Note: This page contains sample records for the topic total colour difference from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Distribution and photobiology of Symbiodinium types in different light environments for three colour morphs of the coral Madracis pharensis: is there more to it than total irradiance?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of symbiont variation in the photobiology of reef corals was addressed by investigating the links among symbiont genetic diversity, function and ecological distribution in a single host species, Madracis pharensis. Symbiont distribution was studied for two depths (10 and 25 m), two different light habitats (exposed and shaded) and three host colour morphs (brown, purple and green). Two Symbiodinium genotypes were present, as defined by nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) variation. Symbiont distribution was depth- and colour morph-dependent. Type B15 occurred predominantly on the deeper reef and in green and purple colonies, while type B7 was present in shallow environments and brown colonies. Different light microhabitats at fixed depths had no effect on symbiont presence. This ecological distribution suggests that symbiont presence is potentially driven by light spectral niches. A reciprocal depth transplantation experiment indicated steady symbiont populations under environment change. Functional parameters such as pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence and cell densities were measured for 25 m and included in multivariate analyses. Most functional variation was explained by two photobiological assemblages that relate to either symbiont identity or light microhabitat, suggesting adaptation and acclimation, respectively. Type B15 occurs with lower cell densities and larger sizes, higher cellular pigment concentrations and higher peridinin to chlorophyll a ratio than type B7. Type B7 relates to a larger xanthophyll-pool size. These unambiguous differences between symbionts can explain their distributional patterns, with type B15 being potentially more adapted to darker or deeper environments than B7. Symbiont cell size may play a central role in the adaptation of coral holobionts to the deeper reef. The existence of functional differences between B-types shows that the clade classification does not necessarily correspond to functional identity. This study supports the use of ITS2 as an ecological and functionally meaningful marker in Symbiodinium.

Frade, P. R.; Englebert, N.; Faria, J.; Visser, P. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

2008-12-01

2

Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, glucosinolates and colour parameters of rapeseed cultivars.  

PubMed

The antioxidant capacity of twenty nine rapeseed varieties was determined by using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Mean FRAP (3190-6326?mol Trolox/100g) and DPPH (3194-6346?mol Trolox/100g) values for methanolic extracts of rapeseed cultivars did not differ significantly. Moreover, the total content of phenolics (756-1324mg sinapic acid/100g), glucosinolates (4.2-87.5?mol/g, respectively), erucic acid (0.0-56.1%) and colour parameters of the studied rapeseed cultivars were analysed. Antioxidant capacity determined by FRAP and DPPH methods correlated significantly with total phenolic content (TPC) in rapeseed cultivars (r=0.9332, 0.9339, p<0.001). Also, significant, inverse correlations were found between antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and luminosity (L(?)) or red colour intensity (a(?)) of rapeseed cultivars. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the rapeseed varieties to be differentiated based on their antioxidant capacities, total amounts of phenolics, glucosinolates, erucic acid and colour parameters. PMID:23140700

Szyd?owska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Karlovi?, Igor; Karlovits, György; Sz?yk, Edward

2011-01-18

3

Colour naming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study exploring colour ranges corresponding to different colour names has been conducted. Available colour terms in Turkish language have been identified and the most frequently known or used colour terms have been attained. Using the Munsell Color System, colour ranges reflecting the colour naming and colour perception of Turkish people, have been constructed for each colour term. The discussion of the findings and observations during the research are also included.

?ahin Ekici, Ebru; Yener, Cengiz; Camgöz, Nilgün

2006-06-01

4

Evolution of sex differences in microhabitat choice and colour polymorphism in Idotea baltica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied microhabitat choice of colour morphs, causes of sex differences in microhabitat use and colour polymorphism inIdotea balticaa marine isopod living mainly on the brown algaFucus vesiculosusThe colour morphs differ in frequencies between the sexes and appear to be cryptic on the visually heterogeneousFucusIn this study, no colour-morph-dependent preference for visually matching microhabitats was found. However, in all three

SAMI MERILAITA; VEIJO JORMALAINEN

1997-01-01

5

Degradation Kinetics of Colour and Total Carotenoids in Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) Bulb Slices During Hot Air Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of colour and carotenoids degradation in jackfruit bulb slices was evaluated during hot air drying at 50, 60\\u000a and 70 °C. Visual colour as well as total carotenoids (TC) content was found to be influenced by the drying process. Tri-stimulus\\u000a colour parameters such as Hunter L and b values decreased and a value increased during drying. The combination of

Alok Saxena; Tanushree Maity; P. S. Raju; A. S. Bawa

6

Applying colour science in colour design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

Luo, Ming Ronnier

2006-06-01

7

Characterization of total capsaicinoids, colour and volatile compounds of Habanero chilli pepper ( Capsicum chinense Jack.) cultivars grown in Yucatan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total capsaicinoids, colour and volatile compounds of 10 Habanero chilli pepper (Capsicum chinense Jack.) cultivars grown in Yucatan, grouped by their colours: four red, five orange and one brown, were determined. The content of capsaicinoids, responsible for the pungency of chilli peppers, varied between 41.8 and 65.9mgg?1 dry fruit. Mean concentration of orange cultivars was 55.0mgg?1, while red cultivars had

Jorge Pino; Marilú González; Liena Ceballos; Alma Rosa Centurión-Yah; Jorge Trujillo-Aguirre; Luis Latournerie-Moreno; Enrique Sauri-Duch

2007-01-01

8

Can gamut mapping quality be predicted by colour image difference formulae?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a CRT monitor based psychophysical experiment to investigate the quality of three colour image difference metrics, the CIE?E ab equation, the iCAM and the S-CIELAB metrics. Six original images were reproduced through six gamut mapping algorithms for the observer experiment. The result indicates that the colour image difference calculated by each metric does not directly relate to perceived image difference.

Bando, Eriko; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Connah, David

2005-03-01

9

Pigment pattern and expression of colour in fruits from different Hylocereus sp. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigment profiles, betalain contents, colour and pH-values were studied in fruits from five Hylocereus sp. genotypes originating from Costa Rica. Significant colour differences between fruit pulps from “Nacional” and “San Ignacio” were found for C?-values and “Lisa” exhibited the most reddish tint h°. Whereas highest betalain contents were registered in “San Ignacio” and “Orejona”, lowest values were found in “Nacional”.

Patricia Esquivel; Florian C. Stintzing; Reinhold Carle

2007-01-01

10

Evolution of sex differences in microhabitat choice and colour polymorphism in Idotea baltica  

PubMed

We studied microhabitat choice of colour morphs, causes of sex differences in microhabitat use and colour polymorphism in Idotea balticaa marine isopod living mainly on the brown alga Fucus vesiculosusThe colour morphs differ in frequencies between the sexes and appear to be cryptic on the visually heterogeneous FucusIn this study, no colour-morph-dependent preference for visually matching microhabitats was found. However, in all three experiments conducted, females were found more often on the lower parts of the Fucus than males. The microhabitat choice of the sexes was directed by some character of Fucus itself, not by preferred height within the plant. However, the sexes did not choose differently between upper and lower parts of Fucus as food. The food choice and substrate choice correlated in males but not in females, implying that microhabitat and feeding preferences are more tightly associated in males. We propose that the stronger preference for the less exposed lower parts of Fucus as microhabitat and the lack of correlation between microhabitat and substrate choice in females can be explained in terms of a greater investment in anti-predator protection in females than in males. Thus, the sexual difference in microhabitat choice would ultimately result from different strategies maximizing reproductive success in males and females. We suggest that the sexual differences in coloration and colour morph frequency in I. baltica are explained as an adaptation to sex differences in patterns of habitat use.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9344431

Merilaita; Jormalainen

1997-10-01

11

Profiling of colour pigments of chili powders of different origin by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour pigments of five chili powders of different origins were separated and quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The similarities and dissimilarities of pigment composition of chili powders were elucidated by principal component analysis (PCA). RP-HPLC separated 50–100 pigment fractions depending on the detection wavelength and on the origin of chili powder. It was found that the pigment

Agnes Kósa; Tibor Cserháti; Esther Forgács; Helena Morais; Teresa Mota; A. C Ramos

2001-01-01

12

Anti-oxidative analysis, and identification and quantification of anthocyanin pigments in different coloured rice.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin pigments in coloured rice cultivars were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Two black rice cultivars (Asamurasaki, Okunomurasaki) contained three major anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and malvidin. Chinakuromai (black) rice additionally contained a fourth anthocyanin, petunidin-3-glucoside. Four red rice cultivars contained only malvidin. The total anthocyanin content varied greatly among black rice cultivars (79.5-473.7 mg/100g), but was lower in red rice (7.9-34.4 mg/100g). Total phenolic content was similar between red (460.32-725.69 mg/100g) and black (417.11-687.24 mg/100g) rice. The oxygen radical absorbing capacity was ranked as follows: red (69.91-130.32 ?mol Trolox/g)>black (55.49-64.85 ?mol Trolox/g)>green (35.32 ?mol Trolox/g)>white (21.81 ?mol Trolox/g) rice. The antioxidant capacity resulted mainly from the seed capsule, not the endosperm. The anthocyanin pigments contributed little to the total antioxidant capacity of red (0.03-0.1%) and black (0.5-2.5%) rice cultivars. Hence, the antioxidant capacity is derived mainly from other phenolic compounds. PMID:22980872

Chen, Xiao Qiong; Nagao, Norio; Itani, Tomio; Irifune, Kohei

2012-07-06

13

Effect of different carotenoid sources and their dietary levels on red porgy ( Pagrus pagrus) growth and skin colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas wild specimens exhibit a red pink silver colour, under captivity red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) skin turns dark grey, being directly associated with lower acceptance by the consumers and lower market value. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with two carotenoid sources, at two different concentrations, on growth and skin coloration. Fish of 44 g

C. T. Kalinowski; L. E. Robaina; H. Fernández-Palacios; D. Schuchardt; M. S. Izquierdo

2005-01-01

14

Multiple coloured ornaments in male common kestrels: different mechanisms to convey quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous exhibition of more than one secondary sexual trait is a widespread phenomenon in nature, though it has rarely been explored. It has been proposed that different ornaments may convey complementary or back-up information about a single aspect of individual quality (redundancy hypothesis) or that each ornament may convey unique information (multiple-messages hypothesis). During a 5-year period, we measured several carotenoid-based (eye ring, bill cere and tarsi skin) and melanin-based (head, back, rump and tail feathers) potential ornamental colours in male common kestrels. We analysed whether multiple ornaments can convey different or related information about individual quality. We explored whether different ornaments can express different information depending on the pigment (carotenoids or melanins), the time-scale over which the ornament can change (dynamic vs. static) and the season of the year when the ornament is formed. We found that both melanin- and carotenoid- based traits correlated with indexes of quality, including body condition, body condition of their partners and laying date. However, not all ornaments correlated with the same measures of quality. In addition, some ornaments were intercorrelated within the same individuals while others were not. These results suggest that different ornaments can convey information about different qualities, as predicted by the multiple-messages hypothesis. In addition, this study suggests that the predominant pigment (e.g. carotenoid vs. melanin, eumelanin vs. pheomelanin), the time-scale over which the trait is developed (static feathers vs. dynamic skin) and the season of the year at which the ornament is produced can be potential mechanisms to convey different messages in male common kestrels.

Vergara, Pablo; Fargallo, Juan A.

2011-04-01

15

Modelling colour and chlorophyll losses of frozen green beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour changes and chlorophyll degradation of frozen green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., variety bencanta) were studied during 250 days of storage at ?7, ?15 and ?30 °C. Chlorophyll a and b losses and colour Hunter a and b co-ordinates and total colour difference (TCDH) changes were successfully described by first order and reversible first order models, respectively. The temperature effect was

R. C. Martins; C. L. M. Silva

2002-01-01

16

Changes in colour of different human tissues as a marker of age.  

PubMed

This study deals with age estimation based on colour changes of human tissue from the intervertebral discs, Achilles tendon and rib cartilage. The investigated colour changes are the result of the accumulation of non-enzymatic browning products in the tissue. Samples of excised tissues were photographed with a digital camera and the pictures were evaluated using the image analysis processor Lucia G 4.11 processor. The values of the intensities of the RGB channels (MeanRed, Mean Green, MeanBlue) and parameters from the IHS system (MeanSaturation, HueTypical, HueVariation, BrightVariation and MeanBrightness) were evaluated. The results confirm that colour changes of some tissues depend on ageing and are a good tool for age estimation. PMID:17115173

Pilin, Alexander; Pudil, Frantisek; Bencko, Vladimír

2006-11-18

17

Cadmium colours: composition and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

18

Genetics of eye colours in different rural populations on the Silk Road.  

PubMed

Eye colour is a highly transmissible and discernible trait in humans. A genome-wide association scan for variants associated to eye pigmentation was carried out on a large group of individuals coming from the Silk Road. Significant associations were detected not only with HERC2 (P-value=4.99 × 10(-37)) and OCA2 (P-value=4.51 × 10(-9)) genes but also with CTNNA2 gene (P-value=4.06 × 10(-8)). Moreover, the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis clearly showed the effect of HERC2 haplotype over OCA2 mostly associated with SNP, thus enabling a highly accurate eye-colour prediction. Finally, the regression tree analysis showed that individuals carrying a given combination of haplotypes have a significant probability to show a blue or green/grey iris colour as compared with brown, with a gradient from west to east.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.41. PMID:23486544

Ulivi, Sheila; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

2013-03-13

19

Cultural preferences for hair colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare colour preference between Japanese and British people who have a different culture, we examined hair colour preference by questionnaire1-4), visual assessment5,6) and SD method7). We found several key differences between two countries. They were 'beauty' and 'fashion'. British students want hair colour beautiful, in contrast Japanese students want hair colour fashionable. From the factor analysis, we

Y. Kato; T. L. V. Cheung; S. Kitaguchi; S. Westland; H. Yasunaga; T. Sato

20

Spatial distribution pattern analysis of Dof1 transcription factor in different tissues of three Eleusine coracana genotypes differing in their grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study Dof1 gene of finger millet was cloned and sequenced. In silico analysis reveals 61% identity with the\\u000a Sorghum bicolor and 57% identity with the Oryza sativa Dof1 sequence. A comparative analysis of gene sequences from different crops and three finger millet genotypes {Brown (PRM-1),\\u000a Golden (PRM-701) and White (PRM-801)} differing in grain colour, yield and photosynthetic

Nidhi GuptaAtul; Atul Kumar Gupta; Anil Kumar

21

Shape and colour measurement of colourful objects by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel method to measure shape and colour information of a colourful object by projecting separate red, green and blue colour fringe patterns onto the object surface. With regard to the object surface's colour, the modulation at each pixel position in the three colour channels has different values. For example, when projecting blue fringe patterns onto a red point, the corresponding pixel has too low a fringe modulation to accurately calculate the phase (shape) information; but with red fringe patterns a high fringe modulation is obtained. Therefore, phase information of the red point can be calculated by projecting red fringe patterns. For each object point, by comparing the modulation values from the three colour channels, it is possible to choose the channel having maximum modulation, and hence phase information can be reliably obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm. The fringe order information is obtained by using the optimum three-frequency selection method, so there is a maximum reliability in determining the fringe order and the 3-D shape of an object with step or large slopes on the surface. Since three colour channels are used, colour information of the object surface can be extracted with high dynamic range from the same fringe patterns. Chromatic aberration between colour channels is unavoidable and can be eliminated by a software-based method. Using the recently developed colour fringe projection system, separate colour fringe patterns are projected onto a mug having different colour patterns, a colourful box and plate, and a colour checker card to test the proposed method. The results show the range of colours that can be measured and that shape and colour information of colourful objects can be reliably obtained.

Zhang, Zonghua; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David P.

2008-08-01

22

Assessing colour differences of viscose fabrics knitted from vortex-, ring- and open-end rotor-spun yarns after abrasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour values of fabric samples that are knitted from vortex-spun (VS), open-end rotor-spun and ring-spun yarns were evaluated after abrasion. We measured the changes of colour properties of each sample, considering spinning system, dyeing concentration and abrasion cycle, which have effects on colour values. The colour values of dyed fabrics knitted from ring spun yarns showed less change after

H. G. Ortlek; M. Tutak; G. Yolacan

2010-01-01

23

The Four-Colour Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four-colour theorem, that every loopless planar graph admits a vertex-colouring with at most four different colours, was proved in 1976 by Appel and Haken, using a computer. Here we give another proof, still using a computer, but simpler than Appel and Haken's in several respects.

Neil Robertson; Daniel P. Sanders; Paul D. Seymour; Robin Thomas

1997-01-01

24

Colour perception in pseudophakia.  

PubMed

Minor differences in colour perception between pseudophakic, phakic, and spectacle aphakic eyes were identified by the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. The results suggest that pseudophakic eyes are more sensitive to red and less sensitive to blue than aphakic eyes corrected with spectacles. Spectrophotometer measurements reveal that the Rayner-Pearce posterior chamber intraocular lens used in this study transmits an evenly balanced colour spectrum, whereas an aphakic spectacle lens exhibits significant colour distortion, reducing the red and enhancing the blue transmission. This distortion may possibly be attributed to the increased chromatic aberration in the spectacle lens compared with the intraocular lens. PMID:6981423

Jay, J L; Gautam, V B; Allan, D

1982-10-01

25

An analysis on quality, colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits (Sandoricum koetjape Burm. F.) Merr. Pui Fai cultivar, grown in Northern Thailand.  

PubMed

This laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during June to October 2007. The experiment aimed to search for the most appropriate harvesting age of fruits of Santol orchard plants with respect to colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Each replication consisted of 10 fruits, thus a total of 160 fruits were used. The Santol fruits were harvested at different ages, i.e., 100, 115, 130 and 145 days after full bloom of flowers and these harvested ages were used as treatments, i.e., 100 for T1 (Control), 115 for T2, 130 for T3 and 145 for T4. The results showed that the most appropriate harvesting date for high quality Santol fruits was found with T4, i.e., 145 days after full bloom of flowers where Santol fruits of T4 gave the highest mean values of fruit length, diameter, fresh weight fruit(-1) of 10.71 cm, 9.31 cm and 399.76 g, respectively. Yellowness of skin colour of fruits was evenly distributed. Total soluble solid content of pericarp, flesh tissue and seeds were highest for T4 with mean values of 13.93, 15.05 and 18.260 brix, respectively. Flesh texture density highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers. Titratable acidity content in fruits was highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers whereas a reverse was found with pH of fruit juices. PMID:18817267

Chutichudet, P; Chutichudet, Benjawan; Kaewsit, S

2008-05-15

26

Spatial distribution pattern analysis of Dof1 transcription factor in different tissues of three Eleusine coracana genotypes differing in their grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency.  

PubMed

In the present study Dof1 gene of finger millet was cloned and sequenced. In silico analysis reveals 61% identity with the Sorghum bicolor and 57% identity with the Oryza sativa Dof1 sequence. A comparative analysis of gene sequences from different crops and three finger millet genotypes {Brown (PRM-1), Golden (PRM-701) and White (PRM-801)} differing in grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency showed a high degree of sequence identity of Dof1 sequence gene ranging from 22 to 70% as evident from distance matrix of the built phylogenetic tree showing two major clusters. A total of five conserved motifs were observed in Dof1 sequences of different cereals. Motif 1 with multilevel consensus sequence CKNCRRYWTKGGAMRNVPVG contains zinc finger Dof domain. Motif 3 and motif 5 contains protein kinase phosphorylation site. Motif 2 contains Dof domain and zinc finger N-glycosylation site while motif 4 is involved in Zinc finger type profiling. Further, we studied the spatial distribution of Dof1 gene in three vegetative tissues (root, stem and flag leaf) as well as four stages of developing spikes (S1, S2, S3 and S4) of the three finger millet genotypes using qualitative and quantitative PCR based approaches. Physiological parameters (plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, SPAD value and photosynthetic efficiency) at the time of flowering was found to be highest in white (PRM-801) genotype followed by golden (PRM-701) and brown (PRM-1) genotype. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of Dof1 is highest in leaves and lowest in roots, which suggests its role in regulation of photosynthesis-related genes and carbon skeleton synthesis. Also at grain maturity stage, expression of Dof1 was higher in white (PRM-801) genotype followed by golden (PRM-701) and brown (PRM-1) genotype. The result is suggestive of Dof1 role in the accumulation of grain protein and yield attribute through regulation of key enzymes involved in source to sink relationship during grain filling stage. PMID:21643752

Gupta, Nidhi; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Kumar, Anil

2011-06-04

27

Sea-land total ozone differences from TOMS: GHOST effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean global TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) ozone data, averaged in time, reveals persistent year-to-year differences in total ozone between continents and oceans. This feature has been named GHOST (global hidden ozone structures from TOMS). During Northern Hemisphere summer it can be seen within the latitudinal belt between 40°S and 50°N. The most pronounced land-sea difference in total ozone with

E. Cuevas; M. Gil; J. Rodríguez; M. Navarro; K. P. Hoinka

2001-01-01

28

Colour and urban landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour regards urban landscape of important elements, it can reflect a city's history, local features and cultural tradition. This paper discusses to colour aesthetic application in urban landscape design, namely how to play a landscape of natural colour and artificial colour features and create urban landscape beauty of colours. Keywords-colour; urban landscape; urban colour \\

Xueping Wu; Shicheng Xu

2011-01-01

29

Colour blindness.  

PubMed

The physiology of colour vision is discussed; as is the way in which the human eye can detect various combinations of red, green and blue. Red-green colour blindness, with X-linked inheritance, is the most common, but other types are also considered. Methods of testing relating to the age of the child are reviewed. The use of colours in teaching is widespread, but there is controversy over the difficulties this may cause a colour blind child. A review of the literature does not reveal much information on this, and any problems that do arise are likely to be individual to the child, and to depend on such factors as overall intelligence, the attitude of the teacher, and the personality of the child. There is not doubt that it is essential to recognise colour vision defects when it comes to choosing a career, and that tests must be done during secondary schooling, but in order to avoid some affected children being disadvantaged there is enough evidence to support testing at school entry. PMID:9581449

Gordon, N

1998-03-01

30

Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to assess the content of tocopherols (?-, ?-, ?- and ?-) and carotenoids (?- and ?-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein, cryptoxanthin and lycopene) in the unsaponifiable matter as well as the amount of total phenols of 10 different types of nuts. Tocopherols and carotenoids were analysed with HPLC, total phenols photometrically. The mean value of ?-tocopherol equivalents ranged

Margit Kornsteiner; Karl-Heinz Wagner; Ibrahim Elmadfa

2006-01-01

31

Complementary colours for a physicist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level.

Babi?, Vitomir; ?epi?, Mojca

2009-07-01

32

Colour vision requirements of firefighters.  

PubMed

To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended. PMID:8776247

Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

1996-04-01

33

Exploring the Differences and Similarities Between Black\\/African and Coloured Men Regarding Violence Against Women, Substance Abuse, and HIV Risks in Cape Town, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research often reports HIV risks, men's relationships with women, substance abuse, and violence among Black\\/African and Coloured men in Cape Town, South Africa, without making note of possible cultural distinctions. Because of apartheid, race has historically affected the social and economic circumstances of many men differently; therefore, our research aimed to explore cultural nuances as they relate to HIV

Kyla M. Sawyer-Kurian; Wendee M. Wechsberg; Winnie K. Luseno

2009-01-01

34

Choosing effective colours for data visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a technique for choosing multiple colours for use during data visualization. Our goal is a systematic method for maximizing the total number of colours available for use, while still allowing an observer to rapidly and accurately search a display for any one of the given colours. Previous research suggests that we need to consider three

Christopher G. Healey

1996-01-01

35

Complementary Colours for a Physicist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

36

Antioxidant activities and total phenolics of different types of honey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of five different types of Yemeni honey {Acacia ehrenbergina (Salam-Tehamah), Acacia edgeworhi (Somar-Hadramout), Ziziphus Spina-christi L. (Sidr-Hadramout), Ziziphus Spina-christi L. (Sidr-Taiz), Tropical blossom (Marbai-Hadramout)}, and four types of imported origins {an American-Tropical blossom (New Orleans), an American-Orange source (Florida), Swiss-blossom, and an Iranian-Tropical blossom} were evaluated. Total phenolic contents of diluted honey samples

Mohamed Al-Mamary; Ali Al-Meeri; Molham Al-Habori

2002-01-01

37

Colouring of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON reading the very interesting and suggestive article on ``Experiments on the Autumn Colouring of Plants,'' by E. Overton, in NATURE for January 26, it occurred to me that the following observation might be of interest. While I was in Switzerland last summer, I noticed that different plants of Sempervivum arachnoideum, L., growing under apparently very similar conditions, differed much

May Rathbone

1899-01-01

38

Mechanisms of colour adaptation in the prawn Penaeus monodon.  

PubMed

Exposure of prawns to dark- or light-coloured substrates is known to trigger a strong colour adaptation response through expansion or contraction of the colouration structures in the prawn hypodermis. Despite the difference in colour triggered by this adaptive response, total levels of the predominant carotenoid pigment, astaxanthin, are not modified, suggesting that another mechanism is regulating this phenomenon. Astaxanthin binds to a specific protein called crustacyanin (CRCN), and it is the interaction between the quantities of each of these compounds that produces the diverse range of colours seen in crustacean shells. In this study, we investigated the protein changes and genetic regulatory processes that occur in prawn hypodermal tissues during adaptation to black or white substrates. The amount of free astaxanthin was higher in animals adapted to dark substrate compared with those adapted to light substrate, and this difference was matched by a strong elevation of CRCN protein. However, there was no difference in the expression of CRCN genes either across the moult cycle or in response to background substrate colour. These results indicate that exposure to a dark-coloured substrate causes an accumulation of CRCN protein, bound with free astaxanthin, in the prawn hypodermis without modification of CRCN gene expression. On light-coloured substrates, levels of CRCN protein in the hypodermis are reduced, but the carotenoid is retained, undispersed in the hypodermal tissue, in an esterified form. Therefore, the abundance of CRCN protein affects the distribution of pigment in prawn hypodermal tissues, and is a crucial regulator of the colour adaptation response in prawns. PMID:22189778

Wade, Nicholas M; Anderson, Mike; Sellars, Melony J; Tume, Ron K; Preston, Nigel P; Glencross, Brett D

2012-01-15

39

Segmentation of Colour Layers in Historical Maps Based on Hierarchical Colour Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour image segmentation (CIS) process for scanned historical maps is presented to overcome common problems associated with segmentation of old documents such as (1) variation in colour values of the same colour layer within one map page, (2) differences in typical colour values between homogeneous areas and thin line-work, which belong both to the same colour layer, and (3) extensive parameterization that results in a lack of robustness. The described approach is based on a two-stage colour layer prototype search using a constrained sampling design. Global colour layer prototypes for the identification of homogeneous regions are derived based on colour similarity to the most extreme colour layer values identified in the map page. These global colour layer prototypes are continuously adjusted using relative distances between prototype positions in colour space until a reliable sample is collected. Based on this sample colour layer seeds and directly connected neighbors of the same colour layer are determined resulting in the extraction of homogeneous colour layer regions. In the next step the global colour layer prototypes are recomputed using a new sample of colour values along the margins of identified homogeneous coloured regions. This sampling step derives representative prototypes of map layer sections that deviate significantly from homogeneous regions of the same layers due to bleaching, mixed or false colouring and ageing of the original scanned documents. A spatial expansion process uses these adjusted prototypes as start criterion to assign the remaining colour layer parts. The approach shows high robustness for map documents that suffer from low graphical quality indicating some potential for general applicability due to its simplicity and the limited need for preliminary information. The only input required is the colours and number of colour layers present in the map.

Leyk, Stefan

40

The handicap of abnormal colour vision.  

PubMed

All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

Cole, Barry L

2004-07-01

41

The colours of cloaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves

Sébastien Guenneau; Ross C. McPhedran; Stefan Enoch; Alexander B. Movchan; Mohamed Farhat; Nicolae-Alexandru P. Nicorovici

2011-01-01

42

MAJORITY ORDERING FOR COLOUR MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary and grayscale mathematical morphology have many applications in different domains. On the other hand, colour morphology is not widespread. The reason is the lack of a suitable colour ordering strategy that makes the extension of grayscale morphology to colour images not straightforward. We will introduce a new majority sorting scheme (MSS) that can be applied to binary, grayscale and

Alessandro Ledda; Wilfried Philips

43

Genetics of colouration in birds.  

PubMed

Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues. PMID:23665152

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

2013-05-09

44

Colour reproduction for advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to develop a colour reproduction system in advanced manufacture technology for accurate and automatic processing of soft tissue prostheses. METHODS: The manufacturing protocol was defined to effectively and consistently produce soft tissue prostheses using a 3D printing system. Within this protocol printer colour profiles were developed using a number of mathematical models for the proposed 3D colour printing system based on 240 training colours. On this basis, the colour reproduction system was established and their system errors including accuracy of colour reproduction, performance of colour repeatability and colour gamut were evaluated using 14 known human skin shades. RESULTS: The printer colour profile developed using the third-order polynomial regression based on least-square fitting provided the best model performance. The results demonstrated that by using the proposed colour reproduction system, 14 different skin colours could be reproduced and excellent colour reproduction performance achieved. Evaluation of the system's colour repeatability revealed a demonstrable system error and this highlighted the need for regular evaluation. The colour gamut for the proposed 3D printing system was simulated and it was demonstrated that the vast majority of skin colours can be reproduced with the exception of extreme dark or light skin colour shades. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the proposed colour reproduction system can be effectively used to reproduce a range of human skin colours for application in advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses. PMID:23643832

Xiao, Kaida; Zardawi, Faraedon; van Noort, Richard; Yates, Julian M

2013-05-01

45

Missense and nonsense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene of different goat breeds: association with red and black coat colour phenotypes but with unexpected evidences  

PubMed Central

Background Agouti and Extension loci control the relative amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin production in melanocytes that, in turn, affects pigmentation of skin and hair. The Extension locus encodes the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) whose permanent activation, caused by functional mutations, results in black coat colour, whereas other inactivating mutations cause red coat colour in different mammals. Results The whole coding region of the MC1R gene was sequenced in goats of six different breeds showing different coat colours (Girgentana, white cream with usually small red spots in the face; Maltese, white with black cheeks and ears; Derivata di Siria, solid red; Murciano-Granadina, solid black or solid brown; Camosciata delle Alpi, brown with black stripes; Saanen, white; F1 goats and the parental animals). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: one nonsense mutation (p.Q225X), three missense mutations (p.A81V, p.F250V, and p.C267W), and one silent mutation. The stop codon at position 225 should cause the production of a shorter MC1R protein whose functionality may be altered. These SNPs were investigated in a larger sample of animals belonging to the six breeds. The Girgentana breed was almost fixed for the p.225X allele. However, there was not complete association between the presence of red spots in the face and the presence of this allele in homozygous condition. The same allele was identified in the Derivata di Siria breed. However, its frequency was only 33%, despite the fact that these animals are completely red. The p.267W allele was present in all Murciano-Granadina black goats, whereas it was never identified in the brown ones. Moreover, the same substitution was present in almost all Maltese goats providing evidence of association between this mutation and black coat colour. Conclusion According to the results obtained in the investigated goat breeds, MC1R mutations may determine eumelanic and pheomelanic phenotypes. However, they are probably not the only factors. In particular, the surprising not complete association of the nonsense mutation (p.Q225X) with red coat colour raises a few hypotheses on the determination of pheomelanic phenotypes in goats that should be further investigated.

Fontanesi, Luca; Beretti, Francesca; Riggio, Valentina; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Gonzalez, Elena Gomez; Finocchiaro, Raffaella; Davoli, Roberta; Russo, Vincenzo; Portolano, Baldassare

2009-01-01

46

Colour models for characterising CRT colour monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate reproduction of colour images is needed to transform between the device dependent and device independent coordinates, thereby the appearance of all colours can be colorimetrically specified. In general, colour device characterisation can be defined as the provision of data to enable development of a mathematical transformation which determines the conversion between device specific data and colorimetric data based

Byoung-Ho Kang; Hong-Gee Kim; Maeng-Sub Cho; M. R. Luo

1999-01-01

47

The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

Harkness, Nick

2006-06-01

48

Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group. PMID:23911545

Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

2013-07-31

49

Effect of polysaccharides on the colour of anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a variety of plant polysaccharides and sugars on anthocyanin colour was investigated. The colour intensity (absorbance), but not the ?max, of solutions of different anthocyanins was found to be diminished in the presence of amylose, amylopectin and ?- and ?-cyclodextrins whilst glucose, maltose and sucrose caused an increase in colour. This colour change was more apparent at

Jane E Lancaster

1995-01-01

50

Colour Perception in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

2006-01-01

51

Evolution of colour vision in mammals  

PubMed Central

Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

Jacobs, Gerald H.

2009-01-01

52

The coloured quantum plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum plane associated to the coloured quantum group GLq?,?(2) and solve the problem of constructing the corresponding differential geometric structure. This is achieved within the /R-matrix framework generalising the Wess-Zumino formalism and leads to the concept of coloured quantum space. Both the coloured Manin plane as well as the bicovariant differential calculus exhibit the colour exchange symmetry. The coloured /h-plane corresponding to the coloured Jordanian quantum group GLh?,?(2) is also obtained by contraction of the coloured /q-plane.

Parashar, Deepak

2003-01-01

53

Two international colour meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two international Colour meetings held in May 1961 have given an opportunity or scientists working in this field to meet and compare notes. The first was the Maxwell Colour Centenary in London, organized by the Colour Group, with the Institute of Physics and Physical Society, and the Jnter–Society Colour Council (of the U.S.A.), to celebrate the first demonstration of colour

R. W. Brocklebank

1962-01-01

54

Is Green the Colour of Cash or Conviction? Colour Culture in China as Seen by Managers of Finnish MNCs: Report on a Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite anecdotes on differences in colour usage in, say, Europe and the Far-East, cultural colour conventions are not thoroughly comprehended. There is a lack of knowledge on how to use colours to support successful cross-cultural business communications, and even less understanding of why a particular colour or colour combination is interpreted in a specific way. The theoretical framework of this

Kirsi Mantua

55

Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing  

PubMed Central

This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to a very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) within the image. This, in turn, allows both distinguishing possible ROIs and retrieving their proper colour for further ROI analysis. This analysis is not commonly done in many biomedical applications that deal with colour images. Other important aspects is the computational cost of the different processing algorithms according to the colour model. This work takes these aspects into consideration to choose the best colour model tailored to the microscopic stain and tissue type under consideration and to obtain a successful processing of the histological image.

Bueno, Gloria; Gonzalez, Roberto; Deniz, Oscar; Gonzalez, Jesus; Garcia-Rojo, Marcial

2008-01-01

56

Colour vision of diabetics.  

PubMed Central

The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test has been assessed as a screening test for the detection of diabetic retinopathy likely to benefit from laser photocoagulation therapy. Two hundred and thirty-two diabetic eyes of 126 patients were tested. The results were assessed both for total error score relative to age and for the presence of polarity. Although the incidence of abnormal colour discrimination was found to correlate with the severity of retinopathy, the test was not sufficiently selective to be of value as a screening test in the detection of retinopathy requiring treatment.

Green, F D; Ghafour, I M; Allan, D; Barrie, T; McClure, E; Foulds, W S

1985-01-01

57

The Active Human Gut Microbiota Differs from the Total Microbiota  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbiota is considered one of the most fascinating reservoirs of microbial diversity hosting between 400 to 1000 bacterial species distributed among nine phyla with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria representing around of the diversity. One of the most intriguing issues relates to understanding which microbial groups are active players in the maintenance of the microbiota homeostasis. Here, we describe the diversity of active microbial fractions compared with the whole community from raw human fecal samples. We studied four healthy volunteers by 16S rDNA gene pyrosequencing. The fractions were obtained by cell sorting based on bacterial RNA concentration. Bacterial families were observed to appear or disappear on applying a cell sorting method in which flow cytometry was used to evaluate the active cells by pyronin-Y staining of RNA. This method was able to detect active bacteria, indicating that the active players differed from that observed in raw fecal material. Generally, observations showed that in the active fractions, the number of reads related to Bacteroidetes decreased whereas several families from Clostridiales (Firmicutes) were more highly represented. Moreover, a huge number of families appeared as part of the active fraction when cell sorting was applied, indicating reads that are simply statistically hidden by the total reads.

Peris-Bondia, Francesc; Latorre, Amparo; Artacho, Alejandro; Moya, Andres; D'Auria, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

58

Processing Strawberries to Different Products Alters Contents of Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanins, and Antioxidant Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strawberries were processed to juice, nectar, wine, and puree. For investigation of the antioxidant capacity as well as the contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, samples were taken after different stages of production to determine the effects of processing. The content of vitamin C was measured spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was analyzed by using the Folin-Ciocalteu

Yvonne Klopotek; Konrad Otto; Volker Böhm

2005-01-01

59

The use of Munsell colour charts in nipple–areola tattooing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tattooing is an excellent, simple and quick option in nipple–areola reconstruction. Colour mismatch is one of the commonest problems with this procedure. Use of Munsell colour charts allows the premixing of common colours for different patient populations using pigments from various manufacturers. There are significant correlations between nipple colour and Fitzpatrick skin type and between nipple colour and parity. Three

H. Henseler; V. Cheong; E. M. Weiler-Mithoff; I. R. MacKay; M. H. C. Webster

2001-01-01

60

Bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris ) sacrifice foraging speed to solve difficult colour discrimination tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of individual bumblebees at colour discrimination tasks was tested in a controlled laboratory environment. Bees were trained to discriminate between rewarded target colours and differently coloured distractors, and then tested in non-rewarded foraging bouts. For the discrimination of large colour distances bees made relatively fast decisions and selected target colours with a high degree of accuracy, but for

Adrian G. Dyer; Lars Chittka

2004-01-01

61

Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

2009-01-01

62

"Close" Encounters...of a Totally Different Kind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a project used in an advanced art class in which students focus on the work of Chuck Close by creating large self-portraits in the manner of Close. Describes the work of different students, such as how one student made a portrait using different colors of Skittles candy. (CMK)|

Greenman, Geri

2001-01-01

63

What weta want: colour preferences of a frugivorous insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants use colours as signals to attract mutualists and repel antagonists. Fleshy-fruits are often conspicuously coloured\\u000a to signal different types of information including fruit maturity and spatial location. Previous work on fruit colour selection\\u000a focus on large diurnal vertebrates, yet fruit colours are perceived differently by frugivores with different types of visual\\u000a systems. Here, we tested whether a nocturnal, frugivorous,

Nik Fadzly; K. C. Burns

2010-01-01

64

The Colour of Pain: Can Patients Use Colour to Describe Osteoarthritis Pain?  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using colour to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether colour could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. METHODS: Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using colour to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with colour, how colours related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using colour to describe pain to healthcare professionals. RESULTS: The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using colour was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. Colours used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of colours was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with colours such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of colours. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use colour to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of colour were raised. CONCLUSIONS: For some patients, using colour to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23495128

Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

2013-03-13

65

Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly

Carinna E. Parraman; John J. McCann; Alessandro Rizzi

2010-01-01

66

The unsuitability of html-based colour charts for estimating animal colours - a comment on Berggren and Meril? (2004)  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of techniques are used to study the colours of animal signals, including the use of visual matching to colour charts. This paper aims to highlight why they are generally an unsatisfactory tool for the measurement and classification of animal colours and why colour codes based on HTML (really RGB) standards, as advocated in a recent paper, are particularly inappropriate. There are many theoretical arguments against the use of colour charts, not least that human colour vision differs markedly from that of most other animals. However, the focus of this paper is the concern that, even when applied to humans, there is no simple 1:1 mapping from an RGB colour space to the perceived colours in a chart (the results are both printer- and illumination-dependent). We support our criticisms with data from colour matching experiments with humans, involving self-made, printed colour charts. Results Colour matching experiments with printed charts involving 11 subjects showed that the choices made by individuals were significantly different between charts that had exactly the same RGB values, but were produced from different printers. Furthermore, individual matches tended to vary under different lighting conditions. Spectrophotometry of the colour charts showed that the reflectance spectra of the charts varied greatly between printers and that equal steps in RGB space were often far from equal in terms of reflectance on the printed charts. Conclusion In addition to outlining theoretical criticisms of the use of colour charts, our empirical results show that: individuals vary in their perception of colours, that different printers produce strikingly different results when reproducing what should be the same chart, and that the characteristics of the light irradiating the surface do affect colour perception. Therefore, we urge great caution in the use of colour charts to study animal colour signals. They should be used only as a last resort and in full knowledge of their limitations, with specially produced charts made to high industry standards.

Stevens, Martin; Cuthill, Innes C

2005-01-01

67

Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2009-01-01

68

The colours of cloaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air-fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the colours of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed.

