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1

Contribution of complementary food nutrients to estimated total nutrient intakes for urban Guatemalan infants in the second semester of life.  

PubMed

Complementary foods (CF) are introduced earlier or later than appropriate in developing societies. They often contribute poorly to overall adequate micronutrient intake during the critical period for growth and development, which constitutes the period from 6 to 12 months of life. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of the CF nutrients to the total estimated nutrient intake in infants in the second semester of life. Three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls interviews were conducted with mothers of 64 infants, aged 6-12 months on enrolment, from a convenience sample in a marginal urban settlement in Guatemala City. Retrospective recording of early introduction of pre- and post-lacteal feeding and introduction of first foods and beverages was included. Human milk intakes were estimated by a model based on assumptions that human milk plus CF exactly satisfied the infant's daily energy needs. The WHO/FAO Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) were the standards for adequate nutrient consumption. Instances of exclusive breast feeding to 6 months were rare, with the introduction of CF earlier than recommended. Baby food in jars was mentioned most frequently as the first food offered. The contribution of CF increased with age through the second semester of life. CF contributed more of a nutrient than human milk in all instances. However,CF nutrient density for Ca, Fe, and Zn fell below international standard. Fortified sugar contributed excessive amounts of Vitamin A to the diets. We conclude that for most nutrients, intakes reached or exceeded recommendation levels, unusual within the CF experience in scientific literature. PMID:22094843

Hernández, Liza; Campos, Raquel; Enneman, Anke; Soto-Méndez, Maria José; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

2011-01-01

2

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total fruit Table A1. Total fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 1.5 (0.07) 0.6

3

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total grains Table A17. Total grains: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 4.1 (0.10) 2.2

4

Usual Intake of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total seafood Table A27. Total seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.02) 0.0

5

Usual Intake of Total dairy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total dairy Table A33. Total dairy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 2.5 (0.07) 1.0

6

Did School Food and Nutrient-Based Standards in England Impact on 11–12Y Olds Nutrient Intake at Lunchtime and in Total Diet? Repeat Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In September 2009, middle and secondary schools in England were required to comply with food and nutrient-based standards for school food. We examined the impact of this policy change on children’s lunchtime and total dietary intake. Methods We undertook repeat cross-sectional surveys in six Northumberland middle schools in 1999–2000 and 2009–10. Dietary data were collected from 11–12 y olds (n?=?298 in 1999–2000; n?=?215 in 2009–10). Children completed two consecutive 3-day food diaries, each followed by an interview. Linear mixed effect models examined the effect of year, lunch type and level of socio-economic deprivation on children’s mean total dietary intake. Results We found both before and after the introduction of the food and nutrient-based standards children consuming a school lunch, had a lower per cent energy from saturated fat (?0.5%; p?=?0.02), and a lower intake of sodium (?143 mg; p?=?0.02), and calcium (?81 mg; p?=?0.001) in their total diet, compared with children consuming a home-packed lunch. We found no evidence that lunch type was associated with mean energy, or absolute amounts of NSP, vitamin C and iron intake. There was marginal evidence of an association between lunch type and per cent energy NMES (p?=?0.06). In 1999–2000, children consuming a school lunch had a higher per cent energy from fat in their total diet compared with children consuming a home-packed lunch (2.8%), whereas by 2009–10, they had slightly less (?0.2%) (year by lunch type interaction p<0.001; change in mean differences ?3%). Conclusions We found limited evidence of an impact of the school food and nutrient-based standards on total diet among 11–12 year olds. Such policies may need to be supported by additional measures, including guidance on individual food choice, and the development of wider supportive environments in school and beyond the school gates. PMID:25409298

Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

2014-01-01

7

Predicting microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle: Relationship to intakes of total digestible nutrients and crude protein.  

