4.5 years, 67.9 ± 6.3 kg, 173.3 ± 8.5 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. All of the subjects completed 8 experimental sessions. Four experimental sessions were designed to test maximal strength in the leg press (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) after each stretching condition (SS, BS, PNF, or no-stretching [NS]). During the other 4 sessions, the number of repetitions performed at 80% 1RM was assessed after each stretching condition. All of the stretching protocols significantly improved the range of motion in the sit-and-reach test when compared with NS. Further, PNF induced greater changes in the sit-and-reach test than BS did (4.7 ± 1.6, 2.9 ± 1.5, and 1.9 ± 1.4 cm for PNF, SS, and BS, respectively). Leg press 1RM values were decreased only after the PNF condition (5.5%, p < 0.001). All the stretching protocols significantly reduced the number of repetitions (SS: 20.8%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.8%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.7%, p < 0.001) and <span class="hlt">total</span> volume (SS: 20.4%, p < 0.001; BS: 17.9%, p = 0.01; PNF: 22.4%, p < 0.001) when compared with NS. The results from this study suggest that, to avoid a decrease in both the number of repetitions and <span class="hlt">total</span> volume, stretching exercises should not be performed before a resistance training session. Additionally, strength-trained individuals may experience reduced maximal dynamic strength after PNF stretching. PMID:22914099</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225823"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> and high molecular weight adiponectin and ethnic-specific <span class="hlt">differences</span> in adiposity and insulin resistance: a cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Ethnic-specific <span class="hlt">differences</span> in insulin resistance (IR) are well described but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Adiponectin is an insulin sensitizing adipocytokine that circulates as multiple isoforms, with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin associated with greatest insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study is to determine if plasma <span class="hlt">total</span> and HMW adiponectin concentrations underlie ethnic-specific <span class="hlt">differences</span> in IR. Methods Healthy Canadian Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian adults (N?=?634) were assessed for sociodemographics; lifestyle; fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and <span class="hlt">total</span> and HMW adiponectin; and adiposity measures [BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat, and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (quantified by computed tomography)]. The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) assessed IR. Results South Asians had the greatest HOMA-IR, followed by Aboriginals, Chinese, and Europeans (P?<?0.001). Plasma <span class="hlt">total</span> and HMW adiponectin concentrations were lower in Chinese and South Asians than Aboriginal and Europeans (P?<?0.05). <span class="hlt">Total</span> and HMW adiponectin were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P?<?0.001). Ethnicity modified the relationship between HMW adiponectin and HOMA-IR with stronger effects observed in Aboriginals (P?=?0.001), Chinese (P?=?0.002), and South Asians (P?=?0.040) compared to Europeans. This was not observed for <span class="hlt">total</span> adiponectin (P?=?0.431). At mean <span class="hlt">total</span> adiponectin concentrations South Asians had higher HOMA-IR than Europeans (P?<?0.001). Conclusions For each given decrease in HMW adiponectin concentrations a greater increase in HOMA-IR is observed in Aboriginals, Chinese, and South Asians than Europeans. Ethnic-specific <span class="hlt">differences</span> in HMW adiponectin may account for <span class="hlt">differences</span> in IR. PMID:24225161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://admissions.vassar.edu/pdf/finaid09-10/Vassar-Aid-MealHousingPolicy0910.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2009/2010 As the cost of housing is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the <span class="hlt">total</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Smith, Marc L.</p> <p></p> <p>housing options available to Vassar students, the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2009/2010 As the cost of housing is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11220179"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Feeding Frequency Employing <span class="hlt">Total</span> Mixed Ration (TMR) on Dry Matter Intake and Milk Yield in Dairy Cows during the Winter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>V. KUDRNA</p> <p></p> <p>Kudrna V.: Effect of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Feeding Frequency Employing <span class="hlt">Total</span> Mixed Ration (TMR) on Dry Matter Intake and Milk Yield in Dairy Cows during the Winter . Acta Vet. Brno 2003, 72: 533-539. The aim of the study was to study the effects of changes in feeding frequency of TMR (2 - 1 - 2 times a day) on milk yield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NW.....94..935K"><span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Out of three perceptual characteristics of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of <span class="hlt">colour</span> from spectral properties using <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18286186"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouration</span> and <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of the fiddler crab, Uca capricornis: a descriptive study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M; Backwell, Patricia R Y</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their <span class="hlt">colour</span> and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in <span class="hlt">colour</span> and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern with increasing size, although females are more <span class="hlt">colourful</span> and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism and the relative stability of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition. PMID:18286186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2229841"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouration</span> and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Changes of the Fiddler Crab, Uca capricornis: A Descriptive Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their <span class="hlt">colour</span> and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in <span class="hlt">colour</span> and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern with increasing size, although females are more <span class="hlt">colourful</span> and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism and the relative stability of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition. PMID:18286186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and <span class="hlt">colouring</span> ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of <span class="hlt">total</span> oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the <span class="hlt">total</span>, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten <span class="hlt">different</span> spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. <span class="hlt">Total</span> oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2766200"><span id="translatedtitle">On the roles of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and scent in a specialized floral mimicry system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Schiestl, Florian P.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Sexually deceptive orchids achieve cross-pollination by mimicking the mating signals of female insects, generally hymenopterans. This pollination mechanism is often highly specific as it is based primarily on the mimicry of mating signals, especially the female sex pheromones of the targeted pollinator. Like many deceptive orchids, the Mediterranean species Ophrys arachnitiformis shows high levels of floral trait variation, especially in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the perianth, which is either green or white/pinkinsh within populations. The adaptive significance of perianth <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism and its influence on pollinator visitation rates in sexually deceptive orchids remain obscure. Methods The relative importance of floral scent versus perianth <span class="hlt">colour</span> in pollinator attraction in this orchid pollinator mimicry system was evaluated by performing floral scent analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and behavioural bioassays with the pollinators under natural conditions were performed. Key Results The relative and absolute amounts of behaviourally active compounds are identical in the two <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs of O. arachnitiformis. Neither presence/absence nor the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the perianth (green versus white) influence attractiveness of the flowers to Colletes cunicularius males, the main pollinator of O. arachnitiformis. Conclusion Chemical signals alone can mediate the interactions in highly specialized mimicry systems. Floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in O. arachnitiformis is not subjected to selection imposed by C. cunicularius males, and an interplay between <span class="hlt">different</span> non-adaptive processes may be responsible for the maintenance of floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism both within and among populations. PMID:19692390</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21490268"><span id="translatedtitle">Avoidance of achromatic <span class="hlt">colours</span> by bees provides a private niche for hummingbirds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lunau, Klaus; Papiorek, Sarah; Eltz, Thomas; Sazima, Marlies</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>That hummingbird-pollinated plants predominantly have red flowers has been known for decades, but well-investigated research studies are still rare. Preference tests have shown that hummingbirds do not have an innate preference for red <span class="hlt">colours</span>. In addition, hummingbirds do not depend solely upon red flowers, because white-flowered hummingbird-pollinated plants are also common and temporarily abundant. Here we show that both white and red hummingbird-pollinated flowers <span class="hlt">differ</span> from bee-pollinated flowers in their reflection properties for ultraviolet (UV) light. Hummingbird-pollinated red flowers are on average less UV reflective, and white hummingbird-pollinated flowers are more UV reflective than the same <span class="hlt">coloured</span> bee-pollinated ones. In preference tests with artificial flowers, neotropical orchid bees prefer red UV-reflecting artificial flowers and white UV-nonreflecting flowers over red and white flowers with the opposite UV properties. By contrast, hummingbirds showed no preference for any <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the same tests. Plotting floral <span class="hlt">colours</span> and test stimuli into the honeybees' perceptual <span class="hlt">colour</span> space suggests that the less attractive <span class="hlt">colours</span> are achromatic for bees and therefore more difficult to detect against the background. This underlying <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference in bees might provide hummingbirds with a private niche that is not attractive to bees. PMID:21490268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24292173"><span id="translatedtitle">The calculation of small molecular interactions by the <span class="hlt">differences</span> of separate <span class="hlt">total</span> energies. Some procedures with reduced errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. F. Boys; F. Bernardi</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>A new direct <span class="hlt">difference</span> method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors. It appears that these new features can give a strong reduction in the error of the interaction energy, and they seem to be particularly suitable for computations in the important region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychology+AND+Sport+AND+Exercise&pg=4&id=EJ709876"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Equating <span class="hlt">Total</span> Volume of Work between Two <span class="hlt">Different</span> Exercise Conditions Matter when Examining Exercise-Induced Feeling States?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two <span class="hlt">different</span>…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0011087v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Stellar Population analysis from Broad-Band <span class="hlt">Colours</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hamed Abdel-Hamid; Peter Notni</p> <p>2000-11-23</p> <p>We have developed an analytical method to investigate the stellar populations in a galaxy using the broad-band <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The method enables us to determine the relative contribution, spatial distribution and age for <span class="hlt">different</span> stellar populations and gives a hint about the dust distribution in a galaxy. We apply this method to the irregular galaxy NGC 3077, using CCD images in U, B, V and R filters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18498522"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural ingredients for <span class="hlt">colouring</span> and styling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dweck, A C</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>This paper examines some of the existing methods for <span class="hlt">colouring</span> the hair and skin using natural material (such as henna) and proposes a parallel technology that exists in the dyeing of wool and fabrics to extend the <span class="hlt">colour</span> range. Many of the listed plants and their derivatives are not found in Annex IV of the Cosmetic Directive and may not be used as <span class="hlt">colours</span>; however, they do have other properties which may justify their inclusion into a product, for example, as astringent or anti-inflammatory agents. The paper concludes with some reported antigreying and hair styling preparations cited in the literature. PMID:18498522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25228345"><span id="translatedtitle">Do feather-degrading bacteria actually degrade feather <span class="hlt">colour</span>? No significant effects of plumage microbiome modifications on feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in wild great tits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacob, Staffan; Colmas, Léa; Parthuisot, Nathalie; Heeb, Philipp</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Parasites are known to exert selective pressures on host life history traits since the energy and nutrients needed to mount an immune response are no longer available to invest in other functions. Bird feathers harbour numerous microorganisms, some of which are able to degrade feather keratin (keratinolytic microorganisms) and affect feather integrity and <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in vitro. Although named "feather-degrading" microorganisms, experimental evidence for their effects on feathers of free-living birds is still lacking. Here, we tested whether (i) keratinolytic microorganisms can degrade feathers in vivo and thus modify the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of feathers during the nesting period and (ii) whether feather microorganisms have a long-term effect on the investment in <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of newly moulted feathers. We designed treatments to either favour or inhibit bacterial growth, thus experimentally modifying plumage bacterial communities, in a wild breeding population of great tits (Parus major). Our analyses revealed no significant effects of the treatments on feather <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Moreover, we found that <span class="hlt">differences</span> in bacterial exposure during nesting did not significantly affect the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of newly moulted feathers. Our results suggest that significant feather degradation obtained during in vitro studies could have led to an overestimation of the potential of keratinolytic microorganisms to shape feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in free-living birds. PMID:25228345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ski.org/Rehab/Coughlan_lab/General/Publications/ColorTarget.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">AIC <span class="hlt">Colour</span> 05 -10th Congress of the International <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Association Rapid and Robust Algorithms for Detecting <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Coughlan, James M.</p> <p></p> <p>, Santa Cruz, CA Corresponding author: J. Coughlan (coughlan@ski.org) ABSTRACT We introduce a computer Algorithms for Detecting <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Targets J. Coughlan, R. Manduchi*, M. Mutsuzaki* and H. Shen Smith</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hbjnak2v0d2gjvyr.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of local density and flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism on pollination and reproduction in the rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soò</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>G. Pellegrino; D. Caimi; M. E. Noce; A. Musacchio</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The rewardless orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina shows a stable flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism, with both yellow- and red-flowered morphs growing sympatrically. Pollination biology and breeding system were investigated to examine the effects of density of plants, <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism, inflorescence dimension, and flower position within inflorescence on male and female reproductive success in three natural populations of D. sambucina. There were significant <span class="hlt">differences</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25904173"><span id="translatedtitle">Light transmittance by a multi-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> zirconia material.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ueda, Kazuhiko; Güth, Jan-Frederik; Erdelt, Kurt; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Kappert, Heinrich; Beuer, Florian</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Full-contour zirconia restorations are gaining in popularity. Highly translucent zirconia materials and multi-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> zirconia blocks might help to overcome the aesthetic drawbacks of traditional zirconia. This study evaluated the transmittance of visible light (400-700 nm) through the four <span class="hlt">different</span> layers (Enamel Layer EL, Transition Layer 1 TL1, Transition Layer 2 TL2, Body Layer BL) of a multi-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> zirconia block (KATANA™ Zirconia Multi-Layered Disc (ML)) using a spectrophotometer. Forty specimens (thickness of 1±0.05 mm) from each layer were examined and statistically evaluated at a confidence-level of 5%. Light transmittance was expressed as a percentage of the through-passing light. The following mean values (SD) were found: EL 32.8% (1.5), TL1 31.2% (1.3), TL2 25.4% (1.3) and BL 21.7% (1.1). Significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> were found between all groups (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls). This multi-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> zirconia block showed four layers with <span class="hlt">different</span> light transmittance capabilities. It might therefore be useful for enhancing the aesthetic appearance of full-contour zirconia restorations made from this material. PMID:25904173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48004749"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinct <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in nestling European Bee-eaters Merops apiaster : is there an adaptive value?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Martin Kapun; Alžbeta Darolová; Ján Krištofik; Katharina Mahr; Herbert Hoi</p> <p></p> <p>In a few bird species, dimorphism already exists in nestling and juvenile plumage coloration and these <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs are often\\u000a attributable to <span class="hlt">different</span> sexes. In this study we detected variation in nestling coloration among European Bee-eaters Merops apiaster. We identified two distinct <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs, namely nestlings with yellowish-brown and nestlings with green back feathers.\\u000a By means of genetic methods, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21462404"><span id="translatedtitle">Why <span class="hlt">colour</span> in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in caecilian amphibians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>The proximate functions of animal skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in animal skin. PMID:21462404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1281416"><span id="translatedtitle">Lack of uniformity in <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alpern, M</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>1. The fraction of red in a red--green mixture matched to yellow increased as the intensities of the match constituents were increased sufficiently to bleach appreciable chlorolabe and erythrolabe. 2. All changes in matching found for a given normal trichromat, (i) with increase in the intensities of the matching components, (ii) as a function of time after the onset of very intense components, (iii) with change in the pupil region through which light enters the eye, and (iv) with change in the region of the retina under test, are consistent with the assumption that matching depends upon the absorption of light in three kinds of (individually <span class="hlt">colour</span> blind) cones, each with its own visual pigment, provided that the lambda max densities of the latter can vary in the range 0.25--1.0 (common logarithmic units) depending upon the subject. 3. Individual <span class="hlt">differences</span> in matching among normal (as well as among both varieties of red--green anomalous) trichromats, on the other hand, suggest that the extinction spectra of the cone pigments sensitive to long and medium wave lengths may <span class="hlt">differ</span> from one trichromat to the next. PMID:313984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309280"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In the last one hundred years, <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://decsai.ugr.es/vip/files/conferences/artFuzzySegmentation_vpfd.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Granada, Universidad de</p> <p></p> <p>A Fuzzy <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision J. Chamorro-Martínez, D. Sánchez and B algorithm to segment <span class="hlt">colour</span> images is proposed. A region is dened as a fuzzy subset of connected pixels environments. Keyword: <span class="hlt">Colour</span> image segmentation, fuzzy segmentation, <span class="hlt">colour</span> distance, robot vision. 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994009"><span id="translatedtitle">Not so <span class="hlt">colourful</span> after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell <span class="hlt">colour</span> space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking <span class="hlt">colours</span> and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08-0.10% of the avian perceivable <span class="hlt">colour</span> space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of <span class="hlt">colour</span>, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately predicted by <span class="hlt">colour</span> mixing models based on the relative contribution of both pigments and we demonstrate that the models' predictions can be improved by accounting for the reflectance of the eggshell's calcium carbonate matrix. The establishment of these proximate links between pigmentation and <span class="hlt">colour</span> will enable future tests of hypotheses on the functions of perceived avian eggshell <span class="hlt">colours</span> that depend on eggshell chemistry. More generally, <span class="hlt">colour</span> mixing models are not limited to avian eggshell <span class="hlt">colours</span> but apply to any natural <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Our approach illustrates how modelling can aid the understanding of constraints on phenotypic diversity. PMID:25994009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793050"><span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.</p> <p>2001-08-06</p> <p>In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://epic.awi.de/Publications/Hei2008g.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">OCoc- from Ocean <span class="hlt">Colour</span> to Organic Carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Birgit Heim; Paul Overduin; Lutz Schirrmeister; H. Lantuit; J. A. Hoelemann; H. Kassens; C. Wegner</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Enhanced permafrost warming and increased arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. The `OCoc-from Ocean <span class="hlt">Colour</span> to Organic Carbon' project (IPY-project 1176), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), is an Ocean <span class="hlt">Colour</span> study joined with the Arctic Coastal Dynamics ACD network and Arctic Circum-polar Coastal Observatory Network ACCO-Net (IPY-project 90).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.dms.umontreal.ca/~addario/papers/edgeweight.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertex-<span class="hlt">Colouring</span> Edge-Weightings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>L. Addario-Berry; B. A. Reed; A. Thomason</p> <p></p> <p>A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a <span class="hlt">colouring</span> of the vertices of G where the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of vertex v, denoted cv, is P e3v w(e). We show that the edges of every graph that does not contain a component isomorphic to K2 can be weighted from the set {1,..., 30} such that in the resulting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4758808"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance evaluation of local <span class="hlt">colour</span> invariants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Gertjan J. Burghouts; Jan-mark Geusebroek</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we compare local <span class="hlt">colour</span> descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are based. We compare the discriminative power and invariance of grey-value invariants to that of <span class="hlt">colour</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3730601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> cues proved to be more informative for dogs than brightness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kasparson, Anna A.; Badridze, Jason; Maximov, Vadim V.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The results of early studies on <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in dogs led to the conclusion that chromatic cues are unimportant for dogs during their normal activities. Nevertheless, the canine retina possesses two cone types which provide at least the potential for <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. Recently, experiments controlling for the brightness information in visual stimuli demonstrated that dogs have the ability to perform chromatic discrimination. Here, we show that for eight previously untrained dogs <span class="hlt">colour</span> proved to be more informative than brightness when choosing between visual stimuli <span class="hlt">differing</span> both in brightness and chromaticity. Although brightness could have been used by the dogs in our experiments (unlike previous studies), it was not. Our results demonstrate that under natural photopic lighting conditions <span class="hlt">colour</span> information may be predominant even for animals that possess only two spectral types of cone photoreceptors. PMID:23864600</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25324449"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> coding for blood collection tube closures - a call for harmonisation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simundic, Ana-Maria; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Theodorsson, Elvar; Panteghini, Mauro</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>At least one in 10 patients experience adverse events while receiving hospital care. Many of the errors are related to laboratory diagnostics. Efforts to reduce laboratory errors over recent decades have primarily focused on the measurement process while pre- and post-analytical errors including errors in sampling, reporting and decision-making have received much less attention. Proper sampling and additives to the samples are essential. Tubes and additives are identified not only in writing on the tubes but also by the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the tube closures. Unfortunately these <span class="hlt">colours</span> have not been standardised, running the risk of error when tubes from one manufacturer are replaced by the tubes from another manufacturer that use <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding. EFLM therefore supports the worldwide harmonisation of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding for blood collection tube closures and labels in order to reduce the risk of pre-analytical errors and improve the patient safety. PMID:25324449</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22light-emitting+diode%22+OR+lighting&pg=3&id=EJ834524"><span id="translatedtitle">A Handheld LED <span class="hlt">Coloured</span>-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary <span class="hlt">Colours</span> of Light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive <span class="hlt">colours</span>, a <span class="hlt">coloured</span>-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the <span class="hlt">colours</span> produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary <span class="hlt">colours</span> of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24854791"><span id="translatedtitle">Robustness study of the <span class="hlt">different</span> immittance spectra and frequency ranges in bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis for assessment of <span class="hlt">total</span> body composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buendia, R; Seoane, F; Bosaeus, I; Gil-Pita, R; Johannsson, G; Ellegård, L; Lindecrantz, K</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The estimation of body fluids is a useful and common practice for assessment of disease status and therapy outcomes. Electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy (EBIS) methods are noninvasive, inexpensive and efficient alternatives for determination of body fluids. One of the main source of errors in EBIS measurements in the estimation of body fluids is capacitive coupling. In this paper an analysis of capacitive coupling in EBIS measurements was performed and the robustness of the <span class="hlt">different</span> immittance spectra against it tested. On simulations the conductance (G) spectrum presented the smallest overall error, among all immittance spectra, in the estimation of the impedance parameters used to estimate body fluids. Afterwards the frequency range of 10-500 kHz showed to be the most robust band of the G spectrum. The accuracy of body fluid estimations from the resulting parameters that utilized G spectrum and parameters provided by the measuring device were tested on EBIS clinical measurements from growth hormone replacement therapy patients against estimations performed with dilution methods. Regarding extracellular fluid, the correlation between each EBIS method and dilution was 0.93 with limits of agreement of 1.06 ± 2.95 l for the device, 1.10 ± 2.94 l for G [10-500 kHz] and 1.04 ± 2.94 l for G [5-1000 kHz]. Regarding intracellular fluid, the correlation between dilution and the device was 0.91, same as for G [10-500 kHz] and 0.92 for G [5-1000 kHz]. Limits of agreement were 0.12 ± 4.46 l for the device, 0.09 ± 4.45 for G [10-500 kHz] and 0.04 ± 4.58 for G [5-1000 kHz]. Such close results between the EBIS methods validate the proposed approach of using G spectrum for initial Cole characterization and posterior clinical estimation of body fluids status. PMID:24854791</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24924935"><span id="translatedtitle">The development of responses to novel-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> objects in male and female domestic chicks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vallortigara, G; Regolin, L; Zanforlin, M</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Male and female domestic chicks were trained to peck on a small <span class="hlt">coloured</span> (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> (unfamiliar) and their preferences were assessed in a simultaneous free choice test. The novel <span class="hlt">colour</span> was green in chicks trained with a red box and red in chicks trained with a green box. Chicks showed marked variations in their preferences for familiarity and novelty as a function of age and sex. In chicks trained with a green box preferences for the familiar <span class="hlt">colour</span> were stronger in females than in males at all ages of test. A similar sex <span class="hlt">difference</span> was observed in chicks trained with a red box, except that at around day 9, when males showed temporarily stronger preferences for familiarity than females. When comparing males and females of red-trained chicks to those of green-trained chicks, a shift in <span class="hlt">colour</span> prefernce, from red to green, was apparent from day 9 in both sexes, though temporarily stronger in females than in males. Levels of preference for the familiar object showed a peak (centred at around day 5/6) and two dips (centred at around day 4/5 and day 10/11) in both sexes irrespective of <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Results are discussed in relation to current evidence for simultaneous changes in the brain and in the behaviour of young chicks during development. PMID:24924935</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3210683"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet nuptial <span class="hlt">colour</span> determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Animal communication through <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male–male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males <span class="hlt">differing</span> only in their manipulated UV <span class="hlt">colour</span>, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a <span class="hlt">difference</span> in UV <span class="hlt">colour</span> alone can affect fight success during male–male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success. PMID:21715397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25134367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> matching of composite resin cements with their corresponding try-in pastes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kampouropoulos, D; Gaintantzopoulou, M; Papazoglou, E; Kakaboura, A</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Two shades of four resin cements (Calibra, Clearfil Esthetic, Insure, Variolink II), in light- and dual-curing modes, were tested for <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching with their corresponding try-in pastes, immediately after photopolymerization and after 24-hour dry and dark storage. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> measurements were performed for 0.8 mm-thick specimens through a 0.8mm-thick ceramic plate. For each resin cement, <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">differences</span> (deltaE) were calculated between the two curing modes, and between the corresponding try-in paste, at baseline and after 24h. deltaE>0 values were detected between all resin cements and their try-in pastes, which were brand/shade/curing mode depended. The try-in pastes of the Variolink II system demonstrated the best <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching (deltaE<2). Try-in pastes of Calibra and Insure, at both curing modes, did not match at an acceptable value, the shade of their corresponding resin cements (deltaE>3.3). Calibra presented the highest <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">differences</span>. deltaE values of the Clearfil Esthetic system immediately after photo-activation ranged between 2 and 3 units. A ceramic restoration may fail aesthetically as a result of not acceptable <span class="hlt">colour</span> match (deltaE>3.3) between the shade of certain resin cements and their relevant try-in pastes. PMID:25134367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=504631"><span id="translatedtitle">Impairment of <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity and neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geier, S A; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Hammel, G; Berninger, T; Klauss, V; Goebel, F D</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Ophthalmic and neurological complications are frequent findings in patients with AIDS. Little is known about neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in patients with HIV infection or AIDS. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> contrast sensitivity tests were performed on 75 patients (150 eyes) in <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of HIV infection. A highly sensitive computer graphics system was used to measure tritan, deutan, and protan <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast thresholds. Patients were classified into three clinical groups: (a) asymptomatic HIV infection, (b) lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex, and (c) AIDS. Overall, tritan (p < 0.0001), deutan (p = 0.003), and protan (p = 0.009) <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivities were significantly impaired in patients with HIV infection compared with normal controls. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> thresholds in patients with asymptomatic HIV infection (mean tritan threshold: 4.33; deutan: 4.41; protan: 3.97) were not impaired compared with normal controls. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision was slightly impaired in patients with lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex (tritan: 6.25 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 4.99 (p = 0.02); protan: 4.45 (p = 0.05)). In patients with AIDS the impairment was even more marked (tritan: 7.66 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 5.15 (p < 0.0009); protan: 4.63 (p = 0.004)). Analysis of covariance controlling for age demonstrated a close association between impairment of tritan <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity and progression of HIV disease (p < 0.0001). Following Köllner's rule, our study suggests that neuroretinal dysfunction occurs in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS. This is emphasised by the finding that the relative impairment in tritan vision compared with deutan/protan vision might reflect the <span class="hlt">difference</span> in the number of cones or receptive fields. Measurement of tritan <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity appears to be an appropriate and easily applicable method to detect early neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV disease. PMID:8280686</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8280686"><span id="translatedtitle">Impairment of <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity and neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geier, S A; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Hammel, G; Berninger, T; Klauss, V; Goebel, F D</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Ophthalmic and neurological complications are frequent findings in patients with AIDS. Little is known about neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in patients with HIV infection or AIDS. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> contrast sensitivity tests were performed on 75 patients (150 eyes) in <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of HIV infection. A highly sensitive computer graphics system was used to measure tritan, deutan, and protan <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast thresholds. Patients were classified into three clinical groups: (a) asymptomatic HIV infection, (b) lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex, and (c) AIDS. Overall, tritan (p < 0.0001), deutan (p = 0.003), and protan (p = 0.009) <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivities were significantly impaired in patients with HIV infection compared with normal controls. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> thresholds in patients with asymptomatic HIV infection (mean tritan threshold: 4.33; deutan: 4.41; protan: 3.97) were not impaired compared with normal controls. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision was slightly impaired in patients with lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex (tritan: 6.25 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 4.99 (p = 0.02); protan: 4.45 (p = 0.05)). In patients with AIDS the impairment was even more marked (tritan: 7.66 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 5.15 (p < 0.0009); protan: 4.63 (p = 0.004)). Analysis of covariance controlling for age demonstrated a close association between impairment of tritan <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity and progression of HIV disease (p < 0.0001). Following Köllner's rule, our study suggests that neuroretinal dysfunction occurs in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS. This is emphasised by the finding that the relative impairment in tritan vision compared with deutan/protan vision might reflect the <span class="hlt">difference</span> in the number of cones or receptive fields. Measurement of tritan <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast sensitivity appears to be an appropriate and easily applicable method to detect early neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV disease. PMID:8280686</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651762"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouring</span> cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McGeehan, John; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Murray, James W.; Owen, Robin Leslie; Cipriani, Florent; McSweeney, Sean; Weik, Martin; Garman, Elspeth F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100?nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue <span class="hlt">colour</span> that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400?nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100?K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes. PMID:19240328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3471009"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in the stress distribution in the distal femur between patellofemoral joint replacement and <span class="hlt">total</span> knee replacement: a finite element study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. However, results of later conversion to <span class="hlt">total</span> knee replacement may be compromised by periprosthetic bone loss. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated a decrease in distal femoral bone mineral density after patellofemoral joint replacement. It is unclear whether this is due to periprosthetic stress shielding. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the stress shielding effect of prosthetic replacement with 2 <span class="hlt">different</span> patellofemoral prosthetic designs and with a <span class="hlt">total</span> knee prosthesis. Methods We developed a finite element model of an intact patellofemoral joint, and finite element models of patellofemoral joint replacement with a Journey PFJ prosthesis, a Richards II prosthesis, and a Genesis II <span class="hlt">total</span> knee prosthesis. For each of these 4 finite element models, the average Von Mises stress in 2 clinically relevant regions of interest were evaluated during a simulated squatting movement until 120 degrees of flexion. Results During deep knee flexion, in the anterior region of interest, the average Von Mises stress with the Journey PFJ design was comparable to the physiological knee, while reduced by almost 25% for both the Richards II design and the Genesis II <span class="hlt">total</span> knee joint replacement design. The average Von Mises stress in the supracondylar region of interest was similar for both patellofemoral prosthetic designs and the physiological model, with slightly lower stress for the Genesis II design. Conclusions Patellofemoral joint replacement results in periprosthetic stress-shielding, although to a smaller degree than in <span class="hlt">total</span> knee replacement. Specific patellofemoral prosthetic design properties may result in <span class="hlt">differences</span> in femoral stress shielding. PMID:22704638</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3538422"><span id="translatedtitle">Flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> and cytochromes P450†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their <span class="hlt">coloured</span> class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin <span class="hlt">colour</span>, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower <span class="hlt">colour</span>. F3?H and F3?5?H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3?5?Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> owing to the deficiency of F3?5?H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3?5?H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3?5?H and F3?H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower <span class="hlt">colour</span>, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of <span class="hlt">colour</span>. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002618"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">colours</span> be used to segment words when reading?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perea, Manuel; Tejero, Pilar; Winskel, Heather</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Rayner, Fischer, and Pollatsek (1998, Vision Research) demonstrated that reading unspaced text in Indo-European languages produces a substantial reading cost in word identification (as deduced from an increased word-frequency effect on target words embedded in the unspaced vs. spaced sentences) and in eye movement guidance (as deduced from landing sites closer to the beginning of the words in unspaced sentences). However, the addition of spaces between words comes with a cost: nearby words may fall outside high-acuity central vision, thus reducing the potential benefits of parafoveal processing. In the present experiment, we introduced a salient visual cue intended to facilitate the process of word segmentation without compromising visual acuity: each alternating word was printed in a <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> (i.e., ). Results only revealed a small reading cost of unspaced alternating <span class="hlt">colour</span> sentences relative to the spaced sentences. Thus, present data are a demonstration that <span class="hlt">colour</span> can be useful to segment words for readers of spaced orthographies. PMID:26002618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25330209"><span id="translatedtitle">Local adaptation and divergence in <span class="hlt">colour</span> signal conspicuousness between monomorphic and polymorphic lineages in a lizard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLean, C A; Moussalli, A; Stuart-Fox, D</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Population <span class="hlt">differences</span> in visual environment can lead to divergence in multiple components of animal coloration including signalling traits and <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns important for camouflage. Divergence may reflect selection imposed by <span class="hlt">different</span> receivers (conspecifics, predators), which depends in turn on the location of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> patch. We tested for local adaptation of two genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages of a rock-inhabiting lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, by comparing the visual contrast of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patches to <span class="hlt">different</span> receivers in native and non-native environments. The lineages <span class="hlt">differ</span> most notably in male throat coloration, which is polymorphic in the northern lineage and monomorphic in the southern lineage, but also <span class="hlt">differ</span> in dorsal and lateral coloration, which is visible to both conspecifics and potential predators. Using models of animal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision, we assessed whether lineage-specific throat, dorsal and lateral coloration enhanced conspicuousness to conspecifics, increased crypsis to birds or both, respectively, when viewed against the predominant backgrounds from each lineage. Throat <span class="hlt">colours</span> were no more conspicuous against native than non-native rock but contrasted more strongly with native lichen, which occurs patchily on rocks inhabited by C. decresii. Conversely, neck coloration (lateral) more closely matched native lichen. Furthermore, although dorsal coloration of southern males was consistently more conspicuous to birds than that of northern males, both lineages had similar absolute conspicuousness against their native backgrounds. Combined, our results are consistent with local adaptation of multiple <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits in relation to multiple receivers, suggesting that geographic variation in background <span class="hlt">colour</span> has influenced the evolution of lineage-specific coloration in C. decresii. PMID:25330209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ii.uib.no/~fredrikm/fredrik/papers/AQUA2006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated image analysis as a tool to quantify the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and composition of rainbow trout</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Manne, Fredrik</p> <p></p> <p>Automated image analysis as a tool to quantify the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and composition of rainbow trout cutlets in rainbow trout. The proposed automated image analysis methods were tested on a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 983 of trout cutlets. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Image analysis; Rainbow trout; Cutlet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16226784"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> unmasks dark targets in complex displays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kingdom, Frederick A A; Kasrai, Reza</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Recent studies have suggested that <span class="hlt">colour</span> (meaning chromatic) variations help the visual system segment luminance-variegated displays into their illumination and reflectance layers. This leads to the prediction that <span class="hlt">colour</span> variations should unmask partially camouflaged achromatic transparencies on luminance-variegated backgrounds. We used 'Mondrian-like' backgrounds that were either achromatic, i.e., varying only in luminance, or chromatic, which in our stimuli meant varying in both luminance and <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Both achromatic and chromatic backgrounds had the same luminance distribution. Thresholds for detecting simulated transparency targets were found to be lower when on the chromatic compared to achromatic backgrounds. We hypothesised that the chromatic-background advantage resulted from the extra cue provided by <span class="hlt">colour</span> as to which borders were background and which transparency, predicting that (a) randomising the <span class="hlt">colours</span> on either side of the transparency border, (b) rotating the target to destroy its X-junctions, and (c) viewing the target eccentrically, would each destroy the chromatic-background advantage. However, none of these predictions was upheld. We suggest therefore that the chromatic-background advantage is due to a low-level, rather than border-disambiguation mechanism. We suggest that chromatic variations reduce the noise, but not the signal, in the mechanism that detects dark targets in complex displays. PMID:16226784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051225"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction and ancestry inference in admixed populations of South America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freire-Aradas, A; Ruiz, Y; Phillips, C; Maroñas, O; Söchtig, J; Tato, A Gómez; Dios, J Álvarez; de Cal, M Casares; Silbiger, V N; Luchessi, A D; Luchessi, A D; Chiurillo, M A; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>New DNA-based predictive tests for physical characteristics and inference of ancestry are highly informative tools that are being increasingly used in forensic genetic analysis. Two eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction models: a Bayesian classifier - Snipper and a multinomial logistic regression (MLR) system for the Irisplex assay, have been described for the analysis of unadmixed European populations. Since multiple SNPs in combination contribute in varying degrees to eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> predictability in Europeans, it is likely that these predictive tests will perform in <span class="hlt">different</span> ways amongst admixed populations that have European co-ancestry, compared to unadmixed Europeans. In this study we examined 99 individuals from two admixed South American populations comparing eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> versus ancestry in order to reveal a direct correlation of light eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotypes with European co-ancestry in admixed individuals. Additionally, eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction following six prediction models, using varying numbers of SNPs and based on Snipper and MLR, were applied to the study populations. Furthermore, patterns of eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction have been inferred for a set of publicly available admixed and globally distributed populations from the HGDP-CEPH panel and 1000 Genomes databases with a special emphasis on admixed American populations similar to those of the study samples. PMID:25051225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21314707"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between masticatory performance using a <span class="hlt">colour</span>-changeable chewing gum and jaw movement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Komagamine, Y; Kanazawa, M; Minakuchi, S; Uchida, T; Sasaki, Y</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory performance as determined using a <span class="hlt">colour</span>-changeable chewing gum and mandibular movements. Subjects comprised 45 fully dentate adults (23 men, 22 women; mean age, 28·1 years). The gum was chewed for a specified number of chewing strokes (20, 40, 60, 80, 120 or 160 strokes) without any instructions as to chewing side. A colourimeter was used to measure L*, a* and b* values (CIE-L*a*b* <span class="hlt">colour</span> system) for the chewed gum, then the <span class="hlt">difference</span> between two <span class="hlt">colours</span> in the CIE-L*a*b* <span class="hlt">colour</span> space (?E) for each number of chewing strokes was calculated according to a formula. Index of masticatory performance (?E60) for each subject was obtained using ?E for 20, 40, 60, 80, 120 and 160 strokes. Mandibular movements were recorded using an opto-electric system with six degrees of freedom. Twelve parameters of mandibular movements relating to amplitude, duration, velocity and angle were computed for each cycle, and mean values for 10 cycles (from cycle 11 to 20) were calculated separately. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified maximum closing velocity and closing angle as predictors accounting for 18% of the variation in ?E60. These results suggest that lower angles of approach to intercuspation and faster speed during closing duration are associated with <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-changeable chewing gum. PMID:21314707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18507701"><span id="translatedtitle">Maintenance of clinal variation for shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype in the flat periwinkle Littorina obtusata.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phifer-Rixey, M; Heckman, M; Trussell, G C; Schmidt, P S</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Clines can signal spatially varying selection and therefore have long been used to investigate the role of environmental heterogeneity in maintaining genetic variation. However, clinal patterns alone are not sufficient to reject neutrality or to establish the mechanism of selection. Indirect, inferential methods can be used to address neutrality and mechanism, but fully understanding the adaptive significance of clinal variation ultimately requires a direct approach. Ecological model systems such as the rocky intertidal provide a useful context for direct experimentation and can serve as a complement to studies in more traditional genetic model systems. In this study, we use indirect and direct approaches to investigate the role of environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in the flat periwinkle snail, Littorina obtusata. We document replicated clines in shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> morph frequencies over thermal gradients at two spatial scales, contrasting with patterns at previously reported microsatellite loci. In addition, experimental results demonstrate that that shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> has predictable effects on shell temperature and that these <span class="hlt">differences</span> in temperature, in turn, coincide with patterns of survivorship under episodic thermal stress. Direct manipulation of shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> revealed that shell <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and not a correlated character, was the target of selection. Our study provides evidence that spatially varying selection via thermal regime contributes to the maintenance of shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype variation in L. obtusata in the sampled areas of the Gulf of Maine. PMID:18507701</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..264..229A"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser-induced <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking-Sensitivity scaling for a stainless steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Koco?, Dariusz; Nowak, Maciej; Kozio?, Pawe?; Abramski, Krzysztof M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the results of measurements and analysis of the influence of laser marking process parameters on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> obtained. The study was conducted for AISI 304 multipurpose stainless steel using a commercially available industrial fibre laser. It was determined how various process parameters, such as laser power, pulse repetition rate, scan speed of the material, spacing between successive lines, thickness and temperature of the material, location of the sample relative to the focal plane, size of marked fields and position in the workpiece, affect the repeatability of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> obtained. For objective assessment of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes, an optical spectrometer and the CIE <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">difference</span> parameter ?Eab* were used. Additionally, in order to determine the susceptibility of laser <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking to the ageing process, two types of tests - UV radiation and a salt spray test - were performed. Based on this analysis, necessary modifications to the laser systems commonly used for monochrome marking are proposed in order to achieve greater repeatability in <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2712399"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Biochemistry vs. Population Membership on Floral Scent Profiles in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Polymorphic Hesperis matronalis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Majetic, Cassie J.; Raguso, Robert A.; Ashman, Tia-Lynn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Studies of floral scent evolution often attribute variation in floral scent to <span class="hlt">differences</span> in pollinator behaviour, ignoring the potential for shared biochemistry between floral scent and floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> to dictate patterns of phenotypic variation in scent production. To determine the relative effects of shared biochemistry and/or localized population-level phenomena on floral scent phenotype, floral scent composition and emission rate were examined in five wild populations of <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic Hesperis matronalis (Brassicaceae). Methods Floral scent was collected by in situ dynamic headspace extraction on purple and white <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in each of five wild populations. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of extracts allowed determination of floral scent composition and emission rate for all individuals, which were examined by non-metric multidimensional scaling and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively, to determine the contributions of floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> and population membership to scent profile variation. Key Results Despite the fact that <span class="hlt">colour</span> morph means were very similar in some populations and quite <span class="hlt">different</span> in other populations, <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs within populations did not <span class="hlt">differ</span> from each other in terms of scent composition or emission rate. Populations <span class="hlt">differed</span> significantly from one another in terms of both floral scent composition and emission rate. Conclusions Shared biochemistry alone cannot explain the variation in floral scent phenotype found for H. matronalis. Such a result may suggest that the biochemical association between floral scent and floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> is complex or dependent on genetic background. Floral scent does vary significantly with population membership; several factors, including environmental conditions, founder effects and genetics, may account for this differentiation and should be considered in future studies. PMID:18819948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34728592"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Giurfa; M. Vorobyev; P. Kevan; R. Menzel</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Honeybees Apis mellifera were trained to distinguish between the presence and the absence of a rewarded <span class="hlt">coloured</span> spot, presented on a vertical, achromatic plane in a Y-maze. They were subsequently tested with <span class="hlt">different</span> subtended visual angles of that spot, generated by <span class="hlt">different</span> disk diameters and <span class="hlt">different</span> distances from the decision point in the device. Bees were trained easily to detect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12160341"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of a visual layering methodology for <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding control room displays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Laar, Darren; Deshe, Ofer</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>Eighteen people participated in an experiment in which they were asked to search for targets on control room like displays which had been produced using three <span class="hlt">different</span> coding methods. The monochrome coding method displayed the information in black and white only, the maximally discriminable method contained <span class="hlt">colours</span> chosen for their high perceptual discriminability, the visual layers method contained <span class="hlt">colours</span> developed from psychological and cartographic principles which grouped information into a perceptual hierarchy. The visual layers method produced significantly faster search times than the other two coding methods which did not <span class="hlt">differ</span> significantly from each other. Search time also <span class="hlt">differed</span> significantly for presentation order and for the method x order interaction. There was no significant <span class="hlt">difference</span> between the methods in the number of errors made. Participants clearly preferred the visual layers coding method. Proposals are made for the design of experiments to further test and develop the visual layers <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding methodology. PMID:12160341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16288793"><span id="translatedtitle">The comparison of spatially separated <span class="hlt">colours</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Danilova, Marina V; Mollon, J D</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We have measured chromatic discrimination as a function of the spatial separation of the stimuli within the visual field. Pairs of stimuli were presented on an imaginary circle of 5 degrees radius and the distance between their centres was varied up to 10 degrees. Stimulus duration was 100 ms. Constructing an analogue of the MacLeod-Boynton diagram for an extra-foveal observer, we made separate series of measurements for the L/(L+M) and S/(L+M) axes of <span class="hlt">colour</span> space. For both these axes, discrimination was optimal when there was a small spatial interval between the boundaries of the stimuli; thereafter thresholds rose moderately with increasing separation. Nevertheless, even at a separation of 10 degrees , subjects exhibited impressive discrimination, achieving thresholds in the range 0.4-2% on the L/(L+M) axis and in the range 3-6% on the S/(L+M) axis. Even when the two stimuli fell in <span class="hlt">different</span> hemifields and transmission of information across the corpus callosum was required, accuracy did not <span class="hlt">differ</span> significantly from that obtained when both stimuli fell within one hemifield. The human ability to compare remote stimuli requires an explanation. We argue that the discrimination is unlikely to depend on hard-wired neural comparators and may depend on neural representations that can be transmitted on a cerebral bus independently of the particular neurons carrying the code. Contrary to earlier reports, chromatic discrimination was not systematically better in the left visual field than in the right. And only one subject showed a significant advantage of the lower hemifield over the upper hemifield. PMID:16288793</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15024465"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping of AFLP markers linked to seed coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> loci in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sabharwal, V; Negi, M S; Banga, S S; Lakshmikumaran, M</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Association mapping of the seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was carried out in 39 Brassica juncea lines. The lines had genetically diverse parentages and varied for seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> and other morphological characters. Eleven AFLP primer combinations were used to screen the 39 B. juncea lines, and a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 335 polymorphic bands were detected. The bands were analysed for association with seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> using multiple regression analysis. This analysis revealed 15 markers associated with seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>, obtained with eight AFLP primer combinations. The marker E-ACA/M-CTG(350 )explained 69% of the variation in seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>. This marker along with markers E-AAC/M-CTC(235 )and E-AAC/M-CTA(250) explained 89% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> variation. The 15 associated markers were validated for linkage with the seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> loci using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population. Bands were amplified with the eight AFLP primer combinations in 54 RIL progenies. Of the 15 associated markers, 11 mapped on two linkage groups. Eight markers were placed on linkage group 1 at a marker density of 6.0 cM, while the remaining three were mapped on linkage group 2 at a marker density of 3.6 cM. Marker E-ACA/M-CTG(350 )co-segregated with Gene1 controlling seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>; it was specific for yellow seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> and mapped to linkage group 1. Marker E-AAC/M-CTC(235) (AFLP8), which had been studied previously, was present on linkage group 2; it was specific for brown seed-coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Since AFLP markers are not adapted for large-scale applications in plant breeding, it is important to convert these to sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers. Marker E-AAC/M-CTC(235) (AFLP8) had been previously converted into a SCAR. Work is in progress to convert the second of the linked markers, E-ACA/M-CTG(350), to a SCAR. The two linked AFLP markers converted to SCARs will be useful for developing yellow-seeded B. juncea lines by means of marker-assisted selection. PMID:15024465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24790110"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptome sequencing and metabolite analysis reveals the role of delphinidin metabolism in flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> in grape hyacinth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lou, Qian; Liu, Yali; Qi, Yinyan; Jiao, Shuzhen; Tian, Feifei; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yuejin</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Grape hyacinth (Muscari) is an important ornamental bulbous plant with an extraordinary blue <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Muscari armeniacum, whose flowers can be naturally white, provides an opportunity to unravel the complex metabolic networks underlying certain biochemical traits, especially <span class="hlt">colour</span>. A blue flower cDNA library of M. armeniacum and a white flower library of M. armeniacum f. album were used for transcriptome sequencing. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 89 926 uni-transcripts were isolated, 143 of which could be identified as putative homologues of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-related genes in other species. Based on a comprehensive analysis relating <span class="hlt">colour</span> compounds to gene expression profiles, the mechanism of <span class="hlt">colour</span> biosynthesis was studied in M. armeniacum. Furthermore, a new hypothesis explaining the lack of <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype of the grape hyacinth flower is proposed. Alteration of the substrate competition between flavonol synthase (FLS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) may lead to elimination of blue pigmentation while the multishunt from the limited flux in the cyanidin (Cy) synthesis pathway seems to be the most likely reason for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in the white flowers of M. armeniacum. Moreover, mass sequence data obtained by the deep sequencing of M. armeniacum and its white variant provided a platform for future function and molecular biological research on M. armeniacum. PMID:24790110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071837"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptome sequencing and metabolite analysis reveals the role of delphinidin metabolism in flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> in grape hyacinth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lou, Qian; Liu, Yali; Qi, Yinyan; Jiao, Shuzhen; Tian, Feifei; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yuejin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Grape hyacinth (Muscari) is an important ornamental bulbous plant with an extraordinary blue <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Muscari armeniacum, whose flowers can be naturally white, provides an opportunity to unravel the complex metabolic networks underlying certain biochemical traits, especially <span class="hlt">colour</span>. A blue flower cDNA library of M. armeniacum and a white flower library of M. armeniacum f. album were used for transcriptome sequencing. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 89 926 uni-transcripts were isolated, 143 of which could be identified as putative homologues of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-related genes in other species. Based on a comprehensive analysis relating <span class="hlt">colour</span> compounds to gene expression profiles, the mechanism of <span class="hlt">colour</span> biosynthesis was studied in M. armeniacum. Furthermore, a new hypothesis explaining the lack of <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype of the grape hyacinth flower is proposed. Alteration of the substrate competition between flavonol synthase (FLS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) may lead to elimination of blue pigmentation while the multishunt from the limited flux in the cyanidin (Cy) synthesis pathway seems to be the most likely reason for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in the white flowers of M. armeniacum. Moreover, mass sequence data obtained by the deep sequencing of M. armeniacum and its white variant provided a platform for future function and molecular biological research on M. armeniacum. PMID:24790110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRII..57..565F"><span id="translatedtitle">Morphology and <span class="hlt">total</span> lipids in Thysanoessa macura from the southern part of the Indian Ocean during summer. Spatial and sex <span class="hlt">differences</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Färber-Lorda, Jaime; Mayzaud, Patrick</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Samples obtained during austral summer (February) were utilized to study the morphological <span class="hlt">differences</span> of Thysanoessa macrura and the <span class="hlt">total</span> lipid content, in relation to sex and geographic location. This species shows an evolution in morphometry, its carapace length increases slightly with sexual maturation, and its second thoracic leg becomes bigger and stronger, as well as its dactylus and especially the setae in the dactylus, which are stronger in a bigger animal allowing them to feed on other lipid-rich zooplankton. All these characteristics seem to support the hypothesis that animals change their diet during this period, allowing them to grow faster during summer, and accumulate lipids as a reserve material. This hypothesis is supported by a steeper slope in the length-weight regression during summer and an even steeper slope of the regression between carapace length and <span class="hlt">total</span> lipids, especially adults. Great <span class="hlt">differences</span> in lipid content were found between subadults and adults during this season, being higher in adults and, especially females. Lipids were higher in the northern stations in frontal area. A significant <span class="hlt">difference</span> in lipid content was found among the stations sampled. Also a significant <span class="hlt">difference</span> in lipid content was found between subadults, males and females. The species has a longer reproductive season than previously thought, which could depend on local conditions. Its development is accelerated during the summer bloom. Life history strategies of subadults and adults are apparently quite <span class="hlt">different</span>, according to our lipid results and morphometrics data. Lipids reserves in subadults are not accumulated during summer, thus, T. macrura must accumulate massive amounts of lipids during autumn or late summer as a survival strategy of the species, as proposed for other species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1746057"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of airway neutrophils by sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span>: correlation with airways inflammation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stockley, R; Bayley, D; Hill, S; Hill, A; Crooks, S; Campbell, E</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND—Airway inflammation, with recruitment of neutrophils to the airway lumen, results in purulent secretions and a variety of potential adverse consequences for patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis. We hypothesised that gradations of sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> would correlate directly with the myeloperoxidase content of sputum and with various other indicators of the activity and consequences of bronchial diseases.?METHODS—To test this hypothesis, we quantified sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> by reference to a sensitive nine point <span class="hlt">colour</span> chart and correlated this assessment with indices of a number of inflammatory mediators in sputum.?RESULTS—The results indicate that standardised visual measurements of sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> correlated strongly with myeloperoxidase, interleukin 8, leucocyte elastase (both activity and <span class="hlt">total</span> quantity), sputum volume, protein leak, and secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (p<0.001 for all). In addition, there was a strong direct correlation between leucocyte elastase and both myeloperoxidase (p<0.003) and sputum volume (p<0.001), but a strong negative correlation with secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (p<0.001).?CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> graded visually relates to the activity of the underlying markers of bronchial inflammation. The results of this simple visual analysis of sputum provides guidance concerning underlying inflammation and its damaging potential. It also provides a useful scientific tool for improving the monitoring of chronic airways diseases and response to treatment.?? PMID:11312405</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20374810"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of pre-sliced pork and Turkey ham qualities based on image <span class="hlt">colour</span> and textural features and their relationships with consumer responses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Mendoza, Fernando; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Images of three qualities of pre-sliced pork and Turkey hams were evaluated for <span class="hlt">colour</span> and textural features to characterize and classify them, and to model the ham appearance grading and preference responses of a group of consumers. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 26 <span class="hlt">colour</span> features and 40 textural features were extracted for analysis. Using Mahalanobis distance and feature inter-correlation analyses, two best <span class="hlt">colour</span> [mean of S (saturation in HSV <span class="hlt">colour</span> space), std. deviation of b*, which indicates blue to yellow in L*a*b* <span class="hlt">colour</span> space] and three textural features [entropy of b*, contrast of H (hue of HSV <span class="hlt">colour</span> space), entropy of R (red of RGB <span class="hlt">colour</span> space)] for pork, and three <span class="hlt">colour</span> (mean of R, mean of H, std. deviation of a*, which indicates green to red in L*a*b* <span class="hlt">colour</span> space) and two textural features [contrast of B, contrast of L* (luminance or lightness in L*a*b* <span class="hlt">colour</span> space)] for Turkey hams were selected as features with the highest discriminant power. High classification performances were reached for both types of hams (>99.5% for pork and >90.5% for Turkey) using the best selected features or combinations of them. In spite of the poor/fair agreement among ham consumers as determined by Kappa analysis (Kappa-value<0.4) for sensory grading (surface <span class="hlt">colour</span>, <span class="hlt">colour</span> uniformity, bitonality, texture appearance and acceptability), a dichotomous logistic regression model using the best image features was able to explain the variability of consumers' responses for all sensorial attributes with accuracies higher than 74.1% for pork hams and 83.3% for Turkey hams. PMID:20374810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4352530"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of five year storage on <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL.) hull and shell from <span class="hlt">different</span> genotypes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from <span class="hlt">different</span> genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were <span class="hlt">different</span>, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell. PMID:25767754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708792"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in methods for <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking of mosquitoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Different</span> techniques are available for <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking insects and each technique may be suitable for <span class="hlt">different</span> insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking mosquitoes were described in detail and the impact of both methods on the survival and host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was investigated. Methods Mosquitoes were marked in groups with fluorescent powder or fluorescent dye. The powder was applied by creating a cloud of powder in a paper cup and the dye was applied with an airbrush. The effect of marking on the survival of mosquitoes of <span class="hlt">different</span> age groups was tested under controlled conditions. The effect of marking on the host seeking response of the mosquitoes was tested in an olfactometer with human and cow odour as baits. Results No effect of either of the marking methods was found on the survival of mosquitoes that were treated 1 or 3 days after emergence, however, the survival of mosquitoes treated 5 or 9 days after emergence was significantly reduced. The host-seeking response of mosquitoes to human or cow odour was tested in a dual-port olfactometer and was not found to be affected by treatment with fluorescent powder or dye. Conclusions Both methods are suitable for <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking large groups of mosquitoes. Marking with fluorescent powder, however, is preferred because the method is simpler, visible without a UV light and no specific materials are required. PMID:23835091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.zoologi.su.se/research/tullberg/papers/Tullberg%20et%20al.%202008.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ORIGINAL PAPER Seasonal ontogenetic <span class="hlt">colour</span> plasticity in the adult striated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Tullberg, Birgitta</p> <p></p> <p>February 2008 # Springer-Verlag 2008 Abstract Camouflage and warning <span class="hlt">colouration</span> are two important forms provides a benefit of increased camouflage. Keywords Aposematism . Conspicuousness . Camouflage . Crypsis animals: cryptic <span class="hlt">colouration</span> or camouflage, which decreases the risk of detection, and warning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20699024"><span id="translatedtitle">[A woman with a blue <span class="hlt">coloured</span> skin].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blokker, Ruud S; Asselbergs, Céline P E</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A 66-year-old woman with carcinoma of the breast developed a blue-grey <span class="hlt">colouring</span> of the skin, after injection of patentblue for sentinel node procedure. This is a rare hypersensitivity reaction on patentblue, with the risk of depression of oxygen saturation or anaphylactic shock. PMID:20699024</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/498758"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical Morphology in the HLS <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Allan Hanbury; Jean Serra</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The HLS <span class="hlt">colour</span> space is widely used in image analysis as it is physically intuitive. As the hue component of this space is defined on the unit circle, standard greyscale image analysis operators, specifically morphological op- erators, are not applicable to it. A variation of the standard morphological op- erators which require the choice of an origin are discussed. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11257968"><span id="translatedtitle">An analogy between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and spatial coding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clement, R; Moorhead, I</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The early stages of <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding are well established in that the trichromatic receptor stage is followed by a set of opponent <span class="hlt">colour</span> channels. One interpretation of the sequence is that opponent channels carry unrelated aspects of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimulus, unlike the cone channels. The overlap of the cone channels can be removed by decorrelating their spectral-sensitivity functions, and this procedure has been found to give opponent <span class="hlt">colour</span> channels which match those found psychophysically. Since the known spatial-frequency channels also show considerable overlap, the question arises which aspects of the spatial stimulus are captured by decorrelating the spatial-frequency channels. The results of decorrelating the spatial-frequency channels are that the first decorrelated spatial filter acts as a broad bandpass filter which has a peak sensitivity at 7.9 cycles deg-1, and that the second decorrelated spatial filter acts as an opponent spatial-frequency channel, with a minimum output at a low (4.1 cycles deg-1) spatial frequency and a maximum output at a high (15.1 cycles deg-1) spatial frequency. The characteristics of the first decorrelated filter closely resemble the properties of the foveal perceptive field which have been used to explain the Hermann grid illusion. Thus, the decorrelation analysis produces a model for the functional organisation of the channel implementation at the neural and psychophysical levels, but which directly relates to the subjective appearance of the visual stimuli. PMID:11257968</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatPh..10..540S"><span id="translatedtitle">All the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the rainbow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smithson, Hannah E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; McLeish, Tom C. B.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Our perception of <span class="hlt">colour</span> has always been a source of fascination, so it's little wonder that studies of the phenomenon date back hundreds of years. What, though, can modern scientists learn from medieval literature -- and how do we go about it?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~leowwk/thesis/wongsweeseong.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> SEGMENTATION AND FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Leow, Wee Kheng</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> SEGMENTATION AND FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION OF NATURAL IMAGES WONG SWEE SEONG (B. Sc. (Comp of S15 building. My graditude to them for making my stay a memorable one. Next, my wife Karen in Natural Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Smoothing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhLB..665..388M"><span id="translatedtitle">Supersymmetric <span class="hlt">coloured</span>/hairy black holes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meessen, Patrick</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We discuss all possible spherically symmetric black hole type solutions to an N = 2 supergravity model with SO (3) gauging. The solutions consist of a one parameter family of black hole solutions evading the no-hair theorem and an isolated solution that is a supersymmetric analogue of a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> black hole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11656768"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological variation related to shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in White Sea Littorina saxatilis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>I. M. Sokolova; V. Ja Berger</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Responses to moderate and extreme salinity change were investigated in White Sea Littorina saxatilis of <span class="hlt">different</span> genetically determined shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in order to test a hypothesis about physiological selection as a driving force of the change of phenotypic structure of this species along a salinity gradient in White Sea estuaries. Some of the studied physiological responses did not <span class="hlt">differ</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....1287D"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoelectrical and <span class="hlt">colour</span> tracer monitoring with direct push observation wells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietrich, P.; Dietze, M.; Hoffmann, R.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Borehole - borehole tracer tests are a hydrogeological method to characterize groundwater flow parameters. Breakthrough curves of <span class="hlt">colour</span> tracers, injected in one borehole and measured in one or more observation wells downstream of the first, give exact but locally very limited information about groundwater flow direction and velocity. At heterogeneous subsurface conditions a large number of investigation wells and frequent sample drawing is necessary to assure recovery of the tracer, which makes the experiments very expensive. Yet, these experiments often fail or do not give sufficient information about the flow regime in the aquifer. Monitoring of salt tracers with geoelectrical methods gives an integral information about flow parameters which in most cases is a more useful information. Especially in deeper aquifers though, it is a problem to place a high number of electrodes close enough to the moving tracer to gain precise results. To assess the mentioned problems we carried out a combined geoelectrical salt and conventional <span class="hlt">colour</span> tracer test. Our equipment for both tests was placed in direct push boreholes, which are a lot cheaper than groundwater wells, quickly installed and much less invasive. The boreholes were installed at 10 meters distance on a 120 m long profile, to form a control plane 25 meters downstream of the tracer injection. The injection took place in three <span class="hlt">different</span> groundwater wells at a time, to provide for a good overview of the flow regime along the control plane. We show, how integral information from the geoelectrical tracer tests can be used to design a refined borehole placement for a successful <span class="hlt">colour</span> tracer test. Our results, quite <span class="hlt">different</span> from groundwater modelling results, strongly support the necessity to carry out precise field tracer tests for the investigation of groundwater flow parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=light&id=EJ1066021"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the Absorption of Light <span class="hlt">Colours</span> Using an Artificial Rainbow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light <span class="hlt">colours</span> by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The light <span class="hlt">colours</span> composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51788170"><span id="translatedtitle">Then and now: James Clerk Maxwell and <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Richard C. Dougal; Clive A. Greated; Alan E. Marson</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A survey of the researches of James Clerk Maxwell into the production and perception of <span class="hlt">colour</span> is presented, and links to a selection of present day applications of <span class="hlt">colour</span> science are indicated. Although false <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography was not known in Maxwell's time, aspects of his work, suitably interpreted, have a bearing on the wide applicability of the technique. An outline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://cichlid.umd.edu/cichlidlabs/kc/pdfs/Dalton2010.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">INTRODUCTION Animal <span class="hlt">colouration</span> depends on an interplay of selective forces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Carleton, Karen L.</p> <p></p> <p>competition, may have driven evolution of male nuptial <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in these fish. In cichlids, male <span class="hlt">colour</span> in <span class="hlt">colour</span>, brightness or patch size (Endler, 1978). To the human eye, male cichlids certainly appear more generates conspicuous individuals, often males, that can more effectively attract mates or compete</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14088268"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting skin in face recognition systems: A <span class="hlt">colour</span> spaces study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>José M. Chaves-González; Miguel A. Vega-Rodríguez; Juan Antonio Gómez Pulido; Juan Manuel Sánchez-Pérez</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> detection is a technique very used in most of face detectors to find faces in images or videos. However, there is not a common opinion about which <span class="hlt">colour</span> space is the best choice to do this task. Therefore, the motivation for our study is to discover which <span class="hlt">colour</span> model is the best option to build an efficient face</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.daimi.au.dk/~mailund/thesis/chap9.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for <span class="hlt">Coloured</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mailund, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Chapter 9 Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets The paper Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets pre- sented in this chapter has been published as a workshop changes. 89 #12; 90 Chapter 9. Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets #12; 9</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57590854"><span id="translatedtitle">THE HISTORICAL MANUFACTURE OF BLUE-<span class="hlt">COLOURED</span> PAPER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Irene Brückle</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This review article presents historical and technical information concerning European blue paper manufacture until the introduction of aniline dyes in the late 19th century. It summarizes important aspects of three major <span class="hlt">colouring</span> methods, namely the use of blue <span class="hlt">coloured</span> rags, the dyeing of paper pulp and the addition of pigments to the pulp. Each of these <span class="hlt">colouring</span> methods is presented</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.daimi.au.dk/~mailund/ps/pnt2001.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">State Space Methods for Timed <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mailund, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>State Space Methods for Timed <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets S#28;ren Christensen Kurt Jensen Thomas Mailund, AUSTRALIA Abstract We present two recently developed state space methods for timed <span class="hlt">coloured</span> Petri nets which reconciles state space methods and time concepts of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> Petri nets. The #12;rst method is based</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.daimi.au.dk/~mailund/ps/progress-report.ps"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets { A Tool in Software Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mailund, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>for the usually in#12;nite state spaces of timed <span class="hlt">coloured</span> Petri nets. The second method exploits the progress state spaces of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> Petri nets with time into #12;nite representa- tions, and Sect. 4.2 describes<span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets { A Tool in Software Engineering Progress Report Thomas Mailund Department</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://designtheory.org/library/preprints/balcol3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Balanced <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of strongly regular R. A. Bailey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Queen Mary, University of London</p> <p></p> <p>Balanced <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of strongly regular graphs R. A. Bailey School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen is balanced if every pair of distinct <span class="hlt">colours</span> occurs equally often on the ends of an edge. When the graph is the complete regular multipartite graph a balanced <span class="hlt">colouring</span> is just a balanced incomplete-block design, or 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/89/41/36/PDF/hal-00894136.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inheritance of coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the field spaniel dog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p></p> <p>Note Inheritance of coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the field spaniel dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery, Stephens known as roan. dog genetics / coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> / field spaniel / breed Résumé - Hérédité de la couleur du for the heredity of coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the dog (Little, 1957; Robinson, 1990), it has become apparent as work</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://decsai.ugr.es/vip/files/books/ChamorroWSC7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Granada, Universidad de</p> <p></p> <p>1 A Fuzzy <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision J. Chamorro-Mart´inez, D. S segmentation, fuzzy segmentation, <span class="hlt">colour</span> distance, robot vision. 1.1 Introduction The image segmentation, view, but the fuzzy segmentation of <span class="hlt">colour</span> images has been paid less attention. Other important aspect to take</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://decsai.ugr.es/vip/files/conferences/Chamorro_FuzzyIEEE2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Hierarchical Approach to Fuzzy Segmentation of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Granada, Universidad de</p> <p></p> <p>A Hierarchical Approach to Fuzzy Segmentation of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images J. Chamorro-Mart´inez, D. S-- In this paper we introduce a methodology for the segmentation of <span class="hlt">colour</span> images by means of a nested hierarchy of fuzzy partitions. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> image segmentation attempts to divide the pixels of an image in several</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/89/40/26/PDF/hal-00894026.