Guenneau, Sébastien; McPhedran, Ross C.; Enoch, Stefan; Movchan, Alexander B.; Farhat, Mohamed; Nicorovici, Nicolae-Alexandru P.

2011-02-01

69

Across light: through colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

2012-02-01

70

The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

2008-03-01

71

An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

Clariana, Roy B.

2004-01-01

72

Equating the perceived intensity of coloured lights to hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Previous investigations of the effects of light colour on the productivity or behaviour of chickens have not equated the intensity of the different coloured lights.2. Ten pullets (Warren Studler 128) were used to determine the perceived intensity of two colours at opposite ends of the visible spectrum (blue, peak wavelength 415 nm and red, peak wavelength 635 nm).3. Initially

D. S. Prayitno; C. J. C. Phillips

1997-01-01

73

Tooth root colour as a measure of chronological age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess a possible colour shift in the root surfaces of adult human teeth and if so, whether this colour change is related to chronological age. Teeth extracted from persons of known age and gender were obtained from Ontario dental practitioners and grouped into five-year age ranges. Three experiments were undertaken: (1) to identify a possible difference in yellow colouration between the four surfaces of tooth roots (mesial, distal, lingual, and buccal), (2) to investigate the difference in yellow colouration of tooth roots between non-molar teeth and molar teeth and (3) to assess the correlation between the age of teeth and root colour saturation for yellow, magenta, cyan and black. The teeth in all investigations were scanned by a flat-bed digital colour scanner with a Kodak colour scale control and viewed on a colour computer monitor. In the first two experiments the yellow colour saturation of the root surfaces was measured at six points on each root using Photoshop 5.0 software. A significant difference was observed in the percentage yellow colour saturation between the mesial and the other three anatomical surfaces (p < 0.01), and between the root surfaces of non-molar and molar teeth (p < 0.01) (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test). The authors then randomly assigned tooth surfaces to select an equivalent number of posterior and anterior teeth in the study, assessing the relationship between age and root colouration. Four points of colour measurement on 40 teeth (sample size permitting, see Table 1) for each known age and gender were assessed for colour saturation (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). The correlation of chronological age to colour saturation was linear for all colours, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.81 to r = 0.94. The high correlation values strongly support the conclusion that chronological age is related to increased root colouration. PMID:11324269

Lackovic, K P; Wood, R E

2000-12-01

74

The Sensation of Colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. CLERK MAXWELL in his valuable paper on Colour in NATURE (vol. iv. p. 13) commits himself to the opinion that there must be three distinct sets of retinal nerves, one for each of the three primary sensations of colour. It is obvious that demonstrative proof or disproof of this is unattainable : we can only reason analogically. The analogy

Joseph John Murphy

1871-01-01

75

Generalised leptonic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is conceivable that there is an SUN ‘colour’ gauge group for leptons, analogous to the gauged SU3 colour group of the quarks. The standard model emerges as the low energy effective theory when the leptonic colour is spontaneously broken. The simplest such generalised leptonic colour models are constructed. We show that the see-saw mechanism for small neutrino masses, along with the theoretical constraint of electric charge quantisation, suggests that the models with N=3, 5, 7 are the theoretically most promising cases. A striking feature of generalised leptonic colour is the physics associated with the extra leptonic degrees of freedom—the liptons. These particles can potentially be discovered at future colliders, such as the LHC, making the idea testable in the near future.

Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R.

2007-02-01

76

Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group. PMID:23888526

Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

2013-06-01

77

Quantification of Japanese quail eggshell colour by image analysis.  

PubMed

The Japanese quail lays eggs with colourful and patterned shells which make the eggshell colour difficult to classify. In this study, the method of measuring colour of patchy eggs using image analyses and its power to discriminate among individual variation were established. Estimated repeatability for egg colour and proportion of patterned areas was high (>0.58), suggesting intermedíate or high heritability of eggshell colour characteristics. Three components have been identified as significant in discriminant function analysis. These three components explained 91.4% of the total variance in egg colour characteristics. In cluster analysis, 78.3% of the eggs that were collected from 15 females were correctly classified. This study indicates that eggshell colour characteristics can be reliably studied by image analyses and that this method can provide a unified character list for future examinations and interpretations of quail egg characteristics. PMID:19621137

Sezer, Metin; Tekelioglu, Oguz

2009-06-11

78

Seabirds and chronic oil pollution: self-cleaning properties of gulls, Laridae, as revealed from colour-ring sightings.  

PubMed

Mystery oil spills off the Dutch coast affected colonial, adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls prior to and within the breeding season. From colour-ringed individuals, it was demonstrated that most oiled birds survived and were clean within a few weeks and often bred successfully. Further evidence of self-cleaning properties of Larus-gulls is provided from a long-term colour-ringing project (1984-2009). In total 46 birds were reported 'oiled', two died, but the majority cleaned itself and survived for up to 20 years after being oiled. From colour-ring data and 30 years of beached bird surveys (1980-2010) it is demonstrated that the effects of chronic oil pollution is larger in winter than in summer; a reflection of seasonal differences in exposure and environmental conditions. The self-cleaning properties of gulls are such that long-term survival is not necessarily jeopardized and even in a breeding season, not all is lost in case of a spill. PMID:21236450

Camphuysen, Kees C J

2011-01-13

79

Object knowledge modulates colour appearance  

PubMed Central

We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2011-01-01

80

Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The reflection peaks found are compatible within the experimental data. In addition to Bragg scattering, guided resonance has been observed in our theoretical calculation, which leads to a novel understanding of the structural colours in blue-banded bees.

Wan, Jones; Dai, Lixiin; Li, Jensen; Fung, Kwok-Kwong; Chan, Che-Ting

2006-03-01

81

Colour and lighting in hospital design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients’ health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that ‘a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery’.

Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

2006-06-01

82

A comparison of lexical-gustatory and grapheme-colour synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares two different profiles of synaesthesia. One group (N?=?7) experiences synaesthetic colour and the other (N?=?7) experiences taste. Both groups are significantly more consistent over time than control subjects asked to generate analogous associations. For the colour synaesthetes, almost every word elicits a colour photism and there are systematic relationships between the colours generated by words and those

Jamie Ward; Julia Simner; Vivian Auyeung

2005-01-01

83

Categorical Effects in Children's Colour Search: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In adults, visual search for a colour target is facilitated if the target and distractors fall in different colour categories (e.g. Daoutis, Pilling, & Davies, in press). The present study explored category effects in children's colour search. The relationship between linguistic colour categories and perceptual categories was addressed by…

Daoutis, Christine A.; Franklin, Anna; Riddett, Amy; Clifford, Alexandra; Davies, Ian R. L.

2006-01-01

84

Difference in blood flow volume of the common carotid artery between vascular and non-vascular dementia detected by colour duplex sonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using colour duplex sonography, blood flow volume in the common carotid artery was measured in 72 demented patients and 28 normal controls. Thirty-five patients with a Hachmski's ischaemic score of 7 or above and marked ischaemic lesions on CT were assigned to the vascular dementia (VD) group. Thirty three patients with probable Alzheimer's disease according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, 2

Tadashi Hamada; Masashi Takita; Hideo Kawano; Akito Noh-tomi; Masahiro Okayama

1993-01-01

85

Colour Mixing Based on Daylight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

Meyn, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

86

INVESTIGATION OF RESPONSE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have long been used to estimate the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) found in raw and finished drinking water. In recent years, computer automation and improved instrumental analysis technologies have created a ...

87

Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated

Jones Wan; Lixiin Dai; Jensen Li; Kwok-Kwong Fung; Che-Ting Chan

2006-01-01

88

Diagnosing synaesthesia with online colour pickers: maximising sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

The most commonly used method for formally assessing grapheme-colour synaesthesia (i.e., experiencing colours in response to letter and/or number stimuli) involves selecting colours from a large colour palette on several occasions and measuring consistency of the colours selected. However, the ability to diagnose synaesthesia using this method depends on several factors that have not been directly contrasted. These include the type of colour space used (e.g., RGB, HSV, CIELUV, CIELAB) and different measures of consistency (e.g., city block and Euclidean distance in colour space). This study aims to find the most reliable way of diagnosing grapheme-colour synaesthesia based on maximising sensitivity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true synaesthetes) and specificity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true non-synaesthetes). We show, applying ROC (receiver operating characteristics) to binary classification of a large sample of self-declared synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, that the consistency criterion (i.e., cut-off value) for diagnosing synaesthesia is considerably higher than the current standard in the field. We also show that methods based on perceptual CIELUV and CIELAB colour models (rather than RGB and HSV colour representations) and Euclidean distances offer an even greater sensitivity and specificity than most currently used measures. Together, these findings offer improved heuristics for the behavioural assessment of grapheme-colour synaesthesia. PMID:23458658

Rothen, Nicolas; Seth, Anil K; Witzel, Christoph; Ward, Jamie

2013-03-01

89

A novel system for the objective classification of iris colour and its correlation with response to 1% tropicamide.  

PubMed

Iris colour can provide an enormous amount of information about an individual. In addition to changes with pathological conditions, the colour of the iris can be a particularly useful indicator of how well a person will respond to a topically applied ocular drug. Until recently, classification of iris colour has been subjective, ranging from a basic description ('light' and 'dark') to more detailed grading systems, such as a comparison with preset photographic standards. However, variability within observers and differences in the interpretation between observers can influence the results. Objective techniques, in this respect, possess several advantages. They are able to detect differences in colour that subjective techniques are incapable of and they provide continuous data rather than discrete categories, thus improving the accuracy of drug response predictions. This study assessed iris colour by objective means. Slit-lamp photographs of various coloured irides were taken under standardised conditions. The slides were then scanned into a computer and the colour analysed using a calibrated software package. To establish the optimum colour parameter to be used for predictions of drug response, several parameters were calculated and compared with the subject response to 1% tropicamide (maximum change in pupil size, time to maximum change and total duration of effect). Many parameters had strong correlations with drug response, but the parameters 'z', 'b' (the proportion of blue in the image) and 'y' (the proportion of yellow in the image) were found to exhibit the highest correlations. They also showed better correlations with drug response than did a current iris colour grading system. PMID:9692029

German, E J; Hurst, M A; Wood, D; Gilchrist, J

1998-03-01

90

Attentional Load Attenuates Synaesthetic Priming Effects in Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the hallmarks of grapheme-colour synaesthesia is that colours induced by letters, digits and words tend to interfere with the identification of coloured targets when the two colours are different, i.e., when they are incongruent. In a previous investigation (Mattingley et al., 2001) we found that this synaesthetic congruency effect occurs when an achromatic-letter prime precedes a coloured target,

Jason B. Mattingley; Jonathan M. Payne; Anina N. Rich

2006-01-01

91

A visual simulator for full-colour thin-film electroluminescence displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A software-based simulation system for full-colour thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays is presented. The developed system provides tools for simulating the visual appearance of full-colour TFEL displays on a high-resolution shadow mask colour cathode-ray tube. The visual appearance of TFEL colour display configurations with different phosphors, colour cell geometric layouts, resolutions and frame rates can be simulated. It is possible to

Kari Saarinen

1995-01-01

92

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation.  

PubMed

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

Burtt, Edward H; Schroeder, Max R; Smith, Lauren A; Sroka, Jenna E; McGraw, Kevin J

2010-10-06

93

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation  

PubMed Central

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage.

Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

94

Efficient colour splitters for high-pixel-density image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the pixel size of image sensors shrinks to the wavelength of light, this results in low signal levels for a given photon flux per pixel as a result of scaling laws. Because many image sensors require colour filters, it becomes crucial for small-pixel sensors to have an efficient filtering method that can capture all incident photons without absorbing them. Here, we propose a new method to split colours by using a microscale plate-like structure with a transparent medium that has a higher refractive index than the surrounding material. We experimentally demonstrate that this principle of colour splitting based on near-field deflection can generate colour images with minimal signal loss. From comparisons of the sum of the total integrated values for the colour channels, we confirm the amount of light received is 1.85 times that of the conventional colour filter method of the Bayer array, while maintaining the same level of resolution.

Nishiwaki, Seiji; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Hiramoto, Masao; Fujii, Toshiya; Suzuki, Masa-Aki

2013-03-01

95

Male-male competition and speciation: aggression bias towards differently coloured rivals varies between stages of speciation in a Lake Victoria cichlid species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympatric speciation driven by sexual selection by female mate choice on a male trait is a much debated topic. The process is problematic because of the lack of negative frequency-dependent selection that can facilitate the invasion of a novel colour phenotype and stabilize trait polymorphism. It has recently been proposed that male-male competition for mating territories can generate frequency-dependent selection

P. D. D IJKSTRA; O. SEEHAUSEN; M. E. R. PIEROTTI; T. G. G. GROOTHUIS

2006-01-01

96

Colour Stability of Veneering Composites after Accelerated Aging  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the colour stability of four indirect composite restorative materials after accelerated aging. Methods: Four indirect composites (Gradia, Signum+, HFO and Adoro) were used. For each material, six specimens were prepared and subjected to accelerated aging (Suntest CPS+, Atlas, Chicago, IL, USA) according to ISO 7491. A Dr. Lange Microcolor Data Station colorimeter (Braive Instruments, Liege, Belgium) was used to measure specimen colour before and after aging. Measurements were performed according to the CIE L*a*b* system, and the mean L*, a* and b* values for each material were calculated. The equation ?E = [(?L*)2 + (?a*)2 + (?b*)2]1/2 was used to measure the total colour change (?E), where ?L*, ?a* and ?b* are the differences in the respective values before and after aging. One-way ANOVA were used to determine statistically significant differences in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E among the materials tested (P?L*=.063; P?a*=.521; P?b*=.984 and P?E=.408). After aging, Gradia specimens showed an increase in lightness (?L*=0.36) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.18, ?b*=0.6), while Signum+ specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=0.5) and a green-blue shift (?a*=?0.9, ?b*=?0.45). HFO specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=0.75) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.3, ?b*=0.06), and Adoro specimens exhibited an increase in lightness (?L*=2.07) and a green-yellow shift (?a*=?1.3, ?b*=0.68). Conclusions: Colour changes were found to be within accepted values of perceptibility and clinical acceptance after accelerated aging, and no statistically significant differences were found in ?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?E among the materials tested.

Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Sarafianou, Aspasia; Hatzikyriakos, Andreas

2010-01-01

97

Colour Duplex imaging through wound dressings.  

PubMed

Colour flow Duplex scanning is becoming the method of choice to determine patency and haemodynamic status in infrainguinal grafts and native arteries. Due to surgical wounds and ulcers, there are often dressings covering the leg above the vessel to be scanned. There is no data as to the effect of different wound dressings on colour flow Duplex signals. Ten normal superficial femoral arteries were scanned by a blinded operator. Initially the artery was visualised to assess the normal image produced for each artery on B-mode and colour flow ultrasound and a Doppler reading was taken. Then each of five commonly used dressings were applied to the skin above the artery, in random order and the blinded operator graded the signal produced on a linear analogue scale. Primapore, an absorbent material dressing and Spyroflex, a bilaminate membrane dressing, did not transmit ultra-sound at all. Granuflex extra thin allowed a clear B-mode image of each artery to be visualised and an adequate Doppler waveform to be obtained. However colour flow mapping was less than optimal although it was possible in each of the arteries. Opsite and Tegaderm, two thin membrane dressings allowed excellent B-mode and colour flow images, in addition to clear Doppler signals. In patients who require dressings and who may require colour flow Duplex scanning of vessels in the same area, we would suggest the use of a product that permits ultrasound transmission, thus saving the necessity of removing the dressing for the assessment. PMID:8270077

Whiteley, M S; Magee, T R; Harris, R; Horrocks, M

1993-11-01

98

Website image colour transformation for the colour blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look into the colour transformation algorithm, which focuses on the red-green colour vision deficient individuals. Red-green colour deficiency is the most common category of color blindness which causes red and green to be seen as beige color. From the comparison, the RGB color space to HSV conversion technique is chosen to be modified, which only allows

Siew-Li Ching; Maziani Sabudin

2010-01-01

99

Colour of larch heartwood and relationships to extractives and brown-rot decay resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larch heartwood is appreciated for its good mechanical properties, its colour and its texture, and it is often used outdoors because of its natural durability (decay resistance). In this study the colour of larch heartwood was studied in relation to extractives and decay resistance, with the aim to estimate durability of larch heartwood from its colour. On a total of

Notburga Gierlinger; Dominique Jacques; Michael Grabner; Rupert Wimmer; Manfred Schwanninger; Philippe Rozenberg; Luc E. Pâques

2004-01-01

100

Colour and photosensitive epilepsy.  

PubMed

Red-coloured flicker is claimed to be more epileptogenic than white or that of other colours matched for subjective intensity. A feature of the colour opponent system is that the response of luminosity-sensitive cortical units to stimulation of ganglion cells of a particular spectral sensitivity is reduced when cells of other sensitivities are simultaneously stimulated. We hypothesized that the apparent effect of colour on photosensitivity was not a property of red light per se but arose simply from the fact that, with commercially available filters a light can be provided to stimulate only red sensitive cones, but owing to the overlap of the absorption spectra of the visual pigments it is difficult to stimulate only green or blue sensitive cones. Such stimulation of a single cone population can be achieved by the 'silent substitution method' which has been used for evoked response studies. In 12 photosensitive epileptic patients we find that, using stimulus intensities (less than 20 nits) at which white flicker is without effect, stimulation of either red or green cones by the silent substitution method may produce epileptiform discharges, there being a slight (and not significant) excess of patients showing a greater sensitivity for green than for red cone stimulation. The findings are considered to support the hypothesis set out above. PMID:6208004

Binnie, C D; Estevez, O; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; Peters, A

1984-11-01

101

The Colour of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM reminded by Lord Rayleigh's lecture on this subject of the splendid light-blue colour presented by the tanks of water in which some of the water companies allow the sedimentation to take place of ``hard water'' which has been treated by Clark's process. I am thinking of those near Caterham and of those at Plumstead. The tanks-to the best

E. Ray Lankester

1910-01-01

102

Russia and the colour revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour revolutions, and especially the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, are widely perceived as major international setbacks to Putin's Russia. The Ukrainian events alarmed Russian elites, who feared the possibility of a local colour revolution during the 2007–2008 electoral cycle. To thwart the perceived colour revolution threat, Russian authorities adopted strategies that combined a political, administrative and intellectual assault on

Evgeny Finkel; Yitzhak M. Brudny

2012-01-01

103

Effect of Pretreatment and Drying Method on Colour Degradation Kinetics of Dried Salak Fruit During Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of heat treatment on colour stability of dried salak fruit during storage was investigated by using hot air (40–90 °C),\\u000a heat pump (isothermal and intermittent modes, 26–37 °C) and freeze-drying. Influence of pre-treatment on the colour property\\u000a was studied as well by blanching the sample at three levels of temperature (50–70 °C). Total colour change (?E*) was used to assess the colour

Sze Pheng Ong; Chung Lim Law; Ching Lik Hii

104

Different antioxidants status, total antioxidant power and free radicals in essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension is a multi-factorial process, prevalent in developed as well as in developing countries. Different antioxidants and free radicals play an important role in cardiovascular system. In present study, total antioxidant power in terms of FRAP (ferric reducing activity of plasma), free radicals and different antioxidants have been studied in essential hypertensives (n = 50) and normal subjects (n =

Manoj K. Kashyap; Vibha Yadav; Badan S. Sherawat; Sanjay Jain; Savita Kumari; Madhu Khullar; Prakash C. Sharma; Ravinder Nath

2005-01-01

105

Uses of spatial light modulators for colour optical processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we review the use of spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical processing applications involving colour management. We include pioneering results in collaboration with H. J. Caulfield, where colour information was introduced onto an optical correlator by means of gratings with different orientation, frequency and amplitude. Nowadays SLMs are used to manage colour in applications that include colour digital holography, multispectral and hyperspectral filtering, polarimetric sensing, or pulse shaping systems. Here we review techniques for the spectral characterization of liquid crystal SLMs and some of the advances in their use for some of the above-mentioned applications.

Campos, Juan; Moreno, Ignacio; Nicolas, Josep; Yzuel, María. J.

2013-09-01

106

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

2008-03-01

107

No clinical difference between large metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and 28-mm-head total hip arthroplasty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We aimed to test the claim of greater range of motion (ROM) with large femoral head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We compared 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene (MP) total hip arthroplasty with large femoral head metal-on-metal (MM) total hip\\u000a arthroplasty in a randomised clinical trial. ROM one year postoperatively was determined in 50 patients. Mean head sizes were\\u000a 28 mm (MP) and 48 mm (MM).

Wierd P. Zijlstra; Inge van den Akker-Scheek; Mark J. M. Zee; Jos J. A. M. van Raay

108

Phylogeography of colour polymorphism in the coral reef fish Pseudochromis fuscus, from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body colour has played a significant role in the evolution of coral reef fishes, but the phylogenetic level at which colour variation is expressed and the evolutionary processes driving the development and persistence of different colour patterns are often poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic relationships between multiple colour morphs of Pseudochromis fuscus (family

Vanessa Messmer; Lynne van Herwerden; Philip L. Munday; Geoffrey P. Jones

2005-01-01

109

Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%), chloroform (4.99%) and n-butanol extracts (3.94%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23%) and ethanol extracts (1.64%) contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%), chloroform (14.36%) and n-butanol extracts (10.76%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27%) and flavonoids (65.61%) owing to good antioxidant capacity.

Tian, Shuge; Shi, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ge, Liang; Upur, Halmuart

2011-01-01

110

Monitoring coral bleaching using a colour reference card  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the extent of coral bleaching has become an important part of studies that aim to understand the condition of coral reefs. In this study a reference card that uses differences in coral colour was developed as an inexpensive, rapid and non-invasive method for the assessment of bleaching. The card uses a 6 point brightness\\/saturation scale within four colour

U. E. Siebeck; N. J. Marshall; A. Klüter; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

2006-01-01

111

Anthocyanin content and colour development of pomegranate jam  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important parameters to which consumers are sensitive when selecting jams is the colour. Anthocyanin and colour development of pomegranate jams made from the ‘Mollar’ cultivar were analysed during five months. Different temperatures (5°C and 25°C) and light exposures (daylight and darkness) were tested during storage. Also the influence of pectin on jam preparation was evaluated. The

P. Melgarejo; R. Martínez; Fca Hernández; J. J. Martínez; P. Legua

2011-01-01

112

Novel holographic colour filters with double-transmission holograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel transmission structure for holographic colour filters is proposed. The colour filters utilize two identical transmission photopolymer hologram structures, laminated on both sides of a transparent substrate. The incoming white light is normally incident onto the device. Three different R, G, B beams are separated normally and coupled out due to the optical reciprocity. The simulation shows that the

Weichung Chao; Sien Chi

1998-01-01

113

Different antioxidants status, total antioxidant power and free radicals in essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a multi-factorial process, prevalent in developed as well as in developing countries. Different antioxidants and free radicals play an important role in cardiovascular system. In present study, total antioxidant power in terms of FRAP (ferric reducing activity of plasma), free radicals and different antioxidants have been studied in essential hypertensives (n = 50) and normal subjects (n = 50). Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipids-cholesterol, malonialdehyde, very low-density lipids (VLDL), uric acid, plasma homocysteine and low-density lipids (LDL), were significantly higher in hypertensives as compared to normotensive. HDL-cholesterol, SOD, GPx, reduced glutahione, total glutathione, oxidized glutathione, total thiols, protein thiols, non protein thiols, RNI, total antioxidant power, vitamin A, ascorbic acid and glutahione-S-transferase (GST) were decreased significantly in normotensive. We observed significantly low nitric oxide levels in hypertensive patients. No correlation was observed between severity of disease and plasma nitric oxide levels. There was a significant decrease in plasma FRAP value in essential hypertensives as compared to normotensive controls, which showed a negative correlation with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, our study revealed that there was a consistent significant difference between essential hypertensives versus controls with respect to most of the parameters. These complex changes are consistent in the view that essential hypertension is associated with an abnormal level of antioxidant status compared to normal response to oxidative stress or both. PMID:16132719

Kashyap, Manoj K; Yadav, Vibha; Sherawat, Badan S; Jain, Sanjay; Kumari, Savita; Khullar, Madhu; Sharma, Prakash C; Nath, Ravinder

2005-09-01

114

Estimating annual generation rates of total P and total N for different land uses in Tasmania, Australia.  

PubMed

Water quality issues have become increasingly important to Australian catchment stakeholders. As extensive nutrient sampling and modelling expertise are often absent or unattainable, simple unit-area models like Catchment Management Support System (CMSS) remain an attractive option for informing water quality management decisions. The selection of nutrient generation rates for use in CMSS is often an arbitrary assignment based on limited literature sources or expert opinion. Using a Bayesian model to estimate nutrient generation rates for the region of Tasmania, Australia, improved the rigor of CMSS modelling and in the process highlighted that dairy pastures were the most significant contributor of total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads to Tasmanian rivers. PMID:21354692

Broad, S T; Corkrey, R

2011-02-26

115

Effects of different fungal elicitors on growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six fungal elicitors prepared from Rhodotorula rubra, Rhodotorula glutinis, Panus conchatus, Coriolus versicolor, Mucor mucedo, Mortieralla alpina M-23 were examined to determine their effects on the growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The results showed that different fungal elicitor could cause diversely stimulating effects. Among the fungal elicitors tested, the M. mucedo elicitor concentration of 30mgl?1 promoted

Wenjun Wang; Longjiang Yu; Pengpeng Zhou

2006-01-01

116

Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Activities, and Anthocyanins of Different Grape Seed Cultivars Grown in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolics, antioxidant activities, anthocyanins, vitamine E, and tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) of different cultivars of grape seed extracts (GSE) grown in Jordan were evaluated. In addition, antioxidant activities of GSE were investigated using olive oil substrate by oxidative stability instrument (OSI). Results of chemical composition showed that Baladi black and Asbani black had the highest amount of fat content 14.52

Taha M. Rababah; Khalil I. Ereifej; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Khalid Ismaeal; Al-Gutha Hidar; W. Yang

2008-01-01

117

Postprandial Gastrointestinal Hormone Production Is Different, Depending on the Type of Reconstruction Following Total Gastrectomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study examines the differences in gastrointestinal hormone production at 3 different reconstruction types after total gastrectomy. Background Data: Total gastrectomy causes significant weight loss, mainly due to a reduced caloric intake probably because of a lack of initiative to eat or early satiety during meals. Behind this phenomenon a disturbed gastrointestinal hormone production can be presumed. Methods: Patients participating in a randomized study were recruited for the clinical experiment. Seven patients with simple Roux-en-Y reconstruction, 11 with aboral pouch (AP) construction, and 10 with aboral pouch with preserved duodenal passage (APwPDP) reconstruction, as well as 6 healthy volunteers were examined. Blood samples were taken 5 minutes before and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after ingestion of a liquid test meal. Plasma concentrations for insulin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin were determined by radioimmunoassay analysis. Results: Postprandial hyperglycemia was observed in patients after total gastrectomy most prominently in groups with duodenal exclusion (Roux-en-Y and AP) compared with healthy controls. Postprandial insulin curves reached significantly higher levels in all operated groups compared with controls, however, with no difference according to reconstruction type. Significantly higher cholecystokinin levels and higher integrated production of cholecystokinin were observed in Roux-en-Y and AP groups compared with APwPDP and control. Postprandial somatostatin levels were significantly different between the 4 groups, and highest levels and integrated secretions were reached in AP group, lowest in APwPDP and normal groups. Conclusion: A disturbed glucose homeostasis was observed in gastrectomized patients most prominently in the Roux-en-Y group. Also, cholecystokinin and somatostatin response differed significantly in favor of duodenal passage preservation after total gastrectomy. Cholecystokinin levels close to physiologic found at APwPDP reconstruction may contribute to a physiologic satiation in reconstructions with preserved duodenal passage after total gastrectomy.

Kalmar, Katalin; Nemeth, Jozsef; Kelemen, Agoston; Horvath, Ors Peter

2006-01-01

118

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

2008-01-01

119

Colour image compression by grey to colour conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of de-correlating image luminance from chrominance, some use has been made of using the correlation between the luminance component of an image and its chromatic components, or the correlation between colour components, for colour image compression. In one approach, the Green colour channel was taken as a base, and the other colour channels or their DCT subbands were approximated as polynomial functions of the base inside image windows. This paper points out that we can do better if we introduce an addressing scheme into the image description such that similar colours are grouped together spatially. With a Luminance component base, we test several colour spaces and rearrangement schemes, including segmentation. and settle on a log-geometric-mean colour space. Along with PSNR versus bits-per-pixel, we found that spatially-keyed s-CIELAB colour error better identifies problem regions. Instead of segmentation, we found that rearranging on sorted chromatic components has almost equal performance and better compression. Here, we sort on each of the chromatic components and separately encode windows of each. The result consists of the original greyscale plane plus the polynomial coefficients of windows of rearranged chromatic values, which are then quantized. The simplicity of the method produces a fast and simple scheme for colour image and video compression, with excellent results.

Drew, Mark S.; Finlayson, Graham D.; Jindal, Abhilash

2011-02-01

120

Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

2013-06-28

121

Spectral composition of thermoluminescence of coloured NaCl crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives the experimental results of studying the spectral composition of thermoluminescence in the different maxima in photo-chemically coloured “pure” NaCl crystals or NaCl-crystals containing Cu in different concentrations.

J. Dolejsí; A. Bohun

1960-01-01

122

Response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to differing ozone regimes having identical total exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protocols were designed to test for differences in response of plants to ozone treatments having equal total exposure (concentration × time) but different exposure profiles Kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. California Dark Red) were exposed to ozone in controlled fumigation chambers within a greenhouse Four different ozone exposure profiles were used, each having the same total cumulative exposure (SUM00) and the same 7, 12 and 24 h seasonal means. The three exposure profiles which incorporated peak concentrations more severely impacted response parameters compared to a steady-state profile which did not exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Significant differences were found in percent necrotic leaf area, number of pods and top dry weight between exposure profiles. In additional analyses, the response parameters were regressed against seasonal cumulative ozone concentrations raised to powers of 0.33 and from 0.5 to 4 in steps of 0.5 in order to increase effective weighting of the higher concentrations. Total dry weight and leaf necrosis were best fit with the sum of the squared concentrations ( n = 2) while number of pods was best fit by the summed concentrations to the 3.5 power ( n = 3.5). These analyses suggest the peak ozone concentrations are important in determining plant response.

Musselman, Robert C.; Younglove, Theodore; McCool, Patrick M.

123

Odour and colour polymorphism in the food-deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza romana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food deceptive orchid, Dactylorhiza romana (Sebastiani) Soó exhibits a colour polymorphism with yellow, red, and intermediate orange morphs. In this study we tested\\u000a if floral odour differed among the three distinct colour morphs. We identified 23 odour compounds in D. romana, and all of them occurred in the three colour morphs. Monoterpenes dominated the floral scent. On the basis

C. C. Salzmann; F. P. Schiestl

2007-01-01

124

Habitat heterogeneity, predation and gene flow: colour polymorphism in the isopod, Idotea baltica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour polymorphic isopod Idotea baltica inhabits the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus which is often colonised by the white epizoite Electra crustulenta (Bryozoa). In an experiment the predation risk for the different colour morphs of I. baltica was highly dependent on background colouration. Morph frequencies and Electra density varied substantially among 10 collecting sites but correlated poorly with each other,

SAMI MERILAITA

2001-01-01

125

Nonrandom associations of graphemes to colours in synaesthetic and non-synaesthetic populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that biases exist in the associations of letters with colours across individuals both with and without grapheme-colour synaesthesia. A group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes were significantly more consistent over time in their choice of colours than a group of controls. Despite this difference, there were remarkable inter-subject agreements, both within and across participant groups (e.g., a tends to

Julia Simner; Jamie Ward; Monika Lanz; Ashok Jansari; Krist Noonan; Louise Glover; David A. Oakley

2005-01-01

126

Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders.  

PubMed

Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change. PMID:24068351

Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme

2013-10-15

127

The measurement of normal-stress differences using a cone- and-plate total thrust apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal ofJackson andKaye (1966) for evaluating both differences of normal stress in a viscometric flow by using only total thrust measurements in a cone- and-plate viscometer is extended. An analytic relation valid for all values of the separation between cone and plate is obtained, which is shown to include as special cases the well-known cone- and-plate formula, the parallel-plate

B. D. Marsh; J. R. A. Pearson

1968-01-01

128

Microscopic optical-model calculations of neutron total cross sections and cross section differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the microscopic optical model of Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux we have calculated the absolute neutron total cross sections and cross section differences of 140Ce, 139Ce, 141Ce, 142Ce, and 40Ca, 44Ca from 6-60 MeV and have made comparisons with experimental data. Except for 142Ce, reasonable agreement with the mass 140 data was achieved with proton densities rhop of the nuclei

H. S. Camarda; F. S. Dietrich; T. W. Phillips

1989-01-01

129

Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol, alfentanil, and oxygen-air: three different dosage schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different dosage schemes of propofol infusions combined with a fixed-rate alfentanil infusion were investigated in total\\u000a intravenous anaesthesia. In 30 premedicated patients, divided at random into three groups, anaesthesia was induced with propofol\\u000a 2 mg · kg? 1 immediately followed by an alfentanil infusion 10 ?g · kg? 1 · min? 1 as a loading dose which was decreased

Lucia van Leeuwen; Wouter W. A. Zuurmond; Louis Deen; Henk J. H. J. Helmers

1990-01-01

130

There's more to taste in a coloured bowl.  

PubMed

The flavour and pleasantness of food and drinks are affected by their colour, their texture or crunch, and even by the shape and weight of the plate or glass. But, can the colour of the bowl also affect the taste of the food it contains? To answer this question we served popcorn in four different coloured bowls, and participants rated sweetness, saltiness, and overall liking. The sweet popcorn, in addition to being sweet, was perceived as saltier when eaten out of a coloured (as compared to a white) bowl, and vice versa for the salty popcorn. These results demonstrate that colour in bowl design can be used to elicit perceptions of sweetness and saltiness in real foods. PMID:22128561

Harrar, Vanessa; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

2011-01-01

131

Demographic Variation between Colour Patterns in a Temperate Protogynous Hermaphrodite, the Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta  

PubMed Central

Fish populations are often treated as homogeneous units in typical fishery management, thereby tacitly ignoring potential intraspecific variation which can lead to imprecise management rules. However, intraspecific variation in life-history traits is widespread and related to a variety of factors. We investigated the comparative age-based demography of the two main colour patterns of Labrus bergylta (plain and spotted, which coexist in sympatry), a commercially valuable resource in the NE Atlantic. Individuals were aged based on otolith readings after validating the annual periodicity of annuli deposition. The relationships between the otolith weight and fish age and between otolith length and fish length were strong but differed between colour patterns. The fit of the growth models to the age and length data resulted in divergent growth curves between colour morphotypes and between sexes. Males and spotted individuals attained larger mean asymptotic sizes (Linf) than females and plain individuals, respectively, but converged to them more slowly (smaller k). Estimates of mortality based on catch curves from two independent datasets provided a global total mortality (Z) of 0.35 yr–1, although Z was larger in plain and female individuals. Overall, the results of this research have direct implications for management of L. bergylta and, as a precautionary measure, we recommend considering both colour patterns as two different management units.

Villegas-Rios, David; Alonso-Fernandez, Alexandre; Fabeiro, Marina; Banon, Rafael; Saborido-Rey, Fran

2013-01-01

132

Demographic Variation between Colour Patterns in a Temperate Protogynous Hermaphrodite, the Ballan Wrasse Labrus bergylta.  

PubMed

Fish populations are often treated as homogeneous units in typical fishery management, thereby tacitly ignoring potential intraspecific variation which can lead to imprecise management rules. However, intraspecific variation in life-history traits is widespread and related to a variety of factors. We investigated the comparative age-based demography of the two main colour patterns of Labrus bergylta (plain and spotted, which coexist in sympatry), a commercially valuable resource in the NE Atlantic. Individuals were aged based on otolith readings after validating the annual periodicity of annuli deposition. The relationships between the otolith weight and fish age and between otolith length and fish length were strong but differed between colour patterns. The fit of the growth models to the age and length data resulted in divergent growth curves between colour morphotypes and between sexes. Males and spotted individuals attained larger mean asymptotic sizes (Linf ) than females and plain individuals, respectively, but converged to them more slowly (smaller k). Estimates of mortality based on catch curves from two independent datasets provided a global total mortality (Z) of 0.35 yr(-1), although Z was larger in plain and female individuals. Overall, the results of this research have direct implications for management of L. bergylta and, as a precautionary measure, we recommend considering both colour patterns as two different management units. PMID:24058404

Villegas-Ríos, David; Alonso-Fernández, Alexandre; Fabeiro, Mariña; Bañón, Rafael; Saborido-Rey, Fran

2013-08-23

133

Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis).  

PubMed

Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background. PMID:19798479

Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E

2009-10-02

134

A New Colour ConsciousnessColour in the Digital Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film's visual design is increasingly determined digitally, after principal cinematography. This essay charts the nature of the digital revolution in relation to digital colour grading. Faced with the new digital devices, filmmakers are casting about for appropriate, respectable functions. The paper examines how the first two mainstream Hollywood releases to feature digital colour designs, Gary Ross's Pleasantville (1998), and

Scott Higgins

2003-01-01

135

Determination of spectral and total emissivities of different new steel qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissivities of different new steel grades for reactor use were determined. Numerical models for optimizing of the radiation heat transfer need total emissivities. For idealized bright metals the calculation of emissivities is possible, but not for different thermally treated surfaces. The emissivity of technical surfaces depends on numerous factors and cannot be calculated exactly based on theoretical relations. Therefore the emissivities of different pretreated steel samples have to be determined experimentally. The emissivity properties of two new steel qualities with and without different pre-treatments were investigated in the wavelength range between approx. 1.5 ?m and 24 ?m and the temperature range 200°C and 700°C. The results will be shown as spectral emissivities. Differences in the emissivities caused by pre-treatments will be discussed. The University of Duisburg-Essen has a measuring device for spectral emissivities. With these values temperature dependent total- and band-emissivities for use in heat transfer calculations and non-contact temperature measurements can be determined.

Bauer, Wolfgang; Rink, Matthias; Smit, Kobus

2003-04-01

136

Comparative Study on the Difference in Functional Outcomes at Discharge between Proximal and Total Gastrectomy  

PubMed Central

Several studies have regarded proximal gastrectomy (PG) as optimal compared to total gastrectomy (TG) for upper stomach cancer. In addition to the traditional outcomes of complication and mortality, change in functional status should be considered as another relevant outcome in aging generations. However, there has been no community-based appraisal of functional outcomes between PG and TG. Using an administrative database, we compared functional outcomes between PG and TG. Among 12,508 patients who survived for ?15 years and underwent open gastrectomy between 2008 and 2010, we examined patient characteristics, comorbidities, functional status estimated by the Barthel index (BI) at admission and discharge, complications, ICU care, ventilation administration, blood transfusion, operating room time, resumption of oral intake, length of stay and total charges. With reference to distal gastrectomy (DG), we performed multivariate analyses to assess the impacts of PG and TG on complications and BI deterioration. A total of 434 PGs and 4,941 TGs were observed in 148 and 295 hospitals, respectively. Patient characteristics, care process, resumption of oral intake, operating room time, length of stay and total charges were also significantly different among the three gastrectomy types. PG, TG and DG were not associated with complications or functional deterioration. Patient characteristics, preoperative blood transfusion and longer operating room time were significantly associated with more complications and BI deterioration. Since patient case mix and longer operating room time were associated with poor outcomes, physicians should recognize the role of PG and might optimally challenge and complete gastrectomies within the appropriate indications.

Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Shinya; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fujimori, Kenji

2012-01-01

137

Ionospheric response to total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 in different Indian regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variability of ionospheric response to the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 has been studied analyzing the GPS data recorded at the four Indian low-latitude stations Varanasi (100% obscuration), Kanpur (95% obscuration), Hyderabad (84% obscuration) and Bangalore (72% obscuration). The retrieved ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) shows a significant reduction (reflected by all PRNs (satellites) at all stations) with a maximum of 48% at Varanasi (PRN 14), which decreases to 30% at Bangalore (PRN 14). Data from PRN 31 show a maximum of 54% at Kanpur and 26% at Hyderabad. The maximum decrement in VTEC occurs some time (2-15 min) after the maximum obscuration. The reduction in VTEC compared to the quiet mean VTEC depends on latitude as well as longitude, which also depends on the location of the satellite with respect to the solar eclipse path. The amount of reduction in VTEC decreases as the present obscuration decreases, which is directly related to the electron production by the photoionization process. The analysis of electron density height profile derived from the COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate) satellite over the Indian region shows significant reduction from 100 km altitude up to 800 km altitude with a maximum of 48% at 360 km altitude. The oscillatory nature in total electron content data at all stations is observed with different wave periods lying between 40 and 120 min, which are attributed to gravity wave effects generated in the lower atmosphere during the total solar eclipse.

Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

2013-09-01

138

Archaeological Zelliges of Meknes (14th-century): Physical measurements of the colour and identification of colouring agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two series of Zelliges belonging to the Filalia and Bou-Inaniya Medersas (14th-century) in Meknes city have been studied in order to describe precisely the colour of the glazes and to identify the chromogen agents responsible for these colours. The glaze colours are physically studied by the determination of their chromatic coordinates using chromametry method. These coordinates are represented in the conventional Yxy and L*a*b* spaces. Furthermore the chromogen ions, responsible for the different colour shades, are identified by optical absorption spectrometry (OAS) and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. These ions are the classical ones: copper (Cu2+) for the green, cobalt (Co2+) for the blue, iron (Fe3+) for the honey colour and iron (Fe3+) in association with manganese (Mn3+) for the black.

Ben Amara, A.; Azzou, A.; Haddad, M.; Schvoerer, M.; Ney, C.; Lyazidi, S. Ait; Molinié, P.

2005-03-01

139

Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

2010-01-01

140

Polarizational colours could help polarization-dependent colour vision systems to discriminate between shiny and matt surfaces, but cannot unambiguously code surface orientation.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that egg-laying Papilio butterflies could use polarizational colours as a cue to detect leaf orientation and to discriminate between shiny and matt leaves. These hypotheses would be supported if the following general questions were answered positively: (1) Can surface orientation be unambiguously coded by the polarizational colours perceived by polarization-sensitive colour vision systems? (2) Are the changes in the polarizational colours due to retinal rotation significantly different between shiny and matt surfaces? Using video polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarizational characteristics of a shiny green hemisphere in the red, green and blue spectral ranges for different solar elevations and directions of view with respect to the solar azimuth as well as for sunlit and shady circumstances under clear skies. The continuously curving hemisphere models numerous differently oriented surfaces. Using the polarization- and colour-sensitive retina model developed earlier, we computed the polarizational colours of the hemisphere, and investigated the correlation between colours and local surface orientation. We also calculated the maximal changes of the polarizational colours of shiny and matt hemispheres induced by rotation of the retina. We found that a surface with any orientation can possess almost any polarizational colour under any illumination condition. Consequently, polarizational colours cannot unambiguously code surface orientation. Polarization sensitivity is even disadvantageous for the detection of surface orientation by means of colours. On the other hand, the colour changes due to retinal rotation can be significantly larger for shiny surfaces than for matt ones. Thus, polarizational colours could help discrimination between shiny and matt surfaces. The physical and perceptional reasons for these findings are explained in detail. Our results and conclusions are of general importance for polarization-dependent colour vision systems. PMID:15246750

Hegedüs, Ramón; Horváth, Gábor

2004-01-01

141

The Number of Discriminable Colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH a calculation of the approximate number of discriminable colours must depend upon the individual concerned, `normal' persons may be expected to furnish data which agree to the correct order of magnitude. The method used here involves the choice of an arbitrary colour solid, the well-known Titchener-Ebbhighaus double pyramid, to which available experimental data are applied with simplifying assumptions, in

George B. Welch

1937-01-01

142

Colours due to Intermittent Illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR. C. T. WHITMELL (NATURE, September 1, p. 424) describes a method of producing coloured patches by means of a rotating disc, furnished with a ring of holes. It will be found that the phenomenon can also be produced by intermittent reflection. In the year 1881 I described in NATURE (vol. xxiv. p. 140) a method whereby colour patches of

F. J. Jervis-Smith

1904-01-01

143

Analogy of Colour and Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

I FIND in your number of January 13 an interesting paper by Mr. Barrett on the Correlation of Colour and Sound. It seems to me that Mr. Barrett depreciates the phenomenon of Newton's rings by saying that the ``connection between the relative spaces occupied by each colour and the relative vibrations of the notes of the scale'' ... ``cannot be

W. S. Okely

1870-01-01

144

Influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on colour removal by coagulation and filtration.  

PubMed

This study aims to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances (AHSs) on the effectiveness of coagulation with aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using the jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out with water samples having a true colour of approximately 100 Hazen units and prepared with AHSs of different molecular sizes. Stability diagrams are presented showing regions of > or = 90% and > or = 95% apparent colour removal delineated for each water sample using plots of total metal ion concentration (Al3+ and Fe3+) versus coagulation pH. To achieve the same degree of colour removal, the water samples with smaller apparent molecular sizes and a higher percentage of fulvic acids required higher dosages of both aluminium sulphate and ferric chloride. PMID:22439564

Rigobello, Eliane Sloboda; Dantas, Angela Di Bernardo; Di Bernardo, Luiz; Vieira, Eny Maria

2011-12-01

145

Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.  

PubMed

The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found with respect to lycopene content and antioxidant capacity. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars. PMID:22716946

Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

2012-06-20

146

Fuzzy Modeling and Synchronization of Two Totally Different Chaotic Systems via Novel Fuzzy Model.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new fuzzy model is presented to simulate and synchronize two totally different and complicated chaotic systems, namely, 1) quantum cellular neural networks nanosystem (Quantum-CNN system) and 2) Qi system. Through the new fuzzy model, the following three main advantages can be obtained: 1) only two linear subsystems are needed; 2) the numbers of fuzzy rules can be reduced from 2(N) to 2 ×N (comparing with the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model), where N is the number of nonlinear terms; 3) fuzzy synchronization of two different chaotic systems with different numbers of nonlinear terms can be achieved with only two sets of gain K. There are two examples in numerical simulation results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our new model. PMID:21278021

Li, Shih-Yu; Ge, Zheng-Ming

2011-01-28

147

Quantifying differences in total tract nutrient digestibilities between goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Conclusions from narrative qualitative reviews on differences in total tract digestibilities between goats and sheep did not account for variability among studies. Therefore meta-analytic techniques were used to describe the magnitude of these differences with numerical values. A unitless effect size (Hedges' g) was applied within studies to measure differences in digestibilities of dry matter (DM; 104 comparisons), organic matter (OM; 93 comparisons), crude protein (CP; 85 comparisons), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; 74 comparisons), acid detergent fibre (ADF; 59 comparisons), cellulose (24 comparisons), hemicellulose (18 comparisons) and gross energy (GE; 29 comparisons). The absence and inability to describe independent factors which contributed to variation among studies necessitated the use of frequentist random effects and hierarchical Bayesian models in the calculation of summary statistics across studies. Digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose were higher (p < 0.05) in goats than sheep when all-forage diets were fed. When concentrates were included in the diets, there were no such differences. Differences between goats and sheep in DM intake were found to be non-significant. Differences in nutrient digestibilities of forages as sole feed implies that species-specific values have to be used in feed formulation and feeding strategies. However, caution is needed when extrapolating results from stall-feeding, which is how digestibility data are usually measured, to grazing conditions. PMID:21762428

Sales, J; Jan?ík, F; Homolka, P

2011-07-18

148

Microscopic optical-model calculations of neutron total cross sections and cross section differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the microscopic optical model of Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux we have calculated the absolute neutron total cross sections and cross section differences of ¹⁴°Ce, ¹³⁹La--¹⁴°Ce, ¹⁴¹Pr--¹⁴°Ce, ¹⁴²Ce--¹⁴°Ce, and ⁴°Ca, ⁴⁴Ca--⁴°Ca from 6--60 MeV and have made comparisons with experimental data. Except for ¹⁴²Ce--¹⁴°Ce, reasonable agreement with the mass 140 data was achieved with proton densities rho\\/sub p\\/ of the

H. S. Camarda; F. S. Dietrich; T. W. Phillips

1989-01-01

149

Lighting environment predicts the relative abundance of male colour morphs in bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) populations.  

PubMed Central

Animal communication occurs when an animal emits a signal, the signal is transmitted through the environment, and then detected by the receiver. The environment in which signalling occurs should govern the efficacy of this process. In this study, I examine the relationship of lighting environment (light transmission and tree cover), location and the relative abundances of male colour morphs across seven drainages and 30 populations in the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei. I found that males with blue anal fins were more common in populations with low transmission of ultraviolet (UV) and blue wavelengths. By contrast, males with red anal fins (and to a lesser extent, males with yellow anal fins) were more common in populations with high transmission of UV and blue wavelengths. High UV-blue light transmission should create a blue visual background and may make blue males less conspicuous and red males more conspicuous to conspecifics. Colour contrast with the visual background may be more important than total brightness of the colour pattern. These results indicate that natural selection for effective intraspecific communication drives the relative abundance of male colour morphs in different lighting habitats.

Fuller, Rebecca C

2002-01-01

150

Statistical correlation between flavanolic composition, colour and sensorial parameters in grape seed during ripening.  

PubMed

The aim of this work has been to determine the correlations between sensory analysis, colour and content of main flavanols present in seeds. For this, the flavanic composition of grape seeds with different degrees of maturity was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS and the obtained results were correlated with CIELab colour parameters, perceived colour (C), hardness of the seed (HS), tannic intensity (TI) and astringency (A). Multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) with the variables showing significant correlations (p<0.05) was also performed. Grape seeds undergo important decreases in the content of catechins and procyanidin oligomers during ripening. Epicatechin-(4-8)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (B2G) and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG) are the flavanolic compounds whose contents decrease most. The changes in the phenolic composition accompany changes in TI, A and HS. The total content of flavanols in the seed is not the only factor affecting these attributes, since samples containing higher contents in flavanols can exhibit less astringency and tannic intensity than others with lower ones. The qualitative profile of the seeds is, therefore, also responsible for the sensations elicited in the mouth. A and HS parameters are more affected by the presence of galloylated dimeric procyanidins in the molecule than TI. CIELab colour parameters of seeds have high correlation coefficients with many flavanolic compounds. ECG was the compound most related to these parameters. PMID:20103139

Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

2009-10-01

151

Iodide-assisted total lead measurement and determination of different lead fractions in drinking water samples.  

PubMed

Lead and its compounds are toxic and can harm human health, especially the intelligence development in children. Accurate measurement of total lead present in drinking water is crucial in determining the extent of lead contamination and human exposure due to drinking water consumption. The USEPA method for total lead measurement (no. 200.8) is often used to analyze lead levels in drinking water. However, in the presence of high concentration of the tetravalent lead corrosion product PbO(2), the USEPA method was not able to fully recover particulate lead due to incomplete dissolution of PbO(2) particles during strong acid digestion. In this study, a new procedure that integrates membrane separation, iodometric PbO(2) measurement, strong acid digestion and ICP-MS measurement was proposed and evaluated for accurate total lead measurement and quantification of different lead fractions including soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2) in drinking water samples. The proposed procedure was evaluated using drinking water reconstituted with spiked Pb(2+), spiked particulate Pb(II) carbonate and in situ formed or spiked PbO(2). Recovery tests showed that the proposed procedure and the USEPA method can achieve 93-112% and 86-103% recoveries respectively for samples containing low PbO(2) concentrations (0.018-0.076 mg Pb per L). For samples containing higher concentrations of PbO(2) (0.089-1.316 mg Pb per L), the USEPA method failed to meet the recovery requirement for total lead (85-115%) while the proposed method can achieve satisfactory recoveries (91-111%) and differentiate the soluble Pb(2+), particulate Pb(II) carbonate and PbO(2). PMID:22622848

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ng, Ding-Quan; Lin, Yi-Pin

2012-05-23

152

East-West Coast differences in total electron content over the continental US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total electron content (TEC) measurements made by a network of dense GPS receivers over the continental US are used to investigate ionospheric longitudinal differences. We find that the evening TEC is substantially higher on the US east coast than on the west, and vice versa for the morning TEC; the longitudinal difference displays a clear diurnal variation. Through an analysis of morning-evening variability in the east-west TEC difference, minimum variability is found to coincide with the longitudes of zero magnetic declination over the continental US. We suggest that these new findings of longitudinal differences in ionospheric TEC at midlatitudes are caused by the longitudinal difference in magnetic declination combined with the effects of thermospheric zonal winds which are subject to directional reversal over the course of a day. This study indicates that longitudinal variations in TEC measurements contain critical information on thermospheric zonal winds. The proposed declination-zonal wind mechanism may also provide a new insight into longitude/UT changes at midlatitudes on a global scale, as well as into some geospace disturbances.

Zhang, Shun-Rong; Foster, John C.; Coster, Anthea J.; Erickson, Philip J.

2011-10-01

153

Revision of late periprosthetic infections of total hip endoprostheses: pros and cons of different concepts  

PubMed Central

Many concepts have been devised for the treatment of late periprosthetic infections of total hip prostheses. A two-stage revision with a temporary antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and a cemented prosthesis appears to be the most preferred procedure although, in recent times, there seems to be a trend towards cementless implants and a shorter period of antibiotic treatment. Because of the differences in procedure, not only between studies but also within studies, it cannot be decided which period of parenteral antibiotic treatment and which spacer period is the most suitable. The fact that comparable rates of success can be achieved with different treatment regimens emphasises the importance of surgical removal of all foreign materials and the radical debridement of all infected and ischaemic tissues and the contribution of these crucial procedures to the successful treatment of late periprosthetic infections.

Fink, Bernd

2009-01-01

154

Bleaching-induced colour change in plastic filling materials.  

PubMed

The purpose of this in vitro study is to compare the colour changes of five different tooth-coloured restoratives: Ormocer (Definite/Degussa), compomer (Dyract AP/Dentsply De Tray), packable composite (Filtek P60/3M), flowable composite (Filtek Flow/3M) and hybrid composite (Filtek Z250/3M) after two different bleaching regimens [Vivastyle (10% carbamide peroxide)/Vivadent and Crest Professional Whitestrips (6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip bands)/Procter & Gamble]. Fifteen specimens of 30 x 30 x 2mm(3) size were fabricated from each material and randomly divided into three groups of five. Specimens in group one were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for two weeks and served as control. Group two specimens were treated with Vivastyle for two hours per day for two weeks and group three specimens were treated with Whitestrips for 30 min twice daily for two weeks. During the test period the specimens were kept at 37 C and in 100% relative humidity. At the end of the bleaching regimens colour measurements of the control and test groups were made with UV visible recording spectrophotometer. Colour changes were calculated with the use of the CIE-LAB uniform colour scale and compared by the use of Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by the Mann-Whitney U test. Control, Vivastyle and Whitestrips L*, a* and b* values differed significantly for all materials except Filtek Z250 (p < 0.05). All restorative materials demonstrated significantly higher colour change (DeltaE) with Whitestrips (p < 0.05). Dyract AP demonstrated the highest colour change both for the bleaching regimens followed by Filtek Flow, Definite, Filtek P60, and Filtek Z250 showed the smallest colour change. Colour change of plastic restorative materials during bleaching is both filling material and bleach specific. PMID:15613379

Yalcin, Filiz; Gurgan, Sevil

2005-01-01

155

[Use of ischemia in total knee arthroplasty. Is there a difference?].  

PubMed

In Mexico, aging has become the daily routine of millions. Total Knee Arthroplasty is a procedure that is doing more and more with satisfactory results and survival of the implant up to 20 years in 90%. The tourniquet is a useful tool to the orthopedic surgeons to minimize blood loss and make the placement of implants easier, because it enhances the vision of the surgical field. We report the results of 75 total knee arthroplasties performed in January 2007 to January 2010, in terms of bleeding, duration of procedure and Haemoglobin levels with and without tourniquet, the patients were distributed in 3 different groups, In group 1 the tourniquet was kept inflated until the placement of the femoral and tibial components, in group 2 the tourniquet was kept inflated until the wound dressing and finally in group 3 we did not use tourniquet. We performed hematic biometry 24 hours after surgery and if the patient's hemoglobin was less than 9.0 g/dl or the patient had low cardiac output symptoms, regardless of hemoglobin level, blood transfusion was indicated. The results demonstrate that there significant differences between the amount of blood loss among the 3 groups (1:1.157 ml, 2:709 ml, 3:1.493 ml) and surgical time (1:100, 2:110, 3:135). So that demonstrates that tourniquet use has a direct relation to blood loss and surgical time. PMID:23323301

Trueba-Davalillo, C; Suárez-Ahedo, C E; Trueba-Vasavilbaso, C; Obil-Chavarría, C; Gil-Orbezo, F

156

Colouring mechanism of dyed KDP crystal by quantum chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye adsorption mechanism, in particular, colouring mechanism of KDP (KH2PO4) crystal was investigated by quantum chemistry in this study. Phenomena, such as different preferentially coloured faces of KDP when co-crystallised with different dyes, are explained by the minimum and maximum values of electrostatic potential (ESP). Furthermore, it is found that the ESP distribution of a dye molecule may not necessarily

Yusuke Asakuma; Motosuke Nishimura; Qin Li; H. Ming Ang; Moses Tade; Kouji Maeda; Keisuke Fukui

2007-01-01

157

Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.  

PubMed Central

The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception.

Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H

1983-01-01

158

The role of delineation and spatial frequency in the perception of the colours of the spectrum.  

PubMed

The observations of the spectrum made by Newton, Young, Wollaston and Helmholtz are approximated and accounted for. Increasing the number of delineations allows progressively more bands differing in colour to be perceived, in addition to the three blocks of colour seen in the undelineated spectrum. The rate at which further delineation permits more colours to be observed decreases, however, so that up to 30 colours can be perceived in the subdivided spectrum. The wavelength discrimination measurements agree well with previous data. Enhanced colour discrimination is shown to require luminance contrast transients containing only the first few Fourier harmonics. PMID:8160404

Smeulders, N; Campbell, F W; Andrews, P R

1994-04-01

159

Effect of background colour on the distribution of astaxanthin in black tiger prawn ( Penaeus monodon): Effective method for improvement of cooked colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colouration of prawns is dependent upon the presence of carotenoid pigments (predominantly astaxanthin) and has a significant impact on their market value. In this study we observed that visual appearance of colour in black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon), when assessed using a subjective commercial grading scale, did not always correlate well with total carotenoid content. We also observed that

R. K. Tume; A. L. Sikes; S. Tabrett; D. M. Smith

2009-01-01

160

Phylogenetic analysis reveals a scattered distribution of autumn colours  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Leaf colour in autumn is rarely considered informative for taxonomy, but there is now growing interest in the evolution of autumn colours and different hypotheses are debated. Research efforts are hindered by the lack of basic information: the phylogenetic distribution of autumn colours. It is not known when and how autumn colours evolved. Methods Data are reported on the autumn colours of 2368 tree species belonging to 400 genera of the temperate regions of the world, and an analysis is made of their phylogenetic relationships in order to reconstruct the evolutionary origin of red and yellow in autumn leaves. Key Results Red autumn colours are present in at least 290 species (70 genera), and evolved independently at least 25 times. Yellow is present independently from red in at least 378 species (97 genera) and evolved at least 28 times. Conclusions The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that autumn colours have been acquired and lost many times during evolution. This scattered distribution could be explained by hypotheses involving some kind of coevolutionary interaction or by hypotheses that rely on the need for photoprotection.

Archetti, Marco

2009-01-01

161

Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.  

PubMed

The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant. PMID:21451716

Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

2011-03-28

162

Relationship between nine haloacetic acids with total organic halogens in different experimental conditions.  

PubMed

The effects of pH and bromide ion concentration on the formation of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and total organic halogens (TOX) in chlorinated drinking water have been evaluated. In an extensive study, the relationships of nine HAAs with TOX have been investigated. Honesty Significant Differences test (HSD) and ANOVA tests were used for the statistical analyses. The study determined the concentration range of nine HAAs as of a percentage of TOX at varying experimental conditions. Statistical analyses showed that the parameters pH and Br had significant effects on the formation of nine HAAs and TOX. This study also showed that brominated and mixed species of HAAs would be dominant in the presence of high bromide ion concentration which contributes a high percentage of the TOX. The results of this study could be used to set up a maximum contaminant level of TOX as a water quality standard for chlorination by-products. PMID:23551829