PubMed

Prediction of microbial CP (MCP) synthesis in the rumen is an integral part of the MP system. For the NRC beef model, MCP is calculated as 0.13 multiplied by TDN intake (TDNI), with adjustment for physically effective NDF (peNDF) concentrations less than 20%. Despite its application for nearly 2 decades, MCP predictions using this approach have not been extensively evaluated. We assembled a database of 285 treatment means from 66 published papers using beef cattle and dairy or dairy × beef crossbred steers, fed diets with a wide range of TDN, CP, and ether extract (EE) concentrations, in which MCP synthesis was measured. Fat-free TDN (FFTDN) concentration was calculated by subtracting 2.25 × percent EE from the TDN concentration. Based on initial model selection procedures indicating that DMI and concentrations of TDN, FFTDN, and CP were significantly (P < 0.04) related to MCP synthesis, linear and quadratic effects of TDNI and FFTDN intake (FFTDNI) and CP intake (CPI) were considered as potential independent variables. Mixed model regression methods were used to fit 1-, 2-, and 3-independent-variable models based on either TDNI or FFTDNI (e.g., TDNI only, TDNI and CPI, and TDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of TDNI; or FFTDNI only, FFTDNI and CPI, and FFTDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of FFTDNI). True ruminal OM digested (TROMD; g/d) was highly related (r(2) = 0.84 using citation-adjusted data) to MCP synthesis. Similarly, both TDNI and FFTDNI were highly related to citation-adjusted TROMD (r(2) > 0.96) and MCP synthesis (r(2) > 0.89). Models with FFTDNI were slightly more precise with slightly smaller prediction errors than those with TDNI. Randomly dividing the citations into Development (60%) and Evaluation (40%) data sets indicated that models such as those derived from the overall database accounted for 46 to 56% of the variation in MCP synthesis, with neither mean nor linear bias (P ? 0.26). In contrast, calculating MCP as 0.13 × TDNI, with or without adjustment for peNDF concentration, resulted in overprediction of MCP (P < 0.001 for both mean and linear bias). Cross-validation using 5,000 randomly drawn training and testing data sets yielded results similar to the Development/Evaluation approach. Recommended equations are provided, but the errors of prediction associated with these empirical regression equations were on the order of 25 to 30% of the mean MCP. PMID:25253815

Galyean, M L; Tedeschi, L O

2014-11-01

8

EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION  

E-print Network

. depression, anxiety. mood swings, cravings for carbohydrate-rich foods, sleep dis- turbances, and somatic craving. Calorie and nutrient intakes were measured directly. The subjects with premenstrual syndrome failed to change, whereas intake of fat, a fixed constituent of all of the test foods, rose in proportion

Wurtman, Richard

9

The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.  

PubMed

In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n?=?385 in 2003-4; n?=?632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet. PMID:24205190

Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

2013-01-01

10

Nutrient and food intakes differ among Latina subgroups during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective To document nutrient and food group serving intakes from food sources among Latina subgroups living in the same geographical area. Design A cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food group serving intakes were assessed by means of a 24 h recall administered immediately after a prenatal survey. Setting Hartford, CT, USA. Subjects A total of 233 low-income pregnant Latinas. For analyses, Latinas were classified into two groups on the basis of self-reported ethnic identity: Puerto Ricans and non-Puerto Rican Latinas. Results Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely than non-Puerto Rican Latinas to be more acculturated and to consume foods (i.e. processed meat, cheese, soft drinks) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fat, SFA, MUFA, trans fatty acids) that have been implicated in the development of chronic diseases. By contrast, non-Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely to consume foods (i.e. fruits, dark green/yellow vegetables, tomatoes, non-starchy vegetables) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fibre, vegetable protein, folate, ?-carotene) that promote health when compared with Puerto Rican Latinas. Conclusions Findings suggest that acculturation may play a role in dietary intake. Clinicians and dietitians need to be aware of these differences to encourage healthy eating patterns among more acculturated pregnant Latina clients. PMID:21729472

Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

2011-01-01

11

Fart et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and energy, macro-and micro-nutrient intakes in  

E-print Network

-nutrient intakes in older persons Authors Catherine FEART1,2 , Benjamin ALLES1,2 , Bénédicte MERLE1,2 , Cécilia) was computed from a food frequency questionnaire. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrient intake were evaluated In developed countries, the increasingly higher life expectancy is mostly attributed to a decline of mortality

Boyer, Edmond

12

Optimal foraging when regulating intake of multiple nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that, rather than maximizing energy intake subject to constraints, many animals attempt to regulate intake of multiple nutrients independently. In the complex diets of animals such as herbivores, the consumption of nutritionally imbalanced foods is sometimes inevitable, forcing trade-offs between eating too much of nutrients present in the foods in relative excess against too little of

Stephen J. Simpson; Richard M. Sibly; Kwang Pum Lee; Spencer T. Behmer; David Raubenheimer

2004-01-01

13

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2

14

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total whole fruit Table A2. Total whole fruit: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.8

15

Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

16

Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

2014-01-01

17

Consumption of ‘extra’ foods by Australian children: types, quantities and contribution to energy and nutrient intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To measure the types and quantities of energy-dense, nutrient-poor ‘extra’ foods consumed by Australian children and adolescents and their contribution to total energy and nutrient intakes.Design, setting and subjects:We used data from 3007 children, aged 2–18 years, who participated in the nationally representative 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Intake was determined by 24-h recall and ‘extra’ foods were defined using principles