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inheritance of coat and <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the Griffon Bruxellois dog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boyer, Edmond</p> <p></p> <p>and <span class="hlt">colour</span> varieties in the Griffon Bruxellois, a toy breed of dog (2.2-4.9 kgs), which was developedNote Inheritance of coat and <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the Griffon Bruxellois dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery - The varieties of the Griffon Bruxellois dog consist of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> black, red and black and tan, combined</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www3.shu.ac.uk/Conferences/DRS/Proceedings/Papers/W/Wei_et_al_DRS2008_301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Shuo-Ting Wei; M. Ronnier Luo</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The present research studies the relationships between observers' expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived <span class="hlt">colours</span> for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package <span class="hlt">colours</span> were rated using 5</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/~fabri/nonZim/publications/downloads/bmvc05.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Orientation for Adaptive Particle Filterbased Tracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Smeraldi, Fabrizio</p> <p></p> <p>Combining <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Orientation for Adaptive Particle Filter­based Tracking Emilio Maggio1 combines in a single particle filter <span class="hlt">colour</span> and gradient-based orientation informa- tion. A reliability, the automatic scale selection for the derivative filters results in increased robustness. 2 Introduction <span class="hlt">Colour</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44554405"><span id="translatedtitle">Note: Comparison of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Techniques to Measure Chocolate Fat Bloom</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>B. Kumara; S. Jinap; Y. B. Che Man; M. S. A. Yusoff</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A combination of digital camera, computer and graphic software can provide a less expensive and more versatile technique to determine the changes of <span class="hlt">colour</span> on chocolate's surface in fat bloom assessment compared to instrumental <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement. Both techniques were applied and compared to measure the <span class="hlt">colour</span> profiles at various locations on the surface of bloomed chocolates. Pearson correlation coefficients and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.math.mcgill.ca/louigi/papers/edgeweight.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertex-<span class="hlt">Colouring</span> Edge-Weightings L. Addario-Berrya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Addario-Berry, Louigi</p> <p></p> <p>Vertex-<span class="hlt">Colouring</span> Edge-Weightings L. Addario-Berrya , K. Dalala , C. McDiarmidb , B. A. Reeda and A A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a <span class="hlt">colouring</span> of the vertices of G where the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of vertex v isomorphic to K2 can be weighted from the set {1, . . . , 30} such that in the resulting vertex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/kp4028h282k00883.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Screening and specification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of nitritometric indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Chilukuri S. P. Sastry; Kommula R. Srinivas; Dasari Narasimha Rao; Kommuri M. M. Krishna Prasad</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The specification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of nitritometric indicators, viz., cresyl fast violet acetate, amethyst violet, safranine O, neutral red, methylene violet, neutral violet, phenosafranine, brilliant cresyl blue and lissamine blue BF, in the titration of sulphanilamide has been carried out with the help of tristimulus colorimetry. Apart from the determination of true <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates and complementary <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates, the quantitative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2958788"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluctuating selection by water level on gynoecium <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in an aquatic plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tang, Xiao-Xin; Huang, Shuang-Quan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims It has been proposed that variation in pollinator preferences or a fluctuating environment can act to maintain flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism. These two hypotheses were tested in an aquatic monocot Butomus umbellatus (Butomaceae) with a pink or white gynoecium in the field population. Methods Pollinator visitation was compared in experimental arrays of equivalent flowering cymes from both <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs. Seed set was compared between inter- and intramorph pollination under <span class="hlt">different</span> water levels to test the effect of fluctuating environment on seed fertility. Key Results Overall, the major pollinator groups did not discriminate between <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs. Compared with the white morph, seed production in the pink morph under intermorph, intramorph and open pollination treatments was significantly higher when the water level was low but not when it was high. Precipitation in July was correlated with yearly seed production in the pink morph but not in the white morph. Conclusions The results indicated that the two <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs <span class="hlt">differed</span> in their tolerance to water level. Our study on this aquatic plant provides additional evidence to support the hypothesis that flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism can be preserved by environmental heterogeneity. PMID:20802049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25465561"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of corn silage hybrids <span class="hlt">differing</span> in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and <span class="hlt">total</span>-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and <span class="hlt">total</span>-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not <span class="hlt">differ</span>. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. <span class="hlt">Total</span>-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although <span class="hlt">total</span>-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. PMID:25465561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1503.08800v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Qudit <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Codes and Gauge <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Codes in All Spatial Dimensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Fern H. E. Watson; Earl T. Campbell; Hussain Anwar; Dan E. Browne</p> <p>2015-03-30</p> <p>Two-level quantum systems, qubits, are not the only basis for quantum computation. Advantages exist in using qudits, d-level quantum systems, as the basic carrier of quantum information. We show that <span class="hlt">colour</span> codes---a class of topological quantum codes with remarkable transversality properties---can be generalised to the qudit paradigm. In recent developments it was found that in three spatial dimensions a qubit <span class="hlt">colour</span> code can support a transversal non-Clifford gate, and that in higher spatial dimensions additional non-Clifford gates can be found, saturating Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)]. Furthermore, by using gauge fixing techniques, an effective set of Clifford gates can be achieved, removing the need for state distillation. We show that the qudit <span class="hlt">colour</span> code can support the qudit analogues of these gates, and show that in higher spatial dimensions a <span class="hlt">colour</span> code can support a phase gate from higher levels of the Clifford hierarchy which can be proven to saturate Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound in all but a finite number of special cases. The methodology used is a generalisation of Bravyi and Haah's method of triorthogonal matrices [Phys. Rev. A 86 052329 (2012)], which may be of independent interest. For completeness, we show explicitly that the qudit <span class="hlt">colour</span> codes generalise to gauge <span class="hlt">colour</span> codes, and share the many of the favourable properties of their qubit counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710428K"><span id="translatedtitle">High dynamic range optical scanning of sediments and rock samples: More than <span class="hlt">colour</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Knies, Jochen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>An automated high dynamic range (HDR) scanning procedure for cores and single sediment samples has been developed based on the GeoTek core scanner equipped with a 3* 2048 pixel CCD array GeoScan <span class="hlt">colour</span> line-scan camera and a Sigma AF 105mm F2.8 EX DG MACRO lens. Repeated <span class="hlt">colour</span> line scans of the same core sequence using <span class="hlt">different</span> illumination and exposure time settings, but equal aperture, can be combined into single HDR images. This yields improved <span class="hlt">colour</span> definition especially if layers of highly variable brightness occur in the same sequence. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> calibration is performed automatically during image processing based on synchronization of <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts. Polarized light is used to minimize gloss on wet surfaces. Beyond improved <span class="hlt">colour</span> detection, high resolution scans with pixel size down to 25 µm provide the possibility of quantifying fabric, texture, and <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast between mottle and matrix. We present examples from marine sediments, lake sediments, hard rock cores, and individual soil samples. Due to the high resolution in sediment sequences, the improved images provide important background information to interpret synchronous measurements of density, magnetic susceptibility, or X-ray fluorescence with respect to their respective measurement footprint. If for example an XRF measurement indicates a 2% increase in Fe at a location of a thin black layer of 1/10 of the XRF measurement footprint, within an otherwise homogenous sequence, it can be inferred that the real Fe abundance within the layer is probably 20% higher than in the surrounding sediment. HDR scanning can therefore help to provide high resolution informed interpolation and deconvolution of measurements with larger sensor footprints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22299976"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple pulse-heating experiments with <span class="hlt">different</span> current to determine <span class="hlt">total</span> emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical <span class="hlt">total</span> emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at <span class="hlt">different</span> temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and <span class="hlt">total</span> emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results. PMID:22299976</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScI...83a4904W"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple pulse-heating experiments with <span class="hlt">different</span> current to determine <span class="hlt">total</span> emissivity, heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuichiro</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A modified pulse-heating method is proposed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the hemispherical <span class="hlt">total</span> emissivity, specific heat capacity, and electrical resistivity of electrically conductive materials at high temperatures. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a series of rapid resistive self-heating experiments on a sample heated at <span class="hlt">different</span> temperature rates. The method is used to measure the three properties of the IG-110 grade of isotropic graphite at temperatures from 850 to 1800 K. The problem of the extrinsic heating-rate effect, which reduces the accuracy of the measurements, is successfully mitigated by compensating for the generally neglected experimental error associated with the electrical measurands (current and voltage). The results obtained by the proposed method can be validated by the linearity of measured quantities used in the property determinations. The results are in reasonably good agreement with previously published data, which demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method, in particular, to the resistivity and <span class="hlt">total</span> emissivity measurements. An interesting result is the existence of a minimum in the emissivity of the isotropic graphite at around 1120 K, consistent with the electrical resistivity results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5187986"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">different</span> enzyme treatments in extraction of <span class="hlt">total</span> folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Souza, S.C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Four <span class="hlt">different</span> enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of <span class="hlt">total</span> folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179942"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">different</span> spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of <span class="hlt">different</span> spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://sitemaker.umich.edu/jacinta.beehner/files/bergman_and_beehner_2008.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A simple method for measuring <span class="hlt">colour</span> in wild animals: validation and use on chest patch <span class="hlt">colour</span> in geladas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A simple method for measuring <span class="hlt">colour</span> in wild animals: validation and use on chest patch <span class="hlt">colour</span> to subjects in their natural habitat. To illustrate this, we use the method to measure chest <span class="hlt">colour</span> in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Unique among primates, geladas have a red patch of skin on their chest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5531252"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining local and global contributions to perceived <span class="hlt">colour</span>: An analysis of the variability in symmetric and asymmetric <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Eli Brenner; Jeroen J. M. Granzier; Jeroen B. J. Smeets</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Are surfaces’ <span class="hlt">colours</span> judged from weighted averages of the light that they reflect to the eyes and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast at their borders? To find out we asked subjects to set the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and luminance of test disks to match reference disks, on various backgrounds, and analysed the variability in their settings. Most of the variability between repeated settings was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18990672"><span id="translatedtitle">The multiple disguises of spiders: web <span class="hlt">colour</span> and decorations, body <span class="hlt">colour</span> and movement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Théry, Marc; Casas, Jérôme</p> <p>2009-02-27</p> <p>Diverse functions have been assigned to the visual appearance of webs, spiders and web decorations, including prey attraction, predator deterrence and camouflage. Here, we review the pertinent literature, focusing on potential camouflage and mimicry. Webs are often difficult to detect in a heterogeneous visual environment. Static and dynamic web distortions are used to escape visual detection by prey, although particular silk may also attract prey. Recent work using physiological models of vision taking into account visual environments rarely supports the hypothesis of spider camouflage by decorations, but most often the prey attraction and predator confusion hypotheses. Similarly, visual modelling shows that spider coloration is effective in attracting prey but not in conveying camouflage. Camouflage through <span class="hlt">colour</span> change might be used by particular crab spiders to hide from predator or prey on flowers of <span class="hlt">different</span> coloration. However, results obtained on a non-cryptic crab spider suggest that an alternative function of pigmentation may be to avoid UV photodamage through the transparent cuticle. Numerous species are clearly efficient locomotory mimics of ants, particularly in the eyes of their predators. We close our paper by highlighting gaps in our knowledge. PMID:18990672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056088"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardized <span class="hlt">Total</span> Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From <span class="hlt">Different</span> Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and <span class="hlt">different</span> endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized <span class="hlt">Total</span> Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect <span class="hlt">differences</span> between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected <span class="hlt">differences</span> (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using <span class="hlt">different</span> toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3574306"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual habitat geometry predicts relative morph abundance in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-polymorphic ornate rainbowfish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hancox, Daniel; Wilson, Robbie S.; White, Craig R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>During <span class="hlt">colour</span> signalling in aquatic environments, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the ambient light, the background against which signals are viewed and signal transmission through the environment can all have profound impacts on the efficacy of a given signal. In <span class="hlt">colour</span>-polymorphic species, where alternative morphs persist owing to a balance in the natural and sexual selection for each, changes to the visual context can have large effects on the local success and relative abundance of competing phenotypes. The ornate rainbowfish, Rhadinocentrus ornatus, is composed of populations that vary in the relative frequency of red and blue individuals, and inhabit sites that vary in water transmittance from clear (white) to heavily tannin-stained (red-shifted). Using spectroradiometry, we measured the downwelling and sidewelling irradiance, bank radiance and water transmittance of 10 R. ornatus habitats. We found that the relative local abundance of each morph was predicted not by water transmittance but by chromatic <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the vertical (downwelling light) and horizontal (bank <span class="hlt">colour</span>) components of the habitat. This visual habitat geometry should increase contrast between the <span class="hlt">colour</span> signal and background, with large potential to influence the strength of natural and sexual selection in this system. PMID:23222447</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23222447"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual habitat geometry predicts relative morph abundance in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-polymorphic ornate rainbowfish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hancox, Daniel; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>During <span class="hlt">colour</span> signalling in aquatic environments, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the ambient light, the background against which signals are viewed and signal transmission through the environment can all have profound impacts on the efficacy of a given signal. In <span class="hlt">colour</span>-polymorphic species, where alternative morphs persist owing to a balance in the natural and sexual selection for each, changes to the visual context can have large effects on the local success and relative abundance of competing phenotypes. The ornate rainbowfish, Rhadinocentrus ornatus, is composed of populations that vary in the relative frequency of red and blue individuals, and inhabit sites that vary in water transmittance from clear (white) to heavily tannin-stained (red-shifted). Using spectroradiometry, we measured the downwelling and sidewelling irradiance, bank radiance and water transmittance of 10 R. ornatus habitats. We found that the relative local abundance of each morph was predicted not by water transmittance but by chromatic <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the vertical (downwelling light) and horizontal (bank <span class="hlt">colour</span>) components of the habitat. This visual habitat geometry should increase contrast between the <span class="hlt">colour</span> signal and background, with large potential to influence the strength of natural and sexual selection in this system. PMID:23222447</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774230"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal lighting patterns and habitat alter opsin expression and <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences in a killifish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Johnson, Ashley M.; Stanis, Shannon; Fuller, Rebecca C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Spatial variation in lighting environments frequently leads to population variation in <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns, <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences and visual systems. Yet lighting conditions also vary diurnally, and many aspects of visual systems and behaviour vary over this time scale. Here, we use the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) to compare how diurnal variation and habitat variation (clear versus tannin-stained water) affect opsin expression and the preference to peck at <span class="hlt">different-coloured</span> objects. Opsin expression was generally lowest at midnight and dawn, and highest at midday and dusk, and this diurnal variation was many times greater than variation between habitats. Pecking preference was affected by both diurnal and habitat variation but did not correlate with opsin expression. Rather, pecking preference matched lighting conditions, with higher preferences for blue at noon and for red at dawn/dusk, when these wavelengths are comparatively scarce. Similarly, blue pecking preference was higher in tannin-stained water where blue wavelengths are reduced. In conclusion, L. goodei exhibits strong diurnal cycles of opsin expression, but these are not tightly correlated with light intensity or <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Temporally variable pecking preferences probably result from lighting environment rather than from opsin production. These results may have implications for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern diversity observed in these fish. PMID:23698009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23405907"><span id="translatedtitle">Male courtship preferences demonstrate discrimination against allopatric <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in a cichlid fish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zoppoth, P; Koblmüller, S; Sefc, K M</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Whether premating isolation is achieved by male-specific, female-specific or sex-independent assortative preferences often depends on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here we test mate preferences of males presented with females of <span class="hlt">different</span> allopatric <span class="hlt">colour</span> variants of the cichlid fish Tropheus sp., a Lake Tanganyika endemic with rich geographical <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern variation, in which the strength of sexual isolation varies between populations. We conducted two-way mate choice experiments to compare behaviour of males of a red-bodied morph (population Moliro) towards females from their own population with behaviour towards females from four allopatric populations at <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of phylogenetic and phenotypic divergence. Males courted same-population females significantly more intensely than females of other populations, and reduced their heteromorphic courtship efforts both with increasing genetic and increasing phenotypic distinctness of the females. In particular, females of a closely related red-bodied population received significantly more courtship than either genetically distinct, similarly <span class="hlt">coloured</span> females ('Kirschfleck' morph) or genetically related, <span class="hlt">differently</span> <span class="hlt">coloured</span> females ('yellow-blotch' morph), both of which were courted similarly. Genetically and phenotypically distinct females (Tropheus polli) were not courted at all. Consistent with previous female-choice experiments, female courtship activity also decreased with increasing genetic distance from the males' population. Given successful experimental and natural introgression between <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs and the pervasive allopatry of related variants, we consider it unlikely that assortative preferences of both sexes were driven by direct selection during periods of secondary contact or, in turn, drove <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern differentiation in allopatry. Rather, we suggest that sexual isolation evolved as by-product of allopatric divergence. PMID:23405907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptLT..43..295S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of domestication and the designer chicken</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheppy, Andrew</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, <span class="hlt">colour</span> has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific <span class="hlt">colours</span> of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel <span class="hlt">colours</span> tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early <span class="hlt">colour</span> variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries <span class="hlt">colour</span> varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of <span class="hlt">colours</span> and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8307E..2IL"><span id="translatedtitle">Attenuated <span class="hlt">total</span> reflectance (ATR) GeO2 hollow infrared waveguides deposited from aqueous germanate ion solutions with <span class="hlt">different</span> GeO2 concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yi; Jing, Chengbin; Chu, Junhao</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The attenuated <span class="hlt">total</span> reflectance (ATR) hollow waveguides capable of transmitting CO2 laser have attracted wide research interest due to its advantages of simple structure, no end reflection, small beam divergence and good transmission modes. In this work, GeO2 ATR hollow waveguides for delivery of CO2 laser radiations were fabricated via an acid-induced liquid phase deposition (LPD) process. GeO2 hollow waveguide samples were deposited from acidic aqueous germanate ion solutions with <span class="hlt">different</span> GeO2 concentrations. The morphology, compactness and surface roughness of the LPD-derived GeO2 ceramic film were examined by SEM. The crystalline structure of the film sample was determined using XRD. The low-loss window of the GeO2 waveguide tube was observed by a FTIR spectrometer. We measured the transmission loss of the sample for delivery of a 10.6 ?m TEM00 CO2 laser beam. The results show that the variations in loss are consistent with the quality change of the GeO2 ceramic films grown in solutions at <span class="hlt">different</span> concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5769408"><span id="translatedtitle">Do distinct water chemistry reservoir age and disturbance make any <span class="hlt">difference</span> on phosphatase activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Ana Maria Geraldes; Maria-josé Boavida</p> <p></p> <p>ABSTRACT Alkaline phosphatase activity was assessed concomitantly with <span class="hlt">total</span> phosphorus, orthophosphate and phosphomonoester con- centrations in two ,meso-eutrophic reservoirs ,with distinct age and subjected to <span class="hlt">different</span> kinds of environmental, influence. <span class="hlt">Differ</span>- ences in conductivity,temperature and pH were found. However, during the study period alkaline phosphatase activity was similar in both reservoirs. Water <span class="hlt">colour</span> was higher in S. Serrada Reservoir. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42438384"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> war</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Talbot Imlay</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews the five volume series, published by Cambridge University Press, on the history of <span class="hlt">total</span> war from the American Civil War and Wars of German Unification to World War II. The discussion focuses on two questions: how to define <span class="hlt">total</span> war; and is <span class="hlt">total</span> war a useful conceptual tool for understanding warfare during this period? Although the editors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12106466"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromatic Discrimination in a Cortically <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Blind Observer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heywood, C. A.; Cowey, A.; Newcombe, F.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>We tested the ability of a subject with cerebral achromatopsia to discriminate between <span class="hlt">colours</span> and to detect chromatic borders. He was unable to identify <span class="hlt">colours</span> or to arrange them in an orderly series or choose the odd <span class="hlt">colour</span> out of an array or even to pick out a <span class="hlt">colour</span> embedded in an array of greys. Nevertheless, he could select the odd <span class="hlt">colour</span> when the <span class="hlt">colours</span> were contiguous, even when they were isoluminant, and could discriminate an ordered from a disordered chromatic series as long as the <span class="hlt">colours</span> in each row abutted one other. His verbal replies showed that he did so by detecting an edge between two stimuli that were, to him, perceptually identical. Introducing a narrow isoluminant grey stripe between adjacent <span class="hlt">colours</span> abolished or greatly impaired this ability. As long as isoluminant <span class="hlt">colours</span> were contiguous the patient could identify the orientation of the chromatic borders. Photopic spectral sensitivity showed evidence both for activity of three cone channels and for chromatic opponent processing, indicating that postreceptoral chromatic processing is occurring despite the absence of any conscious awareness of <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The results indicate that both parvocellular <span class="hlt">colour</span> opponent and magnocellular broad-band channels are active and that the cortical brain damage has selectively disrupted the appreciation of <span class="hlt">colour</span> but not the ability to detect even isoluminant chromatic borders, which would be invisible to a retinal achromat. The subject's performance on non-<span class="hlt">colour</span> tasks involving the discrimination of shape, texture, greyness and position was excellent. His disorder is therefore not like that of macaque monkeys in which cortical area V4 has been removed, and which are much more severely impaired at discriminating shape than <span class="hlt">colour</span>. PMID:12106466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996797"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Light Intensities on <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phenolics and Flavonoids Synthesis and Anti-oxidant Activities in Young Ginger Varieties (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Rahmat, Asmah; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Halim, Mohd Ridzwan Abd</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Nowadays, phytochemicals and antioxidants in plants are raising interest in consumers for their roles in the maintenance of human health. Phenolics and flavonoids are known for their health-promoting properties due to protective effects against cardiovascular disease, cancers and other disease. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the traditional folk medicinal plants and it is widely used in cooking in Malaysia. In this study, four levels of glasshouse light intensities (310, 460, 630 and 790 ?mol m?2s?1) were used in order to consider the effect of light intensity on the production, accumulation and partitioning of <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolics (TP), <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activities in two varieties of Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale). TF biosynthesis was highest in the Halia Bara variety under 310 ?mol m?2s?1 and TP was high in this variety under a light intensity of 790 ?mol m?2s?1. The highest amount of these components accumulated in the leaves and after that in the rhizomes. Also, antioxidant activities determined by the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay in both of varieties, increased significantly (p ? 