Pourmoghadas, Hossein; Kinman, Riley N

2013-04-03

163

A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to identify blue galaxies at unknown redshifts. We show that adding the near ultraviolet (NUV) colour [Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) NUV ?eff= 227 nm] to the optical (g - r versus Mr) CMD reveals a tight relation in the 3D colour-colour-magnitude space smoothly continuing from the 'blue cloud' to the 'red sequence'. We found that 98 per cent of 225 000 low-redshift (Z < 0.27) galaxies follow a smooth surface ? with a standard deviation of 0.03-0.07 mag making it the tightest known galaxy photometric relation, given the ˜0.9 mag range of k-corrected g - r colours. Similar relations exist in other NUV-optical colours. There is a strong correlation between morphological types and integrated ? colours of galaxies, while the connection with g - r is ambiguous. Rare galaxy classes such as E+A or tidally stripped systems become outliers that occupy distinct regions in the 3D parameter space. Using stellar population models for galaxies with different star formation histories, we show that (a) the (?) distribution at a given luminosity is formed by objects having constant and exponentially declining star formation rates with different characteristic time-scales with the red sequence part consistent also with simple stellar population; (b) colour evolution for exponentially declining models goes along the relation suggesting a weak evolution of its shape up to a redshift of 0.9; (c) galaxies with truncated star formation histories have very short transition phase offset from the relation thus explaining the rareness of E+A galaxies. This relation can be used as a powerful galaxy classification tool when morphology remains unresolved. Its mathematical consequence is the possibility of precise and simple redshift estimates from only three broad-band photometric points. We show that this simple approach being applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data works better than most existing photometric redshift techniques applied to multicolour data sets. Therefore, the relation can be used as an efficient search technique for galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < Z < 0.8) using optical imaging surveys. Footnotes<label>1</label> <label>2</label> <label>3</label> <label>4</label></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chilingarian, Igor V.; Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/259217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing a calibration method for <span class="hlt">colour</span> CRT monitors. A method to characterize the extent of spatial interdependence and channel interdependence</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The performance of a colorimetric calibration method for <span class="hlt">colour</span> CRT monitors has been investigated experimentally for six monitor types representing <span class="hlt">different</span> quality levels. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of luminous patches in the presence of <span class="hlt">different</span> border and background <span class="hlt">colours</span> on the screen was measured. Systematic deviation from the calibration method described in CIE Technical Report, Guide to Characterizing the Colorimetry of Computer-Controlled</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Péter Bodrogi; János Schanda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/927081"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> monitor calibration based on CIE standards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> monitors are widely used in today's computer systems. For many applications, such as those used in vision research, programs arc required to generate specific <span class="hlt">colours</span> on the monitor. Unfortunately, monitors vary significantly in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> characteristics of their phosphors and the amount of light emitted for a particular applied voltage. However, there exist reasonable models for characterizing the <span class="hlt">colour</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radu I. Campeanu; John D. McFall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l1j2167l0462283r.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> preferences of flower-naive honeybees</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Their landings on twelve <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli were recorded. Results after one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3646388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of habitual diet on ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in serum <span class="hlt">total</span> ghrelin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, may be involved in the etiology of obesity. African Americans (AA) experience higher obesity rates than European Americans (EA), but it is unclear whether ghrelin <span class="hlt">differs</span> with ethnicity. This study was designed to compare ghrelin concentrations between overweight African American (AA) and European American (EA) adults in a postabsorptive state, in response to a standard meal, and after 8-week habituation to diets of <span class="hlt">differing</span> macronutrient profiles. Methods Sixty-one overweight men and women (31 EA and 30 AA) were assigned to either a higher-carbohydrate/lower-fat diet (55% CHO, 18% PRO, 27% FAT) or a lower-carbohydrate/higher-fat diet (43% CHO, 18% PRO, 39% FAT) for 8 weeks. At baseline and week 8, participants ingested a standard liquid mixed meal. Blood was sampled before the meal and serially after ingestion to measure <span class="hlt">total</span> ghrelin and insulin. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale. Composite scores for ghrelin, insulin, and hunger were calculated as area under the curve (AUC), and ghrelin suppression was calculated as the change from fasting concentration. Results Fasting ghrelin and ghrelin AUC were higher among EA at baseline and week 8 (p<0.001), and these <span class="hlt">differences</span> were not affected by diet habituation. Despite greater postprandial ghrelin suppression, EA displayed greater hunger immediately following the test meal (p<0.05). Conclusions Overweight EA displayed higher circulating ghrelin and greater ghrelin suppression compared to AA. Further study is warranted to explore the physiological basis for these ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> and to determine whether they may relate to higher obesity rates among AA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Casazza, Krista; Goree, Laura Lee; Gower, Barbara A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pixel&id=EJ848932"> <span id="translatedtitle">What <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Is a Shadow?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|What <span class="hlt">colour</span> is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other <span class="hlt">colour</span>? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hughes, S. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36591500"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Meaning in Grapheme-<span class="hlt">Colour</span> Synaesthesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">When the synaesthete, J, is shown black graphemes, in addition to perceiving the black digits or letters she also experiences highly specific <span class="hlt">colours</span> that overlay the graphemes (e.g., 5 is pink, S is green). We used ambiguous graphemes in a Stroop-type task to show that the exact same forms (e.g., 5) can elicit <span class="hlt">different</span> synaesthetic <span class="hlt">colours</span> depending on whether they</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mike J. Dixon; Daniel Smilek; Patricia L. Duffy; Mark P. Zanna; Philip M. Merikle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1720587"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of congenital <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision defects on occupation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims: To investigate whether there is an association between congenital <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision defects (CVD) and occupational choice and employment history, in order to inform the debate about the value of universal childhood screening for these disorders. Methods: Participants were 6422 males and 6112 females from the 1958 British birth cohort, followed from birth to 33 years, whose <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision was assessed (Ishihara test) at 11 years. Results: A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 431 males (6.7%) had CVD. Men with CVD had pursued some careers for which normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision is currently regarded as essential; for example, eight men (3.1%) with CVD were in the police, armed forces, or fire-fighting service at 33 years compared to 141 men (3.8%) with normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. They were, however, under-represented compared to those with normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision, in other occupations; for example, no men with CVD were employed in electrical and electronic engineering at 33 years compared to 15 men (0.4%) with normal <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest there is little to be gained by continuing with existing school screening programmes for CVD, whose primary purpose is to advise affected children against certain careers. Other ways of informing young people about potential occupational difficulties and pathways for referral for specialist assessment are likely to be more useful.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cumberland, P; Rahi, J; Peckham, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8493352"> <span id="translatedtitle">The neurophysiological correlates of <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction, <span class="hlt">colour</span> and brightness contrast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Psychophysical experiments suggest that <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrast and <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction by surround lights can be explained as brightness contrasts (darkness induction) in the spectral region of the surround <span class="hlt">colour</span>. It follows from this model that a chromatic surround reduces the gain of receptor-ganglion cell channels if the surround <span class="hlt">colour</span> is in their excitatory spectral region. Thus, a green-sensitive cell (G+/R- or WS in our nomenclature) would respond less to a blue-green stimulus flashed into its receptive field when the surround (5 degrees/20 degrees inner/outer diameter) is illuminated with blue light. Neurophysiological experiments show that this is indeed the case and that such surround-induced response changes are present already in relay cells of the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (P-LGN) and their retinal afferents. These surround-induced response changes are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with psychophysical experiments. Since the neuronal signal for white consists of a balanced excitation of the M-cone excited, green-blue-sensitive WS-cells and the L-cone excited, yellow-red-sensitive WL-cells, the findings also explain <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction on white surfaces as well as <span class="hlt">coloured</span> shadows: during blue surround illumination, white signals from the WS-cells, and during red surround the white signals from the WL-cells are reduced. The neurophysiological surround effects on P-LGN cells are identical but weaker than those produced by light of the same <span class="hlt">colour</span> shone into the receptive field centres. They are therefore undistinguishable from direct adaptation of those receptors which feed directly into the receptive field of the respective cells. This suggests that they are caused by scattered light reaching the receptive field from the surround. PMID:8493352</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Creutzfeldt, O D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3lbtj30qw0h3590t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Density Conditions for Panchromatic <span class="hlt">Colourings</span> of Hypergraphs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">  Let be a hypergraph. A panchromatic t-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> of is a t-<span class="hlt">colouring</span> of its vertices such that each edge has at least one vertex of each <span class="hlt">colour</span>; and is panchromatically t-choosable if, whenever each vertex is given a list of t <span class="hlt">colours</span>, the vertices can be <span class="hlt">coloured</span> from their lists in such a way that each edge receives at least t</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexandr V. Kostochka; Douglas R. Woodall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhyEd..42..585S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in a sample teenage population measured by reflection spectrophotometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized reflectance spectra. Measurements made upon the inner forearm and the back of the hand produce results which indicate a decrease in <span class="hlt">total</span> reflectance (increase in absorption) corresponding to <span class="hlt">different</span> levels of tanning for limited and extended exposure to ambient sunlight, respectively. The rate of change of skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> qualitatively matches that of the solar illuminance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3743993"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> on Memory Performance: A Review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information. An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can <span class="hlt">colour</span> result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between <span class="hlt">colours</span>, attention, and memory performance. The significance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in <span class="hlt">different</span> settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory. The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next. The review of several studies on <span class="hlt">colours</span> and memory are meant to explain some empirical works done in the area and related issues that arise from such studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dzulkifli, Mariam Adawiah; Mustafar, Muhammad Faiz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23768150"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the benefit of synaesthetic <span class="hlt">colours</span>: testing for "pop-out" in individuals with grapheme-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In grapheme-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia, letters, numbers, and words elicit involuntary <span class="hlt">colour</span> experiences. Recently, there has been much emphasis on individual <span class="hlt">differences</span> and possible subcategories of synaesthetes with <span class="hlt">different</span> underlying mechanisms. In particular, there are claims that for some, synaesthesia occurs prior to attention and awareness of the inducing stimulus. We first characterized our sample using two versions of the "Synaesthetic Congruency Task" to distinguish "projector" and "associator" synaesthetes who may <span class="hlt">differ</span> in the extent to which their synaesthesia depends on attention and awareness. We then used a novel modification of the "Embedded Figures Task" that included a set-size manipulation to look for evidence of preattentive "pop-out" from synaesthetic <span class="hlt">colours</span>, at both a group and an individual level. We replicate an advantage for synaesthetes over nonsynaesthetic controls on the Embedded Figures Task in accuracy, but find no support for pop-out of synaesthetic <span class="hlt">colours</span>. We conclude that grapheme-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthetes are fundamentally similar in their visual processing to the general population, with the source of their unusual conscious <span class="hlt">colour</span> experiences occurring late in the cognitive hierarchy. PMID:23768150</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rich, Anina N; Karstoft, Karen-Inge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.385.1270L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> pairs for constraining the age and metallicity of stellar populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a widely used stellar-population synthesis model, we study the possibility of using pairs of AB system <span class="hlt">colours</span> to break the well-known stellar age-metallicity degeneracy and to give constraints on two luminosity-weighted stellar-population parameters (age and metallicity). We present the relative age and metallicity sensitivities of the AB system <span class="hlt">colours</span> that relate to the u,B,g,V,r,R,i, I,z,J,H and K bands, and we quantify the ability of various <span class="hlt">colour</span> pairs to break the age-metallicity degeneracy. Our results suggest that a few pairs of <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be used to constrain the above two stellar-population parameters. This will be very useful for exploring the stellar populations of distant galaxies. In detail, <span class="hlt">colour</span> pairs [(r-K), (u-R)] and [(r-K), (u-r)] are shown to be the best pairs for estimating the luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities of galaxies. They can constrain two stellar-population parameters on average with age uncertainties less than 3.89 Gyr and metallicity uncertainties less than 0.34 dex for typical <span class="hlt">colour</span> uncertainties. The typical age uncertainties for young populations (age < 4.6 Gyr) and metal-rich populations (Z >= 0.001) are small (about 2.26 Gyr) while those for old populations (age >= 4.6 Gyr) and metal-poor populations (Z < 0.001) are much larger (about 6.88 Gyr). However, the metallicity uncertainties for metal-poor populations (about 0.0024) are much smaller than for other populations (about 0.015). Some other <span class="hlt">colour</span> pairs can also possibly be used for constraining the two parameters. On the whole, the estimation of stellar-population parameters is likely to be reliable only for early-type galaxies with small <span class="hlt">colour</span> errors and globular clusters, because such objects contain less dust. In fact, no galaxy is <span class="hlt">totally</span> dust-free and early-type galaxies are also likely have some dust [e.g. E(B- V) ~ 0.05], which can change the stellar ages by about 2.5 Gyr and metallicities (Z) by about 0.015. When we compare the photometric estimates with previous spectroscopic estimates, we find some <span class="hlt">differences</span>, especially when comparing the stellar ages determined by two methods. The <span class="hlt">differences</span> mainly result from the young populations of galaxies. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain the absolute values of stellar ages and metallicities, but the results are useful for obtaining some relative values. In addition, our results suggest that <span class="hlt">colours</span> relating to both UBVRIJHK and ugriz magnitudes are much better than either UBVRIJHK or ugriz <span class="hlt">colours</span> for breaking the well-known degeneracy. The results also show that the stellar ages and metallicities of galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey can be estimated via photometry data. The data are available at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strabourg (CDS) or on request to the authors. E-mail: zhongmu.li@gmail.com</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zhongmu; Han, Zhanwen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32003793"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> colonic aganglionosis and Hirschsprung’s disease: shades of the same or <span class="hlt">different</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> colonic aganglionosis is a relatively uncommon form of Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) occurring in approximately 2–13%\\u000a of cases. It can probably be divided into <span class="hlt">total</span> colonic aganglionosis (TCA; defined as aganglionosis extending from the anus\\u000a to at least the ileocaecal valve, but no more than 50 cm proximal to the ileocaecal valve) and <span class="hlt">total</span> colonic and small bowel\\u000a aganglionosis, which may</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sam W. Moore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23923999"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparing <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination and proofreading performance under compact fluorescent and halogen lamp lighting.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Legislation in many countries has banned inefficient household lighting. Consequently, classic incandescent lamps have to be replaced by more efficient alternatives such as halogen and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). Alternatives <span class="hlt">differ</span> in their spectral power distributions, implying <span class="hlt">colour</span>-rendering <span class="hlt">differences</span>. Participants performed a <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination task - the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test - and a proofreading task under CFL or halogen lighting of comparable correlated <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperatures at low (70 lx) or high (800 lx) illuminance. Illuminance positively affected <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination and proofreading performance, whereas the light source was only relevant for <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination. Discrimination was impaired with CFL lighting. There were no <span class="hlt">differences</span> between light sources in terms of self-reported physical discomfort and mood state, but the majority of the participants correctly judged halogen lighting to be more appropriate for discriminating <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The findings hint at the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-rendering deficiencies associated with energy-efficient CFLs. Practitioner Summary: In order to compare performance under energy-efficient alternatives of classic incandescent lighting, <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination and proofreading performance was compared under CFL and halogen lighting. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> discrimination was impaired under CFLs, which hints at the practical drawbacks associated with the reduced <span class="hlt">colour</span>-rendering properties of energy-efficient CFLs. PMID:23923999</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mayr, Susanne; Köpper, Maja; Buchner, Axel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37063927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validity and reproducibility of self-reported <span class="hlt">total</span> physical activity—<span class="hlt">differences</span> by relative weight</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is hypothesized to reduce the risk of obesity and several other chronic diseases and enhance longevity. However, most of the questionnaires used measure only part of <span class="hlt">total</span> physical activity, occupational and\\/or leisure-time activity, which might lead to misclassification of <span class="hlt">total</span> physical activity level and to dilution of risk estimates. We evaluated the validity and reproducibility of a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A Norman; R Bellocco; A Bergström; A Wolk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/33692677"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> shift following tattoo removal with Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (1064\\/532)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> shift in tattoo pigment is a recognised complication of laser tattoo treatment. We report our experience over the past 4 years in treating 275 patients, with a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 323 professional tattoos. Of these, 184 tattoos contained a pigment other than black with 33 displaying a <span class="hlt">colour</span> shift as a consequence of laser treatment. This adverse effect was recorded</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. H. S. Peach; K. Thomas; J. Kenealy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_9 div --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.allgemeinmedizin.med.uni-goettingen.de/literatur/Sputum_colour_ScandJPrimHealthCare2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> for diagnosis of a bacterial infection in patients with acute cough</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective. Sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> plays an important role in the disease concepts for acute cough, both in the patients' and the doctors' view. However, it is unclear whether the sputum <span class="hlt">colour</span> can be used for diagnosis of a bacterial infection. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 42 GP practices in Dusseldorf, Germany. Subjects. Sputum samples obtained from 241 patients suffering</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attila Altiner; Stefan Wilm; Walter Däubener; Christiane Bormann; Michael Pentzek; Heinz-Harald Abholz; Martin Scherer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40228059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phylogeography of <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in the coral reef fish Pseudochromis fuscus , from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Body <span class="hlt">colour</span> has played a significant role in the evolution of coral reef fishes, but the phylogenetic level at which <span class="hlt">colour</span>\\u000a variation is expressed and the evolutionary processes driving the development and persistence of <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns\\u000a are often poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic relationships between multiple <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs\\u000a of Pseudochromis fuscus (family</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vanessa Messmer; Lynne van Herwerden; Philip L. Munday; Geoffrey P. Jones</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752009"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of gender stereotyping.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted <span class="hlt">colour</span>-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped <span class="hlt">colours</span> (Experiment 1); (2) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. PMID:21752009</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009eso..pres...40."> <span id="translatedtitle">Opening up a <span class="hlt">Colourful</span> Cosmic Jewel Box</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking <span class="hlt">colour</span> contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror and exquisite image quality have resulted in a brand-new, very sharp view despite a <span class="hlt">total</span> exposure time of just 5 seconds. This new image is one of the best ever taken of this cluster from the ground. The Jewel Box may be visually <span class="hlt">colourful</span> in images taken on Earth, but observing from space allows the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to capture light of shorter wavelengths than can not be seen by telescopes on the ground. This new Hubble image of the core of the cluster represents the first comprehensive far ultraviolet to near-infrared image of an open galactic cluster. It was created from images taken through seven filters, allowing viewers to see details never seen before. It was taken near the end of the long life of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 ? Hubble's workhorse camera up until the recent Servicing Mission, when it was removed and brought back to Earth. Several very bright, pale blue supergiant stars, a solitary ruby-red supergiant and a variety of other brilliantly <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stars are visible in the Hubble image, as well as many much fainter ones. The intriguing <span class="hlt">colours</span> of many of the stars result from their <span class="hlt">differing</span> intensities at <span class="hlt">different</span> ultraviolet wavelengths. The huge variety in brightness of the stars in the cluster exists because the brighter stars are 15 to 20 times the mass of the Sun, while the dimmest stars in the Hubble image are less than half the mass of the Sun. More massive stars shine much more brilliantly. They also age faster and make the transition to giant stars much more quickly than their faint, less-massive siblings. The Jewel Box cluster is about 6400 light-years away and is approximately 16 million years old. Notes [1] Open, or galactic, star clusters are not to be confused with globular clusters ? huge balls of tens of thousands of ancient stars in orbit around our galaxy and others. It seems that most stars, including our Sun, formed in open clusters. [2] The Coal Sack is a dark nebula in the Southern Hemisphere, near the Southern Cross, that can be seen with the unaided eye. A dark nebula is not the compl</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215112A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organic compounds of <span class="hlt">different</span> extractability in <span class="hlt">total</span> solvent extracts from soils of contrasting water repellency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies examining organic compounds that may cause water-repellent behaviour of soils have typically focussed on analysing only the lipophilic fraction of extracted material. This study aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination by applying single- and sequential-accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), separation and analysis by GC/MS of the <span class="hlt">total</span> solvent extracts of three soils taken from under eucalypt vegetation with <span class="hlt">different</span> levels of water repellency. Water repellency increased in all the soils after extraction with DCM:MeOH (95:5), but was eliminated with iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5). Quantities of major lipid compound classes varied between solvents and soils. Iso-propanol/ammonia (95:5) solvent released saccharides, glycerol, aromatic acids and other polar organic compounds, which were more abundant in fractionated extracts from the single extraction and the third step sequential ASE extraction, than in the extracts from the DCM:MeOH ASE solvent. Dominant compounds extracted from all soils were long-chain alkanols (>C22), palmitic acid, C29 alkane, ?-sitosterol, terpenes, terpenoids and other polar compounds. The soil with smallest repellency lacked >C18 fatty acids and had smallest concentrations of alkanols (C26, C28 and C30) and alkanes (C29, C31), but a greater abundance of more complex polar compounds than the more repellent soils. We therefore speculate that the above compounds play an important role in determining the water repellency of the soils tested. The results suggest that one-stage and sequential ASE extractions with iso-propanol:ammonia and subsequent fractionation of extracts are a useful approach in providing a comprehensive assessment of the potential compounds involved in causing soil water repellency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23722560"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bees' subtle <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variability in flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> of animal-pollinated plants is common and caused, inter alia, by inter-individual <span class="hlt">differences</span> in pigment concentrations. If and how pollinators, especially bees, respond to these small <span class="hlt">differences</span> in pigment concentration is not known, but it is likely that flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> variability impacts the choice behaviour of all flower visitors that exhibit innate and learned <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences. In behavioural experiments, we simulated varying pigment concentrations and studied its impact on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Individual bees were trained to artificial flowers having a specific concentration of a pigment, i.e. Acridine Orange or Aniline Blue, and then given the simultaneous choice between three test <span class="hlt">colours</span> including the training <span class="hlt">colour</span>, one <span class="hlt">colour</span> of lower and one <span class="hlt">colour</span> of higher pigment concentration. For each pigment, two set-ups were provided, covering the range of low to middle and the range of middle to high pigment concentrations. Despite the small bee-subjective perceptual contrasts between the tested stimuli and regardless of training towards medium concentrations, bees preferred neither the training stimuli nor the stimuli offering the highest pigment concentration but more often chose those stimuli offering the highest spectral purity and the highest chromatic contrast against the background. Overall, this study suggests that bees choose an intermediate pigment concentration due to its optimal conspicuousness. It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral <span class="hlt">colours</span> and of flower pigmentation. PMID:23722560</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papiorek, Sarah; Rohde, Katja; Lunau, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..633P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bees' subtle <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variability in flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> of animal-pollinated plants is common and caused, inter alia, by inter-individual <span class="hlt">differences</span> in pigment concentrations. If and how pollinators, especially bees, respond to these small <span class="hlt">differences</span> in pigment concentration is not known, but it is likely that flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> variability impacts the choice behaviour of all flower visitors that exhibit innate and learned <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences. In behavioural experiments, we simulated varying pigment concentrations and studied its impact on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Individual bees were trained to artificial flowers having a specific concentration of a pigment, i.e. Acridine Orange or Aniline Blue, and then given the simultaneous choice between three test <span class="hlt">colours</span> including the training <span class="hlt">colour</span>, one <span class="hlt">colour</span> of lower and one <span class="hlt">colour</span> of higher pigment concentration. For each pigment, two set-ups were provided, covering the range of low to middle and the range of middle to high pigment concentrations. Despite the small bee-subjective perceptual contrasts between the tested stimuli and regardless of training towards medium concentrations, bees preferred neither the training stimuli nor the stimuli offering the highest pigment concentration but more often chose those stimuli offering the highest spectral purity and the highest chromatic contrast against the background. Overall, this study suggests that bees choose an intermediate pigment concentration due to its optimal conspicuousness. It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral <span class="hlt">colours</span> and of flower pigmentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Papiorek, Sarah; Rohde, Katja; Lunau, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2023B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-realistic 3-D imaging based on <span class="hlt">colour</span> holography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of recent progress in <span class="hlt">colour</span> holography is provided with new applications. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> holography recording techniques in silver-halide emulsions are discussed. Both analogue, mainly Denisyuk <span class="hlt">colour</span> holograms, and digitally-printed <span class="hlt">colour</span> holograms are described and their recent improvements. An alternative to silver-halide materials are the panchromatic photopolymer materials such as the DuPont and Bayer photopolymers which are covered. The light sources used to illuminate the recorded holograms are very important to obtain ultra-realistic 3-D images. In particular the new light sources based on RGB LEDs are described. They show improved image quality over today's commonly used halogen lights. Recent work in <span class="hlt">colour</span> holography by holographers and companies in <span class="hlt">different</span> countries around the world are included. To record and display ultra-realistic 3-D images with perfect <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendering are highly dependent on the correct recording technique using the optimal recording laser wavelengths, the availability of improved panchromatic recording materials and combined with new display light sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bjelkhagen, H. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nuclear+AND+cross+AND+section&id=EJ133505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variation in Differential and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Cross Sections Due to <span class="hlt">Different</span> Radial Wave Functions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three sets of analytical wave functions are used to calculate the Na (3s---3p) transition differential and <span class="hlt">total</span> electron excitation cross sections by Born approximations. Results show expected large variations in values. (Author/CP)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williamson, W., Jr.; Greene, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49402666"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-in-One Nerve Block with <span class="hlt">Different</span> Concentrations of Bupivacaine in <span class="hlt">Total</span> Knee Arthroplasty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pain after <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasty may be severe and lead to adverse outcomes. Using 2 concentrations of bupivacaine, we investigated 3-in-1 nerve block's effect on pain control, narcotic use, sedation, and patient satisfaction. One hundred five patients undergoing unilateral <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasty were randomized into 3 groups: low-dose or high-dose bupivacaine or placebo. Ninety-nine patients completed the study. Three-in-1 nerve</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng Xie; Waqas Hussain; Thomas W. Cutter; Jeffrey L. Apfelbaum; Melinda L. Drum; David W. Manning</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPS..22...51A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation Between Chromophore Impurity Content and Fired <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Data of Kaolin Clay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Different</span> kaolin clay specimen exhibit varying <span class="hlt">colours</span> after firing depending upon the relative presence of <span class="hlt">different</span> mineral impurities, physical state of mineral constituents etc. Spectrophotometers used for determining <span class="hlt">colour</span> values generate many sets of <span class="hlt">colour</span> data. Interpretation of such <span class="hlt">colour</span> values is a subjective matter. Increase in darkness, yellowness etc as a consequence of increase in chromophore impurity content in kaolin clay have been shown. However, the inverse of above ie; gradual change in <span class="hlt">colour</span> values along with gradual change in chromophore impurity content over a realistic range has not been studied. Whether the <span class="hlt">colour</span> data of kaolin clay after firing can be taken up as a function of impurity content needs to be investigated. Thus, to identify the correlation between kaolin clay impurity content and it's fired <span class="hlt">colour</span> data the present investigation examined the hypotheses i) The <span class="hlt">colour</span> development after firing of kaolin clay is an indicator of chromophore impurity content present therein and ii) All the <span class="hlt">colour</span> variables (L, a, b, ISO2470, redness) constituting a <span class="hlt">colour</span> data set of pressed kaolin clay specimen after firing will vary in similar manner such that to represent variation in impurity content. The study indicated that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> values obtained by spectrophotometry of clay specimens after firing represent the chromophore impurity present therein in a less reliable manner. To relatively estimate the quantity of chromophore impurity present in a clay sample from its fired <span class="hlt">colour</span>, the sample should be mixed with 50% by weight of potash feldspar, pressed in to tablet suitable for <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement and fired at or above 1220°C to vitrify. After that the ‘L’, ‘a’ and ‘ISO2470’ values obtained truly represent the chromophore present therein.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agrawal, Parvesh; Misra, S. N.; Sharma, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59745716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in <span class="hlt">total</span> and HDL cholesterol among Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background High <span class="hlt">total</span> cholesterol and low HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about dyslipidemia among Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest ethnic minority groups in several European countries. This study examines ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in <span class="hlt">total</span> and HDL cholesterol levels between Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups. Methods Data were collected in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. K. Ujcic-Voortman; G. Bos; C. A. Baan; D. G. Uitenbroek; A. P. Verhoeff; J. C. Seidell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39202929"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in <span class="hlt">total</span> and HDL cholesterol among Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: High <span class="hlt">total</span> cholesterol and low HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about dyslipidemia among Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest ethnic minority groups in several European countries. This study examines ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in <span class="hlt">total</span> and HDL cholesterol levels between Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups. METHODS: Data were collected in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joanne K Ujcic-Voortman; Griët Bos; Caroline A Baan; Daan G Uitenbroek; Arnoud P Verhoeff; Jacob C Seidell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teagasc.ie/research/journalarchives/vol43no2/0206.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of concentrates or concentrates plus forages in a <span class="hlt">total</span> mixed ration or discrete ingredient format: effects on beef production parameters and on beef composition, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, texture and fatty acid profile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diets consisting primarily of concentrates or of concentrates plus silage in a <span class="hlt">total</span> mixed ration (TMR) or discrete ingredient format were compared for effects on beef production traits and on beef quality. Sixty continental cross heifers (377 kg, s.d. 31) were allocated to one of the following feeding regimens for 96 days pre-slaughter: (i) a control ration of grass silage,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. W. I. Cooke; F. J. Monahan; P. O. Brophy; M. P. Boland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=6&id=EJ993848"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond a Dichotomic Approach, the Case of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Phenomena</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This research documents the aims and the impact of a teaching experiment concerning <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenomena. This teaching experiment is designed in order to make students consider not only the spectral composition of light but also its intensity, and to consider the absorption of light by a pigment as relative, instead of as <span class="hlt">total</span> or zero. Eight…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viennot, L.; de Hosson, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37388330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Red and green <span class="hlt">colour</span> forms in the common shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea: Brachyura: Portunidae): theoretical predictions and empirical data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) is known to exhibit a range of carapace <span class="hlt">colours</span> from green through orange to red. Recent studies have demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colours</span> reflect increasing lengths of intermoult duration, with clear physiological and ecological <span class="hlt">differences</span> between red and green crabs. It was hypothesized that these <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> forms represent <span class="hlt">different</span> ‘life-strategies’. However, to date,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Wolf</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41242037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the change in <span class="hlt">colour</span> of broccoli and green beans during blanching</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The green <span class="hlt">colour</span> of vegetables changes considerably during heat treatments like blanching. Green beans from two <span class="hlt">different</span> countries and growing seasons, and the stems and florets of broccoli were heat-treated from 40 up to 96°C. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> was monitored with the CIE-Lab system. Expressing the green <span class="hlt">colour</span> as ?a*\\/b* proved to considerably reduce the observed variance within measuring samples. It</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. M. M. Tijskens; E. P. H. M. Schijvens; E. S. A. Biekman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40195183"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of increased acidity on the carotenoid pattern and <span class="hlt">colour</span> of orange juice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of orange juices is one of the main factors related to their acceptability. Their <span class="hlt">colour</span> is mainly due to carotenoids,\\u000a with the particularity that the major ones, the epoxycarotenoids, can isomerise into <span class="hlt">differently</span> <span class="hlt">coloured</span> isomers in the presence\\u000a of acid. Since acidity is one of the main characteristics of citrus, we have carried out a simple experiment to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; M. Luisa Escudero-Gilete; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bom.hik.se/ffoad/andersfwebsite/reprintspdf/Reproductive%20l-h%20variation%20BJLS1999.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive life history variation among <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs of the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Individuals of pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata[L.] Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) exhibit genetically coded discontinuous variation in <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern. To determine whether reproductive performance is likely to be affected by <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern, this study investigated variation in body size and reproductive life-history characteristics among individuals belonging to five <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs. The proportion of reproductive females (i.e. females with eggs) declined significantly as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ANDERS FORSMAN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent social environment affects <span class="hlt">colour</span>-assortative shoaling in juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theory predicts that fish should show <span class="hlt">colour</span>-assortative shoaling in order to avoid the oddity effect whereby individuals that <span class="hlt">differ</span> in some feature from the group majority appear to incur increased risk of predation. It has also been shown that early experience plays an important role in affecting social preferences in some fish species. In this study, the importance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype in promoting assortative shoaling and the role played by the recent social environment on its expression were investigated in juvenile angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. Individuals of the uniformly black and golden <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs were housed in a group with conspecifics of like and unlike body <span class="hlt">colour</span> to themselves, as well as in mixed-<span class="hlt">colour</span> groups for 4 weeks. Subsequently, they were subjected to a binary choice to shoal with a group of conspecifics composed of unfamiliar fish of either a like or unlike <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype to themselves. The response of the individuals to the <span class="hlt">colour</span> attributes of the shoals was related to their recent social environment. Fish in like- and mixed-<span class="hlt">colour</span> previous treatments showed a preferential association with like <span class="hlt">colour</span> conspecifics. In contrast, the shoaling behaviour exhibited by fish previously maintained with a group of unlike-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> conspecifics (cross-housed treatment) indicated no significant preference for any of the shoals. The results suggest that angelfish use body <span class="hlt">colouration</span> as an intraspecific shoaling cue and that learning, in the form of recent familiarization with a specific <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype of conspecifics, can affect <span class="hlt">colour</span>-assortative shoaling preferences in this species. This learning component of the choice need not be restricted to early developmental stages. PMID:19376208</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_10 div --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3772504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of my skin: How skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> affects the sense of body-ownership</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multisensory stimulation has been shown to alter the sense of body-ownership. Given that perceived similarity between one’s own body and those of others is crucial for social cognition, we investigated whether multisensory stimulation can lead participants to experience ownership over a hand of <span class="hlt">different</span> skin <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Results from two studies using introspective, behavioural and physiological methods show that, following synchronous visuotactile (VT) stimulation, participants can experience body-ownership over hands that seem to belong to a <span class="hlt">different</span> racial group. Interestingly, a baseline measure of implicit racial bias did not predict whether participants would experience the RHI, but the overall strength of experienced body-ownership seemed to predict the participants’ post-illusion implicit racial bias with those who experienced a stronger RHI showing a lower bias. These findings suggest that multisensory experiences can override strict ingroup/outgroup distinctions based on skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> and point to a key role for sensory processing in social cognition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farmer, Harry; Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana; Tsakiris, Manos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.medsci.org/v06p0287.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revision of late periprosthetic infections of <span class="hlt">total</span> hip endoprostheses: pros and cons of <span class="hlt">different</span> concepts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many concepts have been devised for the treatment of late periprosthetic infections of <span class="hlt">total</span> hip prostheses. A two-stage revision with a temporary antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and a cemented prosthesis appears to be the most preferred procedure although, in recent times, there seems to be a trend towards cementless implants and a shorter period of anti- biotic treatment. Because of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernd Fink</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bus.lsu.edu/achanda/chanda_dalgaard_economica_080707.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dual Economies and International <span class="hlt">Total</span> Factor Productivity <span class="hlt">Differences</span>: Channelling the Impact from Institutions, Trade, and Geography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper provides a framework that decomposes aggregate <span class="hlt">total</span> factor productivity (TFP) into a component reflecting relative efficiency across sectors, and another component that reflects the absolute level of efficiency. A development accounting analysis suggests that as much as 85% of the international variation in aggregate TFP can be attributed to variation in relative efficiency across sectors. Estimation results show</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">AREENDAM CHANDA; CARL-JOHAN DALGAARD</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/reprint/44/6/1309.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">different</span> analytical methods for assessing <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity of human serum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three assays were compared for the determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity in human serum: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the Randox Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (Randox-TEAC) assay, and the ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. There was a weak but significant linear correlation between serum ORAC and serum FRAP. There was no correlation either between serum ORAC and serum TEAC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Global+Health%22&pg=4&id=EJ961712"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender <span class="hlt">Differences</span> in Health-Related Quality of Life Following <span class="hlt">Total</span> Laryngectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: The impact of a <span class="hlt">total</span> laryngectomy on an individual's life has primarily been measured from a male viewpoint reflecting the demographics of a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. A small number of studies have looked specifically at females, but very few are comparison studies. Consequently, there is little consistent research regarding any…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Mary T.; Gibson, Sam; Hilari, Katerina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cancer+AND+treatment&pg=5&id=EJ961712"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender <span class="hlt">Differences</span> in Health-Related Quality of Life Following <span class="hlt">Total</span> Laryngectomy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Background: The impact of a <span class="hlt">total</span> laryngectomy on an individual's life has primarily been measured from a male viewpoint reflecting the demographics of a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. A small number of studies have looked specifically at females, but very few are comparison studies. Consequently, there is little consistent research regarding any…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Mary T.; Gibson, Sam; Hilari, Katerina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2421676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Music organisation using <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The movement of music from physical discs to digital resources managed on a computer has had an effect on the listening habits of users. We explore using the potential of the innate synaesthesia that some people report feeling between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and mood in a novel interface that enables a user to explore their music collection and create musical playlists in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Voong; Russell Beale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2002793050"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate: An Introduction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Iancu A. Leonidov L. McLerran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bom.hik.se/ffoad/andersfwebsite/reprintspdf/ColorationbodysizeJEB2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlated evolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern and body size in polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix undulata</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theory posits that selection on functionally interrelated characters will promote physical and genetic integration resulting in evolution of favourable trait-value combinations. The pygmy grasshopper Tetrix undulata (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) displays a genetically encoded polymorphism for <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> morphs <span class="hlt">differ</span> in several traits, including behaviours, thermal biology and body size. To examine if these size <span class="hlt">differences</span> may reflect phenotypic plasticity of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Ahnesjo; A. Forsman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40475855"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouring</span> of moulded plastic products by the addition of <span class="hlt">colour</span> masterbatches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colouring</span> of moulded plastic products can be achieved by adding a small percentage of <span class="hlt">colour</span> masterbach into the main bulk of plastic resin during processing. Indeed, this practice has been accepted widely in the industry. Since the primary objective of this practice is to <span class="hlt">colour</span> the products, the amount of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> masterbatch added being normally less than 4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. C.-Y. Wong; N. S. K. Ng; V. L. F. Ng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18420057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Search for <span class="hlt">colour</span> singlet and <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects in hadronic Z decays at LEP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z-decay events for evidence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> singlet production or <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of <span class="hlt">colour</span> singlet production or of <span class="hlt">colour</span> reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Achard; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; J. Alcaraz; G. Alemanni; J. Allaby; A. Aloisio; M. G. Alviggi; H. Anderhub; V. P. Andreev; F. Anselmo; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. Bagnaia; A. Bajo; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; S. V. Baldew; S. Banerjee; A. Barczyk; R. Barillère; P. Bartalini; M. Basile; N. Batalova; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; L. Bellucci; R. Berbeco; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; M. Biglietti; A. Biland; J. J. Blaising; S. C. Blyth; G. J. Bobbink; A. Böhm; L. Boldizsar; B. Borgia; S. Bottai; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; S. Braccini; J. G. Branson; F. Brochu; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Carlino; A. Cartacci; J. Casaus; F. Cavallari; N. Cavallo; C. Cecchi; M. Cerrada; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; G. Chiefari; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; I. Clare; R. Clare; G. Coignet; N. Colino; S. Costantini; S. Cucciarelli; P. Déglon; J. Debreczeni; A. Degré; K. Dehmelt; K. Deiters; E. Delmeire; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Diemoz; M. Dierckxsens; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; A. Doria; M. T. Dova; D. Duchesneau; M. Duda; B. Echenard; A. Eline; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; M. A. Falagan; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; O. Fedin; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; W. Fisher; I. Fisk; G. Forconi; K. Freudenreich; C. Furetta; Yu. Galaktionov; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; M. Gataullin; S. Gentile; S. Giagu; Z. F. Gong; G. Grenier; O. Grimm; M. W. Gruenewald; M. Guida; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; L. J. Gutay; D. Haas; D. Hatzifotiadou; T. Hebbeker; A. Hervé; J. Hirschfelder; H. Hofer; M. Hohlmann; G. Holzner; S. R. Hou; Y. Hu; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberr??a; D. Käfer; M. Kaur; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; J. Kirkby; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. König; M. Kopal; V. Koutsenko; M. Kräber; R. W. Kraemer; A. Krüger; A. Kunin; I. Laktineh; G. Landi; M. Lebeau; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; R. Leiste; M. Levtchenko; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; S. Likhoded; C. H. Lin; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; L. Lista; Z. A. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; C. Luci; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; L. Malgeri; A. Malinin; J. Mans; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; K. Mazumdar; R. R. McNeil; S. Mele; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; A. Mihul; H. Milcent; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; G. B. Mohanty; G. S. Muanza; A. J. M. Muijs; B. Musicar; M. Musy; S. Nagy; S. Natale; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; A. Nisati; T. Novak; H. Nowak; R. Ofierzynski; G. Organtini; I. Pal; C. Palomares; P. Paolucci; R. Paramatti; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; M. Pedace; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; B. Petersen; D. Piccolo; F. Pierella; M. Pioppi; P. A. Piroué; E. Pistolesi; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; J. Pothier; D. Prokofiev; J. Quartieri; G. Rahal-Callot; M. A. Rahaman; P. Raics; N. Raja; R. Ramelli; P. G. Rancoita; R. Ranieri; A. Raspereza; P. Razis; D. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; S. Riemann; K. Riles; B. P. Roe; L. Romero; A. Rosca; S. Rosier-Lees; S. Roth; C. Rosenbleck; J. A. Rubio; G. Ruggiero; H. Rykaczewski; A. Sakharov; S. Saremi; S. Sarkar; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; C. Sciacca; L. Servoli; S. Shevchenko; N. Shivarov; V. Shoutko; E. Shumilov; A. Shvorob; D. Son; C. Souga; P. Spillantini; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; B. Stoyanov; A. Straessner; K. Sudhakar; G. Sultanov; L. Z. Sun; S. Sushkov; H. Suter; J. D. Swain; Z. Szillasi; X. W. Tang; P. Tarjan; L. Tauscher; L. Taylor; B. Tellili; D. Teyssier; C. Timmermans; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; S. C. Tonwar; J. Tóth; C. Tully; K. L. Tung; J. Ulbricht; E. Valente; R. T. Van de Walle; R. Vasquez; V. Veszpremi; G. Vesztergombi; I. Vetlitsky; D. Vicinanza; G. Viertel; S. Villa; M. Vivargent; S. Vlachos; I. Vodopianov; H. Vogel; H. Vogt; I. Vorobiev; A. A. Vorobyov; M. Wadhwa; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Z. M. Wang; M. Weber; P. Wienemann; H. Wilkens; S. Wynhoff; L. Xia; Z. Z. Xu; J. Yamamoto; B. Z. Yang; C. G. Yang; H. J. Yang; M. Yang; S. C. Yeh; An. Zalite; Yu. Zalite; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; R. Y. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann; M. Zöller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5285B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wildfire-ash: Relationships between <span class="hlt">colour</span>, water repellency and organic carbon content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During a forest fire, a layer of vegetative ash is often deposited over soil surface. The amount of ash deposited as well as its physical and chemical properties are highly variable. These parameters are influenced particularly by vegetation type and fire severity, resulting in a <span class="hlt">differing</span> ash <span class="hlt">colour</span>. This ash remains over the soil until it is redistributed by water or wind erosion or incorporated into the soil profile. Throughout that time, the ash layer can affect the runoff, infiltration and erosion rates. However, up to now, its effects on soil hydrology are still controversial. In some studies ash is reported to be highly hydrophilic, aiding infiltration, in others, ash is argued to reduce infiltration by clogging soil pores. No studies to date have focussed on the potential water repellency of ash. The aim of this work was to assess the water repellency of <span class="hlt">different</span> ash types and their possible relationship with the <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon and <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Ash samples were collected from 5 <span class="hlt">different</span> wildfires in the Mediterranean region (n=48). These samples were taken almost immediately after the fire and before any rain (except for one site). Water repellency (WDPT test), <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon (TOC) and <span class="hlt">colour</span> (Munsell <span class="hlt">colour</span> chart) were measured in laboratory in all ash samples. The results obtained show that 33% of the ash samples exhibited water repellent properties (WDPT > 5 s), with half of those having WDPTs > 300 s. Carbon content varied from 8 to 37%. There was no strong relationship between water repellency and TOC although all samples with more than 20% of TOC were water repellent. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> was found not to be a good indicator of either the carbon content or the water repellency; however, there is a general tendency for darker ash to be more water repellent and to containing more organic carbon. These findings demonstrate that the previous held notion of ash being hydrophilic is not always correct. For certain vegetation types and combustion scenarios, particularly black ash may contribute to fire-induced or enhanced soil water repellency at the surface and perhaps also when incorporated into the soil.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bodí, M. B.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.; Cerdà, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5583539"> <span id="translatedtitle">Touch-sensitive <span class="hlt">colour</span> graphics enhance monitoring of loss-of-coolant accident tests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stand-alone computer-based system with an intelligent <span class="hlt">colour</span> termimal is described for monitoring parameters during loss-of-coolant accident tests. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> graphic displays and touch-sensitive control have been combined for effective operator interaction. Data collected by the host MODCOMP II minicomputer are dynamically updated on <span class="hlt">colour</span> pictures generated by the terminal. Experimenters select system functions by touching simulated switches on a transparent touch-sensitive overlay, mounted directly over the face of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> screen, eliminating the need for a keyboard. Switch labels and <span class="hlt">colours</span> are changed on the screen by the terminal software as <span class="hlt">different</span> functions are selected. Interaction is self-prompting and can be learned quickly. System operation for a complete set of 20 tests has demonstrated the convenience of interactive touchsensitive <span class="hlt">colour</span> graphics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Snedden, M.D.; Mead, G.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/tmv121v0kv573k71.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of microorganisms, <span class="hlt">total</span> biomass, and enzyme activities in <span class="hlt">different</span> particles of brown soil</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A soil sample from the Ap horizon of an arable brown soil was fractionated by wet sieving, and seven size fractions of organic and mineral soil particles were separated. The organic fractions formed only 2.2% of the soil dry mass, but contained 41.5 and 29.12% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> soil content of carbon and nitrogen, respectively, and thus represented an important</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Kanazawa; Z. Filipt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60725360"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maximum <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon limits at <span class="hlt">different</span> DWPF melter feed maters (U)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The document presents information on the maximum <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon (TOC) limits that are allowable in the DWPF melter feed without forming a potentially flammable vapor in the off-gas system were determined at feed rates varying from 0.7 to 1.5 GPM. At the maximum TOC levels predicted, the peak concentration of combustible gases in the quenched off-gas will not exceed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=the+AND+green+AND+movement&pg=4&id=EJ871682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biological Components of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Preference in Infancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Adult <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early <span class="hlt">colour</span> encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40248579"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> space models for soil science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> are commonly made using the Munsell soil <span class="hlt">colour</span> charts. A number</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507571"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of stress and stress hormones on dynamic <span class="hlt">colour</span>-change in a sexually dichromatic Australian frog.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rapid <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in vertebrates have fascinated biologists for centuries, herein we demonstrate dynamic <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in an anuran amphibian, the stony creek frog (Litoria wilcoxii), which turns from brown to bright (lemon) yellow during amplexus. We show this by comparing the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of baseline (unpaired males) and amplecting (paired) males. We also investigate the possible role of stress and stress hormones on this <span class="hlt">colour</span> change. Frogs were subjected to four <span class="hlt">different</span> levels of stressors (handling, toe-clipping, saline injection and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection) and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> change was measured using digital photography. A comparison of baseline <span class="hlt">colour</span> and stress hormone (corticosterone) levels was also conducted to give further insight to this topic. From the images, the Red Blue Green (RGB) <span class="hlt">colour</span> values were calculated, and a principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create a single <span class="hlt">colour</span> metric (the major axis) as an index of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the visible spectrum. A moderate stressor (toe-clipping) led to a significant change in <span class="hlt">colour</span> (within 10 min) similar to that of amplecting males. Surprisingly, neither a mild stressor (handling and saline injection) nor the maximum stressor (handling and ACTH injection) led to a lightening response. This study confirms that the dynamic male <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in this species in response to medium stressors adds new knowledge to the understanding of the functional mechanisms of dynamic <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in amphibians. PMID:23507571</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kindermann, Christina; Narayan, Edward J; Wild, Francis; Wild, Clyde H; Hero, Jean-Marc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/c7m5q8k27p355735.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Risk of Complication and Revision <span class="hlt">Total</span> Hip Arthroplasty Among Medicare Patients with <span class="hlt">Different</span> Bearing Surfaces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background  To address the long-term problems of bearing surface wear and osteolysis associated with conventional metal-polyethylene (M-PE)\\u000a <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty (THA), metal-metal (M-M), and ceramic-ceramic (C-C) bearings have been introduced. These bearing surfaces\\u000a are associated with unique risks and benefits and higher costs. However the relative risks of these three bearings in an older\\u000a population is unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We compared the short-term</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevin J. Bozic; Kevin Ong; Edmund Lau; Steven M. Kurtz; Thomas P. Vail; Harry E. Rubash; Daniel J. Berry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19190777"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the exceptionality of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motifs in networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive P-values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound) Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a <span class="hlt">different</span> definition of graph motifs that corresponds to <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motifs. A <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex <span class="hlt">colours</span> but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a P-value for a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif, without spending time on simulations. PMID:19190777</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schbath, Sophie; Lacroix, Vincent; Sagot, Marie-France</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_11 div --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the exceptionality of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motifs in networks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">: Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive -values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound) Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a <span class="hlt">different</span> definition of graph motifs that corresponds to <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motifs. A <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex <span class="hlt">colours</span> but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a -value for a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> motif, without spending time on simulations. PMID:21910927</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schbath, Sophie; Lacroix, Vincent; Sagot, Marie-France</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21448629"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metals, nutrients and <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended solids discharged during <span class="hlt">different</span> flow conditions in highly urbanised catchments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stormwater discharged from highly urbanised catchments on the southern shore of Sydney estuary, Australia, has been identified as the primary source of contaminants responsible for ecological degradation and reduction in recreational value of the waterway. Effective management of this pollution requires knowledge of contaminant loads associated with various stormwater flow conditions in three highly urbanised catchments in Sydney estuary catchment. The majority (>90%) of metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) and <span class="hlt">total</span> suspended solid annual loads were contributed during high-flow conditions (>50 mm rainfall day(t1)), whereas ?55% of TN and ?21% of <span class="hlt">total</span> phosphorus were contributed to annual loading by dry weather base-flow conditions. All flow conditions posed an in-stream ecological threat because contaminant concentrations exceeded water quality guidelines for all analytes measured, except Pb. Irregular, temporal variability in contaminant concentrations associated with base-flow (within day and amongst days), high-flow (amongst events) and irregular discharges indicated that contaminant contributions in stormwater were strongly controlled by human activity in the three catchments. Significant variation in contaminant concentrations under all flow conditions revealed unique chemical signatures for each catchment despite similarities in land uses, location and geology amongst catchments. These characteristics indicate that assessment and management of stormwater pollution needs to be conducted on an individual-catchment basis for highly urbanised regions of Sydney estuary catchment. PMID:21448629</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beck, Hayden J; Birch, Gavin F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes of bone mineral density after cementless <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty with two <span class="hlt">different</span> stems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cementless <span class="hlt">total</span> hip arthroplasty has achieved reliable long-term results since porous coatings were developed, but postoperative changes around the stem remain poorly documented. In this study, changes of the bone mineral density (BMD) were compared between two types of cementless stem. In group B (28 patients with 31 hips), a straight tapered stem with porous plasma spray coating on the proximal 1/4 was used, while group S (24 patients with 26 hips) was given a fluted, tri-slot stem with porous hydroxyapatite coating on the proximal 1/3. In group B, there was an early decrease of BMD, which recovered after 12 months, indicating that stress shielding was minimal. In group S, however, BMD continued to decrease without recovery. The stem shape and radiological findings suggested that the cause of stress shielding in group S was distal fixation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ito, Kouji; Yamamoto, Kengo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22886173"> <span id="translatedtitle">Printing <span class="hlt">colour</span> at the optical diffraction limit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The highest possible resolution for printed <span class="hlt">colour</span> images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual <span class="hlt">colour</span> elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ?100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple <span class="hlt">colourants</span> or fabricating structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-<span class="hlt">colourant</span> method that achieves bright-field <span class="hlt">colour</span> prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the individual pixels. Our <span class="hlt">colour</span>-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume <span class="hlt">colour</span> printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatNa...7..557K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Printing <span class="hlt">colour</span> at the optical diffraction limit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The highest possible resolution for printed <span class="hlt">colour</span> images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual <span class="hlt">colour</span> elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ~100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple <span class="hlt">colourants</span> or fabricating structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-<span class="hlt">colourant</span> method that achieves bright-field <span class="hlt">colour</span> prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the individual pixels. Our <span class="hlt">colour</span>-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume <span class="hlt">colour</span> printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S.; Koh, Samuel C. W.; Wei, Jennifer N.; Yang, Joel K. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/47862167h50508k7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stability and Degradation Kinetics of Bioactive Compounds and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Strawberry Jam during Storage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of storage time and temperature on degradation of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, <span class="hlt">total</span>\\u000a phenols, <span class="hlt">colour</span> and <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity of strawberry jam were investigated. The results indicated that lightness (L) value decreased significantly (p?<?0.05) over 28 days of storage at 4 and 15 °C, with lower values measured at higher temperatures. Anthocyanins, ascorbic\\u000a acid and <span class="hlt">colour</span> degradation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ankit Patras; Nigel P. Brunton; B. K. Tiwari; Francis Butler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23774247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacokinetic comparisons of puerarin, daidzin and the glucuronide metabolite of puerarin after administration of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoid from Gegen alone and <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoid from Gegen combined with <span class="hlt">total</span> saponin from Sanqi in rats under <span class="hlt">different</span> physiological states.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gegen is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Puerarin and daidzin are the main active constituents of Gegen. Puerarin is mainly metabolized in rats by glucuronidation and the major metabolite from rat urine has been identified as puerarin-7-O-glucuronide through semi-preparative HPLC isolation and then spectroscopic analysis. The study investigated the pharmacokinetic behavior of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide (without enzymatic hydrolysis), puerarin and daidzin when <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoid from Gegen was administered in normal and blood stasis animals or in blood stasis animals alone or in combination with Sanqi. The plasma samples were processed by protein precipitation with methanol, and chromatographed on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column (10cm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) by gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min, and detected with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by selected reaction monitoring via electrospray ionization source with positive ionization mode. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for the statistical comparison of the main pharmacokinetic parameters. There were statistically significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> (P<0.05) in the pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide, puerarin and daidzin involving the AUC, CL and Vd not only between normal rats and blood stasis rats after administration of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoid from Gegen, but also between administration of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoid from Gegen alone and in combination with <span class="hlt">total</span> saponin from Sanqi in blood stasis rats. The results obtained suggest that the pharmacokinetic behavior of puerarin-7-O-glucuronide, puerarin and daidzin are changed when <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoid from Gegen was administered in blood stasis animals or in combination with <span class="hlt">total</span> saponin from Sanqi. PMID:23774247</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yunli; Gao, Enze; Zhao, Xing; Liu, Zheng; Yu, Zhiguo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3618344"> <span id="translatedtitle">An R2R3 MYB transcription factor determines red petal <span class="hlt">colour</span> in an Actinidia (kiwifruit) hybrid population</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Red <span class="hlt">colour</span> in kiwifruit results from the presence of anthocyanin pigments. Their expression, however, is complex, and varies among genotypes, species, tissues and environments. An understanding of the biosynthesis, physiology and genetics of the anthocyanins involved, and the control of their expression in <span class="hlt">different</span> tissues, is required. A complex, the MBW complex, consisting of R2R3-MYB and bHLH transcription factors together with a WD-repeat protein, activates anthocyanin 3-O-galactosyltransferase (F3GT1) to produce anthocyanins. We examined the expression and genetic control of anthocyanins in flowers of Actinidia hybrid families segregating for red and white petal <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Results Four inter-related backcross families between Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis and Actinidia eriantha Benth. were identified that segregated 1:1 for red or white petal <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Flower pigments consisted of five known anthocyanins (two delphinidin-based and three cyanidin-based) and three unknowns. Intensity and hue <span class="hlt">differed</span> in red petals from pale pink to deep magenta, and while intensity of <span class="hlt">colour</span> increased with <span class="hlt">total</span> concentration of anthocyanin, no association was found between any particular anthocyanin data and hue. Real time qPCR demonstrated that an R2R3 MYB, MYB110a, was expressed at significant levels in red-petalled progeny, but not in individuals with white petals. A microsatellite marker was developed that identified alleles that segregated with red petal <span class="hlt">colour</span>, but not with ovary, stamen filament, or fruit flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> in these families. The marker mapped to chromosome 10 in Actinidia. The white petal phenotype was complemented by syringing Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying Actinidia 35S::MYB110a into the petal tissue. Red pigments developed in white petals both with, and without, co-transformation with Actinidia bHLH partners. MYB110a was shown to directly activate Actinidia F3GT1 in transient assays. Conclusions The transcription factor, MYB110a, regulates anthocyanin production in petals in this hybrid population, but not in other flower tissues or mature fruit. The identification of delphinidin-based anthocyanins in these flowers provides candidates for <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement in novel fruits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41154076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating geostrophic and <span class="hlt">total</span> velocities from CTD and ADCP data: Intercomparison of <span class="hlt">different</span> methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Inferring geostrophic velocity fields from CTD data distributions can be handicapped by the impossibility of referring dynamic height to a no-motion level. This is often the case over the continental shelf, but also at open sea, even when velocity measurements (e.g. from a vessel mounted ADCP) are available. In this paper we test and compare four <span class="hlt">different</span> methods aimed to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anna Rubio; Damià Gomis; Gabriel Jordà; Manuel Espino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3619458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cultural transmission results in convergence towards <span class="hlt">colour</span> term universals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As in biological evolution, multiple forces are involved in cultural evolution. One force is analogous to selection, and acts on <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the fitness of aspects of culture by influencing who people choose to learn from. Another force is analogous to mutation, and influences how culture changes over time owing to errors in learning and the effects of cognitive biases. Which of these forces need to be appealed to in explaining any particular aspect of human cultures is an open question. We present a study that explores this question empirically, examining the role that the cognitive biases that influence cultural transmission might play in universals of <span class="hlt">colour</span> naming. In a large-scale laboratory experiment, participants were shown labelled examples from novel artificial systems of <span class="hlt">colour</span> terms and were asked to classify other <span class="hlt">colours</span> on the basis of those examples. The responses of each participant were used to generate the examples seen by subsequent participants. By simulating cultural transmission in the laboratory, we were able to isolate a single evolutionary force—the effects of cognitive biases, analogous to mutation—and examine its consequences. Our results show that this process produces convergence towards systems of <span class="hlt">colour</span> terms similar to those seen across human languages, providing support for the conclusion that the effects of cognitive biases, brought out through cultural transmission, can account for universals in <span class="hlt">colour</span> naming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Jing; Dowman, Mike; Griffiths, Thomas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AcSpA..94..271S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with <span class="hlt">different</span> colors using near infrared spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in <span class="hlt">different</span> colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=specific+AND+training&pg=5&id=EJ859643"> <span id="translatedtitle">Training Grapheme-<span class="hlt">Colour</span> Associations Produces a Synaesthetic Stroop Effect, but Not a Conditioned Synaesthetic Response</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The goal of this study was to investigate whether behavioural and physiological consequences of synaesthesia can be elicited by training specific letter-<span class="hlt">colour</span> associations. Towards this goal 20 non-synaesthetic individuals were trained for 10 min on 7 consecutive days to associate four <span class="hlt">different</span> letters with four specific <span class="hlt">colours</span>. After…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2330765"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and texture segmentation using wavelet frame analysis, deterministic relaxation, and fast marching algorithms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Luminance, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and\\/or texture features may be used, either alone or in combination, for segmentation. In this paper luminance and <span class="hlt">colour</span> classes are described using the corre- sponding empirical probability distributions. For texture analysis and characterisation a mul- tichannel scale\\/orientation decomposition is performed using wavelet frame analysis. Knowing only the number of the <span class="hlt">different</span> classes of the image, regions of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spyros Liapis; Eftychios Sifakis; Georgios Tziritas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40979007"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> development and quality of mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening and after harvest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit changes from green to purple black after harvest as the fruit ripens, and is used as a quality guide for growers and consumers. We determined the relationship between anthocyanin composition and content during fruit <span class="hlt">colour</span> development in relation to fruit maturity and postharvest quality. Fruit at <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of maturity (light greenish</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Palapol; S. Ketsa; D. Stevenson; J. M. Cooney; A. C. Allan; I. B. Ferguson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.isasf.net/Docs/Trieste/Papers/N11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">CONCENTRATION OF <span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> COMPONENTS IN CHILLI PEPPER AND PAPRIKA OLEORESINS WITH COLUMN CHROMATORGAPHY AND SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paprika (Capsicum annum) is one of the oldest and most important natural red <span class="hlt">colourants</span> used as oleoresin (extract) in foodstuffs industry. Paprika <span class="hlt">differs</span> from chilli pepper in the concentration of pungent (capsaicinoids) and <span class="hlt">colour</span> components (carotenoids), which directly influence the quality and commercial value of a great number of food ingredients. The scope of our study was to investigate the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amra Perva-Uzunalic</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2031590"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> changes in concentrated fruit pulp during heating at high temperatures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> change in concentrated apple, peach and plum pulp due to extended heat treatment was investigated. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> <span class="hlt">differences</span> (?E) and Hunter L parameters were used to estimate the severity of damage during heating of the fruit pulp at 56, 66, 80 and 94 °C for 700 min. The results indicate apparent first-order kinetics. Hunter a and b and CIE</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. E. Lozano; A. Ibarz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40324406"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lateral asymmetries during responses to novel-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> objects in the domestic chick: A developmental study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chicks were trained to peck on a small <span class="hlt">coloured</span> (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> (unfamiliar). Food reinforcement was delivered for pecking either box, and the right-left position of the two boxes was alternated at random between trials. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lucia Regolin; Giorgio Vallortigara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1688575"> <span id="translatedtitle">The genetic basis of an adaptive radiation: warning <span class="hlt">colour</span> in two Heliconius species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mimetic <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern races of Heliconius butterflies provide a striking example of adaptive radiation and numerous crossing experiments have investigated the genetics of these racial <span class="hlt">differences</span>. However, <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern differentiation between closely related Heliconius species has not been previously studied. Here we present data from crosses between H. erato cyrbia and its sister species, H. himera. The genetic architecture underlying <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern divergence between these species is identical to that observed between races of H. erato. As in inter-racial crosses, <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern <span class="hlt">differences</span> resulted from segregation at a few major loci. Evidence from 1321 offspring in 4 F1, 17 backcross, 7 F2 and 21 further crosses showed that two major loci controlled most of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern <span class="hlt">differences</span> between H. erato and H. himera. There were strong interactions between these loci in their patterns of expression and evidence for other loci with relatively minor phenotypic effects. More importantly, based on patterns of expression within broods and linkage with Aconitase, we conclude that these major loci were homologous with those known to be responsible for <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern <span class="hlt">differences</span> within H. erato. Our crosses also permit a re-evaluation of the relationships between <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern races of H. erato. This suggests that H. e. hydara, which occurs across a major mtDNA break, is the ancestral phenotype from which other races have evolved. Based on this assumption, we find no evidence to support the recent suggestion that apparently homologous <span class="hlt">colour</span> pattern alleles have arisen multiple times.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiggins, C. D.; McMillan, W. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56548035"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in maternal <span class="hlt">total</span> cholesterol and triglyceride levels during pregnancy: the contribution of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background\\/Objectives:Lipid disturbances during pregnancy may lead to early onset of metabolic diseases in the offspring. However, there is little knowledge on ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in lipid levels during pregnancy. We evaluated ethnic <span class="hlt">differences</span> in non-fasting <span class="hlt">total</span> cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels during early gestation and the role of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics.Subjects\\/Methods:Non-diabetic pregnant women (N=3025) from the Amsterdam</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y J Schreuder; B A Hutten; M van Eijsden; E H Jansen; M N Vissers; M T Twickler; T G M Vrijkotte; TGM Vrijkotte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3461038"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Candidate-Gene Association Study for Berry <span class="hlt">Colour</span> and Anthocyanin Content in Vitis vinifera L.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were <span class="hlt">total</span> skin anthocyanin (TSA) concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) descriptors for berry and skin <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several <span class="hlt">different</span> types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp <span class="hlt">colour</span> were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST). Pulp <span class="hlt">colour</span> was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, MYCA, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHSA). Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYCB, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardoso, Silvana; Lau, Winston; Eiras Dias, Jose; Fevereiro, Pedro; Maniatis, Nikolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_12 div --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23029369"> <span id="translatedtitle">A candidate-gene association study for berry <span class="hlt">colour</span> and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were <span class="hlt">total</span> skin anthocyanin (TSA) concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) descriptors for berry and skin <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B) were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several <span class="hlt">different</span> types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp <span class="hlt">colour</span> were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B), UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST). Pulp <span class="hlt">colour</span> was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B), MYC(A), UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A)). Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B). SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B), while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies. PMID:23029369</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardoso, Silvana; Lau, Winston; Eiras Dias, José; Fevereiro, Pedro; Maniatis, Nikolas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23871194"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of thermal treatment on chemical, mechanical and <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits in Norway spruce wood.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In several <span class="hlt">different</span> branches of the wood industry heat treatment is a growing application as it changes the chemical, mechanical, physical and biological properties of wood. Investigations using wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and CIELab <span class="hlt">colour</span> system have been conducted to study the changes in Norway spruce wood subjected to temperature up to 270°C over a 30min time period. The results showed that mass loss (ML), <span class="hlt">total</span> crystallinity index (TCI) of cellulose, <span class="hlt">total</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">difference</span> (?E(?)), and the content of lignin and extractives increased with the temperature, whereas degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), lightness <span class="hlt">difference</span> (?L(?)), and the content of holocellulose, cellulose and hemicelluloses all decreased with the thermal treatment. Relationships between temperature and the examined wood traits were all fitted by exponential curves. Power law relationships were found to fit the trends for DP of cellulose with ?E(?), ?L(?), and TCI of cellulose. Also found were power law regressions for the content of hemicelluloses with MOE, MOR, ?L(?), and ML. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 187°C formed a compact cluster, clearly separated from the higher examined temperatures in the multivariate wood trait space. PMID:23871194</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ka?íková, Danica; Ka?ík, František; Cabalová, Iveta; Durkovi?, Jaroslav</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16700060"> <span id="translatedtitle">A golden clue to human skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> variation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations in human skin pigmentation are obvious, but how have skin <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">differences</span> evolved? Although clearly a polymorphic trait, the number and identity of key variants has remained unclear. Investigation of pigmentation phenotypes in model organisms provides a route to identify these genes and showed MC1R to be one key locus. Now, cloning of a classic zebrafish mutant, golden, identifies slc24a5 as a gene involved in fish skin pigmentation.1 Strikingly this study identifies the human orthologue, SLC24A5, as likely to make a major contribution to the pale skin <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of Western Europeans. PMID:16700060</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Müller, Jeanette; Kelsh, Robert N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JLVEn..31..155Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research of Binocular <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Fusion Limit on Peripheral Visual Field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this research, we measured the wavelength <span class="hlt">difference</span> limit for binocular <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision about peripheral visual field, by using a three-dimensional display to present dichoptic stimuli to the left and right eye respectively. The wavelength range of the stimuli was selected from 450 nm to 650 nm. The size of stimulus was 2° arc of visual angle, and the brightness was set 15 cd/m2. The results show that <span class="hlt">colour</span> fusion occurs more difficult with central visual field than peripheral visual field. More importantly, it offers the basis of important fundamental data for some important optical instruments, for example the designs of optical microscopes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qin, Xiaolin; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru; Kidoh, Yasuaki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3260513"> <span id="translatedtitle">Active and <span class="hlt">total</span> microbial communities in forest soil are largely <span class="hlt">different</span> and highly stratified during decomposition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soils of coniferous forest ecosystems are important for the global carbon cycle, and the identification of active microbial decomposers is essential for understanding organic matter transformation in these ecosystems. By the independent analysis of DNA and RNA, whole communities of bacteria and fungi and its active members were compared in topsoil of a Picea abies forest during a period of organic matter decomposition. Fungi quantitatively dominate the microbial community in the litter horizon, while the organic horizon shows comparable amount of fungal and bacterial biomasses. Active microbial populations obtained by RNA analysis exhibit similar diversity as DNA-derived populations, but significantly <span class="hlt">differ</span> in the composition of microbial taxa. Several highly active taxa, especially fungal ones, show low abundance or even absence in the DNA pool. Bacteria and especially fungi are often distinctly associated with a particular soil horizon. Fungal communities are less even than bacterial ones and show higher relative abundances of dominant species. While dominant bacterial species are distributed across the studied ecosystem, distribution of dominant fungi is often spatially restricted as they are only recovered at some locations. The sequences of cbhI gene encoding for cellobiohydrolase (exocellulase), an essential enzyme for cellulose decomposition, were compared in soil metagenome and metatranscriptome and assigned to their producers. Litter horizon exhibits higher diversity and higher proportion of expressed sequences than organic horizon. Cellulose decomposition is mediated by highly diverse fungal populations largely distinct between soil horizons. The results indicate that low-abundance species make an important contribution to decomposition processes in soils.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baldrian, Petr; Kolarik, Miroslav; Stursova, Martina; Kopecky, Jan; Valaskova, Vendula; Vetrovsky, Tomas; Zifcakova, Lucia; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Ridl, Jakub; Vlcek, Cestmir; Voriskova, Jana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18034803"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coevolution and the adaptive value of autumn tree <span class="hlt">colours</span>: <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference and growth rates of a southern beech aphid.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evolutionary explanation for the change in leaf <span class="hlt">colour</span> during autumn is still debated. Autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> could be a signal of defensive commitment towards insects (coevolution) or an adaptation against physical damage because of light at low temperatures (photoprotection). These two hypotheses have <span class="hlt">different</span> predictions: (1) under the coevolution hypothesis, insects should not prefer red leaves in autumn and grow better in spring on trees with green autumn leaves; and (2) under the photoprotection hypothesis, insects should prefer and grow better on trees with red leaves because they provide better nutrition. Studying <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference in autumn and growth rates in spring of a southern beech aphid species (Neuquenaphis staryi) on Nothofagus alessandrii, we found preference for green leaves in autumn but no differential performance of aphids in spring. We suggest that aphid preference for green might have evolved to exploit better their host during the autumn rather than to improve their performance in spring. PMID:18034803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramírez, C C; Lavandero, B; Archetti, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Natur.404..457V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colour</span>: <span class="hlt">Colour</span> mixing in wing scales of a butterfly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual <span class="hlt">colour</span> arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Map Segmentation by <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Cube Genetic K-Mean Clustering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Segmentation of a <span class="hlt">colour</span> image composed of <span class="hlt">different</span> kinds of texture regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields and a decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and\\/or unstationary texture fields. In this work, a method is described for evolving adaptive procedures for these problems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vitorino Ramos; Fernando Muge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035303"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and contrast enhancement for improved skin lesion segmentation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accurate extraction of lesion borders is a critical step in analysing dermoscopic skin lesion images. In this paper, we consider the problems of poor contrast and lack of <span class="hlt">colour</span> calibration which are often encountered when analysing dermoscopy images. <span class="hlt">Different</span> illumination or <span class="hlt">different</span> devices will lead to <span class="hlt">different</span> image <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the same lesion and hence to difficulties in the segmentation stage. Similarly, low contrast makes accurate border detection difficult. We present an effective approach to improve the performance of lesion segmentation algorithms through a pre-processing step that enhances <span class="hlt">colour</span> information and image contrast. We combine this enhancement stage with two <span class="hlt">different</span> segmentation algorithms. One technique relies on analysis of the image background by iterative measurements of non-lesion pixels, while the other technique utilises co-operative neural networks for edge detection. Extensive experimental evaluation is carried out on a dataset of 100 dermoscopy images with known ground truths obtained from three expert dermatologists. The results show that both techniques are capable of providing good segmentation performance and that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement step is indeed crucial as demonstrated by comparison with results obtained from the original RGB images. PMID:21035303</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schaefer, Gerald; Rajab, Maher I; Celebi, M Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41152098"> <span id="translatedtitle">What makes products fresh: The smell or the <span class="hlt">colour</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Freshness is important for food products, beverages personal care products and cleaning products. In the present study we used an experimental approach to investigate sensory dominance in the product experience of freshness. We created products (soft drinks, dishwashing liquids, and scented candles) using fresh and non-fresh stimuli (<span class="hlt">colours</span> and smells) in four <span class="hlt">different</span> combinations and asked respondents to evaluate the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anna Fenko; Hendrik N. J. Schifferstein; Tse-Chia Huang; Paul Hekkert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJART...1c.110Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using <span class="hlt">colour</span> in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span> usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the <span class="hlt">colour</span> psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied <span class="hlt">colour</span> in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zraati, Parisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15682872"> <span id="translatedtitle">The evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of genetic <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in birds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hypothesis that ornaments can honestly signal quality only if their expression is condition-dependent has dominated the study of the evolution and function of <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits. Much less interest has been devoted to the adaptive function of <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits for which the expression is not, or is to a low extent, sensitive to body condition and the environment in which individuals live. The aim of the present paper is to review the current theoretical and empirical knowledge of the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of <span class="hlt">colour</span> plumage traits for which the expression is mainly under genetic control. The finding that in many bird species the inheritance of <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs follows the laws of Mendel indicates that genetic <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism is frequent. Polymorphism may have evolved or be maintained because each <span class="hlt">colour</span> morph facilitates the exploitation of alternative ecological niches as suggested by the observation that individuals are not randomly distributed among habitats with respect to coloration. Consistent with the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs are linked to alternative strategies is the finding that in a majority of species polymorphism is associated with reproductive parameters, and behavioural, life-history and physiological traits. Experimental studies showed that such covariations can have a genetic basis. These observations suggest that <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism has an adaptive function. Aviary and field experiments demonstrated that <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism is used as a criterion in mate-choice decisions and dominance interactions confirming the claim that conspecifics assess each other's <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs. The factors favouring the evolution and maintenance of genetic variation in coloration are reviewed, but empirical data are virtually lacking to assess their importance. Although current theory predicts that only condition-dependent traits can signal quality, the present review shows that genetically inherited morphs can reveal the same qualities. The study of genetic <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism will provide important and original insights on the adaptive function of conspicuous traits. PMID:15682872</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roulin, Alexandre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23580729"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision and response bias in a coral reef fish.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Animals use <span class="hlt">coloured</span> signals for a variety of communication purposes, including to attract potential mates, recognize individuals, defend territories and warn predators of secondary defences (aposematism). To understand the mechanisms that drive the evolution and design of such visual signals, it is important to understand the visual systems and potential response biases of signal receivers. Here, we provide raw data on the spectral capabilities of a coral reef fish, the Picasso triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus, which is potentially trichromatic with three cone sensitivities of 413 nm (single cone), 480 nm (double cone, medium sensitivity) and 528 nm (double cone, long sensitivity), and a rod sensitivity of 498 nm. The ocular media have a 50% transmission cut off at 405 nm. Behavioural experiments confirmed <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision over their spectral range; triggerfish were significantly more likely to choose <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli over grey distractors, irrespective of luminance. We then examined whether response biases existed towards <span class="hlt">coloured</span> and patterned stimuli to provide insight into how visual signals - in particular, aposematic <span class="hlt">colouration</span> - may evolve. Triggerfish showed a preferential foraging response bias to red and green stimuli, in contrast to blue and yellow, irrespective of pattern. There was no response bias to patterned over monochromatic non-patterned stimuli. A foraging response bias towards red in fish <span class="hlt">differs</span> from that of avian predators, who often avoid red food items. Red is frequently associated with warning <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in terrestrial environments (ladybirds, snakes, frogs), whilst blue is used in aquatic environments (blue-ringed octopus, nudibranchs); whether the design of warning (aposematic) displays is a cause or consequence of response biases is unclear. PMID:23580729</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheney, Karen L; Newport, Cait; McClure, Eva C; Marshall, N Justin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhB.871..330F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>-independent partition functions in <span class="hlt">coloured</span> vertex models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study lattice configurations related to Sn, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational An integrable vertex models, n?{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved <span class="hlt">colours</span> that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice.Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the <span class="hlt">colours</span> flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric An models, and to all n.This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, arXiv:1204.2089, [2]). Namely, 1.S2, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b1} and {b2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b1}??, and/or {b2}??, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A1 vertex-model partition function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3744697"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations between Cigarette Smoking and <span class="hlt">Total</span> Mortality <span class="hlt">Differ</span> Depending on Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants among the Elderly</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are substantial variations of relative risks (RR) in smoking-related mortality by country and time. We hypothesized the RRs in smoking-related mortality might <span class="hlt">differ</span> depending on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking with <span class="hlt">total</span> mortality in 610 elderly (aged ? 70 yr) (702 elderly for organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) after stratification by serum concentration of POPs, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 followed through 2006. Summary measures of POPs subclasses showed significant or marginally significant interaction with cigarette smoking on the risk of <span class="hlt">total</span> mortality. P values for interaction were 0.069 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 0.008 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 0.024 for OCPs. The effect of smoking on <span class="hlt">total</span> mortality showed <span class="hlt">different</span> patterns according to the serum concentration of some POPs. Former or current smokers had 1.4 to 2.9 times higher mortality rates compared with never smokers among participants with higher serum concentrations of POPs (2nd or 3rd tertiles). However, when the level of PCBs or OCPs were low (1st tertile), there were little positive associations between smoking and mortality. Our study suggests that the background exposure to several POPs may be related to variability in smoking-related <span class="hlt">total</span> mortality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Yu-Mi; Bae, Sang-Geun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jacobs, David R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22465466"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myopia and iris <span class="hlt">colour</span>: a possible connection?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myopia is a common ocular disease in the world. Its prevalence has increased rapidly worldwide, especially in some East-Asian countries. Genetic factors and environmental factors both affect myopia's onset and its progress. Iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an important characteristic of a person. It is a possible risk factor for myopia by affecting the amount and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of light entering eyes. The study of iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> may contribute to the understanding of myopia mechanism and provide good suggestive evidence for studies on other eye diseases. In this article, the possible connection between myopia and iris <span class="hlt">colour</span> is proposed. Approaches to dissect any link are suggested. PMID:22465466</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meng, Weihua; Butterworth, Jacqueline; Calvas, Patrick; Malecaze, Francois</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/7kn0h1k4132p26n1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Fatty Acid Profile of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Parenteral Nutrition Emulsions on the Fatty Acid Composition of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Tissues of Piglets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> parenteral nutrition (TPN) studies in human babies of very-low-birth-weight suggest that the lipid emulsions currently\\u000a available are not optimum for neonatal nutrition. Since fatty acid metabolism in human and pigs is very similar, the present\\u000a study examines how lipid emulsions used in clinical TPN (i.e. ClinOleic, Intralipid, Lipofundin or Omegaven), with <span class="hlt">different</span>\\u000a fatty acid compositions, administered to neonatal piglets</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Amusquivar; M. Sánchez; M. J. Hyde; J. Laws; L. Clarke; E. Herrera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6750-8-69.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring microRNAs: Comparisons of microarray and quantitative PCR measurements, and of <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> RNA prep methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: Determining the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) is of great interest to researchers in many areas of biology, given the significant roles these molecules play in cellular regulation. Two common methods for measuring miRNAs in a <span class="hlt">total</span> RNA sample are microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). To understand the results of studies that use these two <span class="hlt">different</span> techniques to measure</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert A Ach; Hui Wang; Bo Curry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50968644"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro kinematic measurements of the patellar tendon in two <span class="hlt">different</span> types of posterior-stabilized <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Fixed-bearing posterior-stabilized (PS) <span class="hlt">total</span> knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been used in Asian countries for several years, but few studies have investigated <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the kinematic properties of the patellar tendon after standard PS TKA as compared to high-flex PS TKA. Purpose: To quantify the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the patellar tendon during passive high flexion and full</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhonglin Zhu; Hui Ding; Xiao Dang; Jing Tang; Yixin Zhou; Guangzhi Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/29659324"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability in Microleakage Observed in a <span class="hlt">Total</span>-etch Wet-bonding Technique under <span class="hlt">Different</span> Handling Conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a stereoscopic clearing protocol and scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the extent and nature of microleakage in a <span class="hlt">total</span>-etch, current-generation dentin adhesive by a wet-bonding technique under <span class="hlt">different</span> handling conditions. The hypotheses were that inadequate light curing of the primer or incomplete drying of the primer solvent might adversely affect the sealing ability of an acetone-containing adhesive system. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. R. Tay; A. J. Gwinnett; K. M. Pang; S. H. Y. Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_13 div --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46943002"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Challenge of <span class="hlt">Colour</span>: Eighteenth-Century Botanists and the Hand-<span class="hlt">Colouring</span> of Illustrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colourful</span> plant images are often taken as the icon of natural history illustration. However, so far, little attention has been paid to the question of how this beautiful <span class="hlt">colouring</span> was achieved. At a case study of the eighteenth-century Nuremberg doctor and botanist, Christoph Jacob Trew, the process of how illustrations were hand-<span class="hlt">coloured</span>, who was involved in this work, and how</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kärin Nickelsen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/498835"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Image Segmentation by Non-Parametric Density Estimation in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Space</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel <span class="hlt">colour</span> image segmentation routine, based on clustering pixels in <span class="hlt">colour</span> space using non-parametric density estimation, is described. Although the basic methodology is well known, several important improvements to the previous work in this area are introduced. The density is estimated at a series of knot points in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> space, and clustering is performed by hill climb- ing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul A. Bromiley; Neil A. Thacker; Patrick Courtney</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NW.....97..987B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carotenoid-based bill <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based <span class="hlt">coloured</span> signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether <span class="hlt">colour</span> reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether <span class="hlt">different</span> relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill <span class="hlt">colour</span>, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill <span class="hlt">colour</span> on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill <span class="hlt">colour</span>, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more <span class="hlt">colourful</span> bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill <span class="hlt">colour</span> more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by <span class="hlt">coloured</span> signals on parasite load.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21h5202H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic application of digital image and <span class="hlt">colour</span> processing in characterizing flame radiation features</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, the experimental investigation of the dynamic flame properties of flame flickering and equivalence ratio sensing of a combustion process was done. In particular, the time-varied flame properties were examined using a novel digital image and <span class="hlt">colour</span> processing methodology. This technique makes use of the observed correlation between a digital image <span class="hlt">colour</span> signal and physical flame radiation characteristics in the visible wavelength domain. Aspects of RGB and HSV <span class="hlt">colour</span> modelling principles were applied to show that the addition of <span class="hlt">colour</span> identification in the image processing of high-speed flame image data could yield three useful parameters which are related to the dynamic behaviour of <span class="hlt">different</span> flame emanating components. First, the validity of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> identities for tracking the yellowish-red diffusion and greenish-blue premixed flame <span class="hlt">colourations</span> were examined by comparing their respective flickering frequency profiles. Then, the usefulness of the extracted Rdiffusion, Gpremixed and Bpremixed <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals to abstractly represent the behaviour of soot, C2* and CH* emission characteristics in a dynamic flame transition from diffusion to stoichiometric premixed condition was demonstrated. In particular, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> signal ratio Bpremixed/Gpremixed was correlated to exemplify the approximate time-varied state of the equivalence ratio from the imaged combustion phenomenon.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22675177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Illumination preference, illumination constancy and <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination by bumblebees in an environment with patchy light.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Patchy illumination presents foraging animals with a challenge, as the targets being sought may appear to vary in <span class="hlt">colour</span> depending on the illumination, compromising target identification. We sought to explore how the bumblebee Bombus terrestris copes with tasks involving flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination under patchy illumination. Light patches varied between unobscured daylight and leaf-shade, as a bee might encounter in and around woodland. Using a flight arena and <span class="hlt">coloured</span> filters, as well as one or two <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colours</span> of artificial flower, we quantified how bees chose to forage when presented with foraging tasks under patchy illumination. Bees were better at discriminating a pair of similar <span class="hlt">colours</span> under simulated unobscured daylight illumination than when foraging under leaf-shade illumination. Accordingly, we found that bees with prior experience of simulated daylight but not leaf-shade illumination initially preferred to forage in simulated daylight when all artificial flowers contained rewards as well as when only one <span class="hlt">colour</span> was rewarding, whereas bees with prior experience of both illuminants did not exhibit this preference. Bees also switched between illuminants less than expected by chance. This means that bees prefer illumination conditions with which they are familiar, and in which rewarding flower <span class="hlt">colours</span> are easily distinguishable from unrewarding ones. Under patchy illumination, <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination performance was substantially poorer than in homogenous light. The bees' abilities at coping with patchy light may therefore impact on foraging behaviour in the wild, particularly in woodlands, where illumination can change over short spatial scales. PMID:22675177</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998A%26AS..128..525P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical studies of asteroids. XXXII. Rotation periods and UBVRI-<span class="hlt">colours</span> for selected asteroids</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present lightcurves of selected asteroids. Most of the asteroids were included to obtain refined spin periods. Enhanced periods were determined for 11 Parthenope, 306 Unitas and 372 Palma. We confirmed the spin periods of 8 Flora, 13 Egeria, 71 Niobe, 233 Asterope, 291 Alice, 409 Aspasia, 435 Ella and 512 Taurinensis. We determined also BV-<span class="hlt">colours</span> for most of the included asteroids and UBVRI-<span class="hlt">colours</span> for a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 22 asteroids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piironen, J.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Erikson, A.; Oja, T.; Magnusson, P.; Festin, L.; Nathues, A.; Gaul, M.; Velichko, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1222574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution by <span class="hlt">different</span> fuels and metabolic pathways to the <span class="hlt">total</span> ATP turnover of proliferating MCF-7 breast cancer cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For the past 70 years the dominant perception of cancer metabolism has been that it is fuelled mainly by glucose (via aerobic glycolysis) and glutamine. Consequently, investigations into the diagnosis, treatment and the basic metabolism of cancer cells have been directed by this perception. However, the data on cancer metabolism are equivocal, and in this study we have sought to clarify the issue. Using an innovative system we have measured the <span class="hlt">total</span> ATP turnover of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, the contributions to this turnover by oxidative and glycolytic ATP production and the contributions to the oxidative component by glucose, lactate, glutamine, palmitate and oleate. The <span class="hlt">total</span> ATP turnover over approx. 5 days was 26.8 micromol of ATP.10(7) cells(-1).h(-1). ATP production was 80% oxidative and 20% glycolytic. Contributions to the oxidative component were approx. 10% glucose, 14% glutamine, 7% palmitate, 4% oleate and 65% from unidentified sources. The contribution by glucose (glycolysis and oxidation) to <span class="hlt">total</span> ATP turnover was 28.8%, glutamine contributed 10.7% and glucose and glutamine combined contributed 40%. Glucose and glutamine are significant fuels, but they account for less than half of the <span class="hlt">total</span> ATP turnover. The contribution of aerobic glycolysis is not <span class="hlt">different</span> from that in a variety of other non-transformed cell types.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guppy, Michael; Leedman, Peter; Zu, XinLin; Russell, Victoria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18956873"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between some nutritional components and the <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity measured with six <span class="hlt">different</span> assays in eight horticultural crops.