0.01) with increasing TF concentration, and high antioxidant activity was observed in the leaves of Halia Bara grown under 310 ?mol m?2s?1. The ferric reducing (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves in 310 ?mol m?2s?1 of sun light. This study indicates the ability of <span class="hlt">different</span> light intensities to enhance the medicinal components and antioxidant activities of the leaves and young rhizomes of Zingiber officinale varieties. Additionally, this study also validated their medicinal potential based on TF and TP contents. PMID:21152306</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000MNRAS.317..782B"><span id="translatedtitle">The clustering of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-selected galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, M. J. I.; Webster, R. L.; Boyle, B. J.</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from a BJ~23.5 multicolour survey of two 5°×5° fields located at high galactic latitudes. The galaxy catalogue of ~4×105 galaxies is comparable in size to catalogues used to determine the galaxy correlation function at low redshift. Measurements of the z~0.4 correlation function at large angular scales show no evidence for a break from a power law, although our results are not inconsistent with a break at >~15h-1Mpc. Despite the large fields-of-view, there are large discrepancies between the measurements of the correlation function in each field, possibly caused by dwarf galaxies within z~0.11 clusters near the South Galactic Pole. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> selection is used to study the clustering of galaxies from z~0 to z~0.4. The galaxy correlation function is found to depend strongly on <span class="hlt">colour</span>, with red galaxies more strongly clustered than blue galaxies by a factor of >~5 at small scales. The slope of the correlation function is also found to vary with <span class="hlt">colour</span>, with ?~1.8 for red galaxies and ?~1.5 for blue galaxies. The clustering of red galaxies is consistently strong over the entire magnitude range studied, although there are large variations between the two fields. The clustering of blue galaxies is extremely weak over the observed magnitude range, with clustering consistent with r0~2h-1Mpc. This is weaker than the clustering of late-type galaxies in the local Universe, and suggests that galaxy clustering is more strongly correlated with <span class="hlt">colour</span> than morphology. This may also be the first detection of a substantial low-redshift galaxy population with clustering properties similar to faint blue galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.9032E..03R"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">colour</span> magnification technique for revealing skin microcirculation changes under regional anaesthetic input</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubins, Uldis; Spigulis, Janis; Miscuks, Aleksejs</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>In this work the <span class="hlt">colour</span> magnification technique was applied for monitoring of palm skin microcirculation changes under peripheral (Plexus Brachialis with axiliary access) Regional Anaesthesia (RA). During the RA procedure 20 minute video of patient's forearm was taken at steady light conditions. Video content was processed offline by custom developed Matlab software with build-in <span class="hlt">colour</span> magnification algorithm that performs temporal filtering of video sequence near-heartbeat frequency, spatial decomposition of video and amplification of pulsatile signal in every pixel of skin image. Using this method, we are able to visualize the subcutaneous microcirculation changes in high spatial resolution. The results showed <span class="hlt">different</span> blood pulse amplitude dynamics over the skin regions of palm and forearm during the RA. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> magnification technique could be used for real-time monitoring of RA effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7866E..0GP"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge exchange in the CREATE project - <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Research for European Advanced Technology Employment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The presentation will review a four-year European funded project CREATE (<span class="hlt">Colour</span> Research for European Advanced Technology Employment), which was established in 2006. The group came together to promote and exchange research and knowledge through a series of conferences and training courses to researchers working in Europe who were in the early stages of their career. The long-term objective was to address a broad range of themes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> and to develop with artists, designers, technologists and scientists a cross disciplinary approach to improving <span class="hlt">colour</span> communication and education and to provide a forum for dialogue between <span class="hlt">different</span> fields. Now at the end of the funding programme, this paper will highlight some of the key milestones of the project. Moreover, having completed a supplementary workshop event in October 2010, researchers considered new themes for the future.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41342514"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Obsidians From Sierra de Pachuca, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. Tenorio; A. Cabral; P. Bosch; M. Jiménez-Reyes; S. Bulbulian</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The structural and chemical features of two obsidians from the pre-Hispanic quarry in the town of Nopalillo, Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico are presented here. The obsidians were collected at a single site. The most common sample is green, glassy and transparent and the other is green-greyish and opaque. Both samples were found to have similar elemental composition.In order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6867R"><span id="translatedtitle">Mediterranean Ocean <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Chlorophyll trend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two <span class="hlt">different</span> bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four <span class="hlt">different</span> statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative and positive, are found in case 2 waters in correspondence of the river deltas. These trend signals are frequently linked to the implementation or non-implementation of the legislation introduced to control the nutrient discharge into the sea from European rivers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://sarahpryke.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Gilby-et-al.-2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The historical frequency of head-<span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in the Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The historical frequency of head-<span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in the Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae) Amanda J of the <span class="hlt">different</span> Gouldian Finch morphs, we surveyed museum collections around the world, identifying 614 wildskins),consistentwithitsrarity in contemporary populations. Red- and black-morph individuals were found</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14804321"><span id="translatedtitle">Lack of response to background <span class="hlt">colour</span> in Pieris brassicae pupae reared on carotenoid-free diet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Miriam Rothschild; BRIAN GARDINER; GUY VALADON; ROSEMARY MUMMERY</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>THE Large White butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.) is a toxic species1, aposematic at all stages of its life-cycle. Probably for this reason, the pupa responds to the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of its background in a somewhat <span class="hlt">different</span> manner from that of many other Pierid species, displaying heterochromy (background contrasting) rather than homochromy (background matching). In this respect, there is some genetical variation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.helsinki.fi/geography/geoinformatics/pdf/Digital_false_colour_Valta_2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital false <span class="hlt">colour</span> aerial photographs for discrimination of aquatic macrophyte species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Kirsi Valta-Hulkkonen; Petri Pellikka; Heikki Tanskanen; Arto Ustinov; Olavi Sandman</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Digital false <span class="hlt">colour</span> aerial photographs of four areal samples of three lakes in the Vuoksi drainage basin, Finland, that <span class="hlt">differ</span> in trophic state and water quality were used to clarify the reflectance characteristics of various life forms and species of aquatic macrophytes at green, red and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. The results indicated that the classification of aquatic macrophytes is affected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.intl-pag.org/13/CFG/rosa.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Reassessing design and analysis of two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> microarray experiments using mixed effects models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Guilherme J. M. Rosa; Juan P. Steibel; Robert J. Tempelman</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Gene expression microarray studies have led to interesting experimental design and statistical analysis challenges. The comparison of expression profiles across populations is one of the most common objectives of microarray experiments. In this manuscript we review some issues regarding design and statistical analysis for two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> microarray platforms using mixed linear models, with special attention directed towards the <span class="hlt">different</span> hierarchical levels</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=greek+AND+grammar&pg=2&id=EJ831322"><span id="translatedtitle">Cognitive Representation of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Bilinguals: The Case of Greek Blues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Athanasopoulos, Panos</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A number of recent studies demonstrate that bilinguals with languages that <span class="hlt">differ</span> in grammatical and lexical categories may shift their cognitive representation of those categories towards that of monolingual speakers of their second language. The current paper extended that investigation to the domain of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in Greek-English bilinguals with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52074959"><span id="translatedtitle">Wildfire-ash: Relationships between <span class="hlt">colour</span>, water repellency and organic carbon content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. B. Bodí; J. Mataix-Solera; S. H. Doerr; A. Cerdà</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>During a forest fire, a layer of vegetative ash is often deposited over soil surface. The amount of ash deposited as well as its physical and chemical properties are highly variable. These parameters are influenced particularly by vegetation type and fire severity, resulting in a <span class="hlt">differing</span> ash <span class="hlt">colour</span>. This ash remains over the soil until it is redistributed by water</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41281908"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthocyanin and <span class="hlt">colour</span> evolution in naturally black table olives during anaerobic processing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. Piga; A. Del Caro; I. Pinna; M. Agabbio</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The results of a study on the evolution of physicochemical parameters during processing of black olives, with particular emphasis on anthocyanins and <span class="hlt">colour</span>, are reported. Olives of two cultivars collected at a technological black-ripe stage were processed by the traditional anaerobic system. At regular intervals, brines and olives were inspected for <span class="hlt">different</span> parameters. The routine physicochemical values in brines and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://monty.st-and.ac.uk/Ageing/age.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Perception of Age in Adult Caucasian Male Faces: Computer Graphic Manipulation of Shape and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. Michael Burt; David I. Perrett</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated visual cues to age by using facial composites which blend shape and <span class="hlt">colour</span> information from multiple faces. Baseline measurements showed that perceived age of adult male faces is on average an accurate index of their chronological age over the age range 20-60 years. Composite images were made from multiple images of <span class="hlt">different</span> faces by averaging face shape</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.05800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared <span class="hlt">colour</span> properties of nearby radio-luminous galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiao-hong; Huang, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>By combining the data of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Akari satellite, we study the infrared <span class="hlt">colour</span> properties of a sample of 2712 nearby radio-luminous galaxies (RLGs). These RLGs are divided into radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mainly occurring at redshifts of $0.05$ 3.0. We also analyse the MIR <span class="hlt">colours</span> of RL AGNs divided into low- and high-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs and HERGs, respectively). The ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram clearly shows separate distributions of LERGs and HERGs and a region of overlap, which suggests that LERGs and HERGs have <span class="hlt">different</span> MIR properties. LERGs are responsible for the double-core distribution of RL AGNs on the ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram. In addition, we also suggest 90$-$140$\\mu$m band spectral index $\\alpha(90,140)<-1.4$ as a criterion of selecting nearby active galaxies with non-thermal emissions at FIR wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7504334"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of the relationship between acute toxicity (LC50) of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH, Lindane) and <span class="hlt">total</span> lipid content of <span class="hlt">different</span> fish species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geyer, H J; Steinberg, C E; Scheunert, I; Brüggemann, R; Schütz, W; Kettrup, A; Rozman, K</p> <p>1993-10-25</p> <p>This paper provides an explanation for a 40-fold <span class="hlt">difference</span> in the acute toxicity (LC50) of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH, Lindane) in 14 <span class="hlt">different</span> fish species, based on well recognized principles of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in combination with a compilation of data from the literature and some original data. The 48-h median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) of gamma-HCH in 14 fish species, belonging to 6 families, range from 22 to 900 micrograms/l. A significant positive linear relationship was found between lipid content (% of wet weight) and the 48-h LC50 of gamma-HCH in these fish species, revealing that the toxicity of gamma-HCH in various fish species is decreasing with increasing <span class="hlt">total</span> lipid content. If median lethal concentrations are normalized for 1% lipid content, then the range of 48-h LC50s is reduced to between 18 and 32 micrograms/l. It is concluded that lipids of aquatic organisms can serve (among other functions) as a protective storage site against the toxic effects of gamma-HCH and, possibly, of other lipophilic, persistent organic chemicals which are bioconcentrated in body lipids. Therefore, in organisms with higher lipid content, a smaller fraction of a lipophilic chemical will reach target organs (liver, lung, central and peripheral nerves, etc.) to cause adverse effects. Results suggest that this correlation can be used to extrapolate the acute toxicity (48-h LC50) of gamma-HCH to other fish species if their lipid content is known. Furthermore, the data generated by extrapolation of this correlation could be useful in the environmental risk assessment of freshwater and marine organisms. PMID:7504334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4072892"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">total</span> and PRRSV-specific antibodies in oral fluids collected with <span class="hlt">different</span> rope types from PRRSV-vaccinated and experimentally infected pigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Oral fluid collected by means of ropes has the potential to replace serum for monitoring and surveillance of important swine pathogens. Until now, the most commonly used method to collect oral fluid is by hanging a cotton rope in a pen. However, concerns about the influence of rope material on subsequent immunological assays have been raised. In this study, we evaluated six <span class="hlt">different</span> rope materials for the collection of oral fluid and the subsequent detection of <span class="hlt">total</span> and PRRSV-specific antibodies of <span class="hlt">different</span> isotypes in oral fluid collected from PRRSV-vaccinated and infected pigs. Results An initial experiment showed that IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in porcine saliva. Moreover, it was found that synthetic ropes may yield higher amounts of IgA, whereas all rope types seemed to be equally suitable for IgG collection. Although IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in porcine oral fluid, the PRRSV-specific IgA-based IPMA and ELISA tests were clearly not ideal for sensitive detection of PRRSV-specific IgA antibodies. In contrast, PRRSV-specific IgG in oral fluids was readily detected in PRRSV-specific IgG-based IPMA and ELISA tests, indicating that IgG is a more reliable isotype for monitoring PRRSV-specific antibody immunity in vaccinated/infected animals via oral fluids with the currently available tests. Conclusions Since PRRSV-specific IgG detection seems more reliable than PRRSV-specific IgA detection for monitoring PRRSV-specific antibody immunity via oral fluids, and since all rope types yield equal amounts of IgG, it seems that the currently used cotton ropes are an appropriate choice for sample collection in PRRSV monitoring. PMID:24938323</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23790846"><span id="translatedtitle">Green tea from purple leaf <span class="hlt">coloured</span> tea clones in Kenya- their quality characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kilel, E C; Faraj, A K; Wanyoko, J K; Wachira, F N; Mwingirwa, V</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>The Kenyan tea industry wishes to diversify its tea products, and in line with this, anthocyanin - rich teas were developed at the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya. These teas have purple-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> leaves and the green <span class="hlt">colour</span> is masked. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, 12 accessions of the purple leaf <span class="hlt">coloured</span> teas and 2 standard tea varieties were studied. Clones Hanlu and Yabukita are Chinese and Japanese tea varieties, respectively, known for good green tea, and they were used as reference standards. Little if any research had been done to characterize the quality of these purple leaf <span class="hlt">coloured</span> teas and this study investigated their <span class="hlt">total</span> polyphenols (TPP), catechins, caffeine, gallic acid and theanine. These are the major green tea quality parameters. Results showed that the new Kenyan tea clones had higher <span class="hlt">total</span> polyphenols than had the reference standard tea varieties, which had 17.2% and 19.7% while the lowest among the Kenyan clones was 20.8%. On catechin quality index, K-purple and TRFK 91/1 showed high index values of 15.9 and 13.3, respectively, while clones TRFK 83/1 and 73/5 showed low index values of 0.74 and 1.0, respectively. Hanlu had the highest caffeine level with 2.42% while clones TRFK KS 3, TRFK KS 2 and TRFK 83/1 had relatively high caffeine levels among the purple leaf <span class="hlt">coloured</span> teas, with 2.33%, 2.22% and 2.21%, respectively. Clone TRFK 73/5 had the lowest caffeine content, with 1.16%. Theanine analysis showed that most purple leaf <span class="hlt">coloured</span> teas had more theanine than had the reference standard clones, except TRFK 83/1 and K-purple, which were lower than the reference standard clones. The implication of the green tea chemical quality parameters is also discussed. It is concluded that all the studied clones/varieties have above the minimum 14% of <span class="hlt">total</span> polyphenols. Clones K-purple and TRFK 91/1 showed high green tea quality indices with the latter doubling with high levels of theanine; hence its highly recommended for green tea manufacture. PMID:23790846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612880"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveys of vehicle <span class="hlt">colour</span> frequency and the transfer of vehicle paints to stationary objects in Sydney, Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Fiona; Bunford, Joanna; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The interpretation of vehicle paint traces in forensic casework hinges on a number of factors including the type of paint, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, number of layers, and background information. Vehicle <span class="hlt">colour</span> surveys are an important source of information for the forensic paint examiner when interpreting the level of significance of a paint transfer between vehicles involved in a collision, or smears of vehicle paint left at a scene. The two surveys that are presented here investigated (i) the frequency of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of vehicles observed on both a motorway and suburban roads in Western Sydney and (ii) the frequency of <span class="hlt">different</span> vehicle paint <span class="hlt">colours</span> transferred to car park pillars and walls from five <span class="hlt">different</span> car parks within North West Sydney, Australia. In the first survey, the highest frequency of vehicle <span class="hlt">colours</span> recorded was white, grey, black and blue. The second survey resulted in very similar findings with the four most commonly seen <span class="hlt">colours</span> across the five car parks being blue, white, red, and silver. The results in the second survey take into account the potential for anomalies within the data due to the use of painted service vehicles used within the car parks, such as trolleys and trailers. The results from both surveys were very similar to previous vehicle <span class="hlt">colour</span> surveys that have been conducted and also corresponded to the vehicle <span class="hlt">colour</span> registration data obtained from the NSW Roads and Maritime Service website. The results from these two surveys provide up to date statistics that can assist the forensic paint examiner with valuable background data when assessing the significance of vehicle paint evidence in casework. PMID:25612880</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.442.3361N"><span id="translatedtitle">The meaning of WISE <span class="hlt">colours</span> - I. The Galaxy and its satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikutta, Robert; Hunt-Walker, Nicholas; Nenkova, Maia; Ivezi?, Željko; Elitzur, Moshe</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Through matches with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) catalogue we identify the location of various families of astronomical objects in WISE <span class="hlt">colour</span> space. We identify reliable indicators that separate Galactic/local from extragalactic sources and concentrate here on the objects in our Galaxy and its closest satellites. We develop <span class="hlt">colour</span> and magnitude criteria that are based only on WISE data to select asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with circumstellar dust shells, and separate them into O-rich and C-rich classes. With these criteria we produce an all-sky map for the count ratio of the two populations. The map reveals <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the Galactic disc, the Magellanic Clouds and the Sgr Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy, as well as a radial gradient in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) disc. We find that the C:O number ratio for dusty AGB stars increases with distance from the LMC centre about twice as fast as measured for near-IR selected samples of early AGB stars. Detailed radiative transfer models show that WISE <span class="hlt">colours</span> are well explained by the emission of centrally heated dusty shells where the dust has standard properties of interstellar medium (ISM) grains. The segregation of <span class="hlt">different</span> classes of objects in WISE <span class="hlt">colour</span> space arises from <span class="hlt">differences</span> in properties of the dust shells: those around young stellar objects have uniform density distributions while in evolved stars they have steep radial profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhB...47t4008A"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of the Coulomb potential on subcycle interference of electron wave packets in atomic ionization by two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> laser pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arbó, <author >Diego G.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We analyse the effect of the long-range potential of the ionic core on the photoelectron emission in atomic ionization by a linearly polarized subcycle sculpted laser pulse of two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> components, where one frequency doubles the other. The <span class="hlt">total</span> ionization yield consists mostly of direct electrons, which can be characterized by both intracycle and intercycle interferences. Using a semiclassical model based on the Simple Man’s Model, we can derive an analytical expression for the intracycle interference due to the coherent superposition of <span class="hlt">different</span> electron trajectories released in the same sculpted optical cycle. In turn, the intercycle interference is the consequence of the superposition of multiple trajectories released at <span class="hlt">different</span> cycles and is accounted for by the energy conservation in the photon absorption process. We show that a semiclassical description in terms of a diffraction process at a time grating for two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> laser pulses remains qualitatively unchanged beyond the strong field approximation. In particular, the Coulomb potential shifts the intracycle interference modulations towards the threshold, whereas the intercycle interference pattern remains invariant. The present study completes a recent work by Xie et al (2013 New J. Phys. 15 043050), where the influence of the Coulomb field on atomic ionization by sculpted two-<span class="hlt">colour</span> laser fields is probed but in which path interferences are not considered. Furthermore, this article gives theoretical support to recent experiments with He and Ar where the sub-cycle interference structures originating from trajectories launched within a time interval of less than one femtosecond were observed (Xie X et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 193004).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54213217"><span id="translatedtitle">N.P.L. <span class="hlt">Colour</span>-matching Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>W. S. Stiles; J. M. Burch</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>The second part of the N.P.L.'s <span class="hlt">colour</span>-matching investigation was devoted to determining average <span class="hlt">colour</span>-matching properties in a large (10° diameter) bipartite matching field, and the final corrected results are here presented in tabular form, together with a specification of the conditions of measurement, and ancillary data on repeatability. The tabulated results comprise (a) mean <span class="hlt">colour</span>-matching functions, referred to reference primaries</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690600"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> affects aspects of single-species population dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Petchey, O L</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics is tinged by the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability. However, environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> had no effect on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this experiment were reddened, regardless of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>. (ii) Models predict that populations will track reddened environmental variability more closely than white environmental variability and that populations with a higher intrinsic growth rate (r) will track environmental variability more closely than populations with a low r. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. (iii) Models predict that population variability is determined by interaction between r and the environmental variability. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. These results show that (i) reddened population dynamics may need no special explanation, such as reddened environments, spatial subdivision or interspecific interactions, and (ii) and (iii) that population dynamics are sensitive to environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>, in agreement with population models. Correct specification of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability in models is required for accurate predictions. Further work is needed to study the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> on communities and ecosystems. PMID:10819142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://web4.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/t.weyrich/projects/gpb/parchcolour.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Analysis of Degraded Parchment Lindsay MACDONALD, Alejandro GIACOMETTI,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Weyrich, Tim</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Analysis of Degraded Parchment Lindsay MACDONALD, Alejandro GIACOMETTI, Tim WEYRICH, Melissa TERRAS and Adam GIBSON University College London ABSTRACT Multispectral imaging was employed to collect</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24533888"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of stimuli <span class="hlt">colour</span> in SSVEP-based BCI wheelchair control using support vector machines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singla, Rajesh; Khosla, Arun; Jha, Rameshwar</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This study aims to develop a Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP)-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system to control a wheelchair, with improving accuracy as the major goal. The developed wheelchair can move in forward, backward, left, right and stop positions. Four <span class="hlt">different</span> flickering frequencies in the low frequency region were used to elicit the SSVEPs and were displayed on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor using LabVIEW. Four <span class="hlt">colours</span> (green, red, blue and violet) were included in the study to investigate the <span class="hlt">colour</span> influence in SSVEPs. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from the occipital region were first segmented into 1?s windows and features were extracted by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Three <span class="hlt">different</span> classifiers, two based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and one based on Support Vector Machine (SVM), were compared to yield better accuracy. Twenty subjects participated in the experiment and the accuracy was calculated by considering the number of correct detections produced while performing a pre-defined movement sequence. SSVEP with violet <span class="hlt">colour</span> showed higher performance than green and red. The One-Against-All (OAA) based multi-class SVM classifier showed better accuracy than the ANN classifiers. The classification accuracy over 20 subjects varies between 75-100%, while information transfer rates (ITR) varies from 12.13-27 bpm for BCI wheelchair control with SSVEPs elicited by violet <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli and classified using OAA-SVM. PMID:24533888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NW.....95..713C"><span id="translatedtitle">Eggshell <span class="hlt">colour</span> does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassey, Phillip; Ewen, John G.; Blackburn, Tim M.; Hauber, Mark E.; Vorobyev, Misha; Marshall, N. Justin</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The striking diversity of avian eggshell <span class="hlt">colour</span> has long fascinated biologists. Recently, it has been proposed that the blue-green <span class="hlt">colour</span> of some eggs may function as a post-mating sexually selected signal of female phenotypic quality to their mates to induce higher allocation of paternal care. It has been suggested that maternally deposited yolk carotenoids may be the specific aspect of reproductive quality that the female is signalling via eggshell <span class="hlt">colour</span>. We use the known properties of the thrush visual system ( Turdus sp.) to calculate photon capture for the four single cone photoreceptors, and the principal member of the double cone class for eggs in clutches of two introduced European thrush species ( Turdus merula and Turdus philomelos) in New Zealand. We show that <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the avian-perceived <span class="hlt">colours</span> of individual eggs are not consistently correlated with <span class="hlt">different</span> measures of maternal investment in the egg. Given the growing extent of the knowledge between maternal quality, parental investment and eggshell pigmentation across avian taxa, we encourage the use of avian perceptual modelling for testing alternative non-signalling explanations for the structural and physiological basis of these relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1689546"><span id="translatedtitle">Separate <span class="hlt">colour</span>-opponent mechanisms underlie the detection and discrimination of moving chromatic targets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Willis, A; Anderson, S J</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Current opinion holds that human <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision is mediated primarily via a <span class="hlt">colour</span>-opponent pathway that carries information about both wavelength and luminance contrast (type I). However, some authors argue that chromatic sensitivity may be limited by a <span class="hlt">different</span> geniculostriate pathway, which carries information about wavelength alone (type II). We provide psychophysical evidence that both pathways may contribute to the perception of moving, chromatic targets in humans, depending on the nature of the visual discrimination. In experiment 1, we show that adaptation to drifting, red-green stimuli causes reductions in contrast sensitivity for both the detection and direction discrimination of moving chromatic targets. Importantly, the effects of adaptation are not directionally specific. In experiment 2, we show that adaptation to luminance gratings results in reduced sensitivity for the direction discrimination, but not the detection of moving chromatic targets. We suggest that sensitivity for the direction discrimination of chromatic targets is limited by a <span class="hlt">colour</span>-opponent pathway that also conveys luminance-contrast information, whereas the detection of such targets is limited by a pathway with access to <span class="hlt">colour</span> information alone. The properties of these pathways are consistent with the known properties of type-I and type-II neurons of the primate parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus and their cortical projections. These findings may explain the known <span class="hlt">differences</span> between detection and direction discrimination thresholds for chromatic targets moving at low to moderate velocities. PMID:9921683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1560236"><span id="translatedtitle">Red dominates black: agonistic signalling among head morphs in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic Gouldian finch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pryke, Sarah R; Griffith, Simon C</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Recent sexual selection studies on the evolution of bird <span class="hlt">colouration</span> have mainly focused on signals with a high level of condition-dependent variation, with much less attention given to <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits whose expression is genetically controlled. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of a genetic <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in determining male dominance in the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), a species displaying three completely discrete but naturally co-occurring genetically inherited phenotypes; yellow-, red- (carotenoid) and black-headed (melanin) morphs. First, in staged dominance contests between unfamiliar birds of <span class="hlt">different</span> head morphs, red-headed males dominated black-headed males, both of which dominated the yellow-headed birds. Second, within morphs, the intensity and size of the strongly ultraviolet-blue collar determined the outcome of these contests, and among the red-headed males, redder males dominated less chromatic birds. Lastly, when the dominance signal of red-headed birds was experimentally destabilized (i.e. blackened or reddened), naturally red-headed morphs continued to dominate both the black-and yellow-headed morphs. Together, these results suggest that intrinsic dominance-related behavioural <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the three <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs, which are likely to influence the relative fitness of each morph, contribute to the complex selective patterns maintaining these three discrete phenotypes in relatively stable frequencies in wild populations. PMID:16627280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15077987"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ozone, chlorine and hydrogen peroxide on the elimination of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in treated textile wastewater by MBR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brik, M; Chamam, B; Schöberl, P; Braun, R; Fuchs, W</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In treating textile wastewater, the application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology showed high efficiency in COD and BOD5 removal. However, insufficient <span class="hlt">colour</span> removal was achieved for possible reuse. The aim of the work presented in this paper was to test the performance of chemical advanced oxidation on the elimination of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> downstream of an MBR. To improve the quality of the membrane bioreactor effluent three <span class="hlt">different</span> oxidation treatments were tested at lab-scale: ozonation, chlorination and hydrogen peroxide oxidation. <span class="hlt">Colour</span>, COD and BOD5 were controlled in order to assess the effectiveness of each process. For chlorination, even with 250 mg/L (active chlorine) only 80% <span class="hlt">colour</span> removal (SACin = 14; SACout = 2.8) was achieved which is considered unsatisfactory. For hydrogen peroxide, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> removal was even poorer; it was just 10% at a concentration of 250 mg/L. In contrast, good results were obtained by ozonation. By using only 38 mg/L within 20 minutes, it was possible to achieve the reuse recommendation with a satisfactory <span class="hlt">colour</span> removal of 93% (SACin = 14; SACout = 0.98). The results showed that ozonation was the most promising method. PMID:15077987</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4454669"><span id="translatedtitle">UV Light Reveals the Diversity of Jurassic Shell <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Patterns: Examples from the Cordebugle Lagerstätte (Calvados, France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caze, Bruno; Merle, Didier; Schneider, Simon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Viewed under UV light the diverse and exceptionally well-preserved molluscs from the Late Jurassic Cordebugle Konservat Lagerstätte (Calvados, Normandy, France) reveal fluorescent fossil shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns predating the oldest previously known instance of such patterns by 100 Myr. Evidently, residual <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns are observable in Mesozoic molluscs by application of this non-destructive method, provided the shells are not decalcified or recrystallized. Among 46 species which are assigned to twelve gastropod families and eight bivalve families, no less than 25 species yielded positive results. Out of nine <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern morphologies that have been distinguished six occur in gastropods and three in bivalves. The presence of these variant morphologies clearly indicates a significant pre-Cenozoic diversification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns, especially in gastropods. In addition, the occurrence of two distinct types of fluorescence highlights a major <span class="hlt">difference</span> in the chemical composition of the pigments involved in <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern formation in gastropods. This discovery enables us to discriminate members of higher clades, i.e. the Vetigastropoda emitting red fluorescence from the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia emitting whitish-beige to yellow fluorescence. Consequently, fluorescent <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns may help to allocate part of the numerous enigmatic Mesozoic gastropod taxa to their correct systematic position. PMID:26039592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26039592"><span id="translatedtitle">UV Light Reveals the Diversity of Jurassic Shell <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Patterns: Examples from the Cordebugle Lagerstätte (Calvados, France).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caze, Bruno; Merle, Didier; Schneider, Simon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Viewed under UV light the diverse and exceptionally well-preserved molluscs from the Late Jurassic Cordebugle Konservat Lagerstätte (Calvados, Normandy, France) reveal fluorescent fossil shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns predating the oldest previously known instance of such patterns by 100 Myr. Evidently, residual <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns are observable in Mesozoic molluscs by application of this non-destructive method, provided the shells are not decalcified or recrystallized. Among 46 species which are assigned to twelve gastropod families and eight bivalve families, no less than 25 species yielded positive results. Out of nine <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern morphologies that have been distinguished six occur in gastropods and three in bivalves. The presence of these variant morphologies clearly indicates a significant pre-Cenozoic diversification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns, especially in gastropods. In addition, the occurrence of two distinct types of fluorescence highlights a major <span class="hlt">difference</span> in the chemical composition of the pigments involved in <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern formation in gastropods. This discovery enables us to discriminate members of higher clades, i.e. the Vetigastropoda emitting red fluorescence from the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia emitting whitish-beige to yellow fluorescence. Consequently, fluorescent <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns may help to allocate part of the numerous enigmatic Mesozoic gastropod taxa to their correct systematic position. PMID:26039592</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/78/28/82/PDF/pinching_journal_revised.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconfiguration graphs for vertex <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of chordal and chordal bipartite graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p></p> <p>Reconfiguration graphs for vertex <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of chordal and chordal bipartite graphs Marthe Bonamy that for each k-<span class="hlt">colour</span>-dense graph G, the reconfiguration graph of the -<span class="hlt">colourings</span> of G is connected and has-<span class="hlt">colourable</span> chordal graph G whose reconfiguration graph of the (k + 1)-<span class="hlt">colourings</span> has diameter (|V |2 ). Keywords</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApSS..252..430A"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and <span class="hlt">colour</span> of alder and beech wood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface <span class="hlt">colour</span> are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the <span class="hlt">colour</span> deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. <span class="hlt">Total</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> change value (? E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest <span class="hlt">colour</span> change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in ? E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3493328"><span id="translatedtitle">A case study of cortical <span class="hlt">colour</span> "blindness" with relatively intact achromatic discrimination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heywood, C A; Wilson, B; Cowey, A</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A patient is described whose most striking visual disorder was a grossly impaired ability to discriminate between <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colours</span> (hues) that were matched for brightness. In contrast his ability to discriminate between <span class="hlt">different</span> neutral greys presented in the same fashion was much less abnormal, even though the greys were perceptually difficult. Although visual acuity was reduced and visual fields were constricted, and the patient's memory was moderately impaired, these associated symptoms could not themselves be the cause of his unusual <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. The patient had the symptoms of cerebral achromatopsia, and the relative preservation of his form vision (when his reduced acuity is taken into account) and his achromatic vision supports the view that the many <span class="hlt">different</span> visual cortical areas recently demonstrated in the brains of monkeys, and presumed to exist in man, have a perceptual specialisation that matches their physiological <span class="hlt">differences</span>. PMID:3493328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11321551"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the measurement of <span class="hlt">total</span> carbon dioxide and strong ion <span class="hlt">difference</span> for the evaluation of metabolic acidosis in diarrhoeic calves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grove-White, D H; Michell, A R</p> <p>2001-03-24</p> <p>Eighty-four calves with diarrhoea were treated with fluids and 13 apparently healthy calves of similar ages were sampled as controls. Their <span class="hlt">total</span> blood carbon dioxide (TCO2) was measured with a Harleco apparatus and 31 of the calves were treated with oral fluids and 53 with parenteral fluids. The oral fluid contained 118 mmol/litre Na+, 25 mmol/litre K+, 110 mmol/litre glucose, 108 mmol/litre bicarbonate (HCO3- as citrate), 43 mmol/litre Cl-, 4 mmol/litre Ca++, 4 mmol/litre Mg++ and 20 mmol/litre glycine, and the parenteral fluid contained 144 mmol/litre Na+, 4 mmol/litre K+, 35 mmol/litre HCO3- and 113 mmol/litre Cl-. Both treatments resulted in significant improvements in acid-base status as demonstrated by an increase in TCO2, and the treatment was successful in 27 of the 31 calves receiving oral fluids and in 45 of the 53 calves receiving parenteral fluids. Thirty-seven of the calves treated parenterally were very severely acidotic (TCO2 <8 mmol/litre) initially and they received an additional 400 mmol HCO3- added to the first 5 litres of infusion. Treatment was successful in 33 of these calves. The decision to administer additional bicarbonate was made on the basis of their acid-base status as measured with a Harleco apparatus. The strong ion <span class="hlt">difference</span> (Na++K+-Cl-) (SID) of the calves was calculated retrospectively. There was a significant correlation between the SID and TCO2 of the calves treated with oral fluids but not among the control calves or the calves treated parenterally. Furthermore, measurements of the change in SID during therapy gave little indication of the change in acid-base status as measured by the Harleco apparatus, with the SID decreasing (suggesting a worsening of acid-base status) in 16 calves in which the TCO2 increased (suggesting an improvement in acid-base status). There was a significant correlation between the change in SID and the change in TCO2 during treatment in the calves receiving oral fluids but not in the calves treated parenterally. PMID:11321551</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6784251"><span id="translatedtitle">A measurement of. Delta. sigma. sub L (np), the <span class="hlt">difference</span> between neutron-proton <span class="hlt">total</span> cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beddo, M.E.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>A measurement off {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np), the <span class="hlt">difference</span> between neutron-proton <span class="hlt">total</span> cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states, is described. The results will help determine the isospin-zero (I = 0) scattering amplitudes, which are not well known above laboratory energies of 500 MeV, whereas the isospin-one (I = 1) amplitudes are fairly well-determined to 1 GeV. Data points were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for five neutron beam energies: 484, 568, 634,720 and 788 MeV; they are the first in this energy range. Polarized neutrons were produced by charge-exchange of polarized protons on a liquid deuterium target (LD{sub 2}). Large-volume neutron counters detected the neutrons that passed through a polarized proton target. The counters subtended a range of solid angles large enough to allow extrapolation of the scattered neutrons to 0{degree}. Two modifications to the LAMPF accelerator system which were made for this work are described. They included a beam buncher,'' which modified the normal rf-time structure of the proton beam and allowed for the selection of peak-energy neutrons by time-of-flight means, and a computerized beam steering program, which reduced systematic effects due to beam motion at the LD{sub 2} target. The experimental values of {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) are found to be consistent with other np data, including preliminary data from SIN and Saclay, but not with some results from Argonne which used a polarized proton beam and a polarized deuteron target. The I = 0 component was extracted from {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) using existing pp data (I = 1), with the unexpected result that {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 0) was found to be essentially identical in shape to {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 1). The significance of this is not yet understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9914J"><span id="translatedtitle">Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of <span class="hlt">different</span> approaches to deduce <span class="hlt">total</span> ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or <span class="hlt">Total</span> Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, <span class="hlt">different</span> modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of <span class="hlt">different</span> types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem (annual temperature sensitivity larger than short-term temperature sensitivity). Results suggested also that, for both approaches, regressions based on soil temperature gave more robust results than those based on air temperature. Furthermore, the comparison showed that the night-time and the daytime approaches give disagreeing pictures of TER inter annual variability which suggested that the choice of the approach is critical in order to correctly depict TER inter annual variability. Finally, at this stage, TER inter annual variability cannot be explained by variability of climatic conditions. References Reichstein M., Falge E., Baldocchi D., Papale D., Aubinet M., Berbigier P., Bernhofer C., Buchmann N., Gilmanov T., Granier A., Grunwald T., Havrankova K., Ilvesniemi H., Janous D., Knohl A., Laurila T., Lohila A., Loustau D., Matteucci G., Meyers T., Miglietta F., Ourcival J.M., Pumpanen J., Rambal S., Rotenberg E., Sanz M., Tenhunen J., Seufert G., Vaccari F., Vesala T., Yakir D., Valentini R., 2005. On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm. Global Change Biology, 11, 1424-1439. Wohlfahrt G., Anfang C., Bahn M., Haslwanter A., Newesely C., Schmitt M., Drösler M., Pfadenhauer J. and Cernusca A., 2005a. Quantifying nighttime ecosystem respiration of a meadow using eddy covariance, chambers and modelling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 128, 141-162. Wohlfahrt G., Bahn M., Haslwanter A., Newesely C., Cernusca A., 2005b. Estimation of daytime ecosystem respiration to determine gross primary production of a mountain meadow. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 130, 13-25.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40120557"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of hair damage on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> uptake of an oxidizing semi-permanent colorant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. Y. Cheng; C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. K. L. Cheuk</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Further our previous study on the hair damages, this paper investigated the effect of three <span class="hlt">different</span> hair damaging treatments\\u000a on the coloration effect with an oxidizing semi-permanent colorant. The three damaging treatments are (i) sunlight (simulated\\u000a by Xenon light), (ii) perming, and (iii) bleaching. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> uptake was evaluated <span class="hlt">differently</span> with conventional method by\\u000a CIE L*a*b* system of equation. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4471652"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">colouring</span> effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To screen the hair <span class="hlt">colouring</span> properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair <span class="hlt">colouring</span> formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum <span class="hlt">colouring</span> effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair <span class="hlt">colouring</span> action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in <span class="hlt">different</span> hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20120263"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in moving objects: temporal order judgment and reaction time analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murd, Carolina; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Allik, Jüri</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The time needed to detect changes in the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of a single moving stimulus becomes shorter with its increasing velocity (Kreegipuu et al, 2006 Vision Research 46 1848-1855). We examined the ability to detect <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in moving chromatic bars or sinusoidal gratings through temporal order judgment (TOJ) and reaction time (RT) tasks to test whether the effect of velocity found in a previous study is universal and holds for <span class="hlt">different</span> tasks and stimuli. The results demonstrate that the TOJ and simple RT to the <span class="hlt">colour</span> change of a moving grating are insensitive to stimulus velocity. Therefore, we conclude that the process of comparison of the two internal representations of external events does not have access to temporal information precise enough to estimate the exact time when something enters our subjective awareness. The motion effect on <span class="hlt">colour</span>-change perception seems to be confined to a single stimulus that moves across the visual field, to events that contain some spatial predictability, and to tasks that reflect the time of the change relatively directly. PMID:20120263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25306323"><span id="translatedtitle">Storage at low temperature differentially affects the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and carotenoid composition of two cultivars of banana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Facundo, Heliofabia Virginia De Vasconcelos; Gurak, Poliana Deyse; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Different</span> storage conditions can induce changes in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and carotenoid profiles and levels in some fruits. The goal of this work was to evaluate the influence of low temperature storage on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and carotenoid synthesis in two banana cultivars: Prata and Nanicão. For this purpose, the carotenoids from the banana pulp were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the banana skin was determined by a colorimeter method. Ten carotenoids were identified, of which the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein, all-trans-?-carotene and all-trans-?-carotene in both cultivars. The effect of the low temperatures was subjected to linear regression analysis. In cv. Prata, all-trans-?-carotene and all-trans-?-carotene were significantly affected by low temperature (p<0.01), with negative estimated values (? coefficients) indicating that during cold storage conditions, the concentrations of these carotenoids tended to decrease. In cv. Nanicão, no carotenoid was significantly affected by cold storage (p>0.05). The accumulation of carotenoids in this group may be because the metabolic pathways using these carotenoids were affected by storage at low temperatures. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the fruits was not negatively affected by the low temperatures (p>0.05). PMID:25306323</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23263562"><span id="translatedtitle">Isoluminant <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli are undetectable in blindsight even when they move.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alexander, Iona; Cowey, Alan</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Moving stimuli are the most effective of all in eliciting blindsight. The detection of static luminance-matched <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli is negligible or even impossible in blindsight. However, moving <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli on an achromatic background have not been tested. We therefore tested two blindsighted hemianopes, one of them highly experienced and the other much less so, to determine whether they could perform what should be one of the simplest of all motion tasks: detecting when an array of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli moves. On each trial, they were presented in the hemianopic field with an array of spots, all red or green or blue or achromatic, in a circular window and on a white surround. The spots moved coherently in the first or second of two short intervals. The subject had to indicate the interval in which the motion had occurred. The luminance of the spots was varied across <span class="hlt">different</span> blocks of trials, but the background luminance remained the same throughout. For each <span class="hlt">colour</span>, there was a ratio of luminance between the spots and the white surround at which performance was not significantly better than chance, although at other ratios, performance was good to excellent, with the exception of blue spots in one subject. We conclude that detecting global coherent motion in blindsight is impossible when it is based on chromatic contrast alone. PMID:23263562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Nanos...5..788Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Coating fabrics with gold nanorods for <span class="hlt">colouring</span>, UV-protection, and antibacterial functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Yidan; Xiao, Manda; Jiang, Shouxiang; Ding, Feng; Wang, Jianfang</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Gold nanorods exhibit rich <span class="hlt">colours</span> owing to the nearly linear dependence of the longitudinal plasmon resonance wavelength on the length-to-diameter aspect ratio. This property of Au nanorods has been utilized in this work for dyeing fabrics. Au nanorods of <span class="hlt">different</span> aspect ratios were deposited on both cotton and silk fabrics by immersing them in Au nanorod solutions. The coating of Au nanorods makes the fabrics exhibit a broad range of <span class="hlt">colours</span> varying from brownish red through green to purplish red, which are essentially determined by the longitudinal plasmon wavelength of the deposited Au nanorods. The colorimetric values of the coated fabrics were carefully measured for examining the <span class="hlt">colouring</span> effects. The nanorod-coated cotton fabrics were found to be commercially acceptable in washing fastness to laundering tests and <span class="hlt">colour</span> fastness to dry cleaning tests. Moreover, the nanorod-coated cotton and silk fabrics show significant improvements on both UV-protection and antibacterial functions. Our study therefore points out a promising approach for the use of noble metal nanocrystals as dyeing materials for textile applications on the basis of their inherent localized plasmon resonance properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21687985"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>-induced relationship between affect and reaching kinematics during a goal-directed aiming task.