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The contents of antioxidant nutritional compounds, <span class="hlt">total</span> soluble phenolics (TSP), vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and <span class="hlt">total</span> carotenoids (TC), were correlated with the <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity (AOC) of hydrophilic (HPE) and lipophilic extracts (LPE) from eight horticultural crops, namely, guava, avocado, black sapote, mango, papaya, prickly pear fruit, cladodes, and strawberry. AOC was measured using six <span class="hlt">different</span> assays: 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD), ferric-ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and <span class="hlt">total</span> oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC). AOC values from HPE were about 95 times higher than LPE values. HPE of guava had the highest AOC value when evaluated with DMPD, DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, and TOSC assays, whereas with ORAC assay, black sapote had the highest value. HPE of papaya and prickly pear fruit presented the lowest AOC values with all assays. From HPE, vitamin C and TSP contents were highly correlated with AOC for all assays, while from LPE, TC and beta-carotene contents possessed a high correlation with AOC only in the DMPD assay. PMID:18956873</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Corral-Aguayo, Rene D; Yahia, Elhadi M; Carrillo-Lopez, Armando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7273P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fire severity effects on ash extractable <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phosphorous</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose <span class="hlt">different</span> severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash <span class="hlt">colour</span> and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable <span class="hlt">Total</span> Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash <span class="hlt">colour</span> was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 <span class="hlt">different</span> ash <span class="hlt">colours</span>, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> between extractable TP and ash <span class="hlt">colours</span>, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the <span class="hlt">differences</span> significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the extractable TP among the <span class="hlt">different</span> ash <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Hence, to identify specific <span class="hlt">differences</span> between each ash <span class="hlt">colour</span>, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AIPC..623..293W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Finite size effects in <span class="hlt">colour</span> superconductivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently it has been speculated by several authors that quark matter at large density and low temperature can become a color superconductor. This prediction relies on the asymptotically free character of the strong interaction, QCD, and on the general property of fermionic systems, for which the Fermi surface is unstable with respect to an attractive interaction among the fermions, however weak. In our work we have studied the effects of finite size on the two flavor <span class="hlt">colour</span> superconducting state, by taking into account three <span class="hlt">different</span> aspects: the boundary conditions felt by the quark fields, which are now constrained in a finite volume, the exact projection of the BCS state over a definite baryon number and the projection of the BCS state over a color singlet. These effects have been evaluated numerically.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walet, N. R.; Mc Govern, J. A.; Amore, P.; Birse, M. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3349711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental and Genetic Effects on Pigment-Based vs. Structural Component of Yellow Feather <span class="hlt">Colouration</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Carotenoid plumage is of widespread use in bird communication. Carotenoid-based feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> has recently been shown to be dependent on both pigment concentration and feather structure. If these two components are determined <span class="hlt">differently</span>, one plumage patch may potentially convey <span class="hlt">different</span> aspects of individual quality. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effects of genetic and environmental factors on carotenoid-based yellow breast <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of Great Tit (Parus major) nestlings. By partial cross-fostering, we separated the genetic and pre-natal vs. post-natal parental effects on both the structural and the pigment-based component of carotenoid-based plumage <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. We also simultaneously manipulated the post-hatching environment by brood size manipulation. The structural component of nestling <span class="hlt">colouration</span> reflected features of female <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. On the other hand, the pigment-based component was more affected by rearing conditions presumably representing food quality. While the structural component was related to both origin- and environment-related factors, the pigment-based component seemed to be environment-dependent only. These results support the notion that pigment-based and structural components of feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> are determined <span class="hlt">differently</span>. Conclusions/Significance Chromatic and achromatic components of carotenoid-based feather <span class="hlt">colouration</span> reflected <span class="hlt">different</span> aspects of individual quality and history, and thus may potentially form a multicomponent signal.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matrkova, Jana; Remes, Vladimir</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013592"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Monitoring for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Using Double-<span class="hlt">Difference</span> Waveform Inversion with Spatially-Variant <span class="hlt">Total</span>-Variation Regularization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Double-<span class="hlt">difference</span> waveform inversion is a promising tool for quantitative monitoring for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The method uses time-lapse seismic data to jointly inverts for reservoir changes. Due to the ill-posedness of waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain reservoir changes accurately and efficiently, particularly when using timelapse seismic reflection data. To improve reconstruction, we develop a spatially-variant <span class="hlt">total</span>-variation regularization scheme into double-<span class="hlt">difference</span> waveform inversion to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. The new regularization scheme employs <span class="hlt">different</span> regularization parameters in <span class="hlt">different</span> regions of the model to obtain an optimal regularization in each area. We compare the results obtained using a spatially-variant parameter with those obtained using a constant regularization parameter. Utilizing a spatially-variant regularization scheme, the target monitoring regions are well reconstructed and the image noise is significantly reduced outside the monitoring regions. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the spatially-variant <span class="hlt">total</span>-variation regularization scheme provides the flexibility to regularize local regions based on the a priori spatial information without increasing computational costs and the computer memory requirement.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Zhigang [Los Alamos National Laboratory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6878037"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> biases are a question of taste</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unpalatable insects often advertise their defences to avian predators by conspicuous <span class="hlt">colours</span>, such as red and yellow. Therefore, perhaps not surprisingly, birds tend to have unlearned biases against warningly <span class="hlt">coloured</span> food. These biases are particularly evident when other components of insect warning displays, such as novel sounds and odours, are also present. We tested whether bitter taste, often associated with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Candy Rowe; John Skelhorn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=2&id=EJ750687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Representing Object <span class="hlt">Colour</span> in Language Comprehension</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that <span class="hlt">colour</span>. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object <span class="hlt">colour</span> is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Connell, Louise</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2011105816"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span>, Usability and Security: A Case Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in user interfaces is extensive. It is typically a usability issue, and has rarely caused any security concerns. In this article, we show that the use of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in the design of CAPTCHA, a standard security technology that has found wid...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. S. E. Ahmad L. Yan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203990"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision in coral reef fish.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over many millions of years, sea creatures have developed a range of light reflectance properties. One example is the large variation in the patterns and <span class="hlt">colours</span> of fish inhabiting the world's coral reefs. Attempts to understand the significance of the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> have been made, but all too often from the perspective of a human observer. A more ecological approach requires us to consider the visual system of those for whom the <span class="hlt">colours</span> were intended, namely other sea life. A first step is to understand the sensitivity of reef fish themselves to <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Physiological data has revealed wavelength-tuned photoreceptors in reef fish, and this study provides behavioural evidence for their application in <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination. Using classical conditioning, freshly caught damselfish were trained to discriminate <span class="hlt">coloured</span> patterns for a food reward. Within 3-4 days of capture the fish selected a target <span class="hlt">colour</span> on over 75% of trials. Brightness of the distracter and target were systematically varied to confirm that the fish could discriminate stimuli on the basis of chromaticity alone. The study demonstrates that reef fish can learn to perform two-alternative discrimination tasks, and provides the first behavioural evidence that reef fish have <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. PMID:18203990</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siebeck, U E; Wallis, G M; Litherland, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JRASC..99...98K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Visual Star <span class="hlt">Colours</span> from Instrumental Photometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to display graphically the visual <span class="hlt">colours</span> of stars and other astronomical objects, photometric broadband R, V, B <span class="hlt">colours</span> are used to proxy for the r, g, b <span class="hlt">colours</span> of the three visual sensors of the eye. From photometric Johnson B-V and V-R <span class="hlt">colour</span> indices, R, V, and B magnitudes (V = 0) are calculated, and from these the respective brightnesses (r, v = 1 = g, and b) are calculated. After suitable normalization these are then placed in a ternary diagram having r, g, and b as the vertices. All B-V and V-R are adjusted so that the Sun falls in the same place as a blackbody at 5800 K. The resulting ternary plot shows all of its objects (stars, planets) in their visual <span class="hlt">colours</span> at their relative positions in the ternary diagram. The star <span class="hlt">colours</span> displayed on a computer monitor screen or as a print with a <span class="hlt">colour</span> printer are more vivid than the usual visual impressions of isolated stars, undoubtedly because of properties of the dark-adapted eye, but double-star pairs with contrasting <span class="hlt">colours</span> correspond nicely to telescopic visual impressions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kohman, Truman P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~mperkows/CAPSTONES/Quantum_Transforms/00938687.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> triplet-valued wavelets and splines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concept of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and and multispectral image recognition connects all the topics we are considering. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> (multispectral) image processing is investigated using an algebraic approach based on triplet numbers. In the algebraic approach, each image element is considered not as a 3D vector, but as a triplet number. The main goal of the paper is to show that triplet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valeri Labunets; Alexei Maidan; Ekaterina Labunets-Rundblad; Jaakko Astola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38706740"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> vision in coral reef fish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Over many millions of years, sea creatures have developed a range of light reflectance properties. One example is the large variation in the patterns and <span class="hlt">colours</span> of fish inhabiting the world?s coral reefs. Attempts to understand the significance of the <span class="hlt">colouration</span> have been made, but all too often from the perspective of a human observer. A more ecological approach</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">U. E. Siebeck; G. M. Wallis; L. Litherland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Methods of Preparation of Adhatoda vasica Leaf Juice by Quantification of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Alkaloids and Vasicine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leaf of Adhatoda vasica (Vasaka) is an important drug of Ayurveda, prescribed as an expectorant. Quinazoline alkaloids present in the leaves are established as active principles. In Ayurveda, its leaf juice (Vasa swarasa) is incorporated in many formulations. Classical method for extracting the juice (swarasa) from the leaf is an elaborate process, which involves subjecting a bolus of crushed fresh leaf to heat followed by squeezing out the juice. Commercially, to prepare the juice of Vasaka, manufacturers have been adopting <span class="hlt">different</span> methods other than the traditional method. In an effort to evaluate these modified processes phytochemically to identify the process which gives juice of the quality that is obtained by traditional method, in terms of its alkaloid content, we prepared the leaf juice by traditional Ayurvedic method, its modification by steaming of leaf to simulate the traditional method and other methods adopted by some manufacturers. These juice samples were evaluated for the <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloid content by spectrophotometric method and vasicine content by thin layer chromatography densitometric method using high performance thin layer chromatography. The high performance thin layer chromatography method was validated for precision, repeatability and accuracy. The <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloid content varied from 0.3 mg/ml to 5.93 mg/ml and that of vasicine content varied from 0.2 mg/ml to 5.64 mg/ml in the juice samples prepared by <span class="hlt">different</span> methods. The present study revealed that steaming of fresh leaves under 15 lb pressure yielded same quantity of juice as the traditional bolus method (25 ml/100 g leaf) and its <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloid content and vasicine content (4.05±0.12 and 3.46±0.06 mg/ml, respectively) were very high when compared to the other methods, though the traditional method was found to give the best quality juice with highest amount of <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloids (5.93±0.55 mg/ml) and vasicine (5.64±0.10 mg/ml) content.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soni, S.; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Patel, G.; Rajani, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_14 div --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20390078"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of <span class="hlt">Different</span> Methods of Preparation of Adhatoda vasica Leaf Juice by Quantification of <span class="hlt">Total</span> Alkaloids and Vasicine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leaf of Adhatoda vasica (Vasaka) is an important drug of Ayurveda, prescribed as an expectorant. Quinazoline alkaloids present in the leaves are established as active principles. In Ayurveda, its leaf juice (Vasa swarasa) is incorporated in many formulations. Classical method for extracting the juice (swarasa) from the leaf is an elaborate process, which involves subjecting a bolus of crushed fresh leaf to heat followed by squeezing out the juice. Commercially, to prepare the juice of Vasaka, manufacturers have been adopting <span class="hlt">different</span> methods other than the traditional method. In an effort to evaluate these modified processes phytochemically to identify the process which gives juice of the quality that is obtained by traditional method, in terms of its alkaloid content, we prepared the leaf juice by traditional Ayurvedic method, its modification by steaming of leaf to simulate the traditional method and other methods adopted by some manufacturers. These juice samples were evaluated for the <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloid content by spectrophotometric method and vasicine content by thin layer chromatography densitometric method using high performance thin layer chromatography. The high performance thin layer chromatography method was validated for precision, repeatability and accuracy. The <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloid content varied from 0.3 mg/ml to 5.93 mg/ml and that of vasicine content varied from 0.2 mg/ml to 5.64 mg/ml in the juice samples prepared by <span class="hlt">different</span> methods. The present study revealed that steaming of fresh leaves under 15 lb pressure yielded same quantity of juice as the traditional bolus method (25 ml/100 g leaf) and its <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloid content and vasicine content (4.05+/-0.12 and 3.46+/-0.06 mg/ml, respectively) were very high when compared to the other methods, though the traditional method was found to give the best quality juice with highest amount of <span class="hlt">total</span> alkaloids (5.93+/-0.55 mg/ml) and vasicine (5.64+/-0.10 mg/ml) content. PMID:20390078</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soni, S; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Patel, G; Rajani, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691721"> <span id="translatedtitle">The coevolution theory of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the coevolution theory of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span>, the bright <span class="hlt">colours</span> of leaves in autumn are a warning signal to insects that lay their eggs on the trees in that season. If the <span class="hlt">colour</span> is linked to the level of defensive commitment of the tree and the insects learn to avoid bright <span class="hlt">colours</span>, this may lead to a coevolutionary process in which bright trees reduce their parasite load and choosy insects locate the most profitable hosts for the winter. We try to clarify what the theory actually says and to correct some misunderstandings that have been put forward. We also review current research on autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> and discuss what needs to be done to test the theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Archetti, Marco; Brown, Sam P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...518L..61B"> <span id="translatedtitle">FIR <span class="hlt">colours</span> and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present infrared <span class="hlt">colours</span> (in the 25-500 ?m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the <span class="hlt">different</span> nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the <span class="hlt">colour</span> temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter ? < 2 in low metallicity, active systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by Principal Investigator consortia. It is open for proposals for observing time from the worldwide astronomical community.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, S.; Bock, J.; Bomans, D. J.; Bradford, M.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.; Corbelli, E.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Dariush, A.; Davies, J.; de Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fritz, J.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Gear, W.; Giovanardi, C.; Glenn, J.; Gomez, H.; Griffin, M.; Grossi, M.; Hony, S.; Hughes, T. M.; Hunt, L.; Isaak, K.; Jones, A.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pierini, D.; Pohlen, M.; Rangwala, N.; Rigby, E.; Roussel, H.; Rykala, A.; Sabatini, S.; Sacchi, N.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Schirm, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Stevens, J.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Verstappen, J.; Vigroux, L.; Vlahakis, C.; Wilson, C.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G.; Xilouris, E. M.; Zeilinger, W.; Zibetti, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23785106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet sensitivity and <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in raptor foraging.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Raptors have excellent vision, yet it is unclear how they use <span class="hlt">colour</span> information. It has been suggested that raptors use ultraviolet (UV) reflections from vole urine to find good hunting grounds. In contrast, UV plumage <span class="hlt">colours</span> in songbirds such as blue tits are assumed to be 'hidden' communication signals, inconspicuous to raptors. This ambiguity results from a lack of knowledge about raptor ocular media transmittance, which sets the limit for UV sensitivity. We measured ocular media transmittance in common buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), red kites (Milvus milvus) and kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) so that, for the first time, raptor UV sensitivity can be fully described. With this information, and new measurements of vole urine reflectance, we show that (i) vole urine is unlikely to provide a reliable visual signal to hunting raptors and (ii) blue tit plumage <span class="hlt">colours</span> are more contrasting to blue tits than to sparrowhawks because of UV reflectance. However, as the <span class="hlt">difference</span> between blue tit and sparrowhawk vision is subtle, we suggest that behavioural data are needed to fully resolve this issue. UV cues are of little or no importance to raptors in both vole and songbird interactions and the role of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in raptor foraging remains unclear. PMID:23785106</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6493E..28P"> <span id="translatedtitle">User preferences in <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement for unsupervised printing methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to obtain a good quality image in preparation for inkjet printing, the process of adjusting images can be a time consuming and a costly procedure. In this paper, we consider the use of an unsupervised <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement method as part of the automatic pre-processors for printing. Other unsupervised <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhancement methods are utilised and compared: Retinex, RSR, ACE, Histogram Equalisation, Auto Levels. Test images are subjected to all of the enhancement methods, which are then printed. Users are asked compare each of the sampled images. In all cases, the results are dependent on the image. Thus, we have selected a range of test images: photographs of scenes, reproduction of prints, paintings and drawings. Some of the tested methods are parameter dependent. We do not intend to consider fine tuning for each of the techniques, rather to consider an average parameter set for each one and then test if this approach can aid the decision process of fine tuning. Three user groups are employed: the general user, commercial photographer expert and fine artist. Groups are asked to make a blind evaluation of a range of images (the original and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> enhanced by the <span class="hlt">different</span> methods); these are randomly placed. All images are printed on the same printer using the same settings. Users are asked to identify their preferred print in relation to lightness, tonal range, <span class="hlt">colour</span> range, quality of detail and overall subjective preference.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3219838"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contact allergy to <span class="hlt">colour</span> developing agents in the guinea pig.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> developing agents, derivatives of p-phenylenediamine, can cause contact allergy. Patch test reactions to more than one <span class="hlt">colour</span> developer are sometimes seen in patients. To study whether this is due to simultaneous sensitization or cross-reactivity, guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with CD-2, CD-3 and CD-4 were carried out. 5 experiments were performed, using pet. or water as vehicles. When pet. was used, the challenge concentrations could be raised and cross-reactivity between the <span class="hlt">colour</span> developers, but not with p-phenylenediamine-dihydrochloride, was revealed. When water was used as vehicle, the challenge concentrations were limited because of staining of the test sites and irritation. CD-2, CD-3 and CD-4 were found to be extreme sensitizers according to the classification by Magnusson and Kligman. The importance of using an appropriate vehicle to obtain optimal conditions for the GPMT is stressed. To study the purity and stability of the chemicals used, analysis by HPLC of the test substances at <span class="hlt">different</span> stages of the GPMT procedure was performed. Aqueous solutions of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> developers were found to be unstable, while pet. mixtures were stable. PMID:3219838</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lidén, C; Boman, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10664760"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> overlays, text, and texture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In four studies children were asked to read aloud a passage of randomly ordered common words with and without a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> sheet of plastic (overlay) placed upon the page. The children's rate of reading increased with the overlay, for some children more than for others. The children were also asked to undertake a test of texture segmentation in which targets consisting of a structured texture had to be distinguished from within a random background texture. The texture segmentation was improved when the overlay was used, again for some children more than for others. The improvement in texture segmentation was, in general, correlated with the improvement in rate of reading. Slower readers were generally poorer at texture segmentation. The implications for reading, for texture segmentation, and for clinical tests of vision are discussed. PMID:10664760</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wilkins, A; Lewis, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22551693"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">different</span> post-feeding intervals on the <span class="hlt">total</span> time of development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">By estimating the age of the immature stages of flies developing on a corpse, forensic entomologists are able to establish the minimum post-mortem interval. Blowflies, which are the first and most important colonizers, usually leave the cadaver at the end of the last larval stage searching for a pupation site. This period of development is referred as the post-feeding or wandering stage. The characteristics of the ground where the corpse was placed might be of notable importance for the post-feeding dispersal time: For pupariation the larvae prefer an environment protected from light and predators and may have a longer dispersal time in order to reach an appropriate pupation site. Hence, the dispersal time can vary and may influence the <span class="hlt">total</span> time of development which may lead to an erroneous calculation of the post-mortem interval. This study investigates the effect of various post-feeding time intervals on the development of the blowfly Lucilia sericata at a temperature of 25°C. As larvae reached the post-feeding stage a pupariation substrate was offered at 0 and after 12, 24 and 48h. Only the larvae with a dispersal time of 24h (<span class="hlt">total</span> time of development 325.2h; median) and 48h (<span class="hlt">total</span> time of development 347.7h; median) showed a significantly longer <span class="hlt">total</span> development time compared to the control group (<span class="hlt">total</span> time of development 318.4h; median). The mortality rate did not <span class="hlt">differ</span> between groups; however the flies that emerged from the group with a dispersal of 48h were significantly smaller indicating increased energy consumption during dispersal. The results of this study indicate that a prolonged post-feeding stage could increase the <span class="hlt">total</span> developmental time of L. sericata which should be taken into consideration when interpreting entomological findings. The need for a serious examination of current rearing practices in forensic entomology laboratories is indicated because reference data sets for the time of development are usually produced by offering the post-feeding stage a substrate for pupariation immediately. PMID:22551693</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mai, Madeleine; Amendt, Jens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2781919"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nectar, not <span class="hlt">colour</span>, may lure insects to their death</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We experimentally demonstrate in the field that prey of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea are attracted to sugar, not to <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Prey capture (either all taxa summed or individual common taxa considered separately) was not associated with <span class="hlt">total</span> red area or patterning on pitchers of living pitcher plants. We separated effects of nectar availability and coloration using painted ‘pseudopitchers’, half of which were coated with sugar solution. Unsugared pseudopitchers captured virtually no prey, whereas pseudopitchers with sugar solution captured the same amount of prey as living pitchers. In contrast to a recent study that associated red coloration with prey capture but that lacked controls for nectar availability, we infer that nectar, not <span class="hlt">colour</span>, is the primary means by which pitcher plants attract prey.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennett, Katherine F.; Ellison, Aaron M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22917817"> <span id="translatedtitle">The HIrisPlex system for simultaneous prediction of hair and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> from DNA.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, the field of predicting phenotypes of externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from DNA genotypes with the final aim of concentrating police investigations to find persons completely unknown to investigating authorities, also referred to as Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), has started to become established in forensic biology. We previously developed and forensically validated the IrisPlex system for accurate prediction of blue and brown eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> from DNA, and recently showed that all major hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> categories are predictable from carefully selected DNA markers. Here, we introduce the newly developed HIrisPlex system, which is capable of simultaneously predicting both hair and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> from DNA. HIrisPlex consists of a single multiplex assay targeting 24 eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> predictive DNA variants including all 6 IrisPlex SNPs, as well as two prediction models, a newly developed model for hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> categories and shade, and the previously developed IrisPlex model for eye <span class="hlt">colour</span>. The HIrisPlex assay was designed to cope with low amounts of template DNA, as well as degraded DNA, and preliminary sensitivity testing revealed full DNA profiles down to 63pg input DNA. The power of the HIrisPlex system to predict hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> was assessed in 1551 individuals from three <span class="hlt">different</span> parts of Europe showing <span class="hlt">different</span> hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> frequencies. Using a 20% subset of individuals, while 80% were used for model building, the individual-based prediction accuracies employing a prediction-guided approach were 69.5% for blond, 78.5% for brown, 80% for red and 87.5% for black hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> on average. Results from HIrisPlex analysis on worldwide DNA samples imply that HIrisPlex hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction is reliable independent of bio-geographic ancestry (similar to previous IrisPlex findings for eye <span class="hlt">colour</span>). We furthermore demonstrate that it is possible to infer with a prediction accuracy of >86% if a brown-eyed, black-haired individual is of non-European (excluding regions nearby Europe) versus European (including nearby regions) bio-geographic origin solely from the strength of HIrisPlex eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> probabilities, which can provide extra intelligence for future forensic applications. The HIrisPlex system introduced here, including a single multiplex test assay, an interactive tool and prediction guide, and recommendations for reporting final outcomes, represents the first tool for simultaneously establishing categorical eye and hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> of a person from DNA. The practical forensic application of the HIrisPlex system is expected to benefit cases where other avenues of investigation, including STR profiling, provide no leads on who the unknown crime scene sample donor or the unknown missing person might be. PMID:22917817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Wollstein, Andreas; Kovatsi, Leda; Ralf, Arwin; Kosiniak-Kamysz, Agnieszka; Branicki, Wojciech; Kayser, Manfred</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19450378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acanthocephalan size and sex affect the modification of intermediate host <span class="hlt">colouration</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For trophically transmitted parasites, transitional larval size is often related to fitness. Larger parasites may have higher establishment success and/or adult fecundity, but prolonged growth in the intermediate host increases the risk of failed transmission via natural host mortality. We investigated the relationship between the larval size of an acanthocephalan (Acanthocephalus lucii) and a trait presumably related to transmission, i.e. altered <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in the isopod intermediate host. In natural collections, big isopods harboured larger worms and had more modified (darker) abdominal <span class="hlt">colouration</span> than small hosts. Small isopods infected with a male parasite tended to have darker abdominal pigmentation than those infected with a female, but this <span class="hlt">difference</span> was absent in larger hosts. Female size increases rapidly with host size, so females may have more to gain than males by remaining in and growing mutually with small hosts. In experimental infections, a large <span class="hlt">total</span> parasite volume was associated with darker host respiratory operculae, especially when it was distributed among fewer worms. Our results suggest that host pigment alteration increases with parasite size, albeit <span class="hlt">differently</span> for male and female worms. This may be an adaptive strategy if, as parasites grow, the potential for additional growth decreases and the likelihood of host mortality increases. PMID:19450378</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benesh, D P; Seppälä, O; Valtonen, E T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8652E..0QB"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perceived acceptability of <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching for changing substrate white point</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Production and proofing substrates often <span class="hlt">differ</span> in their white points. Substrate white points frequently <span class="hlt">differ</span> between reference and sample, for example between proof and print, or between a target paper <span class="hlt">colour</span> and an actual production paper. It is possible to generate characterization data for the printing process on the production side to achieve an accurate colorimetric match but in many cases it is not practical to generate this data empirically by printing samples and measuring them1. This approach however, does not account for any degree of adaptation between the <span class="hlt">differing</span> substrate white points whereas its acceptability may depend on accounting for the change in paper <span class="hlt">colour</span> such that appearance preservation of the original when printed on the production substrate is attained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baah, Kwame; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NW.....94..935K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Out of three perceptual characteristics of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of <span class="hlt">colour</span> from spectral properties using <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OERv...20..159H"> <span id="translatedtitle">On a predictive scheme for <span class="hlt">colour</span> image quantization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we proposed an improved <span class="hlt">colour</span> image quantization scheme based on predictive coding. Since the neighbouring <span class="hlt">colour</span> pixels are quite similar in most <span class="hlt">colour</span> images, the similarity among the encoded pixels is exploited. In the proposed scheme the encoded distinct neighbouring <span class="hlt">colours</span> are collected to form a smaller state-palette. If the closest <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the state-palette is quite similar to the current encoding <span class="hlt">colour</span> pixel, the index of the closest <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the state-palette is recorded. Otherwise, the closest <span class="hlt">colour</span> in original <span class="hlt">colour</span> palette for the current encoding <span class="hlt">colour</span> pixel is searched and the corresponding index is recorded. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves good image qualities while requiring much lower bit rates for <span class="hlt">colour</span> image compression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Y.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lo, C.-C.; Wu, C.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1781948"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> and functional parasite specific IgE responses in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients exhibiting <span class="hlt">different</span> clinical status</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There is an increase of serum levels of IgE during Plasmodium falciparum infections in individuals living in endemic areas. These IgEs either protect against malaria or increase malaria pathogenesis. To get an insight into the exact role played by IgE in the outcome of P. falciparum infection, <span class="hlt">total</span> IgE levels and functional anti-parasite IgE response were studied in children and adults, from two <span class="hlt">different</span> endemic areas Gabon and India, exhibiting either uncomplicated malaria, severe non cerebral malaria or cerebral malaria, in comparison with control individuals. Methodology and results Blood samples were collected from controls and P. falciparum-infected patients before treatment on the day of hospitalization (day 0) in India and, in addition, on days 7 and 30 after treatment in Gabon. <span class="hlt">Total</span> IgE levels were determined by ELISA and functional P. falciparum-specific IgE were estimated using a mast cell line RBL-2H3 transfected with a human Fc? RI ?-chain that triggers degranulation upon human IgE cross-linking. Mann Whitney and Kruskall Wallis tests were used to compare groups and the Spearman test was used for correlations. <span class="hlt">Total</span> IgE levels were confirmed to increase upon infection and <span class="hlt">differ</span> with level of transmission and age but were not directly related to the disease phenotype. All studied groups exhibited functional parasite-specific IgEs able to induce mast cell degranulation in vitro in the presence of P. falciparum antigens. Plasma IgE levels correlated with those of IL-10 in uncomplicated malaria patients from Gabon. In Indian patients, plasma IFN-? , TNF and IL-10 levels were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations in all groups. Conclusion Circulating levels of <span class="hlt">total</span> IgE do not appear to correlate with protection or pathology, or with anti-inflammatory cytokine pattern bias during malaria. On the contrary, the P. falciparum-specific IgE response seems to contribute to the control of parasites, since functional activity was higher in asymptomatic and uncomplicated malaria patients than in severe or cerebral malaria groups.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duarte, Joana; Deshpande, Prakash; Guiyedi, Vincent; Mecheri, Salah; Fesel, Constantin; Cazenave, Pierre-Andre; Mishra, Gyan C; Kombila, Maryvonne; Pied, Sylviane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001A%26A...371.1150B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Trans-Neptunian and Centaur <span class="hlt">colours</span>: continuous trend or grouping?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the results of the first statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">colours</span> (B-V, V-R, V-I, and V-J) of the Trans-Neptunian and Centaur populations. Using the same statistical techniques applied to define the current asteroid taxonomy, we find a continuous spread of the objects between neutral <span class="hlt">colour</span> to very red. Pushing further the analysis, the TNOs may be split into four groups. The <span class="hlt">differences</span> in <span class="hlt">colour</span> content are interpreted as a consequence of the TNOs evolution (i.e. collisional history, space weathering, ...)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Birlan, M.; Doressoundiram, A.; Romon, J.; Boehnhardt, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JOpt...12f5301L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colouration</span> and optical effects in the wings of Papilio peranthus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The butterfly Papilio peranthus displays an iridescent green <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Through optical measurements, structural characterizations and theoretical analyses, we reveal that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> is actually a mixing effect of green and blue which originates from the interior multilayer structures of scales imbricated in the wings. The chromatic <span class="hlt">difference</span> between the produced green and blue <span class="hlt">colour</span> is attributed to the modulations in the butterfly wings. Reflected light by the inclined sides of pits changes its polarization to a perpendicular direction. Besides, elongated pits lead to anisotropic polarization conversion. A wider angle spread reflection caused by the morphology of pits and the nearly 'ideal' multilayer structures in scales may be advantageous to conspecific recognition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Feng; Wang, Guobing; Jiang, Liping; Dong, Biqin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8074E..34K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Compact slot-in-type optical correlator for retrieving shape, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and texture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A compact optical correlator applicable to the retrieval of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture as well as shape information was developed. A new technique for retrieving <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture information by using a slot-in-type compact joint-transform correlator (JTC) with minimum size (140 (W) × 220 (L) × 40 mm (H)) was developed. The developed techniques were used to retrieve images of fruits and vegetables, taken by the digital camera. The developed technique can retrieve images of certain fruits, such as an apple, from images of many <span class="hlt">different</span> fruits and vegetables. It will open up a new area of retrieval techniques for ambiguous images based on shape, <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuboyama, H.; Moriyama, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Arai, S.; Fukuda, M.; Kato, M.; Kawaguchi, T.; Inoue, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22406849"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impacts of prescribed moorland burning on water <span class="hlt">colour</span> and dissolved organic carbon: a critical synthesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discolouration of natural surface waters due to the humic component of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a costly problem for water supply companies. This paper reviews what is known about the impacts of prescribed moorland vegetation burning on water <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Relevant research has taken place at three scales: laboratory experiments on peat cores, plot scale sampling of soil waters and catchment scale sampling of stream waters. While laboratory studies suggest burning increases <span class="hlt">colour</span> production, the evidence from catchment and plot studies is contradictory. Plot studies suggest <span class="hlt">colour</span> production may decrease or remain unchanged following burning although there is evidence for some transient changes. Catchment studies suggest prescribed moorland burning causes stream water <span class="hlt">colour</span> to increase, although in most cases the evidence is not clear cut since most studies could not clearly disentangle the effects of burning from those of vegetation cover. The <span class="hlt">differences</span> in findings between plot and catchment studies may be explained by: i) the short-term nature of some studies which do not measure long-term response and recovery times to burning; ii) the lack of <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurements from shallow soil depths which contribute more to streamflow than soil water from deeper in the peat; and iii) the possibility of hydrological interactions occurring between <span class="hlt">different</span> experimental plots at some sites. Additionally, the increase in recent patch burning in some catchments that has been statistically attributed by some authors to increases in stream water <span class="hlt">colour</span> cannot be reconciled with theoretical calculations. When dilution with waters derived from other parts of the catchment are taken into account, large values of <span class="hlt">colour</span> have to be theoretically derived from those recently burnt areas that occupy a small proportion of the catchment area in order to balance the change in stream water <span class="hlt">colour</span> observed in recent years. Therefore, much further process-based work is required to properly investigate whether prescribed vegetation burning is a direct driver of enhanced <span class="hlt">colour</span> and DOC in upland streams, rivers and lakes. PMID:22406849</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holden, J; Chapman, P J; Palmer, S M; Kay, P; Grayson, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21318735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Levels of <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury in <span class="hlt">different</span> fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven <span class="hlt">different</span> fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and <span class="hlt">total</span> length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and <span class="hlt">total</span> length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities. PMID:21318735</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_15 div --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008NW.....95..569G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences in a hawkmoth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained <span class="hlt">different</span> groups to each <span class="hlt">colour</span> to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21490268"> <span id="translatedtitle">Avoidance of achromatic <span class="hlt">colours</span> by bees provides a private niche for hummingbirds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">That hummingbird-pollinated plants predominantly have red flowers has been known for decades, but well-investigated research studies are still rare. Preference tests have shown that hummingbirds do not have an innate preference for red <span class="hlt">colours</span>. In addition, hummingbirds do not depend solely upon red flowers, because white-flowered hummingbird-pollinated plants are also common and temporarily abundant. Here we show that both white and red hummingbird-pollinated flowers <span class="hlt">differ</span> from bee-pollinated flowers in their reflection properties for ultraviolet (UV) light. Hummingbird-pollinated red flowers are on average less UV reflective, and white hummingbird-pollinated flowers are more UV reflective than the same <span class="hlt">coloured</span> bee-pollinated ones. In preference tests with artificial flowers, neotropical orchid bees prefer red UV-reflecting artificial flowers and white UV-nonreflecting flowers over red and white flowers with the opposite UV properties. By contrast, hummingbirds showed no preference for any <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the same tests. Plotting floral <span class="hlt">colours</span> and test stimuli into the honeybees' perceptual <span class="hlt">colour</span> space suggests that the less attractive <span class="hlt">colours</span> are achromatic for bees and therefore more difficult to detect against the background. This underlying <span class="hlt">colour</span> preference in bees might provide hummingbirds with a private niche that is not attractive to bees. PMID:21490268</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lunau, Klaus; Papiorek, Sarah; Eltz, Thomas; Sazima, Marlies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24024738"> <span id="translatedtitle">Limited waterborne acute toxicity of native polycyclic aromatic compounds from coals of <span class="hlt">different</span> types compared to their <span class="hlt">total</span> hazard potential.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coals contain native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), which include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (NSO-PACs) in considerably varying amounts up to 2500 mg/kg. Whereas PAC bioavailability and toxicity from coals are generally considered to be low, few studies have considered potential variations arising from the composition of <span class="hlt">different</span> coal types including native PAC content. In the present study, fine particles of <span class="hlt">different</span> coal types exhibiting variable properties were systematically investigated regarding their PAC bioavailability. PAH content reached up to 79 mg/kg EPA-PAH and 865 mg/kg <span class="hlt">total</span> PAH. Determination of the toxic potential of extracted PACs in bioassays showed inhibition of Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction (up to 94%) and increased mortality of Danio rerio embryos (up to 100%) after exposure to extracts from lignite, sub-bituminous, and bituminous coals. Anthracite extracts showed no effects. Contact assays using whole coal samples revealed no toxicity to D. rerio embryos in any of the coal samples, suggesting low bioavailability of PACs. In contrast, C. elegans reproduction was inhibited by direct coal contact; however, the observed toxicity probably resulted from other coal effects. The results suggest that despite the high toxic potential of PACs present, their bioavailability from <span class="hlt">different</span> coal types is very limited and independent of coal properties and native PAH content. PMID:24024738</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21875373"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of <span class="hlt">different</span> extracts of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) pomace without seeds.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, 100% methanolic extract (ME), 70% aqua-methanolic extract (AME) and 100% aqueous extract of seabuckthorn byproduct were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The <span class="hlt">total</span> phenolic contents were high in AME (84.28 ± 1.58 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gm of extract) compared to other extracts. All the extracts scavenged <span class="hlt">different</span> in vitro radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were lowest in AME for 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals, while ME had lowest values for hydroxyl radicals. The reducing power of the extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner and was highest in AME. The findings of this study revealed that seabuckthorn pomace without seed is one of the important resources as an antioxidant for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or nutraceutical industries. PMID:21875373</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Varshneya, Chandresh; Kant, Vinay; Mehta, Madhuri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18491157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of fatty acid profile of <span class="hlt">total</span> parenteral nutrition emulsions on the fatty acid composition of <span class="hlt">different</span> tissues of piglets.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> parenteral nutrition (TPN) studies in human babies of very-low-birth-weight suggest that the lipid emulsions currently available are not optimum for neonatal nutrition. Since fatty acid metabolism in human and pigs is very similar, the present study examines how lipid emulsions used in clinical TPN (i.e. ClinOleic, Intralipid, Lipofundin or Omegaven), with <span class="hlt">different</span> fatty acid compositions, administered to neonatal piglets for 7 days, influenced their tissue fatty acid composition as compared to those enterally fed with a sow milk replacer. A positive linear relationship was found between the proportion of all individual fatty acids in the lipid emulsions or in the milk replacer versus those in plasma, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, heart, pancreas, stomach or intestine <span class="hlt">total</span> lipids or in brain phospholipids, the latter showing the lowest correlation coefficient. With the exception of brain, the proportion of either oleic acid or alpha-linolenic acid in the individual tissues was correlated with those present in the corresponding lipid emulsion or milk replacer, whereas the proportion of linoleic acid correlated significantly with all the tissues studied. With the exception of brain phospholipids, both eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the tissues of piglets receiving Omegaven than in all other groups. In conclusion, with the exception of the brain, fatty acid composition of plasma and <span class="hlt">different</span> tissues in piglets are strongly influenced by the fatty acid profile of TPN emulsions. Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids are, however, much less influenced by dietary composition, indicating an active and efficient metabolism that ensures its appropriate composition at this key stage of development. PMID:18491157</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amusquivar, E; Sánchez, M; Hyde, M J; Laws, J; Clarke, L; Herrera, E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3495758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dietary <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity from <span class="hlt">different</span> assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The association between dietary <span class="hlt">total</span> antioxidant capacity (TAC) from <span class="hlt">different</span> assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using <span class="hlt">different</span> four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22?years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC); Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and <span class="hlt">total</span> radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%). The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (? 1?mg/L) was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.98]; P?=?0.04). TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P?=?0.10). TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P?=?0.02), as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P?=?0.02). Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14869287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Light-emitting diodes with variable <span class="hlt">colours</span> from polymer blends</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE range of materials now available for polymer-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is such that electroluminescence can be obtained throughout the visible spectrum1 12. Here we show that, by blending polymers with <span class="hlt">different</span> emission and charge-transport characteristics, LEDs can be fabricated in which the emission <span class="hlt">col-our</span> varies as a function of the operating voltage. This phenomenon arises from the self-organizing properties</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Berggren; O. Inganäs; G. Gustafsson; J. Rasmusson; M. R. Andersson; T. Hjertberg; O. Wennerström</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18179118"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> removal from textile waste water using bioculture in continous mode.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the environmental problems being faced by textile industry is the removal of <span class="hlt">colour</span> from the dye wastewater prior to discharge to local sewage treatment facilities or adjoining water courses. During the past two decades, several physico-chemical methods like adsorption, chemical treatment and ion pair extractions were adopted and have been proved to be costly and less effective. Biological treatment methods are comparatively cheap and considered to be the best alternative with proper analysis and environmental control. With this in mind, an attempt was made to evaluate efficiency with mixed microbial cultures for the decolourisation of the dye wastewater in continuous mode operation. Laboratory scale models of anaerobic reactor, activated sludge process and sand filter were fabricated and operated in series. The activated bioclean was inoculated in the anaerobic reactor. The characteristics and treatability of the textile dye wastewater were analysed. The sample taken for the study was combined effluent collected from the equalization tank in Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP), Tirupur. The experiments were conducted for <span class="hlt">different</span> organic loading rates. Parameters such as <span class="hlt">colour</span>, pH, COD, BOD, suspended solids, <span class="hlt">total</span> dissolved solids, chlorides and sulphates for both the influent and effluent were evaluated. The removal efficiency of the anaerobic process, activated sludge process and sand filter for the above said parameters were studied. PMID:18179118</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meenambal, T; Devi, Divya; Begum, Munirunissa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=the+AND+green+AND+movement&pg=5&id=EJ939924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Salience of Primary and Secondary <span class="hlt">Colours</span> in Infancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Primary <span class="hlt">colour</span> terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in <span class="hlt">colour</span> language than secondary <span class="hlt">colour</span> terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary <span class="hlt">colours</span> attract and sustain preverbal…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49848532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Canvas: An Intelligent <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Selection Tool For VDU Images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">CANVAS is a palette-driven system for <span class="hlt">colour</span> selection in the density slicing of single-band imagery. By incorporating intelligence on the visual distinction and ordering of <span class="hlt">colours</span>, the system can operate in several modes. <span class="hlt">Colours</span> can be selected individually from the palettes or by the system, which maximises the apparent distinction between them. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> series with unipolar, repeating unipolar and bipolar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. A. Gill; A. D. Trigg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l81458621734n842.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> association influences honey bee choice between sucrose concentrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Certain <span class="hlt">colours</span> associated with floral food resources are more quickly learned by honey bees (Apis mellifera) than are other <span class="hlt">colours</span>. But the impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and other floral cues, on bee choice behaviour has not yet been determined. In these experiments, <span class="hlt">colour</span> association and sugar concentration of reward were varied to assess how they interact to affect bee choice behaviour.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. S. Banschbach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58603876"> <span id="translatedtitle">The theory and phenomenology of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> quark models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A general introduction to <span class="hlt">coloured</span> quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of <span class="hlt">colour</span> models with <span class="hlt">colour</span> excitation when the <span class="hlt">colour</span> group is SU(3)- Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F E Close</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37844934"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and product choice: a study of gender roles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – Research in to how <span class="hlt">colour</span> can stimulate interest and subsequently increase the appeal power of products. There has been very little or no research in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-impact domain in Malaysia. Gender has also been presented as an important factor of <span class="hlt">colour</span> penchant and proclivity. Seeks to understand the influence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> on consumer choice of automobile as well</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debby Funk; Nelson Oly Ndubisi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.idea-edu.com/content/download/207/719/file/COLOUR%20and%20SPACE%20-%20An%20Investigation%20of%20Three-Dimensionality.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> and SPACE: An Investigation of Three Dimensionality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monica Billger, in her doctoral dissertation, states 'The feasibility of working consciously with <span class="hlt">colours</span> is limited by our knowledge about how the appearance of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> materials varies with context, that is, how a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> surface is affected by its spatial situation' (Billger, 1999, p. 5). In association, however, we can also seek to understand how the application of <span class="hlt">colour</span> provides</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dianne Smith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34727082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal resolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in the honeybee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1.The temporal resolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision was measured in freely-flying honeybees by testing the performance of trained bees in discriminating between two stimuli, one of which presented a steady, homogeneous mixture of two <span class="hlt">colours</span>, while the other offered a heterochromatic flicker between the two <span class="hlt">colours</span> at various temporal frequencies. Pairwise combinations of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> uv, blue and green were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mandyam Srinivasan; Miriam Lehrer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=genetic+AND+codes&pg=4&id=EJ961302"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> as an Environmental Cue when Learning a Route in a Virtual Environment: Typical and Atypical Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Typically developing (TD) 6-year-olds and 9-year-olds, and older children and adults with Williams syndrome (WS) navigated through brick-wall mazes in a virtual environment. Participants were shown a route through three mazes, each with 6 turns. In each maze the floor of each path section was a <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> such that <span class="hlt">colour</span> acted as an…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Van Herwegen, Jo; Cruickshank, Alice G.; Blades, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44554457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wine-making of High <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Wines: Extended Pomace Contact and Run-off of Juice Prior to Fermentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of two <span class="hlt">different</span> oenological practices (pomace contact time and the running-off of the juice prior to fermentation) on the production of high <span class="hlt">coloured</span> wines was analysed and tested with two vintages from the years 2001 and 2002. There were assayed three pomace contact times (15, 25 and 35 days) and 15 and 20% run-off treatments. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> stability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. B. Bautista-Ortín; J. I. Fernández-Fernández; J. M. López-Roca; E. Gómez-Plaza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/3133701617g804k3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> and cytochromes P450</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flavonoids are major constituents of flower <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Plants accumulate specific flavonoids and thus every species often exhibits a limited flower <span class="hlt">colour</span> range. Three cytochromes P450 play critical roles in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H, CYP75B) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H, CYP75A) catalyze the hydroxylation of the B-ring of flavonoids and are necessary to biosynthesize cyanidin-(red to magenta) and delphinidin-(violet</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshikazu Tanaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BAAA...53..133M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Globular Clusters: Chemical Abundance - Integrated <span class="hlt">Colour</span> calibration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we improve the chemical abundance - integrated <span class="hlt">colour</span> cali- bration presented in Forte, Faifer & Geisler, 2007 (FFG07 hereafter) using a new (g-i) vs. (C-T1) <span class="hlt">colours</span> calibration obtained from M87. Using this calibration and better values of the reddening for the galactic globulars, we found that a quadratic calibration is still enough to represent the observa- tional data, as in FFG07.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moyano Loyola, G.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/863714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tracking <span class="hlt">colour</span> objects using adaptive mixture models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract The use of adaptive Gaussian mixtures to model the <span class="hlt">colour</span> distributions of objects is described. These models are used to perform robust, real-time tracking under varying illumination, viewing geometry and camera parameters. Observed log-likelihood measurements were used to perform selective adaptation. q,1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Real-time tracking; <span class="hlt">Colour</span> model; Gaussian mixture model; Adaptive learning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen J. Mckenna; Yogesh Raja; Shaogang Gong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_16 div --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41163634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes during the caramelisation reaction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sucrose solutions, with concentrations near or superior to saturation, present high potentialities for the candy and pastry industries. The development of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in a neutral and highly concentrated sucrose solution (16.32%(w\\/w) water content) subjected to isothermal heat treatment (in the 100–160°C range) was investigated. Under such conditions, sucrose degrades through caramelisation and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> development was monitored</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mafalda A. C. Quintas; Teresa R. S. Brandão; Cristina L. M. Silva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793050"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE <span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-08-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46598301"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the visual effectiveness of chromatic signals for CRT <span class="hlt">colour</span> monitor stimuli</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On the basis of signal theory, we analyse the <span class="hlt">different</span> information content of <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli that correspond to variations along the red-green and yellow-blue channels (or chromatic signals). The experimental results for stimuli generated by two CRT <span class="hlt">colour</span> monitors and extended to handmade samples show a higher chromatic contrast when pairs of stimuli are generated by red-green variations than by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. R Jiménez; L Jiménez del Barco; J. A D??az; E Hita; J Romero</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41200984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beef <span class="hlt">colour</span> evolution as a function of ultimate pH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> in CIELAB space was assessed in 31 yearling entire male cattle from their reflectance spectra (400–700 nm) at six <span class="hlt">different</span> times (0 min, 15 min, 5 h, 48 h, 6 days and 9 days). Cluster analysis applied to all the <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates divided the samples into two groups according to their ultimate pH (pHu): pH<6.1 and pH?6.1. pH ranged</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M Abril; M. M Campo; A Önenç; C Sañudo; P Albert??; A. I Negueruela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1281416"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lack of uniformity in <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. The fraction of red in a red--green mixture matched to yellow increased as the intensities of the match constituents were increased sufficiently to bleach appreciable chlorolabe and erythrolabe. 2. All changes in matching found for a given normal trichromat, (i) with increase in the intensities of the matching components, (ii) as a function of time after the onset of very intense components, (iii) with change in the pupil region through which light enters the eye, and (iv) with change in the region of the retina under test, are consistent with the assumption that matching depends upon the absorption of light in three kinds of (individually <span class="hlt">colour</span> blind) cones, each with its own visual pigment, provided that the lambda max densities of the latter can vary in the range 0.25--1.0 (common logarithmic units) depending upon the subject. 3. Individual <span class="hlt">differences</span> in matching among normal (as well as among both varieties of red--green anomalous) trichromats, on the other hand, suggest that the extinction spectra of the cone pigments sensitive to long and medium wave lengths may <span class="hlt">differ</span> from one trichromat to the next.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alpern, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49339574"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span> adjustment on flavour stability of pale lager beers with a range of distinct <span class="hlt">colouring</span> agents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of <span class="hlt">colour</span> adjustment on the flavour stability of five pale lager beers with a range of <span class="hlt">colouring</span> agents such as specialty malts, <span class="hlt">colouring</span> beer and artificial caramel <span class="hlt">colourant</span> was investigated. The research focused on determination of the endogenous anti-oxidative potential (EAP) of the beer samples using a novel Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. The results were correlated with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrés Furukawa Suárez; Thomas Kunz; Natalia Cortés Rodríguez; James MacKinlay; Paul Hughes; Frank-Jürgen Methner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diodes&pg=3&id=EJ834524"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Handheld LED <span class="hlt">Coloured</span>-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary <span class="hlt">Colours</span> of Light</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive <span class="hlt">colours</span>, a <span class="hlt">coloured</span>-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the <span class="hlt">colours</span> produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary <span class="hlt">colours</span> of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42461833"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Control of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> by Using Measurement and Feedback</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> simulation on CAD computer screens is a potentially important aid to rapid response in product development. Control of screen <span class="hlt">colour</span> in high-resolution CRT monitors can be achieved on the basis of the principles of additive <span class="hlt">colour</span>-mixing. The use of trichromatic-unit <span class="hlt">colour</span> specifications is extended to include RGB drive values and provide a measured feedback signal for correcting <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Measurement</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. P. Oulton; I. Porat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20375055"> <span id="translatedtitle">A seasnake's <span class="hlt">colour</span> affects its susceptibility to algal fouling.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evolutionary transitions from terrestrial to aquatic life modify selective forces on an animal's coloration. For example, light penetrates <span class="hlt">differently</span> through water than air, and a new suite of predators and visual backgrounds changes the targets of selection. We suggest that an aquatic animal's coloration may also affect its susceptibility to algal fouling. In a <span class="hlt">colour</span>-polymorphic field population of seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) in New Caledonia, black individuals supported higher algal cover than did banded conspecifics. In experimental tests, black snake models (plastic tubes) accumulated more algae than did banded models. Algal cover substantially reduced snake activity (in the field) and swimming speeds (in the laboratory). Effects of algal cover on a snake's hydrodynamic efficiency and/or its rate of cutaneous gas exchange thus may impose selection on the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of aquatic organisms. PMID:20375055</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shine, R; Brischoux, F; Pile, A J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Sc%26Ed..10..287M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Newton and <span class="hlt">Colour</span>: the Complex Interplay of Theory and Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The general aim of this paper is to elucidate some aspects of Newton's theory of light and <span class="hlt">colours</span>, specially as presented in his first optical paper of 1672. This study analyzes Newton's main experiments intended to show that light is a mixture of rays with <span class="hlt">different</span> refrangibilities. Although this theory is nowadays accepted and taught without discussion it is not as simple as it seems and many questions may arise in a critical study. Newton's theory of light and <span class="hlt">colour</span> can be used as an example of the great care that must be taken when History of Science is applied to science teaching. An inadequate use of History of Science in education may convey to the students a wrong conception of scientific method and a mythical idea of science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martins, Roberto De Andrade; Celestino, Cibelle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23880014"> <span id="translatedtitle">A practical and objective approach to scar <span class="hlt">colour</span> assessment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Scarring is a significant clinical problem following dermal injury. However, scars are not a single describable entity and huge phenotypic variability is evident. Quantitative, reproducible inter-observer scar assessment is essential to monitor wound healing and the effect of scar treatments. Scar <span class="hlt">colour</span>, reflecting the biological processes occurring within a scar, is integral to any assessment. The objective of this study was to analyse scar <span class="hlt">colour</span> using the non-invasive Eykona(®) Wound Measurement System (the System) as compared against the Manchester Scar Scale (MSS). Three dimensional images of 43 surgical scars were acquired post-operatively from 35 patients at 3-6 months and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">difference</span> between the scar and surrounding skin was calculated (giving ?Lab values). The colourimetric results were then compared against subjective MSS gradings. A significant <span class="hlt">difference</span> in ?Lab values between MSS gradings of "slight mismatch" and "obvious mismatch" (p < 0.025) and between "obvious mismatch" and "gross mismatch" (p < 0.05) were noted. The System creates objective, reproducible data, without the need for any specialist expertise and compares favourably with the MSS. Greater scar numbers are required to further clinically validate this device - however, with this potential to calculate scar length, width, volume and other characteristics, it could provide a complete, objective, quantitative record of scarring throughout the wound-healing process. PMID:23880014</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hallam, M J; McNaught, K; Thomas, A N; Nduka, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3063159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygenated-Blood <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Change Thresholds for Perceived Facial Redness, Health, and Attractiveness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Blood oxygenation level is associated with cardiovascular fitness, and raising oxygenated blood <span class="hlt">colouration</span> in human faces increases perceived health. The current study used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychophysics design to quantify the oxygenated blood <span class="hlt">colour</span> (redness) change threshold required to affect perception of facial <span class="hlt">colour</span>, health and attractiveness. Detection thresholds for <span class="hlt">colour</span> judgments were lower than those for health and attractiveness, which did not <span class="hlt">differ</span>. The results suggest redness preferences do not reflect a sensory bias, rather preferences may be based on accurate indications of health status. Furthermore, results suggest perceived health and attractiveness may be perceptually equivalent when they are assessed based on facial redness. Appearance-based motivation for lifestyle change can be effective; thus future studies could assess the degree to which cardiovascular fitness increases face redness and could quantify changes in aerobic exercise needed to increase facial attractiveness.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Re, Daniel E.; Whitehead, Ross D.; Xiao, Dengke; Perrett, David I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9158886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Equating the perceived intensity of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lights to hens.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Previous investigations of the effects of light <span class="hlt">colour</span> on the productivity or behaviour of chickens have not equated the intensity of the <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lights. 2. Ten pullets (Warren Studler 128) were used to determine the perceived intensity of two <span class="hlt">colours</span> at opposite ends of the visible spectrum (blue, peak wavelength 415 nm and red, peak wavelength 635 nm). 3. Initially half of the birds were trained with food rewards to detect the brighter of two white lights and half the dimmer one. 4. Two discrimination tests then investigated the generalisation of this learnt ability (to distinguish white lights of <span class="hlt">different</span> intensity) to <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lights. They were rewarded for distinguishing the brightness of red and blue filtered lights when blue intensity was initially high and gradually reduced, and when red intensity was initially low and gradually increased. The birds identified the lights as being of equal intensity when the blue light was 3.6 times as bright as the red. 5. A second test examined the situation in reverse. A bright red light that was reduced was compared to a dim blue light that was increased in intensity. The birds were again successful and identified the lights as of equal intensity when the blue was 3.1 times as bright as the red. A final test confirmed that there was no <span class="hlt">difference</span> in the perceived intensity of blue and red lights in the ratios 3.6 or 3.1 : 1. 6. The <span class="hlt">difference</span> in perceived red and blue light intensities was less than predicted from the spectral sensitivity curve for chickens. It was expected that the blue light would be perceived as dimmer than the red because the red filter transmitted more light than the blue and the tungsten filament light illuminating the filter emitted more long than short wavelength light. The observed discrepancy emphasises that perceived intensity is difficult to predict from spectroscopic measurements. 7. The birds then underwent a simple visual test, to discriminate the length of two lines, equally well in red or blue filtered lights that were equiluminescent as determined previously. 8. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lights can be equated for intensity by psychophysical testing, and that there was no <span class="hlt">difference</span> in visual acuity under equiluminescent blue and red filtered lights. PMID:9158886</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prayitno, D S; Phillips, C J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19891198"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> kinetic energy production of body segments is <span class="hlt">different</span> between racing and training paces in elite Olympic rowers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> kinetic energy (TKE) was calculated for 28 Canadian national team Olympic rowers during training on water, comparing low-stroke rates (18-22 stroke/min) and high-stroke rates (32-40 stroke/min), using video analysis. Stroke duration was normalized to 100%, beginning and ending at the "catches", with the drive phase occurring first and recovery second. Two discrete points were identified during the stroke, both occurring when the fingers had the same horizontal position as the ankles (i.e., mid-drive and mid-recovery). The ratios of recovery-to-drive TKE at these points for the entire body at low and high-stroke rates were 0.36 +/- 0.34 and 1.26 +/- 0.54 respectively. Significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> were found for the lower leg, upper arm and forearm segments, and within the female groups. Low-stroke rate is a typical training pace and high-stroke rate is analogous to a race pace. This study demonstrates that TKE production during recovery in a race was not replicated during training. While training at low-stroke rates is vital for technique refinement, this study stresses the importance of training appropriately for the energy expenditure during high-stroke rate recovery. This is commonly overlooked by coaches and athletes. PMID:19891198</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bechard, Daniel J; Nolte, Volker; Kedgley, Angela E; Jenkyn, Thomas R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.412..684B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curvature in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude relation but not in <span class="hlt">colour</span>-?: major dry mergers at M* > 2 × 1011 M??</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude relation of early-type galaxies <span class="hlt">differs</span> slightly but significantly from a pure power law, curving downwards at low and upwards at high luminosities (Mr > -20.5 and Mr < -22.5, respectively). This remains true of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-size relation, and is even more apparent with stellar mass (M* < 3 × 1010 M? and M* > 2 × 1011 M?, respectively). The upward curvature at the massive end does not appear to be due to stellar population effects. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-? relation is well described by a single power law. Since major dry mergers change neither the <span class="hlt">colours</span> nor ?, but they do change masses and sizes, the clear features observed in the scaling relations with M*, but not with ? > 150 km s-1, suggest that M* > 2 × 1011 M? is the scale above which major mergers dominate the assembly history. We discuss three models of the merger histories since z˜ 1 which are compatible with our measurements. In all three models, dry mergers are responsible for the flattening of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-M* relation at M* > 3 × 1010 M?- wet mergers only matter at smaller masses. At M* > 2 × 1011 M?, the merger histories in one model are dominated by major rather than minor dry mergers. In another, although both major and minor mergers occur at the high-mass end, the minor mergers contribute primarily to the formation of the intracluster light (ICL), rather than to the stellar mass growth of the central massive galaxy. This model attributes the fact that ? < 1, in the scaling M*?M?dyn, to the formation of the ICL. A final model assumes that the bluest objects today were assembled by minor dry mergers of the bluest (early-type) objects at high redshift, whereas the reddest objects were assembled by a mix of major and minor dry mergers. In this model, the scatter of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude relation should increase with redshift, and the dependence on environment should also be more pronounced at higher redshift: more clustered objects should be redder. Similar measurements of these relations at high redshift will provide further valuable constraints on the mass scale at which major dry mergers dominate the assembly history.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernardi, Mariangela; Roche, Nathan; Shankar, Francesco; Sheth, Ravi K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2850791"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Colour</span> is a consequence of the optical properties of an object and the visual system of the animal perceiving it. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> is produced through chemical and structural means, but structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> has been relatively poorly studied in plants. Scope This Botanical Briefing describes the mechanisms by which structures can produce <span class="hlt">colour</span>. In plants, as in animals, the most common mechanisms are multilayers and diffraction gratings. The functions of structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> are then discussed. In animals, these <span class="hlt">colours</span> act primarily as signals between members of the same species, although they can also play roles in camouflaging animals from their predators. In plants, multilayers are found predominantly in shade-plant leaves, suggesting a role either in photoprotection or in optimizing capture of photosynthetically active light. Diffraction gratings may be a surprisingly common feature of petals, and recent work has shown that they can be used by bees as cues to identify rewarding flowers. Conclusions Structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> may be surprisingly frequent in the plant kingdom, playing important roles alongside pigment <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Much remains to be discovered about its distribution, development and function.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glover, Beverley J.; Whitney, Heather M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23583561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pleiotropic effects of coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>-associated mutations in humans, mice and other mammals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characterisation of the pleiotropic effects of coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>-associated mutations in mammals illustrates that sensory organs and nerves are particularly affected by disorders because of the shared origin of melanocytes and neurocytes in the neural crest; e.g. the eye-<span class="hlt">colour</span> is a valuable indicator of disorders in pigment production and eye dysfunctions. Disorders related to coat <span class="hlt">colour</span>-associated alleles also occur in the skin (melanoma), reproductive tract and immune system. Additionally, the coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotype of an individual influences its general behaviour and fitness. Mutations in the same genes often produce similar coat <span class="hlt">colours</span> and pleiotropic effects in <span class="hlt">different</span> species (e.g., KIT [reproductive disorders, lethality], EDNRB [megacolon] and LYST [CHS]). Whereas similar disorders and similar-looking coat <span class="hlt">colour</span> phenotypes sometimes have a <span class="hlt">different</span> genetic background (e.g., deafness [EDN3/EDNRB, MITF, PAX and SNAI2] and visual diseases [OCA2, RAB38, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TRPM1 and TYR]). The human predilection for fancy phenotypes that ignore disorders and genetic defects is a major driving force for the increase of pleiotropic effects in domestic species and laboratory subjects since domestication has commenced approximately 18,000 years ago. PMID:23583561</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reissmann, Monika; Ludwig, Arne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22716457"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of natural weathering on <span class="hlt">colour</span> stability of materials used for facial prosthesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> stability of resin and silicone is an important factor for longevity of facial prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">colour</span> stability of resins and silicone for facial prostheses. Three brands of acrylic resin and one of facial silicone were evaluated considering pigment incorporation for the colourless materials. Ten samples of each material were fabricated and submitted to measurements of chromatic alteration initially and after 90 and 180 days of weathering natural through visual analysis and spectrophotometry. Data were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05). Statistically significant <span class="hlt">colour</span> alteration was observed among some materials regardless of the period. The materials did not present a statistical <span class="hlt">difference</span> between 90 and 180 days except for the pigmented heat-polymerized resin. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">difference</span> between pigmented Silastic MDX4-4210 and colourless Silastic was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in both periods as well as between pigmented and colourless heat-polymerized resin, and between the resins Rapidaflex and Lentaflex. The visual method demonstrated <span class="hlt">colour</span> alteration in all materials evaluated during the first 90 days of ageing. All materials exhibited <span class="hlt">colour</span> alteration due to exposure to environment. PMID:22716457</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">dos Santos, D M; Goiato, M C; Sinhoreti, M A C; Moreno, A; Dekon, S F C; Haddad, M F; Pesqueira, A A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet nuptial <span class="hlt">colour</span> determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Animal communication through <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based <span class="hlt">colours</span>. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural <span class="hlt">colour</span> that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male-male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males <span class="hlt">differing</span> only in their manipulated UV <span class="hlt">colour</span>, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a <span class="hlt">difference</span> in UV <span class="hlt">colour</span> alone can affect fight success during male-male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success. PMID:21715397</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23416170"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colonization, covariance and <span class="hlt">colour</span>: environmental and ecological drivers of diversity-stability relationships.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between community diversity and biomass stability is a fundamental topic in ecology. Theory has emphasized <span class="hlt">differences</span> in species-specific responses to environmental fluctuations as an important stabiliser of <span class="hlt">total</span> biomass fluctuations. However, previous analyses have often been based on simplifying assumptions, such as uniform species abundance distributions, uniform environmental variance across species, and uniform environmental responses across species pairs. We compare diversity-stability relationships in model communities, based on multi-species Ricker dynamics, that follow <span class="hlt">different</span> colonization rules during community assembly (fixed or flexible resource use) forced by temporally uncorrelated (white) or correlated (red) environmental fluctuations. The colonization rules generate characteristic niche-dependent (hierarchical, HR) environmental covariance structures, which we compare with uncorrelated (independent, IR) species' environmental responses. Environmental reddening increases biomass stability and qualitatively alters diversity-stability patterns in HR communities, under both colonization rules. Diversity-stability patterns in IR communities are qualitatively altered by colonization rules but not by environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>. Our results demonstrate that diversity-stability patterns are contingent upon species' colonization strategies (resource use), emergent or independent responses to environmental fluctuations, and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of environmental fluctuations. We describe why our results arise through <span class="hlt">differences</span> in species traits associated with niche position. These issues are often overlooked when considering the statistical components commonly used to describe diversity-stability patterns (e.g., Overyielding, Portfolio and Covariance effects). Mechanistic understanding of <span class="hlt">different</span> diversity-stability relationships requires consideration of the biological processes that drive <span class="hlt">different</span> population and community level behaviours. PMID:23416170</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fowler, Mike S; Ruokolainen, Lasse</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_17 div --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2651762"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colouring</span> cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100?nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue <span class="hlt">colour</span> that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400?nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100?K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is <span class="hlt">different</span> for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGeehan, John; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Murray, James W.; Owen, Robin Leslie; Cipriani, Florent; McSweeney, Sean; Weik, Martin; Garman, Elspeth F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JQSRT.124...79M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of even-parity autoionization states of uranium by three-<span class="hlt">colour</span> photoionization optogalvanic spectroscopy in U–Ne hollow cathode discharges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-<span class="hlt">colour</span> three-step photoionization spectroscopy of uranium has been performed in a U–Ne hollow cathode discharge tube by temporally resolving three-<span class="hlt">colour</span> photoionization optogalvanic (PIOG) signal from the normal optogalvanic (OG) signal using three tunable pulsed dye lasers. U–Ne hollow cathode discharge tube has been used as a source of uranium atomic vapours and photoionization detector. Using this technique, photoionization spectra of uranium have been investigated systematically in the energy region 52,150–52,590cm?1, through three <span class="hlt">different</span> excitation pathways, originating from its ground state, 0cm?1(5Lo6). By analysing the three-<span class="hlt">colour</span> photoionization spectra sixty new even-parity autoionization resonances of uranium have been identified and their probable <span class="hlt">total</span> angular momentum (J) values have been assigned according to the J-momentum selection rule. The J-value of five autoionization resonances, which have been observed either through all three excitation pathways or through two <span class="hlt">different</span> excitation pathways where J-value of the second excited levels <span class="hlt">differs</span> by two, has been assigned uniquely.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mandal, P. K.; Seema, A. U.; Das, R. C.; Shah, M. L.; Dev, Vas; Suri, B. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587793"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environment-contingent sexual selection in a <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphic fish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sexual selection could be a driving force in the maintenance of intraspecific variation, but supporting observations from nature are limited. Here, we test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity of the visual environment can influence sexual selection on <span class="hlt">colourful</span> male secondary traits such that selective advantage is environment contingent. Using a small fish endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia (Telmatherina sarasinorum) that has five male <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs varying in frequency between two visually distinct mating habitats, we used direct behavioural observations to test the environment-contingent selection hypothesis. These observations were combined with measurements of the visual environment, fish coloration and the sensitivity of visual photopigments to determine whether differential morph conspicuousness was associated with reproductive success across habitats. We found that blue and yellow males are most conspicuous in <span class="hlt">different</span> habitats, where they also have the highest reproductive fitness. A less conspicuous grey morph also gained high reproductive success in both habitats, raising the possibility that alternative behaviours may also contribute to reproductive success. In a comprehensive analysis, conspicuousness was strongly correlated with reproductive success across morphs and environments. Our results suggest an important role for spatially heterogeneous environments in the maintenance of male <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, Suzanne M; Dill, Lawrence M; Tantu, Fadly Y; Loew, Ellis R; Herder, Fabian; McKinnon, Jeffrey S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7876E...9D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral image invariant to illumination <span class="hlt">colour</span>, strength, and shading</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present here a method that makes use of multispectral image data and generates a novel "photometric-invariant multispectral image" for this type of data. For RGB, an invariant image has been constructed independent of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and intensity of the illuminant and of shading. To generate this image either a set of calibration images is required, or entropy information taken from a single image can be used to develop the parameters necessary to produce the invariant. Nonetheless, generating an invariant image remains a complex and error-prone task for RGB image data. For multispectral images, we show that photometric-invariant image formation is in essence greatly simplified. One of the requirements for forming an invariant is the necessity of narrowband-sensor sensors. Here this is the case, and we show that with the simple knowledge of peak sensor wavelengths we can generate a high-D multispectral invariant. The PSNR is shown to be high between the respective invariant multispectral features for multispectral images taken under <span class="hlt">different</span> illumination conditions, showing lighting invariance for a per-pixel measure; and the s-CIELAB error measure shows that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> error between the 3-D <span class="hlt">colour</span> images used to visualize the output invariant high-D data is also small.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drew, Mark S.; Yazdani Salekdeh, Amin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435956"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geometric and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and <span class="hlt">coloured</span> 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera) and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination) conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the <span class="hlt">colour</span> integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two <span class="hlt">different</span> viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture), we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the <span class="hlt">colour</span> information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Merchan, Pilar; Adan, Antonio; Salamanca, Santiago; Dominguez, Vicente; Chacon, Ricardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860278"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> preferences in nest-building zebra finches.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one <span class="hlt">colour</span> to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular <span class="hlt">colours</span> of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one <span class="hlt">colour</span> of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material <span class="hlt">colour</span> with their preferences for food of the same <span class="hlt">colours</span>. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular <span class="hlt">colours</span> of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one <span class="hlt">colour</span> over the other <span class="hlt">colours</span>. It appears, then, that a preference for one <span class="hlt">colour</span> or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. PMID:23860278</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1691335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Melanic body <span class="hlt">colour</span> and aggressive mating behaviour are correlated traits in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Correlated traits are important from an evolutionary perspective as natural selection acting on one trait may indirectly affect other traits. Further, the response to selection can be constrained or hastened as a result of correlations. Because mating behaviour and body <span class="hlt">colour</span> can dramatically affect fitness, a correlation between them can have important fitness ramifications. In this work, melanic (black) male mosquitofishes (Gambusia holbrooki) with temperature-sensitive body-<span class="hlt">colour</span> expression are bred in captivity. Half of the sons of each melanic sire are reared at 19 degrees C (and express a black body <span class="hlt">colour</span>) and half are reared at 31 degrees C (and express a silver body <span class="hlt">colour</span>). The two <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs are placed in the same social setting and monitored for behavioural <span class="hlt">differences</span>. Mating behaviour and <span class="hlt">colour</span> are correlated traits. Mating behaviour <span class="hlt">differs</span> markedly between the two phenotypes, despite high genetic relatedness. Melanic (black) phenotypes are more aggressive towards females, chasing them and attempting more matings than their silver siblings. Females avoid melanic-male mating attempts more than silver-male mating attempts. When males with temperature-sensitive <span class="hlt">colour</span> expression are melanic and aggressive, they probably experience a very <span class="hlt">different</span> selective regime in nature from when they are silver and less aggressive. Under some conditions (e.g. predation), melanic coloration and/or aggression is advantageous compared with silver coloration and/or less aggressive behaviour. However, under <span class="hlt">different</span> conditions (e.g. high-frequency melanism), melanism and/or aggression appears to be disadvantageous and melanic males have reduced survival and reproduction. Selective advantages to each morph under <span class="hlt">different</span> conditions may enable the long-term persistence of this temperature-sensitive genotype.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horth, Lisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848751"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped <span class="hlt">colour</span> preferences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the <span class="hlt">colour</span> blue to other <span class="hlt">colours</span> (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pink over other <span class="hlt">colours</span>. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex <span class="hlt">differences</span> in young children's preference for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. PMID:21848751</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApSS..264..229A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laser-induced <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking—Sensitivity scaling for a stainless steel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents the results of measurements and analysis of the influence of laser marking process parameters on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> obtained. The study was conducted for AISI 304 multipurpose stainless steel using a commercially available industrial fibre laser. It was determined how various process parameters, such as laser power, pulse repetition rate, scan speed of the material, spacing between successive lines, thickness and temperature of the material, location of the sample relative to the focal plane, size of marked fields and position in the workpiece, affect the repeatability of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> obtained. For objective assessment of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes, an optical spectrometer and the CIE <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">difference</span> parameter ?Eab* were used. Additionally, in order to determine the susceptibility of laser <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking to the ageing process, two types of tests - UV radiation and a salt spray test - were performed. Based on this analysis, necessary modifications to the laser systems commonly used for monochrome marking are proposed in order to achieve greater repeatability in <span class="hlt">colour</span> marking.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Koco?, Dariusz; Nowak, Maciej; Kozio?, Pawe?; Abramski, Krzysztof M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Psychophysiological evidence for the genuineness of swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia was introduced as a new form of synaesthesia. A synaesthetic Stroop test was used to establish its genuineness. Since Stroop interference can occur for any type of overlearned association, in the present study we used a modified Stroop test and psychophysiological synaesthetic conditioning to further establish the genuineness of this form of synaesthesia. We compared the performance of a swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthete and a control who was trained on swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> associations. Our results showed that behavioural aspects of swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia can be mimicked in a trained control. Importantly, however, our results showed a psychophysiological conditioning effect for the synaesthete only. We discuss the theoretical relevance of swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia according to <span class="hlt">different</span> models of synaesthesia. We conclude that swimming-style <span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthesia is a genuine form of synaesthesia, can be mimicked behaviourally in non-synaesthetes, and is best explained by a re-entrant feedback model. PMID:23247309</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rothen, Nicolas; Nikoli?, Danko; Jürgens, Uta Maria; Mroczko-W?sowicz, Aleksandra; Cock, Josephine; Meier, Beat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7109E...8A"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> space influence for vegetation image classification application to Caribbean forest and agriculture</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with a comparison of <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">colour</span> space in order to improve high resolution images classification. The background of this study is the measure of the agriculture impact on the environment in islander context. Biodiversity is particularly sensitive and relevant in such areas and the follow-up of the forest front is a way to ensure its preservation. Very high resolution satellite images are used such as QuickBird and IKONOS scenes. In order to segment the images into forest and agriculture areas, we characterize both ground covers with <span class="hlt">colour</span> and texture features. A classical unsupervised classifier is then used to obtain labelled areas. As features are computed on <span class="hlt">coloured</span> images, we can wonder if the <span class="hlt">colour</span> space choice is relevant. This study has been made considering more than fourteen <span class="hlt">colour</span> spaces (RGB, YUV, Lab, YIQ, YCrCs, XYZ, CMY, LMS, HSL, KLT, IHS, I1I2I3, HSV, HSI, etc.) and shows the visual and quantitative superiority of IHS on all others. For conciseness reasons, results only show RGB, I1I2I3 and IHS <span class="hlt">colour</span> spaces.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abadi, M.; Grandchamp, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PASA...30...40K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metallicity-Dependent Transformations for Red Giants with Synthetic <span class="hlt">Colours</span> of UBV and ugr</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present metallicity-dependent transformation equations between UBV and SDSS ugr <span class="hlt">colours</span> for red giants with synthetic data. The ranges of the <span class="hlt">colours</span> used for the transformations are 0.400 ? (B - V)0 ? 1.460, -0.085 ? (U - B)0 ? 1.868, 0.291 ? (g - r)0 ? 1.326, and 1.030 ? (u - g)0 ? 3.316 mag, and cover almost all the observational <span class="hlt">colours</span> of red giants. We applied the transformation equations to six clusters with <span class="hlt">different</span> metallicities and compared the resulting (u - g)0 <span class="hlt">colours</span> with those estimated by the calibration of the fiducial sequences of the clusters. The mean and standard deviation of the residuals for all clusters are <?(u - g)0> = -0.01 and ?(u - g)0 = 0.07 mag, respectively. We showed that interstellar reddening plays an important role on the derived <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The transformations can be applied to clusters as well as to field stars. They can be used to extend the <span class="hlt">colour</span> range of the red giants in the clusters which are restricted due to the saturation of the SDSS data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karaali, S.; Gökçe, E. Yaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NaPho...1..468A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photonic-crystal full-<span class="hlt">colour</span> displays</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In our information-rich world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop technologies capable of displaying dynamic and changeable data, for reasons ranging from value-added advertising to environmental sustainability. There is an intense drive at the moment towards paper-like displays, devices having a high reflectivity and contrast to provide viewability in a variety of environments, particularly in sunlight where emissive or backlit devices perform very poorly. The list of possible technologies is extensive, including electrophoretic, cholesteric liquid crystalline, electrochromic, electrodewetting, interferometric and more. Despite tremendous advances, the key drawback of all these existing display options relates to <span class="hlt">colour</span>. As soon as an RGB (red, green and blue) <span class="hlt">colour</span> filter or spatially modulated <span class="hlt">colour</span> scheme is implemented, substantial light losses are inevitable even if the intrinsic reflectivity of the material is very good.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arsenault, André C.; Puzzo, Daniel P.; Manners, Ian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57533860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of marine algae (Spirulina platensis) and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk <span class="hlt">colour</span> of laying hens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary marine algae (Spirulina platensis) on egg yolk <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and compare the effectiveness of Spirulina and synthetic pigment in enhancing egg yolk <span class="hlt">colour</span> of laying hens fed on a wheat-based diet.2. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, 160 Hy-line W36 laying hens of 63 weeks of age were studied by dividing them</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Zahroojian; H. Moravej; M. Shivazad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pjbs.org/ijps/fin1166.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Studies of Packed Cell Volume, Haemoglobin, <span class="hlt">Total</span> Protein, Haemagglutination Inhibition Antibodies and Rectal Temperature of Pigeons (Columbia livia) Administered Newcastle Disease Virus Through <span class="hlt">Different</span> Routes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">2 Abstract: Comparative studies of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (HB), <span class="hlt">total</span> protein (TP), haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies and rectal temperature (RT) were carried out on a <span class="hlt">total</span> of 50 pigeons (Columbia livia) that were administered Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Kudu 113 strain through <span class="hlt">different</span> routes. Fifteen pigeons were administered 0.2 mL each of NDV Kudu 113 strain per os</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. B. Oladele; M. Morou; S. J. Sambo; O. J. Ibu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2900243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping of quantitative trait loci for flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> and growth traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> and growth related traits in salmonids are both commercially important and of great interest from a physiological and evolutionary perspective. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> and growth related traits in an F2 population derived from an isolated, landlocked wild population in Norway (Byglands Bleke) and a commercial production population. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight informative microsatellite loci distributed across all 29 linkage groups in Atlantic salmon were genotyped in individuals from four F2 families that were selected from the ends of the flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> distribution. Genotyping of 23 additional loci and two additional families was performed on a number of linkage groups harbouring putative QTL. QTL analysis was performed using a line-cross model assuming fixation of alternate QTL alleles and a half-sib model with no assumptions about the number and frequency of QTL alleles in the founder populations. Results A moderate to strong phenotypic correlation was found between <span class="hlt">colour</span>, length and weight traits. In <span class="hlt">total</span>, 13 genome-wide significant QTL were detected for all traits using the line-cross model, including three genome-wide significant QTL for flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> (Chr 6, Chr 26 and Chr 4). In addition, 32 suggestive QTL were detected (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). Using the half-sib model, six genome-wide significant QTL were detected for all traits, including two for flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> (Chr 26 and Chr 4) and 41 suggestive QTL were detected (chromosome-wide P < 0.05). Based on the half-sib analysis, these two genome-wide significant QTL for flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> explained 24% of the phenotypic variance for this trait. Conclusions A large number of significant and suggestive QTL for flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> and growth traits were found in an F2 population of Atlantic salmon. Chr 26 and Chr 4 presented the strongest evidence for significant QTL affecting flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span>, while Chr 10, Chr 5, and Chr 4 presented the strongest evidence for significant QTL affecting growth traits (length and weight). These QTL could be strong candidates for use in marker-assisted selection and provide a starting point for further characterisation of the genetic components underlying flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> and growth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRG..115.3024K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative contributions of soil, foliar, and woody tissue respiration to <span class="hlt">total</span> ecosystem respiration in four pine forests of <span class="hlt">different</span> ages</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil, foliage, and live woody tissue were measured throughout the year in afforested, white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands (67, 32, 17, and 4 years old as of 2006), growing in a northern temperate climate. The data were used to estimate annual ecosystem respiration (Re) and its component fluxes, including soil, foliar, and woody tissue respiration; to investigate major environmental factors causing intersite and temporal variability in the observed fluxes; and to compare chamber-based Re estimates with eddy covariance-based estimates. While temperature was the dominant driving factor of temporal variability in component fluxes, intersite variability in CO2 emissions was attributed to <span class="hlt">differences</span> in stand physiological characteristics, such as the presence of the LFH soil horizon, its carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and the amount of canopy cover. Additional factors that contributed to flux variability included the frequency of precipitation events, vapor pressure deficit and stem diameter, depending on the component considered. Estimated annual chamber-based <span class="hlt">totals</span> of Re across the four stands were 1526 ± 137, 1278 ± 137, 1985 ± 293, and 773 ± 46 g C m-2 yr-1 for the 67-, 32-, 17-, and 4-year-old stands, respectively. Soil respiration dominated emissions at the 4-year-old stand, while foliar respiration dominated emissions at the 17-year-old stand. In contrast, at the two oldest stands, soil and foliar respirations were comparable. Soil respiration accounted for 44%, 44%, 26%, and 70% of annual Re, across the 67-, 32-, 17-, and 4-year-old stands, while foliar respiration accounted for 48%, 41%, 60%, and 30% of annual Re, across the respective sites. Wood respiration was the smallest component of annual Re across the stands (8%, 15%, 14%, and 0.1%, respectively). The chamber-based Re values were higher than tower-based eddy covariance Re estimates, on average by 18%, 70%, 18%, and 36% at the 67-, 32-, 17-, and 4-year-old stands, respectively. This study contributes to our general understanding of the age-related effects and the role of climate on carbon emissions from various components of afforested ecosystems. Our results suggest that foliar respiration could be comparable to or higher than soil respiration in its contribution to Re in young to mature, planted or afforested, ecosystems. They also suggest that site quality and stand age are important factors to be considered in future studies of carbon dynamics of afforested stands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khomik, Myroslava; Arain, M. Altaf; Brodeur, Jason J.; Peichl, Matthias; Restrepo-Coupé, Natalia; McLaren, Joshua D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21328937"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Total</span> flavonoids and icariin contents of Epimedium pubescens in <span class="hlt">different</span> types of communities and their relationships with soil factors].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Epimedium pubescens and soil samples were collected from the Betula albosinensis community (community I ), Cyclobalanopsis glauca var. gracilis community (community II), and Cinnamomum longepaniculatum community (community III) in Tangjiahe Nature Reserve in August 2009, with the <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids and icariin contents in E. pubescens samples measured by high performance liquid chromatography and UV-spectrophotometer, and the relationships between these contents and soil parameters analyzed. Among the plant organs of E. pubescens, leaf had the highest contents of <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids and icariin, while stem had the lowest one. The <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids and icariin contents of E. pubescens were significantly higher in community I [(5.32 +/- 0.23)%, (0.47 +/- 0.05)%] than in communities II [(4.06 +/- 0.03)%, (0.32 +/- 0.01)%] and III [(4.15 +/- 0.07)%, (0.28 +/- 0.09)%] (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with soil <span class="hlt">total</span> nitrogen and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (P<0.05) but positively correlated with soil pH (P<0.01), suggesting that the soil with lower level of nitrogen and higher level of acidity in community I could enhance the <span class="hlt">total</span> flavonoids and icariin contents of E. pubescens. PMID:21328937</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kong, Lu; Li, Yun-xiang; Quan, Qiu-mei; Zhang, Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40956765"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in the contents of <span class="hlt">total</span> sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli from Medicago arborea L</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">total</span> sugars, reducing sugars, starch and sucrose in embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli from explants (cotyledons, petioles, hypocotyls and leaves) obtained from Medicago arborea L. seedlings were evaluated. <span class="hlt">Total</span> sugars were the major components in the calli and no significant <span class="hlt">differences</span> between embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed. In contrast, important <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ana Belen Martin; Yolanda Cuadrado; Hilario Guerra; Piedad Gallego; Oscar Hita; Luisa Martin; Ana Dorado; Nieves Villalobos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://seawaste.uwc.ac.za/archive/ballast%20ozonation%20research%202006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ozonation of seawater from <span class="hlt">different</span> locations: Formation and decay of <span class="hlt">total</span> residual oxidant—implications for ballast water treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ballast water is a likely cause for worldwide transfer of non-indigenous aquatic species because of the large volumes and frequency of possible inoculations. Ozone is one treatment option being considered for eliminating non-indigenous species in ballast water. When ozone is applied to seawater, secondary disinfectants are formed, commonly measured and expressed as <span class="hlt">total</span> residual oxidant (TRO). The goal of this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jake C. Perrins; William J. Cooper; Russell P. Herwig</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_18 div --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22805760"> <span id="translatedtitle">Approach to the content of <span class="hlt">total</span> extractable phenolic compounds from <span class="hlt">different</span> food samples by comparison of chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new approach to the error sources in the spectrophotometric determination of <span class="hlt">total</span> phenols in foods has been performed. The choice of the suitable phenolic standard and the influence of sugars and proteins as interfering compounds were carefully studied. The results obtained by the spectrophotometric method were compared with those found from the chromatographic method which was taken as reference</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A Escarpa; M. C González</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2982023"> <span id="translatedtitle">Floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r72658228246m3kq.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli by honeybees: minimum visual angles and receptor specific contrasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Honeybees Apis mellifera were trained to distinguish between the presence and the absence of a rewarded <span class="hlt">coloured</span> spot, presented on a vertical, achromatic plane in a Y-maze. They were subsequently tested with <span class="hlt">different</span> subtended visual angles of that spot, generated by <span class="hlt">different</span> disk diameters and <span class="hlt">different</span> distances from the decision point in the device. Bees were trained easily to detect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Giurfa; M. Vorobyev; P. Kevan; R. Menzel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.435.1313H"> <span id="translatedtitle">The dark side of galaxy <span class="hlt">colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present age distribution matching, a theoretical formalism for predicting how galaxies of luminosity L and <span class="hlt">colour</span> C occupy dark matter haloes. Our model supposes that there are just two fundamental properties of a halo that determine the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and brightness of the galaxy it hosts: the maximum circular velocity Vmax and the redshift zstarve that correlates with the epoch at which the star formation in the galaxy ceases. The halo property zstarve is intended to encompass physical characteristics of halo mass assembly that may deprive the galaxy of its cold gas supply and, ultimately, quench its star formation. The new, defining feature of the model is that, at fixed luminosity, galaxy <span class="hlt">colour</span> is in monotonic correspondence with zstarve, with the larger values of zstarve being assigned redder <span class="hlt">colours</span>. We populate an N-body simulation with a mock galaxy catalogue based on age distribution matching and show that the resulting mock galaxy distribution accurately describes a variety of galaxy statistics. Our model suggests that halo and galaxy assembly are indeed correlated. We make publicly available our low-redshift, Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mr < -19 mock galaxy catalogue, and main progenitor histories of all z = 0 haloes, at http://logrus.uchicago.edu/~aphearin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hearin, Andrew P.; Watson, Douglas F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE83704014"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eight-Fold Way to <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Geometrodynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> models of strong interactions are generalized to a GL(8,C)sup(f) x GL(8,C)sup(c) gauge theory incorporating space-time curvature and Cartan's torsion. Following Salam, the dynamics is determined by an Einstein-Dirac-type Lagrangian. The resulting f...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. W. Mielke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36577281"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flesh <span class="hlt">colour</span> dominates consumer preference for chicken</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">colour</span> upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orla B. Kennedy; Barbara J. Stewart-Knox; Peter C. Mitchell; David I. Thurnham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/205/8/1077.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reflections on <span class="hlt">colourful</span> ommatidia of butterfly eyes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small white Pieris rapae and the small copper Lycaena phlaeas. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the eye shine is determined</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doekele G. Stavenga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ACIDS+AND+ALKALI&id=EJ128282"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of the <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Range of Indicators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete <span class="hlt">colour</span> range of the indicator is observable. (GS)|</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woods, G. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.public.asu.edu/~kjmcgraw/pubs/FE03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">How feather <span class="hlt">colour</span> reflects its carotenoid content</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Many birds sequester carotenoid pigments in <span class="hlt">colourful</span> patches of feathers to advertise or compete for mates. Because carotenoids can be scarce in nature and serve valuable physiological functions, only the highest-quality individuals are thought to acquire or allocate more pigments for use in sexual displays. 2. A critical but rarely tested assumption of carotenoid-based signals is that the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lauri Saks; Kevin McGraw; Peeter Horak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1809965"> <span id="translatedtitle">The cause of 50 million-year-old <span class="hlt">colour</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' <span class="hlt">colours</span> in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural <span class="hlt">colour</span>, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original <span class="hlt">colours</span> from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original <span class="hlt">colours</span> of other (particularly arthropod) extinct species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23601698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender is a major factor explaining discrepancies in eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction based on HERC2/OCA2 genotype and the IrisPlex model.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent years, several studies have greatly increased our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> variation. A large percentage of the eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> diversity present in humans can already be genetically explained, so much so that <span class="hlt">different</span> DNA-based eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction models, such as IrisPlex, have been recently developed for forensic purposes. Though these models are already highly accurate, they are by no means perfect, with many genotype-phenotype discrepancies still remaining unresolved. In this work we have genotyped six SNPs associated with eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> (IrisPlex) in 535 individuals from Spain, a Mediterranean population. Aside from <span class="hlt">different</span> SNP frequencies in Spain compared to Northern Europe, the results for eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction are quite similar to other studies. However, we have found an association between gender and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction. When comparing similar eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> genetic profiles, females tend, as a whole, to have darker eyes than males (and, conversely, males lighter than females). These results are also corroborated by the revision and meta-analysis of data from previously published eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> genetic studies in several Caucasian populations, which significantly support the fact that males are more likely to have blue eyes than females, while females tend to show higher frequencies of green and brown eyes than males. This significant gender <span class="hlt">difference</span> would suggest that there is an as yet unidentified gender-related factor contributing to human eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> variation. PMID:23601698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martinez-Cadenas, Conrado; Peña-Chilet, Maria; Ibarrola-Villava, Maider; Ribas, Gloria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996A%26A...314L..25L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling X-ray <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> changes in Z sources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the X-ray <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> variations of Z sources. We use a Monte Carlo code to model the scattering of radiation emitted from the hot central corona (HCC) as it passes through a (non-uniform) radially accreting region. We find that the horizontal branch of the Z track of Cyg X-2 can be produced by changes in the radial accretion structure with increasing mass transfer rate. The normal branch however, requires changes in the spectrum emerging from the HCC. The effect of the non-uniform bulk motion of the plasma is shown to be important in determining both the position of the Z track in <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> space, and also the extent and orientation of the horizontal branch.