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Camille K; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Carnahan, Heather</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>A link between affect and action has been supported by the discovery that threat information is prioritized through an action-centred pathway--the dorsal visual stream. Magnocellular afferents, which originate from the retina and project to dorsal stream structures, are suppressed by exposure to diffuse red light, which diminishes humans' perception of threat-based images. In order to explore the role of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the relationship between affect and action, participants donned <span class="hlt">different</span> pairs of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> glasses (red, yellow, green, blue and clear) and completed Positive and Negative Affect Scale questionnaires as well as a series of target-directed aiming movements. Analyses of affect scores revealed a significant main effect for affect valence and a significant interaction between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and valence: perceived positive affect was significantly smaller for the red condition. Kinematic analyses of variable error in the primary movement direction and Pearson correlation analyses between the displacements travelled prior to and following peak velocity indicated reduced accuracy and application of online control processes while wearing red glasses. Variable error of aiming was also positively and significantly correlated with negative affect scores under the red condition. These results suggest that only red light modulates the affect-action link by suppressing magnocellular activity, which disrupts visual processing for movement control. Furthermore, previous research examining the effect of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> red on psychomotor tasks and perceptual acceleration of threat-based imagery suggest that stimulus-driven motor performance tasks requiring online control may be particularly susceptible to this effect. PMID:21687985</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.6576v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Web worlds, web-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> matrices, and web-mixing matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mark Dukes; Einan Gardi; Einar Steingrimsson; Chris D. White</p> <p>2013-01-28</p> <p>We introduce a new combinatorial object called a web world that consists of a set of web diagrams. The diagrams of a web world are generalizations of graphs, and each is built on the same underlying graph. Instead of ordinary vertices the diagrams have pegs, and edges incident to a peg have <span class="hlt">different</span> heights on the peg. The web world of a web diagram is the set of all web diagrams that result from permuting the order in which endpoints of edges appear on a peg. The motivation comes from particle physics, where web diagrams arise as particular types of Feynman diagrams describing scattering amplitudes in non-Abelian gauge (Yang-Mills) theories. To each web world we associate two matrices called the web-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> matrix and web-mixing matrix. The entries of these matrices are indexed by ordered pairs of web diagrams (D_1,D_2), and are computed from those <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of the edges of D_1 that yield D_2 under a transformation determined by each <span class="hlt">colouring</span>. We show that <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of a web diagram (whose constituent indecomposable diagrams are all unique) that lead to a reconstruction of the diagram are equivalent to order-preserving mappings of certain partially ordered sets (posets) that may be constructed from the web diagrams. For web worlds whose web graphs have all edge labels equal to 1, the diagonal entries of web-mixing and web-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> matrices are obtained by summing certain polynomials determined by the descents in permutations in the Jordan-Holder set of all linear extensions of the associated poset. We derive tri-variate generating generating functions for the number of web worlds according to three statistics and enumerate the number of <span class="hlt">different</span> web diagrams in a web world. Three special web worlds are examined in great detail, and the traces of the web-mixing matrices calculated in each case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23493658"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">different</span> types of additives on the catalytic activity of Au\\/Al 2O 3 in propene <span class="hlt">total</span> oxidation: transition metal oxides and ceria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Andreea Catalina Gluhoi; Nina Bogdanchikova; Bernard E. Nieuwenhuys</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">total</span> oxidation of C3H6 was investigated over Au\\/Al2O3, and multicomponent Au\\/MOx\\/Al2O3 (M: Ce, Mn, Co, Fe) catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation with urea. The catalysts have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), <span class="hlt">total</span> surface area (BET), and diffuse reflectance ultra-violet–visible spectroscopy DR\\/UV–Vis. Based on this characterization, it was concluded</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18686145"><span id="translatedtitle">The development of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-encapsulated microspheres for novel <span class="hlt">colour</span> cosmetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Stephen R; Grey, Bryan D; Mistry, Kishor K; Wildgust, Paul G</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>In the present study, the preparation, characterization and <span class="hlt">colour</span> retention properties of organic <span class="hlt">colour</span>-loaded microspheres are described. The study aimed to produce shatter-resistant, low-bleeding polymeric microspheres with particle diameters of 20 µm containing 10-20% (w/w) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic grade <span class="hlt">colourants</span> FD&C Blue No. 1 Al Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 5 Al Lake and D&C Red No. 36 by utilizing an aqueous-dispersed polymer water-in-oil (W/O) solvent evaporation process featuring styrene/acrylates-based copolymers. The influences of matrix polymeric components on the shape, integrity and dye retention of the microspheres were studied. Encapsulation matrices based on alkali soluble polymers yielded misshapen spheroids that were prone both to swelling and decreased dye retention in aqueous environments, as well as loss of shape at 70°C in cosmetic oils under shear. A resin supported emulsion (RSE)-based matrix, in comparison, yielded highly spherical microspheres resistant to shape deformation and swelling. Additions of up to 15% (w/w) of an alkali soluble polymer to the RSE system improved <span class="hlt">colour</span> dispersion without detrimentally affecting the structural integrity of the microspheres while also slightly decreasing dye concentrations released into aqueous solutions. The in vitro dye release of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-loaded microspheres in a cosmetic-type water-in-silicone (W/Si) emulsion was evaluated and compared to the in vitro dye release studies in aqueous solutions. No direct correlations between the emulsion system and single-component aqueous solutions could be made. Dye-release levels evaluated from contacting the microspheres with a complex aqueous medium (CAM5), which incorporated ingredient classes typically encountered in the aqueous phase of an emulsion, were found to correlate to levels determined in the generic W/Si emulsion with a 93% linear regression between the data sets. This study demonstrates that the CAM5 protocol (or, alternatively, a CAM2.5 protocol) satisfactorily predicted that the commercial materials derived, in part, from this study (Ciba: ENCAPSULENCE Blue 1, ENCAPSULENCE Yellow 5 and ENCAPSULENCE Red 36) are well suited to retain their <span class="hlt">colour</span> and shape in liquid cosmetic foundations. PMID:18686145</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~strider/publications/FES_CIC08.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmenting memory <span class="hlt">colours</span> Clement Fredembach, Francisco Estrada, and Sabine Susstrunk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Estrada, Francisco</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">colours</span>: blue sky, green vegetation, and skin tones. Using a large database of real-world images, we (randomly) select and man- ually segment 900 images that contain one of the three memory <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The same: blue sky, green vegetation and skin tones [10]. It has been shown that human observers locate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785454"><span id="translatedtitle">Field-Portable Pixel Super-Resolution <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree <span class="hlt">colour</span> images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate ‘rainbow’ like <span class="hlt">colour</span> artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the <span class="hlt">colour</span> components of an RGB image into YUV <span class="hlt">colour</span> space, which separates <span class="hlt">colour</span> information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution <span class="hlt">colour</span> microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this <span class="hlt">colour</span> microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational <span class="hlt">colour</span> microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings. PMID:24086742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ikg.uni-bonn.de/uploads/tx_ikgpublication/Steinruecken__Pluemer_2009___A_Web_Service_to_personalise.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A WEB SERVICE TO PERSONALISE MAP <span class="hlt">COLOURING</span> Joerg Steinruecken</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Behnke, Sven</p> <p></p> <p>. Today, a lot of data sources are available, many of which provide data by using a Web Map Service (WMS of such <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be supported by a Web Service. This ser- vice acts as proxy server between WMS and users by using methods of nonlinear optimisation and computa- tional geometry. · Applying <span class="hlt">colours</span> on WMS: WMS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26515297"><span id="translatedtitle">An urban traffic network model via <span class="hlt">coloured</span> timed Petri nets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Mariagrazia Dotoli; Maria Pia Fanti</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with modelling of traffic networks (TNs) for control purposes. A modular framework based on <span class="hlt">coloured</span> timed Petri nets (CTPNs) is proposed to model the dynamics of signalized TN systems: places represent link cells and crossing sections, tokens are vehicles and token <span class="hlt">colours</span> represent the routing of the corresponding vehicle. In addition, ordinary timed Petri nets model the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/Publications/Papers/1000656.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Speed v. Accuracy for High Resolution <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Texture Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mirmehdi, Majid</p> <p></p> <p>and saturation in the HLS <span class="hlt">colour</span> space. We compare the perfor- mance of these new features against Gabor transform features combined with HLS and Lab <span class="hlt">colour</span> space features. Multiple classifiers are employed spaces as RGB, Lab, or HLS [9, 10]. All such works have considered images of a size typically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/183070"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets Extended with Channels for Synchronous Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Søren Christensen; Niels Damgaard Hansen</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper shows how <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets (CP-nets) can be extended to support synchronous communication. We introduce <span class="hlt">coloured</span> communication channels through which transitions are allowed to communicate complex values. Small examples show how channel communication is convenient for creating compact and comprehensive models. The concepts introduced in this paper originate from the practical use of Petri nets for modelling, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://decsai.ugr.es/vip/files/conferences/PradosEtAl_FUZZ-IEEE07.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On Significant Crisp Representatives of Fuzzy Regions in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Granada, Universidad de</p> <p></p> <p>approaches. Keywords: Image segmentation, fuzzy segmentation, path- based segmentation, fuzzy connectivity, fuzzy <span class="hlt">colour</span> homo- geneity, crisp representatives. I. INTRODUCTION Image segmentation, i.e., the processOn Significant Crisp Representatives of Fuzzy Regions in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images B. Prados-Suárez, D. Sánchez</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2505553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> text segmentation in web images based on human perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Dimosthenis Karatzas; Apostolos Antonacopoulos</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>There is a significant need to extract and analyse the text in images on Web documents, for effective indexing, semantic analysis and even presentation by non-visual means (e.g., audio). This paper argues that the challenging segmentation stage for such images benefits from a human perspective of <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception in preference to RGB <span class="hlt">colour</span> space analysis. The proposed approach enables the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://diwww.epfl.ch/w3lsp/publications/colour/potrsoticp.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of the Reflection Spectra of Three Ink <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Prints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Patrick Emmel; Roger David Hersch</p> <p></p> <p>We have developed a <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction model and an ink- spreading model. The present study aims at confirming the validity of both models for the case of ink-jet prints using cyan, magenta and yellow inks. Our <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction model, augmented by the ink-jet spreading model, predicts accurately the reflection spectra of halftoned samples printed on an HP printer and on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49301246"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of wood for architectural CAD simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Schnabel Thomas; Petutschnigg Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>It is a fact that the natural material wood changes its appearance during weathering. This study deals with the modelling of the discolouration process on wood <span class="hlt">colour</span> during natural weathering and the simulation of ageing effects on wood surfaces in computer graphics. A measurement-based technique was used to create a realistic simulation for weathered material.The surface <span class="hlt">colour</span> for larch and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.adelaide.edu.au/users/charles/OPN/postscript/pn95-paper.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets to Object Petri Nets Charles Lakos,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lakos, Charles</p> <p></p> <p>seeks to establish within a formal framework how <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets can be enhanced to produce ObjectFrom <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets to Object Petri Nets Charles Lakos, Computer Science Department: Theory of High­Level Petri Nets, Object­Orientation, Multiple Levels of Abstraction Abstract: This paper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.macedonialab.com/uploads/7/8/3/3/7833444/22_white_et_al_2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The nanoanatomical basis of sexual dimorphism in iridescent butterfly <span class="hlt">colouration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Macedonia, Joseph</p> <p></p> <p>The nanoanatomical basis of sexual dimorphism in iridescent butterfly <span class="hlt">colouration</span> Thomas E. White correlates and causes. Many butterflies exhibit bright and iridescent <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals that arise from in the expression of a sexually homologous ridge-lamellar trait (iridescent ultraviolet) is mediated by sex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24457894"><span id="translatedtitle">Spray coating of superhydrophobic and angle-independent <span class="hlt">coloured</span> films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Lili; Wu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Shu</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Angle-independent <span class="hlt">coloured</span> films with superhydrophobicity were fabricated from quasi-amorphous arrays of monodispersed fluorinated silica nanoparticles via one-step spray coating. The film exhibited a high contact angle (>150°) and a low roll-off angle (~2°) and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> could be tuned to blue, green and moccasin by varying the size of the nanoparticles. PMID:24457894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2982023"><span id="translatedtitle">Floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure. PMID:20484236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/menzel/Pub_AGmenzel/Vorobyev-et-al_Visres_2001.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> thresholds and receptor noise: behaviour and physiology compared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Misha Vorobyev; Robert Brandt; Dagmar Peitsch; Simon B. Laughlin; Randolf Menzel</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Photoreceptor noise sets an absolute limit for the accuracy of <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination. We compared <span class="hlt">colour</span> thresholds in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) with this limit. Bees were trained to discriminate an achromatic stimulus from monochromatic lights of various wavelengths as a function of their intensity. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured by intracellular recordings in the three spectral types of photoreceptor cells. To</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~rxq/files/EJOR2008.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Automated Construction of Hybrid Heuristics for Exam Timetabling and Graph <span class="hlt">Colouring</span> Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Qu, Rong</p> <p></p> <p>- 1 - Adaptive Automated Construction of Hybrid Heuristics for Exam Timetabling and Graph <span class="hlt">Colouring</span> methods to design and adapt heuristics automatically. Experimental results on benchmark exam timetabling timetabling, graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span>, graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> heuristics, hybridisation, hyper- heuristic 1 Introduction Since</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/humanresources/documents/healthsafety/bottledgas/industrial-cylinder-colours.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Industrial Gas Cylinder <span class="hlt">Colours</span> While the cylinder label is the primary means of identifying the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bearhop, Stuart</p> <p></p> <p>. Cylinder shoulder - European standard <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding The <span class="hlt">colour</span> applied to the shoulder, or curved part 1089-3), which has replaced the old cylinder <span class="hlt">colour</span> scheme (BS349), is to help improve safety standards</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3934537"><span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant Capacity and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at <span class="hlt">Different</span> Stages of Ripening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59??mols?TE?g?1?FW, exhibited the strongest <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content (27?g GAE 100?g?1?FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24683361"><span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant capacity and <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content in fruit tissues from accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero pepper) at <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, Maria L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 ?mols TE g(-1) FW, exhibited the strongest <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g(-1) FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/volume12/vol12.3/fullArticles/rahmat.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant activity in three types of local vegetables shoots and the cytotoxic effect of their ethanolic extracts against <span class="hlt">different</span> cancer cell lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Asmah Rahmat; Vijay Kumar; Loo Mei Fong; Susi Endrini</p> <p></p> <p>Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infections and degenerative diseases. Literature shows that the antioxidant activity is high on herbal and vegetable plants. Realizing the fact, this research was carried out to determine <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant activity and the potential anticancer properties in three types of selected local vegetable shoots such</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AASP....3..145P"><span id="translatedtitle">Tests of commercial <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS cameras for astronomical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present some results of testing commercial <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR <span class="hlt">colour</span> system realized in <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1980677"><span id="translatedtitle">Optic aphasia for <span class="hlt">colours</span> and <span class="hlt">colour</span> agnosia: A distinction between visual and visuo-verbal impairments in the processing of <span class="hlt">colours</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Marie-France Beauvois; Brigitte Saillant</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Two patients, both of whom would have been described according to classic criteria as cases of <span class="hlt">colour</span> agnosia, were studied. Three kinds of <span class="hlt">colour</span> tasks were administered: Visual, verbal and visuo-verbal tasks. However this was not only done by manipulating the kind of stimulus and the kind of response—one being visual, the other verbal (Experiment 1)—as is standard in most</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15127178"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro-Raman analysis of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lithographs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castro, K; Vandenabeele, P; Rodríguez-Laso, M D; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Raman micro-spectroscopy was chosen for analysis and identification of the pigments present in four nineteenth-century hand-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> lithographs, as this technique has several advantages over others for this purpose. The possibility of performing completely non-destructive analysis without any sampling is probably one of its most favourable qualities for art analysis. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to determine some pigments that cannot be detected using FTIR, such as vermilion, carbon blacks, cadmium pigments, etc. Among others, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, carbon black, chrome yellow, yellow ochre, red lead, red iron oxide, burnt Sienna, indigo blue, chrome orange, phthalocyanine green, and some other organic pigments, were determined in the specimens. The results obtained have led to doubts about the age of the lithographs. PMID:15127178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~rtp1/papers/NatureSnowballMelt.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">can significantly improve the performance of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-conversion In addition to applications as efficient <span class="hlt">colour</span> converters, nano-</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pierrehumbert, Raymond</p> <p></p> <p>as efficient <span class="hlt">colour</span> converters, nano- crystals have been considered promising building blocks for <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the regime of electrical injection by combining nano- crystals with an electrically driven InGaN quantum well of high-efficiency, electrically driven, hybrid nano- crystal/quantum-well devices. A Received 9 February</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ivl.disco.unimib.it/papers2003/AIC2005-1175_1178.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">AIC <span class="hlt">Colour</span> 05 -10th Congress of the International <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Association The 3D Color Printer Explorer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Schettini, Raimondo</p> <p></p> <p>AIC <span class="hlt">Colour</span> 05 - 10th Congress of the International <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Association 1175 The 3D Color Printer Milano (ITALY) Corresponding author: R. Schettini (schettini@disco.unimib.it) ABSTRACT The 3D Color describe here the main features of the 3D Color Printer Explorer, an interactive visual evaluation system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54805170"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal ultraviolet-optical <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span>-magnitude relation of galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Igor V. Chilingarian; Ivan Yu. Zolotukhin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/31661835"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in patellofemoral contact stresses between mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasties: a dynamic in vitro measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Adrian Skwara; Carsten O. Tibesku; Sven Ostermeier; Christina Stukenborg-Colsman; Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Introduction  Anterior knee pain is one of the most common problems after <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasty (TKA). Mobile-bearing designs should improve\\u000a patella tracking with a reduced rate of patella tilt as well as reduced patellofemoral contact stresses and improve knee flexion.\\u000a The aim of this dynamic in vitro investigation was to evaluate the changes of patellofemoral contact stresses after TKA using\\u000a fixed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..724..206M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dark Adaptation of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Vision in Diabetic Subjects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Márquez-Gamiño, S.; Cortés-Peñaloza, J. L.; Pérez-Hernández, J. U.; Cruz-Rodríguez, E.; Caudillo, C.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Eye disease, a late complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs even under a careful glicemic control. It includes optic nerve, retina, vitreous humor, crystalline lens and pupillary affection. The physiopathological process could be independent of blood glucose levels or start at initial stages of the disease. Photoreceptors have specific physiological functions. The functional substrate of day light or <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in superior primates, the cones have <span class="hlt">different</span> spectral sensitivity, 455, 530 and 560 nm. The rods, maximal sensitivity at 505 nm, are much more sensitive to light than are cones. Dark adaptation was tested to evaluate functional impairment <span class="hlt">differences</span> in photoreceptors of diabetic subjects. 14 DM2 (type 2 DM), and 5 DM1 (type 1 DM) patients, as well as 9 healthy subjects were studied. Retinal affected individuals, were excluded. Dark adaptation curves seemed to be <span class="hlt">different</span> between DM, and healthy subjects. Cones, specially those sensitive to 560 nm type, seems to be more labile to DM, as demonstrated by the lack of sensitivity to low, and medium intensity stimuli. Medical Physics and elementary Biomedical Engineering exhibited to be useful to discern malfunction between <span class="hlt">different</span> types of photorreceptors. The inexpensive method used could be applied for early color vision alteration detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3997343"><span id="translatedtitle">Capturing Natural-<span class="hlt">Colour</span> 3D Models of Insects for Species Discovery and Diagnostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Chuong V.; Lovell, David R.; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity—past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens “from all angles” and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-<span class="hlt">colour</span> 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. (“Natural-<span class="hlt">colour</span>” is used to contrast with “false-<span class="hlt">colour</span>”, i.e., <span class="hlt">colour</span> generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) <span class="hlt">Colour</span> images are captured from <span class="hlt">different</span> angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data for research, education, art, entertainment, biodiversity assessment and biosecurity control. PMID:24759838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1560039"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salzburger, Walter; Niederstätter, Harald; Brandstätter, Anita; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther; Snoeks, Jos; Sturmbauer, Christian</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The species flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria are prime examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Several hundreds of endemic species have evolved in each of the lakes over the past several thousands to a few millions years. Sexual selection via <span class="hlt">colour</span>-assortative mating has often been proposed as a probable causal factor for initiating and maintaining reproductive isolation. Here, we report the consequences of human-mediated admixis among differentially <span class="hlt">coloured</span> populations of the endemic cichlid fish Tropheus moorii from several localities that have accidentally been put in sympatry in a small harbour bay in the very south of Lake Tanganyika. We analysed the phenotypes (coloration) and genotypes (mitochondrial control region and five microsatellite loci) of almost 500 individuals, sampled over 3 consecutive years. Maximum-likelihood-based parenthood analyses and Bayesian inference of population structure revealed that significantly more juveniles are the product of within-<span class="hlt">colour</span>-morph matings than could be expected under the assumption of random mating. Our results clearly indicate a marked degree of assortative mating with respect to the <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs. Therefore, we postulate that sexual selection based on social interactions and female mate choice has played an important role in the formation and maintenance of the <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in Tropheus, and is probably common in other maternally mouthbrooding cichlids as well. PMID:16543167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916219"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses to <span class="hlt">colour</span> and host odour cues in three cereal pest species, in the context of ecology and control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arnold, S E J; Stevenson, P C; Belmain, S R</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Many insects show a greater attraction to multimodal cues, e.g. odour and <span class="hlt">colour</span> combined, than to either cue alone. Despite the potential to apply the knowledge to improve control strategies, studies of multiple stimuli have not been undertaken for stored product pest insects. We tested orientation towards a food odour (crushed white maize) in combination with a <span class="hlt">colour</span> cue (<span class="hlt">coloured</span> paper with <span class="hlt">different</span> surface spectral reflectance properties) in three storage pest beetle species, using motion tracking to monitor their behaviour. While the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), showed attraction to both odour and <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli, particularly to both cues in combination, this was not observed in the bostrichid pests Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (lesser grain borer) or Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (larger grain borer). The yellow stimulus was particularly attractive to S. zeamais, and control experiments showed that this was neither a result of the insects moving towards darker-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> areas of the arena, nor their being repelled by optical brighteners in white paper. Visual stimuli may play a role in location of host material by S. zeamais, and can be used to inform trap design for the control or monitoring of maize weevils. The lack of visual responses by the two grain borers is likely to relate to their <span class="hlt">different</span> host-seeking behaviours and ecological background, which should be taken into account when devising control methods. PMID:25916219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10521046"><span id="translatedtitle">Steam-processed corn and sorghum grain flaked at <span class="hlt">different</span> densities alter ruminal, small intestinal, and <span class="hlt">total</span> tract digestibility of starch by steers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Theurer, C B; Lozano, O; Alio, A; Delgado-Elorduy, A; Sadik, M; Huber, J T; Zinn, R A</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Crossbred steers (n = 7; 400 kg BW), fitted with T-type cannulas in the duodenum and ileum, were used to examine the effects of processing method, dry-rolled (DR) vs. steam-flaked (SF) sorghum grain, and degree of processing (flake density; FD) of SF corn (SFC) and SF sorghum (SFS) grain on site and extent of DM, starch, and N digestibilities and to measure extent of microbial N flow to the duodenum. In Exp. 1, diets contained 77% DRS or 77% SFS with FD of 437, 360, and 283 g/L (SF34, SF28, and SF22). In Exp. 2, diets contained 77% SFC with FD of SF34 or SF22. For sorghum and corn diets, respective average daily intakes were as follows: DM, 6.7 and 8.1 kg; starch, 3.8 and 4.7 kg; N, 136 and 149 g. Steers fed SFS vs. DRS increased (P = .01) starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) in the rumen (82 vs. 67%) and <span class="hlt">total</span> tract (98.9 vs. 96.5%) and decreased digestibilities in the small intestine (16 vs. 28%; P = .01) and large intestine (.5 vs 1.2%; P = .05). As a percentage of starch entering the segment, digestibility was increased (P = .01) within the small intestine (91 vs. 85%) but was not altered within the large intestine by steers fed SFS vs. DRS. Decreasing FD of SFS and of SFC, respectively, linearly increased starch digestibilities (percentage of intake) in the rumen (P = .03, .02) and <span class="hlt">total</span> tract (P = .03, .09) and linearly diminished starch digestibilities in the small intestine (P = .04, .09). Starch digestibilities (percentage of entry) within the small or large intestine were not changed by FD. The percentage of dietary corn or sorghum starch digested in the large intestine was very small, less than 2% of intake. Microbial N flow to the duodenum was not altered by SFS compared to DRS, or by decreasing FD of SFS and SFC. Reducing FD of SFS, but not of SFC, tended to decrease (P = .07) microbial efficiency linearly and tended to increase (P = .06) <span class="hlt">total</span> tract N digestibilities linearly. Steam flaking compared to dry rolling of sorghum grain and decreasing FD of SFC and SFS grain consistently increased starch digestibility in the rumen and <span class="hlt">total</span> tract of growing steers. The greatest <span class="hlt">total</span> digestibility of dietary starch occurred when the proportion digested in the rumen was maximized and the fraction digested in the small intestine was minimized. These changes in sites of digestion account, in part, for the improved N conservation and greater hepatic output of glucose by steers fed lower FD of SFS reported in our companion papers. PMID:10521046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3017046"><span id="translatedtitle">Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting <span class="hlt">different</span> components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs). Males of Poecilia parae, a <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> (immaculata), striped (parae), structural-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> (blue) and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Results Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations) by 1) directly monopolizing access to females, and 2) modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Conclusions Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct males exhibiting clear <span class="hlt">differences</span> in their levels of aggression to exclude potential sexual rivals. By being dominant, the more aggressive males are able to circumvent female mating preferences for attractive males, whereas another male type incorporates subordinate behaviours that allow them to circumvent male aggression and female mating preferences. Together, these and previous results indicate that exploiting <span class="hlt">different</span> aspects of social interactions may allow males to evolve distinct mating strategies and thus the long term maintenance of polymorphisms within populations. PMID:21182755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41914164"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in the red porgy, Pagrus pagrus , following adaptation to blue lighting spectrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>V. Szisch; A. L. van der Salm; S. E. Wendelaar Bonga; M. Pavlidis</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The effect of lighting spectrum (full vs. blue) on skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> and stress response in red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, held under a 12L:12D photoperiod was investigated. Fish exposed to blue lighting spectrum became gradually paler with a\\u000a maximum lightness value (L = 45.33) on day 27, significantly higher than control fish (L = 31.49). However, there was no <span class="hlt">difference</span>\\u000a in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/bio1/schaefer/pdf/burns-oecologia-09.