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Litchfield, S. J.; Kylafis, N. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MNRAS.385.1635S"> <span id="translatedtitle">SDSS galaxy clustering: luminosity and <span class="hlt">colour</span> dependence and stochasticity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Differences</span> in clustering properties between galaxy subpopulations complicate the cosmological interpretation of the galaxy power spectrum, but can also provide insights about the physics underlying galaxy formation. To study the nature of this relative clustering, we perform a counts-in-cells analysis of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in which we measure the relative bias between pairs of galaxy subsamples of <span class="hlt">different</span> luminosities and <span class="hlt">colours</span>. We use a generalized ?2 test to determine if the relative bias between each pair of subsamples is consistent with the simplest deterministic linear bias model, and we also use a maximum likelihood technique to further understand the nature of the relative bias between each pair. We find that the simple, deterministic model is a good fit for the luminosity-dependent bias on scales above ~2h-1 Mpc, which is good news for using magnitude-limited surveys for cosmology. However, the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-dependent bias shows evidence for stochasticity and/or non-linearity which increases in strength towards smaller scales, in agreement with previous studies of stochastic bias. Also, confirming hints seen in earlier work, the luminosity-dependent bias for red galaxies is significantly <span class="hlt">different</span> from that of blue galaxies: both luminous and dim red galaxies have higher bias than moderately bright red galaxies, whereas the biasing of blue galaxies is not strongly luminosity dependent. These results can be used to constrain galaxy formation models and also to quantify how the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and luminosity selection of a galaxy survey can impact measurements of the cosmological matter power spectrum.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tegmark, Max; Blanton, Michael; Zehavi, Idit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32473523"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> kinetic energy production of body segments is <span class="hlt">different</span> between racing and training paces in elite Olympic rowers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> kinetic energy (TKE) was calculated for 28 Canadian national team Olympic rowers during training on water, comparing low-stroke rates (18–22 stroke\\/min) and high-stroke rates (32–40 stroke\\/min), using video analysis. Stroke duration was normalized to 100%, beginning and ending at the “catches”, with the drive phase occurring first and recovery second. Two discrete points were identified during the stroke, both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel J. Bechard; Volker Nolte; Angela E. Kedgley; Thomas R. Jenkyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14820448"> <span id="translatedtitle">The representation of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in the cerebral cortex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">New insights into how <span class="hlt">colour</span> is represented in the cerebral cortex and what variables govern the responses of single cortical <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded cells have been gained by the discovery of specific visual cortical areas rich in <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded cells.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. Zeki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50118259"> <span id="translatedtitle">A theory of selection for gamut mapping <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gamut mapping <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy attempts to determine the set of diagonal matrices taking the gamut of image <span class="hlt">colours</span> under an unknown illuminant into the gamut of <span class="hlt">colours</span> observed under a standard illuminant. Forsyth (1990) developed such an algorithm in rgb sensor space which Finlayson (1996) later modified to work in a 2-d chromaticity space. In this paper we prove that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Finlayson; S. Hordley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1788842"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Combined Physical and Statistical Approach to <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Constancy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Computational <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy tries to recover the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the scene illuminant of an image. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> constancy algorithms can, in general, be divided into two groups: statistics-based approaches that exploit statistical knowledge of common lights and surfaces, and physics-based algorithms which are based on an understanding of how physical processes such as highlights manifest themselves in images. A combined physical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerald Schaefer; Steven D. Hordley; Graham D. Finlayson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50692532"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards more adequate <span class="hlt">colour</span> histograms for in-body images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although there is a growing number of scientific papers describing classification of in-body images, most of it is based on traditional <span class="hlt">colour</span> histograms. In this paper we explain why these might not be the most adequate visual features for in-body image classification. Based on a <span class="hlt">colour</span> dynamic range maximization criterion, we propose a methodology for creating more adequate <span class="hlt">colour</span> histograms,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Sousa; M. Dinis-Ribeiro; M. Areia; M. Correia; M. Coimbra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~traldil/colours3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Subset Expansion of the <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Tutte Polynomial</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">as and Riordan introduce a Tutte polynomial for <span class="hlt">coloured</span> graphs and matroids in (3). We observe that this polynomial has an expansion as a sum indexed by the subsets of the ground-set of a <span class="hlt">coloured</span> matroid, generalizing the subset expansion of the Tutte polynomial. We also discuss similar expansions of other contraction-deletion invariants of graphs and matroids. 1. The <span class="hlt">coloured</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LORENZO T RALDI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39278926"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing the low quality images using Unsupervised <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Correction Method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Underwater images are affected by reduced contrast and non-uniform <span class="hlt">colour</span> cast due to the absorption and scattering of light in the aquatic environment. This affects the quality and reliability of image processing and therefore <span class="hlt">colour</span> correction is a necessary pre-processing stage. In this paper, we propose an Unsupervised <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Correction Method (UCM) for underwater image enhancement. UCM is based on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kashif Iqbal; Michael Odetayo; Anne E. James; Rosalina Abdul Salam; Abdullah Zawawi Talib</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_19 div --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/22906699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of paper coating <span class="hlt">colour</span> effluents by membrane filtration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dilute coating <span class="hlt">colour</span> effluents are created during the coating of paper and board. After treating the <span class="hlt">colour</span> effluents with ultrafiltration, the retentate can be reused as coating <span class="hlt">colour</span> and the permeate can replace fresh water. At the same time, the load on the external treatment plant is reduced. In this investigation, pilot-plant experiments were performed at a paper mill. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A.-S. Jönsson; C. Jönsson; M. Teppler; P. Tomani; S. Wännström</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mn5217645342w291.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioural evidence for <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision in stomatopod crustaceans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">If an organism can be taught to respond in a particular way to a wavelength of light, irrespective of that light's intensity, then it must be able to perceive the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the stimulus. No marine invertebrate has yet been shown to have <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision. Stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps) are <span class="hlt">colourful</span> animals and their eyes have many adaptations which indicate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. J. Marshall; J. P. Jones; T. W. Cronin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3191539"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> histogram analysis for melanoma discrimination in clinical images</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Malignant melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, has a good prognosis if treated in the curable early stages. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> provides critical discriminating information for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Methods This research introduces a three-dimensional relative <span class="hlt">colour</span> histogram analysis technique to identify <span class="hlt">colours</span> characteristic of melanomas and then applies these ‘melanoma <span class="hlt">colours</span>’ to differentiate benign skin lesions from melanomas. The relative <span class="hlt">colour</span> of a skin lesion is determined based on subtracting a representative <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the surrounding skin from each lesion pixel. Acolour mapping for ‘melanoma <span class="hlt">colours</span>’ is determined using a training set of images. Apercent melanoma <span class="hlt">colour</span> feature, defined as the percentage of the lesion pixels that are melanoma <span class="hlt">colours</span>, is used for discriminating melanomas from benign lesions. The technique is evaluated using a clinical image data set of 129 malignant melanomas and 129 benign lesions consisting of 40 seborrheic keratoses and 89 nevocellular nevi. Results Using the percent melanoma <span class="hlt">colour</span> feature for discrimination, experimental results yield correct melanoma and benign lesion discrimination rates of 84.3 and 83.0%, respectively. Conclusions The results presented in this work suggest that lesion <span class="hlt">colour</span> in clinical images is strongly related to the presence of melanoma in that lesion. However, <span class="hlt">colour</span> information should be combined with other information in order to further reduce the false negative and false positive rates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Faziloglu, Yunus; Stanley, R. Joe; Moss, Randy H.; Van Stoecker, William; McLean, Rob P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/kp4028h282k00883.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Screening and specification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of nitritometric indicators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The specification of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of nitritometric indicators, viz., cresyl fast violet acetate, amethyst violet, safranine O, neutral red, methylene violet, neutral violet, phenosafranine, brilliant cresyl blue and lissamine blue BF, in the titration of sulphanilamide has been carried out with the help of tristimulus colorimetry. Apart from the determination of true <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates and complementary <span class="hlt">colour</span> co-ordinates, the quantitative</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chilukuri S. P. Sastry; Kommula R. Srinivas; Dasari Narasimha Rao; Kommuri M. M. Krishna Prasad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13028752"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous and successive <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera )</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination of individual free-flying honeybees (Apis mellifera) was tested with simultaneous and successive viewing conditions for a variety of broadband reflectance stimuli. For simultaneous viewing bees used form vision to discriminate patterned target stimuli from homogeneous <span class="hlt">coloured</span> distractor stimuli, and for successive discrimination bees were required to discriminate between homogeneously <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli. Bees were significantly better at a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adrian G Dyer; Christa Neumeyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5747125"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new method for <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurements in graphic arts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a method for <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurements directly on printed half-tone multicoloured pictures. The paper introduces the concept of <span class="hlt">colour</span> impression. By this concept we mean the CMY or CMYK vector (<span class="hlt">colour</span> vector), which lives in the three- or four-dimensional space of printing inks. Two factors contribute to values of the vector components, namely, the percentage of the area</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Verikas; K. Malmqvist; L. Malmqvist; L. Bergman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2159664"> <span id="translatedtitle">Induction operators for a computational <span class="hlt">colour</span>-texture representation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this paper is to outline a perceptual approach to a computational <span class="hlt">colour</span>-texture representation based on some <span class="hlt">colour</span> induction phenomena. The extension of classical grey level methods for texture processing to the RGB channels of the corresponding <span class="hlt">colour</span> texture is not the best solution to simulate human perception. Chromatic induction mechanisms of the human visual system, that has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maria Vanrell; Ramón Baldrich; Anna Salvatella; Robert Benavente; Francesc Tous</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...553A..74S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Properties of young star cluster systems: the age signature from near-infrared integrated <span class="hlt">colours</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Context. A recent JHKs study of several grand-design spiral galaxies, including NGC 2997, shows a bimodal distribution of their system of star clusters and star forming complexes in <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude and <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> diagrams. In a comparison with stellar population models including gas, the (J - H) vs. (H - Ks) diagram reveals that embedded clusters, still immersed in their parental clouds of gas and dust, generally have a redder (H - Ks) <span class="hlt">colour</span> than older clusters, whose gas and dust have already been ejected. This bimodal behaviour is also evident in the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagram MK vs. (J - Ks), where the brightest clusters split into two sequences separating younger from older clusters. In addition, the reddening-free index Qd = (H - Ks) - 0.884 (J - H) has been shown to correlate with age for the young clusters and thus provided an effective way to differentiate the embedded clusters from the older ones. Aims: We aim to study the behaviour of these photometric indices for star cluster systems in the Local Group. In particular, we investigate the effectiveness of the Qd index in sorting out clusters of <span class="hlt">different</span> ages at their early evolutionary stages. In addition, the whole set of homogeneous measurements will serve as a template for analyses of the populations belonging to distant galaxies that are unresolved clusters or complexes. Methods: Surface photometry was carried out for 2MASS images of populous clusters younger than ~100 Myr whose ages were available. The integrated magnitude and <span class="hlt">colours</span> were measured to a limiting radius and combined to generate the photometric diagrams. Some clusters, particularly the embedded ones, were studied for the first time using this method. Results: The integrated magnitudes and <span class="hlt">colours</span> extracted from the surface photometry of the most populous clusters/complexes in the Local Group show the expected bimodal distribution in the <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span> and <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagrams. In particular, we confirm the index Qd as a powerful tool for distinguishing clusters younger than about 7 Myr from older clusters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santos, J. F. C.; Dottori, H.; Grosbøl, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492273"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and <span class="hlt">colouring</span> ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of <span class="hlt">total</span> oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the <span class="hlt">total</span>, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten <span class="hlt">different</span> spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. <span class="hlt">Total</span> oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the <span class="hlt">total</span> oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation. PMID:22492273</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37863552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Empirical analysis of the relationship between <span class="hlt">total</span> consumption-GDP ratio and per capita income for <span class="hlt">different</span> metals : The cases of Brazil, China and India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The main purpose of the paper is to propose an empirical analysis of the relationship between <span class="hlt">total</span> consumption of <span class="hlt">different</span> key metals (aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and zinc) and per capita income of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very <span class="hlt">different</span> perspectives from in the past. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antonio Focacci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34465161"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between sugar uptake kinetics and <span class="hlt">total</span> sugar consumption in <span class="hlt">different</span> industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during alcoholic fermentation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary The sugar transport, fermentative alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and protease activities of <span class="hlt">different</span> industrial strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae were measured during batch alcoholic fermentation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Salmon; J. C. Mauricio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37404080"> <span id="translatedtitle">New evidence for rapid development of <span class="hlt">colour</span>–location binding in infants’ visual short-term memory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Change-detection tasks reveal that infants’ ability to bind <span class="hlt">colour</span> to location in visual short-term memory (VSTM) develops rapidly: Seven-month-old infants, but not six-month-old infants, detect that successive arrays of three objects are <span class="hlt">different</span> if they contain the same <span class="hlt">colours</span> in <span class="hlt">different</span> locations (Oakes et al., 2006). Here we test a counterintuitive consequence of the hypothesis that 6-month-old infants are unable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lisa M. Oakes; Ian M. Messenger; Shannon Ross-Sheehy; Steven J. Luck</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23837353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous removal of <span class="hlt">colour</span>, phosphorus and disinfection from treated wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (CSH-lime) was investigated for its ability to simultaneously remove the <span class="hlt">colour</span>, phosphorus and disinfection from the effluents from wastewater treatment plants on swine farms. CSH-lime removed the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and phosphate from the effluents, with the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-removal effects especially high at pH 12, and phosphorous removal was more effective in strongly alkaline conditions (pH > 10). <span class="hlt">Colour</span> decreased from 432 +/-111 (mean +/- SD) to 107 +/- 41 <span class="hlt">colour</span> units and PO4(3-)P was reduced from 45 +/- 39 mg/L to undetectable levels at the CSH-lime dose of 2.0% w/v. Moreover, CSH-lime reduced the <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon from 99.0 to 37.9 mg/L at the dose of 2.0% w/v and was effective at inactivating <span class="hlt">total</span> heterotrophic and coliform bacteria. However, CSH-lime did not remove nitrogen compounds such as nitrite, nitrate and ammonium. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> was also removed from dye solutions by CSH-lime, at the same dose. PMID:23837353</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yamashita, Takahiro; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Ogino, Akifumi; Tanaka, Yasuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED093804.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in VO2 Max. Resulting from Bicycle Training at <span class="hlt">Different</span> Intensities Holding <span class="hlt">Total</span> Mechanical Work Constant.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Effects of <span class="hlt">different</span> training intensities on oxygen intake were determined in this study. Sixteen male subjects aged 16-18 were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control group. The training groups trained 3 days per week on bicycle ergometers at <span class="hlt">different</span> intensities (85 percent, 75 percent, or 65 percent of heart rate…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burke, Edmund A., Jr.; Franks, B. Don</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ASPC..380..495C"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Evolution of the Near-IR Galaxy Luminosity Function and <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Bimodality up to z ?q 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present new results on the cosmological evolution of the near-infrared galaxy luminosity function, derived from the analysis of a new sample of ˜ 22,000 K_AB ? 22.5 galaxies selected over an area of 0.6 square degrees from the Early Data Release of the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS). Our study has exploited the multi-wavelength coverage of the UDS field provided by the new UKIDSS WFCAM K and J-band imaging, the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey and the Spitzer-SWIRE Survey. The unique combination of large area and depth provided by this new survey minimises the complicating effect of cosmic variance and has allowed us, for the first time, to trace the evolution of the brightest sources out to z ?q 2 with good statistical accuracy. In agreement with previous studies we find that the characteristic luminosity of the near-infrared luminosity function brightens by ?q 1 magnitude between z=0 and z ?q 2, while the <span class="hlt">total</span> density decreases by a factor ?q 2. Using the rest-frame (U-B) <span class="hlt">colour</span> to split the sample into red and blue galaxies, we confirm the classic luminosity-dependent <span class="hlt">colour</span> bimodality at z ? 1. However, the strength of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> bimodality is found to be a decreasing function of redshift, and virtually disappears by z ? 1.5. Due to the large size of our sample we are able to investigate the <span class="hlt">differing</span> cosmological evolution of the red and blue galaxy populations. It is found that the space density of the brightest red galaxies (M_K ? -23) stays approximately constant with redshift, and that these sources dominate the bright-end of the luminosity function at redshifts z? 1. In contrast, the brightening of the characteristic luminosity and mild decrease in space density displayed by the blue galaxy population leads them to dominate the bright-end of the luminosity function at redshifts z? 1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cirasuolo, M.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Almaini, O.; Foucaud, S.; Smail, I.; Sekiguchi, K.; Simpson, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22colour%22&pg=3&id=EJ814626"> <span id="translatedtitle">"We Are Multiculturalism": A Self-Study of Faculty of <span class="hlt">Colour</span> with Pre-Service Teachers of <span class="hlt">Colour</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|This paper reports a self-study of three faculty of <span class="hlt">colour</span> engaged in teaching a special summer session geared to recruiting people of <span class="hlt">colour</span> to teaching. Given our past experiences in institutions of higher education, we recognised the unique situation and potential of faculty of <span class="hlt">colour</span> teaching a class made up almost exclusively of students of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prado-Olmos, Patricia; Rios, Francisco; Castaneda, Lillian Vega</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16910988"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colourful</span> male guppies produce faster and more viable sperm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In guppies (Poecilia reticulata) precopulatory sexual selection (via female choice) and post-copulatory selection (via sperm competition) both favour males with relatively high levels of carotenoid (orange) pigmentation, suggesting that <span class="hlt">colourful</span> males produce more competitive ejaculates. Here we test whether there is a positive association between male orange pigmentation and sperm quality. Our analysis of sperm quality focused on sperm swimming speeds (using CASA: computer-assisted sperm analysis to estimate three parameters of sperm velocity in vitro), sperm viability (proportion of live sperm per stripped ejaculate) and sperm lengths. We found that males with relatively large areas of orange pigmentation had significantly faster and more viable sperm than their less ornamented counterparts, suggesting a possible link between dietary carotenoid intake and sperm quality. By contrast, we found no relationship between sperm length (head length and <span class="hlt">total</span> sperm length) and male phenotype. These findings, in conjunction with previous work showing that highly ornamented male guppies sire higher quality offspring, suggest that female preference for <span class="hlt">colourful</span> males and sperm competition work in concert to favour intrinsically higher quality males. PMID:16910988</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Locatello, L; Rasotto, M B; Evans, J P; Pilastro, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22673231"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception: auditory-visual synaesthesia induces experiences of geometric objects in specific locations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our brain constantly integrates signals across <span class="hlt">different</span> senses. Auditory-visual synaesthesia is an unusual form of cross-modal integration in which sounds evoke involuntary visual experiences. Previous research primarily focuses on synaesthetic <span class="hlt">colour</span>, but little is known about non-<span class="hlt">colour</span> synaesthetic visual features. Here we studied a group of synaesthetes for whom sounds elicit consistent visual experiences of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> 'geometric objects' located at specific spatial location. Changes in auditory pitch alter the brightness, size, and spatial height of synaesthetic experiences in a systematic manner resembling the cross-modal correspondences of non-synaesthetes, implying synaesthesia may recruit cognitive/neural mechanisms for 'normal' cross-modal processes. To objectively assess the impact of synaesthetic objects on behaviour, we devised a multi-feature cross-modal synaesthetic congruency paradigm and asked participants to perform speeded <span class="hlt">colour</span> or shape discrimination. We found irrelevant sounds influenced performance, as quantified by congruency effects, demonstrating that synaesthetes were not able to suppress their synaesthetic experiences even when these were irrelevant for the task. Furthermore, we found some evidence for task-specific effects consistent with feature-based attention acting on the constituent features of synaesthetic objects: synaesthetic <span class="hlt">colours</span> appeared to have a stronger impact on performance than synaesthetic shapes when synaesthetes attended to <span class="hlt">colour</span>, and vice versa when they attended to shape. We provide the first objective evidence that visual synaesthetic experience can involve multiple features forming object-like percepts and suggest that each feature can be selected by attention despite it being internally generated. These findings suggest theories of the brain mechanisms of synaesthesia need to incorporate a broader neural network underpinning multiple visual features, perceptual knowledge, and feature integration, rather than solely focussing on <span class="hlt">colour</span>-sensitive areas. PMID:22673231</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chiou, Rocco; Stelter, Marleen; Rich, Anina N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21713471"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Total</span> mercury distribution in <span class="hlt">different</span> tissues of six species of freshwater fish from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Total</span> mercury concentrations were determined in seven tissues of 38 fish samples comprising six species from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Mercury concentration in all the tissues ranged from 0.005 to 0.022 ?g/g wet weight. In general, the concentration of mercury in all the tissues were decreasing in the order; liver?>?muscle?>?intestine?>?stomach?>?gonad?>?gill?>?swim bladder. Mercury concentration was generally greater in the tissues of high-trophic-level fish such as Clarotes laticeps, Mormyrops anguilloides and Chrysichthys aurutus whereas low-trophic-level fish such as Oreochromis niloticus recorded low mercury concentration in their tissues. The results obtained for <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury concentration in the muscle tissues analysed in this study are below the WHO/FAO threshold limit of 0.5 ?g/g. This suggests that the exposure of the general public to Hg through fish consumption can be considered negligible. PMID:21713471</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Atta, Alhassan; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Agorku, Eric Selorm</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331336"> <span id="translatedtitle">Independent sources of condition dependency and multiple pathways determine a composite trait: lessons from carotenoid-based plumage <span class="hlt">colouration</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many <span class="hlt">colour</span> ornaments are composite traits consisting of at least four components, which themselves may be more complex, determined by independent evolutionary pathways, and potentially being under <span class="hlt">different</span> environmental control. To date, little evidence exists that several <span class="hlt">different</span> components of <span class="hlt">colour</span> elaboration are condition dependent and no direct evidence exists that <span class="hlt">different</span> ornamental components are affected by <span class="hlt">different</span> sources of variation. For example, in carotenoid-based plumage <span class="hlt">colouration</span>, one of the best-known condition-dependent ornaments, <span class="hlt">colour</span> elaboration stems from both condition-dependent pigment concentration and structural components. Some environmental flexibility of these components has been suggested, but specifically which and how they are affected remains unknown. Here, we tested whether multiple <span class="hlt">colour</span> components may be condition dependent, by using a comprehensive 3 × 2 experimental design, in which we carotenoid supplemented and immune challenged great tit nestlings (Parus major) and quantified effects on <span class="hlt">different</span> components of <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. Plumage <span class="hlt">colouration</span> was affected by an interaction between carotenoid availability and immune challenge. Path analyses showed that carotenoid supplementation increased plumage saturation via feather carotenoid concentration and via mechanisms unrelated to carotenoid deposition, while immune challenge affected feather length, but not carotenoid concentration. Thus, independent condition-dependent pathways, affected by <span class="hlt">different</span> sources of variation, determine <span class="hlt">colour</span> elaboration. This provides opportunities for the evolution of multiple signals within components of ornamental traits. This finding indicates that the selective forces shaping the evolution of <span class="hlt">different</span> components of a composite trait and the trait's signal content may be more complex than believed so far, and that holistic approaches are required for drawing comprehensive evolutionary conclusions. PMID:23331336</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romero-Diaz, C; Richner, H; Granado-Lorencio, F; Tschirren, B; Fitze, P S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_20 div --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419748"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organic and <span class="hlt">total</span> mercury in muscle tissue of five aquatic birds with <span class="hlt">different</span> feeding habits from the SE Gulf of California, Mexico.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured organic and <span class="hlt">total</span> Hg in muscle tissue of five species of aquatic birds from the south-eastern gulf of California region, Mexico. Concentrations of <span class="hlt">total</span> and organic Hg measured in Pelecanus occidentalis were the highest (2.85 and 2.68 microgg(-1)); lowest values of organic Hg (0.20 microgg(-1)) and <span class="hlt">total</span> Hg (0.47 microgg(-1)) were detected in Anas discors and Anas clypeata, respectively. <span class="hlt">Differences</span> of Hg levels were related to feeding habits, being concentrations in birds of piscivorous habits more elevated than corresponding values in non-piscivorous species. PMID:19419748</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Hernández-Osuna, J; Páez-Osuna, F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7838E...5B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and <span class="hlt">coloured</span> glass containers using SORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reliable detection of concealed substances in sealed opaque plastic and <span class="hlt">coloured</span> glass containers, with low falsealarm rate, is a problem in numerous areas of security. For example, in aviation security, there is no reliable methodology for alarm resolution of substances with high chemical specificity unless the substances are in optically transparent containers. We present a recently developed method called Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) which enables the discrimination of the Raman spectrum of the content substance from the Raman spectrum of the container material with no prior knowledge of either, thereby allowing unambiguous identification of the container contents. The method is effective with <span class="hlt">coloured</span> plastic containers that are several millimetres thick and which are not see-through to the eye and also for <span class="hlt">coloured</span> glass bottles. Such cases do not typically yield to conventional backscatter Raman spectroscopy (or have poor false-alarm rates) since the content signal is often overwhelmed by the signal from the container, which may in addition have a strong interfering fluorescence background. SORS measurement can be performed in a few seconds by shining a laser light onto the container and then measuring the Raman signal at the excitation point but also at one or more offset positions. Each measurement has <span class="hlt">different</span> relative orthogonal contributions from the container and contents Raman spectra, so that, with no prior knowledge, the pure spectra of both the container and contents can be extracted - either by scaled subtraction or via multivariate statistical methods. The content spectrum can then be compared to a reference library of pure materials to give a threat evaluation with a confidence level not compromised by interfering signals originating from the container wall. In this paper, we describe the methods and their optimization, and characterize their performance in practical screening applications. The study shows that there is frequently a well-defined optimum spatial offset that maximizes the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the resultant SORS spectrum and that this optimum can vary greatly depending on content and container material. It is also shown for the first time that, for a fixed <span class="hlt">total</span> acquisition time available, a very high fraction of this time should be spent acquiring the offset spectrum. For common samples, the best results were obtained where the offset measurement was acquired for 20x longer than the zero offset position.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bloomfield, Matthew; Loeffen, Paul W.; Matousek, Pavel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57498423"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of neutral and negative <span class="hlt">colour</span> photographs on children's item directed forgetting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Intentional forgetting is an active process relying on cognitive mechanisms (e.g., rehearsal strategies and inhibition) developing during the elementary school years. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> photographs might be rehearsed <span class="hlt">differently</span> in memory than words, and therefore result in a <span class="hlt">different</span> developmental pattern of intentional forgetting than previously acknowledged. Moreover, negative material is thought to be particularly reliant upon inhibitory mechanisms in order not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Else-Marie Augusti; Annika Melinder</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13043908"> <span id="translatedtitle">OCULAR FILTERING OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND THE SPECTRAL SPACING OF PHOTORECEPTORS BENEFIT VON KRIES <span class="hlt">COLOUR</span> CONSTANCY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ocular filters in the eyes of many vertebrates, including humans, absorb wavelengths shorter than approximately 400 nm. These filters prevent the ?-band of a visual pigment from being exposed to ultraviolet radiation, essentially narrowing the spectral sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">different</span> photoreceptor classes. A comparison of <span class="hlt">different</span> hypothetical visual systems is used to show that von Kries <span class="hlt">colour</span> constancy is improved</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ADRIAN G. DYER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bio.unipd.it/behavecol/pdf/Evans%20et%20al%202004%20J%20Fish%20Biol.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Female mating preferences for <span class="hlt">colourful</span> males in a population of guppies subject to high predation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Female guppies Poecilia reticulata descended from the Tacarigua population in Trinidad subject to high predation exhibited strong preferences for males with relatively high levels of carotenoid <span class="hlt">colouration</span>. The study, which controlled for <span class="hlt">differences</span> in male courtship, revealed that mate choice in this population is based on the expression of orange pigmentation, irrespective of <span class="hlt">differences</span> in male motivation. # 2004 The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. P. E VANS; A. B ISAZZA; A. P ILASTRO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48145719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of specific semi-empirical coastal <span class="hlt">colour</span> algorithms using historic data sets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, historic data from airborne campaigns more or less coincident with in situ sampling points in four <span class="hlt">different</span> coastal areas were used to test the validity and robustness of semi-empirical coastal <span class="hlt">colour</span> algorithms developed during a separate Dutch coastal water research program. Three <span class="hlt">different</span> remote sensing devices were used for this exercise which could all simulate the spectral</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. R. Wernand; S. J. Shimwell; S. Boxall; H. M. van Aken</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11656768"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiological variation related to shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> polymorphism in White Sea Littorina saxatilis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Responses to moderate and extreme salinity change were investigated in White Sea Littorina saxatilis of <span class="hlt">different</span> genetically determined shell <span class="hlt">colour</span> morphs in order to test a hypothesis about physiological selection as a driving force of the change of phenotypic structure of this species along a salinity gradient in White Sea estuaries. Some of the studied physiological responses did not <span class="hlt">differ</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. M. Sokolova; V. Ja Berger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34727986"> <span id="translatedtitle">The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spectral sensitivity functions S(?) of single photoreceptor cells in 43 <span class="hlt">different</span> hymenopteran species were measured intracellularly with the fast spectral scan method. The distribution of maximal sensitivity values (?max) shows 3 major peaks at 340 nm, 430 nm and 535 nm and a small peak at 600 nm. Predictions about the <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision systems of the <span class="hlt">different</span> hymenopteran species are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dagrnar Peitsch; Andrea Fietz; Horst Hertel; John de Souza; Dora Fix Ventura; Randolf Menzel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6524657"> <span id="translatedtitle">PCB congeners and hexachlorobenzene biota sediment accumulation factors for Macoma nasuta exposed to sediments with <span class="hlt">different</span> <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon contents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deposit-feeding marine clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 119 d to three sediment types that varied in <span class="hlt">total</span> organic carbon (TOC) from 0.8 to 2.5%. Sediments were spiked with equal concentrations of 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and hexachlorobenzene. Tissue residues were measured, and steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs), the corresponding lipid, and TOC-normalized biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined. The BSAFs were less variable than were the BAFs with the exception of compounds with log K[sub ow] > 7. Many of the BSAFs exceeded 1.7, which is a calculated maximum value based on partitioning alone. Although BSAFs varied with sediment type and compound, the use of a BSAF of 4 as a screening level for neutral organic compounds in assessing dredge materials is supported by the present study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Randall, R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR (United States). Pacific Ecosystems Branch); Winsor, M.; Echols, S.; Pelletier, J. (AScI, Newport, OR (United States). Hatfield Marine Science Center)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23254155"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Different</span> prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia harboring monosomal karyotype with <span class="hlt">total</span> or partial monosomies determined by FISH: retrospective PALG study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A monosomal karyotype (MK) was identified by banding techniques (BT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, BT may be insufficient to determine the actual loss of a complete chromosome, especially in complex karyotypes. We have investigated the effect of monosomy type, <span class="hlt">total</span> (MK-t) and partial (MK-p), reevaluated by FISH, on prognosis. We have found that complete remission rate and probability of overall survival at 1 year was higher in MK-p (n=27) than MK-t (n=15) group (40% vs. 15.4%, P=0.19 and 30% vs. 9%, P=0.046, respectively). Our results indicate for the first time that monosomy type influences the prognosis of MK-AML. PMID:23254155</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wawrzyniak, Ewa; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Kotkowska, Aleksandra; Siemieniuk-Rys, Monika; Robak, Tadeusz; Knopinska-Posluszny, Wanda; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Iliszko, Mariola; Woroniecka, Renata; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Ejduk, Anna; Wach, Malgorzata; Duszenko, Ewa; Jaskowiec, Anna; Jakobczyk, Malgorzata; Mucha, Barbara; Kosny, Joanna; Pluta, Agnieszka; Grosicki, Sebastian; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Haus, Olga</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n11377233v2m1283.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoreceptor optics of the honeybee and its eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> mutants: the effect of screening pigments on the long-wave subsystem of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the aim of clarifying the role of screening pigments in photoreceptor optics of the compound eye, a comparative study of the optical properties of the honeybee eye in the visible region of the spectrum was carried out using wild-type bees and eye <span class="hlt">colour</span> mutantssnow, snowlaranja, ivoryumberandchartreuse with <span class="hlt">total</span> or partial blockage of the tryptophane-ommochrome pathway.1.The electroretinogram (ERG) of mutant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. G. Gribakin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Natur.349..235W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> appearance following post-receptoral adaptation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CURRENT models of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision assume that <span class="hlt">colour</span> is represented by activity in three independent post-receptoral channels: two encoding chromatic information and one encoding luminance1. An important feature of these models is that variations in certain directions in <span class="hlt">colour</span> space modulate the response of only one of the channels. We have tested whether such models can predict how <span class="hlt">colour</span> appearance is altered by adaptation-induced changes in post-receptoral sensitivity. In contrast to the changes predicted by three independent channels, <span class="hlt">colour</span> appearance is always distorted away from the direction in <span class="hlt">colour</span> space to which the observer has adapted. This suggests that at the level at which the adaptation effects occur, there is no <span class="hlt">colour</span> direction that invariably isolates only a single post-receptoral channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Webster, Michael A.; Mollon, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1573568"> <span id="translatedtitle">The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spectral sensitivity functions S(lambda) of single photoreceptor cells in 43 <span class="hlt">different</span> hymenopteran species were measured intracellularly with the fast spectral scan method. The distribution of maximal sensitivity values (lambda max) shows 3 major peaks at 340 nm, 430 nm and 535 nm and a small peak at 600 nm. Predictions about the <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision systems of the <span class="hlt">different</span> hymenopteran species are derived from the spectral sensitivities by application of a receptor model of <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision and a model of two <span class="hlt">colour</span> opponent channels. Most of the species have a trichromatic <span class="hlt">colour</span> vision system. Although the S(lambda) functions are quite similar, the predicted <span class="hlt">colour</span> discriminability curves <span class="hlt">differ</span> in their relative height of best discriminability in the UV-blue or blue-green area of the spectrum, indicating that relatively small <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the S(lambda) functions may have considerable effects on <span class="hlt">colour</span> discriminability. Four of the hymenopteran insects tested contain an additional R-receptor with maximal sensitivity around 600 nm. The R-receptor of the solitary bee Callonychium petuniae is based on a pigment (P596) with a long lambda max, whereas in the sawfly Tenthredo campestris the G-receptor appears to act as filter to a pigment (P570), shifting its lambda max value to a longer wavelength and narrowing its bandwidth. Evolutionary and life history constraints (e.g. phylogenetic relatedness, social or solitary life, general or specialized feeding behaviour) appear to have no effect on the S(lambda) functions. The only effect is found in UV receptors, for which lambda max values at longer wavelengths are found in bees flying predominantly within the forest. PMID:1573568</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peitsch, D; Fietz, A; Hertel, H; de Souza, J; Ventura, D F; Menzel, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2674075"> <span id="translatedtitle">The multiple disguises of spiders: web <span class="hlt">colour</span> and decorations, body <span class="hlt">colour</span> and movement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Diverse functions have been assigned to the visual appearance of webs, spiders and web decorations, including prey attraction, predator deterrence and camouflage. Here, we review the pertinent literature, focusing on potential camouflage and mimicry. Webs are often difficult to detect in a heterogeneous visual environment. Static and dynamic web distortions are used to escape visual detection by prey, although particular silk may also attract prey. Recent work using physiological models of vision taking into account visual environments rarely supports the hypothesis of spider camouflage by decorations, but most often the prey attraction and predator confusion hypotheses. Similarly, visual modelling shows that spider coloration is effective in attracting prey but not in conveying camouflage. Camouflage through <span class="hlt">colour</span> change might be used by particular crab spiders to hide from predator or prey on flowers of <span class="hlt">different</span> coloration. However, results obtained on a non-cryptic crab spider suggest that an alternative function of pigmentation may be to avoid UV photodamage through the transparent cuticle. Numerous species are clearly efficient locomotory mimics of ants, particularly in the eyes of their predators. We close our paper by highlighting gaps in our knowledge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thery, Marc; Casas, Jerome</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=depression+AND+exercise&pg=4&id=EJ709876"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does Equating <span class="hlt">Total</span> Volume of Work between Two <span class="hlt">Different</span> Exercise Conditions Matter when Examining Exercise-Induced Feeling States?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study offers novel information to the acute exercise-feeling state literature, by using a community sample of exercisers participating in a 12-week exercise program to compare feeling state changes of those who exercised at a HISD versus a LILD. Within this study, pre- and post-exercise feelings states were compared between the two <span class="hlt">different</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanchard, Chris M.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Bell, Gordon J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24292173"> <span id="translatedtitle">The calculation of small molecular interactions by the <span class="hlt">differences</span> of separate <span class="hlt">total</span> energies. Some procedures with reduced errors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new direct <span class="hlt">difference</span> method for the computation of molecular interactions has been based on a bivariational transcorrelated treatment, together with special methods for the balancing of other errors. It appears that these new features can give a strong reduction in the error of the interaction energy, and they seem to be particularly suitable for computations in the important region</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. F. Boys; F. Bernardi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3444511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stereoselective Preparation of Cyclobutanes with Four <span class="hlt">Different</span> Substituents: <span class="hlt">Total</span> Synthesis and Structural Revision of Pipercyclobutanamide A and Piperchabamide G</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A general strategy was developed for the diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of cyclobutanes with four <span class="hlt">different</span> substituents. It consists of three transition metal-catalyzed reactions — a RhII-catalyzed cyclopropanation, a AgI-catalyzed regioselective and stereospecific ring expansion, and a RhI-catalyzed addition reaction. Structures of pipercyclobutanamide A and piperchabamide G were synthesized and revised.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, Renhe; Zhang, Min; Wyche, Thomas P.; Winston-McPherson, Gabrielle N.; Bugni, Tim S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20948514"> <span id="translatedtitle">The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and <span class="hlt">total</span> body fat: sex and race <span class="hlt">differences</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine sex and race <span class="hlt">differences</span> in the relationship between anthropometric measurements and adiposity in white and African-American (AA) adults. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas were measured with computed tomography (CT). Fat mass (FM) was measured with dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship of waist circumference (WC) and BMI to VAT, SAT, and FM within sex-by-race groups. General linear models were used to compare relationships between WC or BMI, and adiposity across sex and race, within age groups (18-39 and 40-64 years). The sample included 1,667 adults (men: 489 white; 120 AA; women: 666 white, 392 AA). WC and BMI correlations were highest for FM and SAT compared to VAT. Women had higher FM levels than men regardless of WC, but the sex <span class="hlt">difference</span> in FM was attenuated in younger AA adults with a high BMI. For a given level of WC or BMI, women had higher levels of SAT than men; however, significant interactions indicated that the relationship was not consistent across all levels of BMI and WC. Sex and race <span class="hlt">differences</span> in VAT varied significantly with WC and BMI. In general, white adults had higher levels of VAT than AA adults at higher levels of BMI and WC. Sex <span class="hlt">differences</span>, and in some instances race <span class="hlt">differences</span>, in the relationships between anthropometry and fat-specific depots demonstrate that these characteristics need to be considered when predicting adiposity from WC or BMI. PMID:20948514</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camhi, Sarah M; Bray, George A; Bouchard, Claude; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Newton, Robert L; Ravussin, Eric; Ryan, Donna H; Smith, Steven R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">different</span> temporal sampling strategies on estimating <span class="hlt">total</span> phosphorus and suspended sediment concentration and transport in small streams</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various temporal sampling strategies are used to monitor water quality in small streams. To determine how various strategies influence the estimated water quality, frequently collected water quality data from eight small streams (14 to 110 km2) in Wisconsin were systematically subsampled to simulate typically used strategies. These subsets of data were then used to estimate mean, median, and maximum concentrations, and with continuous daily flows used to estimate annual loads (using the regression method) and volumetrically weighted mean concentrations. For each strategy, accuracy and precision in each summary statistic were evaluated by comparison with concentrations and loads of <span class="hlt">total</span> phosphorus and suspended sediment estimated from all available data. The most effective sampling strategy depends on the statistic of interest and study duration. For mean and median concentrations, the most frequent fixed period sampling economically feasible is best. For maximum concentrations, any strategy with samples at or prior to peak flow is best. The best sampling strategy to estimate loads depends on the study duration. For one-year studies, fixed period monthly sampling supplemented with storm chasing was best, even though loads were overestimated by 25 to 50 percent. For two to three-year load studies and estimating volumetrically weighted mean concentrations, fixed period semimonthly sampling was best.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18491698"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the <span class="hlt">differences</span> between the wear of metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-metal <span class="hlt">total</span> hip replacements.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hip simulator studies have been carried out extensively to understand and test artificial hip implants in vitro as an efficient alternative to obtaining long-term results in vivo. Recent studies have shown that a ceramic-on-metal material combination lowers the wear by up to 100 times in comparison with a typical metal-on-metal design. The reason for this reduction remains unclear and for this reason this study has undertaken simple tribometer tests to understand the fundamental material loss mechanisms in two material combinations: metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic. A simple-configuration reciprocating pin-on-plate wear study was performed under open-circuit potential (OCP) and with applied cathodic protection (CP) in a serum solution using two tribological couples: firstly, cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) pins against Co-Cr plates; secondly, Co-Cr pins against alumina (Al2O3) plates. The pin and plate surfaces prior to and after testing were examined by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a marked reduction in wear when CP was applied, indicating that <span class="hlt">total</span> material degradation under the OCP condition was attributed to corrosion processes. The substitution of the Co-Cr pin with an Al2O3 plate also resulted in a dramatic reduction in wear, probably due to the reduction in the corrosion-wear interactions between the tribological pair. PMID:18491698</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Figueiredo-Pina, C G; Yan, Y; Neville, A; Fisher, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> </div><!-- page_21 div --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23045891"> <span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Total</span> abstinence or harm reduction--<span class="hlt">different</span> strategies of alcohol treatment in research studies and international guidelines].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alcohol use is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to global health burden as well as social and economic harm. Only about 16% of alcohol dependent individuals enter addiction treatment programs in Poland, with only a few more in Western Europe. The aim of the paper was to present two main treatment strategies of alcohol dependence: <span class="hlt">total</span> abstinence and harm reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of both treatment goals are presented, pointing to a possibility of treating them as complementary strategies. A need to choose a proper, personalised patient-oriented aim of a treatment program is emphasised, with an option to revise the objective during long-term therapy. The paper describes implications from investigating the problem of alcohol dependence from a population health perspective. The surprisingly high amount of individuals remitting spontaneously from alcohol dependence without treatment is also discussed, and a possible bias resulting from analysing data on alcoholic subjects coming only from addiction centres, not from general population is taken into consideration. In the second part of the paper, American as well as British alcohol treatment guidelines are presented. PMID:23045891</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3178153"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> photographs for screening in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: are they necessary?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims To investigate whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) with associated infra-red images provide enough information to determine treatment decisions in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), or whether retinal <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography is also necessary. Methods In all, 87 OCT scans of 82 eyes with nAMD undergoing monitoring post ranibizumab treatment were taken using the Zeiss Stratus (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany; n=87) together with their corresponding infra-red images. Fundus <span class="hlt">colour</span> photographs were also taken. These images were reviewed by an experienced assessor, and a ranibizumab treatment decision was made during a multidisciplinary team retinal image review meeting. Results In all, 30 OCT scans (34.5%) showed intraretinal or subretinal oedema. A <span class="hlt">total</span> of 24 <span class="hlt">colour</span> photographs (19.5%) demonstrated retinal haemorrhage. Corresponding OCT infra-red images gave poor sensitivity in detecting haemorrhages (0.176). In 16.7% of decisions to treat, haemorrhage alone was the deciding factor. Signs of disease activity seen only on <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography were the deciding factor in clinical decisions for 8% of scans assessed. Conclusions The presence or increase of intra-retinal oedema is an important sign of activity triggering ranibizumab retreatment, but some eyes show signs of retinal haemorrhage without coexisting oedema. These haemorrhages are often only seen on either <span class="hlt">colour</span> imaging or fundoscopy and are unclear or invisible on OCT scans and infra-red images. Therefore, although retinal <span class="hlt">colour</span> photography creates additional expense, it is indispensable for making informed retreatment decisions, if patients are monitored using retinal imaging alone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hibbs, S P; Smith, A; Chow, L P; Downes, S M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22017568"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of light <span class="hlt">colours</span> on growth and stress response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under laboratory conditions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of light <span class="hlt">colours</span> on growth and stress response in rainbow trout Oncorhyncus mykiss (15.16?±?0.29?cm; 32.27?±?1.18?g) was studied. Fish were reared in 16 glass aquaria (140?×?30?×?80?cm) each with 12 fish under one of four <span class="hlt">different</span> lighting spectra: yellow (546?nm), red (605?nm), blue (470?nm) and white (full spectrum, control). Experiments lasted 125?days. The stress response was evaluated by measuring cortisol levels. Body weight and <span class="hlt">total</span> length of the fish reared under yellow light were greater compared with the other <span class="hlt">colour</span> regimes while feed conversion ratio significantly lowers. Condition factor and specific growth rate, however, were not differentiated among experimental light treatments. Stressed fish showed lower cortisol levels under yellow light compared with other light exposures. The study indicates that under laboratory conditions, rainbow trout grow best under yellow light and that yellow light lowers the stress-induced cortisol response in this fish species. PMID:22017568</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heydarnejad, M Saeed; Parto, M; Pilevarian, A A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561199"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Rapid tool for the stability assessment of natural food <span class="hlt">colours</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural food <span class="hlt">colours</span> lack stability under a number of conditions such as pH variation, oxidation, hydration, heat treatment and, most importantly, exposure to daylight. Stability tests to assess shelf life of natural <span class="hlt">colours</span> under light irradiation can be time consuming. Thus, an accelerated test carried out under high light intensity irradiation that can be related to normal daylight irradiation conditions is highly desirable. Samples of various natural <span class="hlt">colouring</span> solutions were prepared in aqueous model matrices at a range of pH values to mimic the majority of food matrices, pasteurised and irradiated under normal D65 light (0.2 W/m(2)) at 25°C, and in parallel under high light intensity irradiation (30 W/m(2)) at 3 <span class="hlt">different</span> temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C). Similarly to the already known Q10 parameters for temperature, acceleration factors QL for irradiation, were determined and used f