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Geographic patterns in fruit <span class="hlt">colour</span> diversity: do leaves constrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Schaefer, Martin</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">colour</span> signals <span class="hlt">differently</span>. For example, many mammals (e.g. lemurs) have two retinal cone types, while´gica de Don~ana (CSIC), Pabello´n del Peru´, Avda. Ma Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla, Spain e-mail: avalido (2009) 159:337­343 DOI 10.1007/s00442-008-1227-3 #12;cone. Birds, fish and many reptiles have yet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyEd..50..402Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the absorption of light <span class="hlt">colours</span> using an artificial rainbow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light <span class="hlt">colours</span> by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The light <span class="hlt">colours</span> composing an artificial rainbow produced in the classroom are subtracted using a set-up of refractive solutions containing pigments. Symbolic, diagrammatic and realistic representations are provided to explain and compare the findings from seven steps in the activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882794"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial food <span class="hlt">colouring</span> and hyperactivity symptoms in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>(1) A hypothesis has been proposed that artificial food <span class="hlt">colourings</span> have a role in exacerbating hyperactive behavior in children; (2) A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover clinical study in 297 children representative of the general population showed higher hyperactivity scores during the periods when they were ingesting food <span class="hlt">colourings</span>; (3) A meta-analysis of 15 double-blind clinical trials that evaluated artificial food <span class="hlt">colouring</span> in children already considered to be hyperactive showed an increase in their hyperactive behavior; (4) In practice, even though the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not be elucidated, these data suggest that it is best to avoid exposing children to artificial food coloring. PMID:19882794</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2659803"><span id="translatedtitle">Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Affect Perceived Human Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate <span class="hlt">colour</span> calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood <span class="hlt">colour</span> axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood <span class="hlt">colour</span>, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010eso..pres...31."><span id="translatedtitle">Brilliant Star in a <span class="hlt">Colourful</span> Neighbourhood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its <span class="hlt">colourful</span> surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the <span class="hlt">colourful</span> backdrop to this image. The subtle <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex of gas and dust lies off the left side of this picture as can be seen in image eso1031b. This area includes the remarkable star Eta Carinae and was featured in an earlier press release (eso0905). Notes [1] More information about Wolf-Rayet stars More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510641P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal effects of low severity grassland fire on soil <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Bolutiene, Violeta; Pranskevicius, Mantas; Úbeda, Xavier; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena; Mataix-Solera, Jorge</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Fire changes soil properties directly, through temperature, or indirectly with ash deposition and the temporal elimination of vegetal cover. Both influences change soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> and soil properties. The degree of changes depends on fire severity that has important implications on soil organic matter, texture, mineralogy and hydrological properties and type of ash produced. The ash <span class="hlt">colour</span> is <span class="hlt">different</span> according to the temperature of combustion and burned specie and this property will have implications on soil <span class="hlt">colour</span>. In addition, ash properties have a strong spatial variability. The aim of this work is to study the spatio-temporal effects of a low severity grassland fire on soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> occurred in Lithuania, near Vilnius city (54° 42' N, 25° 08' E, 158 m.a.s.l.). After the fire it was designed a plot of 20x20m in a burned and unburned flat area. Soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> was analysed immediately after the fire, and 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after the fire. In each sampling 25 soil samples were collected, carried out to the laboratory, dried at room temperature (20-24° C) and sieved with the <2mm mesh. Soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> was observed with the Munsell <span class="hlt">colour</span> chart and the soil chroma value (CV) was observed. Since data did not respected the Gaussian distribution a neperian logarithmic (ln) transformation was applied. <span class="hlt">Differences</span> among time and between plots were observed with the repeated measures ANOVA test, followed by a Tukey HSD test. <span class="hlt">Differences</span> were significant at a p<0.05. The spatial variability (SV) was assessed with the coefficient of variation using non transformed data. The results showed <span class="hlt">differences</span> among time at a p<0.001, treatment at a p<0.01 and time x treatment at a p<0.01. This means that fire during the first 9 months changed significantly soil <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The CV of the burned plot was lower than the control plot (darker <span class="hlt">colour</span>), that is attributed to the deposition of charred material and charcoal. This ash produced in this fire was mainly black <span class="hlt">coloured</span>. With the time the soil of the burned plot became lighter, due the movement of charred material and charcoal in depth through soil profile. After the fire SV was higher in the burned plot (13.27%) than in the unburned plot (7.95%). This major variability might be attributed to ash influence, since this fire did nit had direct effects on soil. Despite the reduced CV, some patches burned at higher severity, and ash was dark and light grey and this might had influences on soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> SV. In the following measurements SV was very similar, but always slightly higher in the control plot than in the burned plot. Two months, unburned 15.52% and burned, 14.70%. Five months, unburned, 14.78% and burned 14.42%, Seven months, unburned, 15.15% and burned, 14.67%. Nine months, unburned, 18.96% and burned 17.84%. After the fire ash can be (re)distributed uncountable times. In the immediate period after the fire, finner ash produced at higher severities is easily transported by wind and can remix (Pereira et al., 2013a, Pereira et al., 2013b) and change soil <span class="hlt">colour</span>. In this fire, vegetation recovered very fast, thus this process might occurred only in the first weeks after the fire (Pereira et al., 2013c). Since vegetation recovered fast, soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> SV depended on carbon and charred material movement in depth soil profile. Further studies are needed on the soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> evolution after the fire, since can be an indicator of soil properties such as temperature reached with implications in other soil properties. Acknowledgements The authors appreciated the support of the project "Litfire", Fire effects in Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-048/2011) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for funding through the HYDFIRE project CGL2010-21670-C02-01, FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/) and to Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca del DIUE de la Generalitat de Catalunya. References Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. (2013a) Mod</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhLB..453..153O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> reconnection studies in e+e--->W+W- at sqrt(s)=183 GeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>OPAL Collaboration; Abbiendi, G.; Ackerstaff, K.; Alexander, G.; Allison, J.; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S. F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A. H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J. R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K. W.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S. D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I. J.; Bock, P.; Böhme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, R. M.; Burckhart, H. J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R. K.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Chang, C. Y.; Charlton, D. G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J. E.; Cooke, O. C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R. L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Davis, R.; de Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M. S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P. G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A. A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fürtjes, A.; Futyan, D. I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J. W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S. M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwé, M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C. K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R. J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R. D.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hill, J. C.; Hobson, P. R.; Hoch, M.; Hocker, A.; Hoffman, K.; Homer, R. J.; Honma, A. K.; Horváth, D.; Hossain, K. R.; Howard, R.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D. C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F. R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C. R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T. R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P. I.; Keeler, R. K.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kim, D. H.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D. S.; Kokott, T. P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, R. V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G. D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S. R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J. G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A. M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A. W.; Lloyd, S. L.; Loebinger, F. K.; Long, G. D.; Losty, M. J.; Ludwig, J.; Liu, D.; Macchiolo, A.; MacPherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, J. P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mättig, P.; McDonald, W. J.; McKenna, J.; McKigney, E. A.; McMahon, T. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F. S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D. J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H. A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S. W.; Oakham, F. G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H. O.; Oreglia, M. J.; Orito, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Pásztor, G.; Pater, J. R.; Patrick, G. N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D. E.; Poffenberger, P.; Polok, J.; Przybycie? , M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S. A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J. M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A. M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D. R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W. M.; Sarkisyan, E. K. G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A. D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W. G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T. G.; Shen, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G. P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A. M.; Snow, G. A.; Sobie, R.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, D.; Ströhmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S. D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; von Törne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trócsányi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A. S.; Turner-Watson, M. F.; Ueda, I.; van Kooten, R.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wäckerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C. P.; Ward, D. R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, N. K.; Wells, P. S.; Wermes, N.; White, J. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Wilson, J. A.; Wyatt, T. R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>The predicted effects of final state interactions such as <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection are investigated by measuring properties of hadronic decays of W bosons, recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s)~=182.7 GeV in the OPAL detector at LEP. Dependence on the modelling of hadronic W decays is avoided by comparing W+W--->qq¯'qq¯' events with the non-leptonic component of W+W--->qq¯'l ?¯l events. The scaled momentum distribution, its mean value, <xp>, and that of the charged particle multiplicity, <nch>, are measured and found to be consistent in the two channels. The measured <span class="hlt">differences</span> are:In addition, measurements of rapidity and thrust are performed for W+W--->qq¯'qq¯' events. The data are described well by standard QCD models and disfavour one model of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection within the ARIADNE program. The current implementation of the Ellis-Geiger model of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection is excluded. At the current level of statistical precision no evidence for <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects was found in the observables studied. The predicted effect of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection on OPAL measurements of MW is also quantified in the context of models studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24712495"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of trace elements in honey from <span class="hlt">different</span> regions in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) by <span class="hlt">total</span> reflection X-ray fluorescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Roberta de Oliveira Resende; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; de Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira; da Silva Carneiro, Carla; Júnior, Carlos Adam Conte; de Almeida, Eduardo; Filho, Virgílio Franco do Nascimento</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Trace and minor elements in Brazilian honey were analyzed by <span class="hlt">total</span> reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Up to 12 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, and Sr) were detected in 160 samples of honey from 4 regions of Rio de Janeiro State (Barra Mansa, Teresópolis, northern and southern Nova Friburgo). The results showed the samples from Teresópolis had higher rates of essential and nonessential elements than samples from the other regions, except for Ni. K and Ca were the most abundant elements in all samples, in the range of 116.5 to 987.0 ?g g(-1) . Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, and Sr were identified in small concentrations (0.01 to 12.08 ?g g(-1) ) in all samples, indicating a low level of contamination in all the regions. PMID:24712495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24294947"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-joint sharing of <span class="hlt">total</span> support moments in the lower extremities during gait in narrow-heeled shoes of <span class="hlt">different</span> heights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chien, Hui-Lien; Liu, Ming-Wei; Lu, Tung-Wu; Kuo, Chien-Chung; Chung, Pei-Chen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The study aimed to investigate the influence of the base and height of shoe heels on the <span class="hlt">total</span> support moment (Ms) and individual joint contributions during gait. Fifteen healthy females walked barefoot and with narrow-heeled shoes (heel heights: 3.9, 6.3 and 7.3 cm) while kinematic and kinetic data were measured. Compared with the barefoot condition, the subjects maintained unaltered Ms in the sagittal plane in shod conditions. This was achieved by increasing the knee extensor moment to compensate for the diminished ankle plantarflexor moments in medium and high heel conditions. In the frontal plane, subjects in shod conditions had to sustain an increased Ms for balance control during late single-leg stance with increased knee abductor and ankle pronator moments as a result of the reduced base of the heels. The results will be helpful for future shoe designs to reduce fall risks and prevent relevant musculoskeletal problems. PMID:24294947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19549408"><span id="translatedtitle">[A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 362 HLA <span class="hlt">different</span> haplotypes and HLA recombination haplotypes based on analysis of their family pedigree in Chinese partial Han populations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Su-Qing; Cheng, Xi; Li, Qian; Li, Yu-Zhu; Deng, Zhi-Hui</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to discover the novel HLA recombination haplotypes and investigate the distribution of haplotypes in Chinese Han population. Based on the HLA-A, B, DRB1 typing results of 179 family members, 791 haplotypes were assigned by the mode of inheritance. The results showed that a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 4 novel recombinant haplotypes in HLA-DRB1 locus region were observed in 4 families, which ratio of paternal to maternal chromosomes was 3:1. The recombination ratio between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-A or B loci was 0.92% (4/433). There were a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 362 kinds of HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 haplotypes to be confirmed in Chinese Han partial population. A33-B58-DR17, A2-B46-DR9, A30-B13-DR7, A11-B13-DR15, A11-B75-DR12 and A2-B46-DR14 were the most common haplotypes that was consistent with the distribution of HLA alleles in unrelated donors. There were A1-B63-DR12, A29-B46-DR15, A1-B61-DR10, A34-B35-DR9, A29-B54-DR4, A23-B13-DR16 and A34-B62-DR15 haplotypes and so on, which were rare haplotypes not yet reported in Chinese. It is concluded that the HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes would be confirmed by analysis of their family pedigree. The results obtained in this study are basic data for study of Chinese anthropology, organ transplantation and disease correlation analysis. PMID:19549408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://ia.usu.edu/viewproject.php?project=ia:15375"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Totally</span> Technology!!!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Mrs. Walker</p> <p>2010-11-16</p> <p>Goal: To research <span class="hlt">different</span> types of technology! Take notes on the <span class="hlt">different</span> technological advancements and their BENEFITS to our lives! Click on the links below to use for your research! DO NOT go to any other sites than the ones linked below: Remember you will present your findings to the class! Click on the links below to research <span class="hlt">different</span> types of inventions and technology! Take Notes! 1. Check out the Benefits of the Space Program. 2. Search Inventions from Space. 3. NASA Spin-offs is a great site to explore technology that was created thanks to the space program! 4. Technology Spin-offs is a great research link! 5. ThinkTech listed some techonogical advancements and their ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://admissions.vassar.edu/pdf/finaid11-12/Vassar-Aid-MealHousingPolicy1112.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2011/2012 As the cost of housing is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of financial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Smith, Marc L.</p> <p></p> <p>housing options available to Vassar students, the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2011/2012 As the cost of housing is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://admissions.vassar.edu/pdf/finaid10-11/Vassar-Aid-MealHousingPolicy1011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2010/2011 As the cost of housing is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of financial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Smith, Marc L.</p> <p></p> <p>housing options available to Vassar students, the <span class="hlt">total</span> amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2010/2011 As the cost of housing is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.445.2655B"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical period-<span class="hlt">colour</span> and amplitude-<span class="hlt">colour</span> relations for Classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhardwaj, Anupam; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We analyse Galactic, Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables in terms of period-<span class="hlt">colour</span> (PC) and amplitude-<span class="hlt">colour</span> (AC) diagrams at the phases of maximum and minimum light. We compiled Galactic Cepheids V- and I-band data from the literature. We make use of optical bands light-curve data from OGLE-III survey for Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables in the Magellanic Clouds. We apply the F-statistical test to check the significance of any variation in the slope of PC and AC relations for Cepheid variables. The PC relation at maximum light for Galactic Cepheids with periods longer than about 7 d is shallow and the corresponding AC relation is flat for the entire period range. For the fundamental mode Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, we find significant breaks in the PC and AC relations at both maximum and minimum light for periods around 10 d. The PC relation at maximum light for the Magellanic Clouds is flat for Cepheids with periods greater than 10 d. First overtone Cepheids with periods less than 2.5 d have a shallow PC relation at minimum light. For fundamental mode RR Lyraes, we confirm earlier work supporting a flat PC relation at minimum light and a significant relation between amplitude and <span class="hlt">colour</span> at maximum light. We find that no such relations exist for first overtone RR Lyrae stars. These findings are in agreement with stellar photosphere/hydrogen ionization front interaction considerations. These non-linearities can provide strong constraints for models of stellar pulsation and evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.demographic-research.org/Volumes/Vol7/14/7-14.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Algorithm for decomposition of <span class="hlt">differences</span> between aggregate demographic measures and its application to life expectancies, healthy life expectancies, parity-progression ratios and <span class="hlt">total</span> fertility rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Evgueni M. Andreev; Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; Alexander Z. Begun</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A general algorithm for the decomposition of <span class="hlt">differences</span> between two values of an aggregate demographic measure in respect to age and other dimensions is proposed. It assumes that the aggregate measure is computed from similar matrices of discrete demographic data for two populations under comparison. The algorithm estimates the effects of replacement for each elementary cell of one matrix by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21062174"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of pigments in <span class="hlt">colour</span> layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Skapin, A. Sever [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrijana.skapin@zag.si; Ropret, P. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Restoration Center, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: polona.ropret@rescen.si; Bukovec, P. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: peter.bukovec@uni-lj.si</p> <p>2007-11-15</p> <p>For successful restoration of painted walls and painted <span class="hlt">coloured</span> finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original <span class="hlt">colour</span> layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their <span class="hlt">colour</span> and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from <span class="hlt">different</span> historical periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11226500"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination with comb-filtered spectra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonnardel, V; Valero, E M</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p>Techniques that involve the use of comb-filtered spectra to study human <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision have been developed in previous work (Bonnardel, V., Bellemare, H., Mollon, J.D., 1996. Measurements of human sensitivity to comb-filtered spectra, Vision Research 36, 2713-2720; Bonnardel, V., Ruderman D.L., Barlow, H.B., 1997. A fast determination of the Spectral Modulation Sensitivity Function: a comparison between trichromats and deuteranopes. In: C.R. Cavonius (ed.), Color vision deficiencies XIII. Dordrecht: Kluver 415-424). These techniques are applied in the present study to measure <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination among deuteranomalous observers and normal trichromats, with the aim of determining the spectral position of the anomalous cone fundamentals. Results show that comb-filtered spectra are useful in determining the extent to which variability in <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination among anomalous and normal trichromatic <span class="hlt">colour</span> observers is accounted for by the spectral properties of photoreceptors. PMID:11226500</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/8368"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Ancient Greek clothing : a methodological investigation </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cleland, Liza</p> <p>2003-07-10</p> <p>to clothing, and the philosophical evidence in light of modern theories about the language of <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Chapter Three provides a new, integrated, edition of the clothing sections of the 'Brauron Inventories,' tabulated and subjected to semiotic analysis...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~david/flora/colours.ps"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling ower <span class="hlt">colour</span>: Several experiments Shenghui Wang and David E. Rydeheard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Rydeheard, David</p> <p></p> <p>green or more blue. Clearly, in describing <span class="hlt">colours</span> in plants or other materials, the physiology of human In order to study the semantics of <span class="hlt">colour</span> expressions as they are employed in botantical texts, we have doing so, we mention a few relevant points about <span class="hlt">colour</span> in nature. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in materials is usually due</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14861938"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural basis of blue-<span class="hlt">colour</span> development in flower petals from Commelina communis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Tadao Hondo; Kumi Yoshida; Atsushi Nakagawa; Takatoshi Kawai; Hirotoshi Tamura; Toshio Goto</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>FLOWER <span class="hlt">colours</span>, from red through purple to blue, are mostly from anthocyanins, a type of flavonoid1-5. Although there are many <span class="hlt">colours</span>, only a few anthocyanidins, chromophores of the pigments, have been found. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the pigments is stable in plants for a few days to one month but the extracted anthocyanins are, nevertheless, unstable and quickly lose <span class="hlt">colour</span> by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4230866"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple and Robust Optic Disc Localisation Using <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Decorrelated Templates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Tomi Kauppi; Heikki Kälviäinen</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Automatic analysis of digital fundus images, where optic disc extraction is an essential part, is an active research topic\\u000a in retinal image analysis. A simple, fast and robust optic disc localisation method using <span class="hlt">colour</span> decorrelated templates is\\u000a proposed which results an accurate location of the optic disc in <span class="hlt">colour</span> fundus images. In the training stage, PCA is performed\\u000a on the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3169175"><span id="translatedtitle">The involvement of the temporal lobes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heywood, C A; Shields, C; Cowey, A</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Monkeys with ablation of lateral striate, prestriate or inferotemporal cortex were compared with unoperated controls in their ability to discriminate Munsell <span class="hlt">colours</span>, or greys, of increasing difficulty. Whereas lateral striate or prestriate lesions centred on visual area V4 mildly impaired only the most difficult discriminations, inferotemporal ablation resulted in a severe impairment in the acquisition of <span class="hlt">colour</span> discriminations. However, the ability to discriminate greys was much less affected. PMID:3169175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IntAg..26..153Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of thermal treatment on <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture of Typha latifolia L.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Min; Zhou, Yun-hua; Wang, Shaojin; Tang, Juming</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Through the analysis of the residual activity of peroxidase (POD), chromatic aberration, shear intensity and shear power, the effects of <span class="hlt">different</span> thermal treatment times at 100°C on the POD, surface <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture of Typha latifolia L. were evaluated. The results showed that the activity of POD decreased with the increasing thermal treatment time at 100°C. The regeneration amount of POD increased first for some time and then started to decrease with the treatment time. Thermal treatment times 1.0 and 1.5 min at 100°C exhibited maximum regeneration of POD for the samples stored at 20 and 37°C, respectively. The sample had acceptable texture and surface <span class="hlt">colour</span> when they were treated at 100°C for 4 min because the POD in the sample was inactivated to an acceptable level.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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