A M Rangan; D Randall; D J Hector; T P Gill; K L Webb

2008-01-01

18

Nutrient intakes and impact of fortified breakfast cereals in schoolchildren.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrient intakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, physical characteristics, and their association with consumption of fortified breakfast cereal. RESULTS: Mean micronutrient intakes were generally adequate with the exception of low intakes of folate (boys and girls) and iron (girls). Fortified breakfast cereals, consumed by a high proportion (94% boys; 83% girls) of the sample, were associated with higher daily intakes of most micronutrients and fibre and with a macronutrient profile consistent with current nutritional recommendations. Appreciable proportions of subjects who did not consume fortified breakfast cereals had daily intakes that fell below the lower reference nutrient intake for riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, and iron (girls). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of fortification in contributing to micronutrient intakes of schoolchildren, particularly where requirements are high, or for those on marginal diets of low nutritional quality. PMID:9014598

McNulty, H; Eaton-Evans, J; Cran, G; Woulahan, G; Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Fletcher, R; Strain, J J

1996-01-01

19

[High intake of lycopene together with low intake of red meat increases the total antioxidant status].  

PubMed

The body's antioxidant systems are able to remove free radicals, thus protecting the body from the damage they may cause. They can be estimated, as a whole, through the determination of total antioxidant status (TAS). This biomarker can be modulated by dietary factors through the incorporation of substances with antioxidant or prooxidant properties. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of antioxidant nutrients and specific food groups, and its correlation with TAS. Forty-five male volunteers between 50 and 75 years were randomly selected from a medical consultation. The study included a TAS determination by ABTS and a nutritional interview where corporal composition was studied through anthropometry and the habitual consumption of nutrients was estimated by means of 24 hour diary and food consumption frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by using Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient (p < 0.05). TAS was positively correlated with lycopene consumption (r = 0.295; p = 0.049), and negatively with red meat intake (r = -0.403; p = 0.007), while intake of other studied antioxidant nutrients did not correlate significantly with TAS. In conclusion, high intake of lycopene and reduced red meat consumption increase TAS. PMID:23477203

Messina, Diego; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael; Soto, Catalina; Uvilla, Ana; López Laur, José Daniel; López Fontana, Constanza

2012-03-01

20

Using criteria to establish nutrient intake values (NIVs).  

PubMed

One of the most important of the nutrient intake values (NIVs) is the average nutrient requirement (ANR). The ANR is defined as an intake value that will be adequate for half of the individuals in a group of people with similar characteristics. It is used to estimate the prevalence of adequacy, and it serves as the basis for the individual nutrient level (INLx). The determination of adequacy is a complex process, with the resulting value of the ANR dependent on the criterion or functional outcome chosen to define nutrient adequacy. Because nutrients have multiple sites of action in human metabolism, it is possible to demonstrate abnormal function in one parameter measured or observed as a result of inadequate intake of a nutrient, while other parameters requiring the same nutrient appear normal or within normal ranges. Thus, depending on the criterion of adequacy selected, the requirement for a given nutrient may be at a lower or a higher intake amount. In harmonizing development of NIVs, it is important to clearly identify the criterion of adequacy selected and the rationale for its selection. Rarely are available data sufficient to provide dose-response information from which to select a level of intake at which half of the individuals demonstrate adequacy and half appear to demonstrate inadequacy. Three levels of intake, of which at least one level of intake is below the requirement for most of the individuals in the sample, and one level of intake is above their requirement, are useful for establishing a level at which half of the group might be considered to demonstrate adequacy. Types of human nutrient studies that may be used to obtain data are discussed, as well as characteristics of the sample size needed to demonstrate adequacy. The variation in requirements is also an important aspect in predicting levels of intake that will have defined probabilities of adequacy for groups (to develop the INLx where x is the defined probability chosen). An analysis of the origins of different types of variability is presented. When estimating energy requirements, a special case of NIVs, important issues must be considered. Additionally, an example of evaluating data used to establish an ANR for vitamin A, and the effect of variability in requirements for vitamin A, is provided. PMID:17521118

Yates, Allison A

2007-03-01

21

Assessment of Daily Food and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dietary Reference Intakes  

PubMed Central

Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740

Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro

2013-01-01

22

Inadequate nutrient intakes are common and are associated with low diet variety in rural, community-dwelling elderly.  

PubMed

Poor dietary habits and inadequate nutrient intakes are of concern in the elderly. The nutritional characteristics of those who survive to become the oldest are not well defined. Our goal was to describe dietary habits, nutrient intakes and nutritional risk of community-dwelling, rural Iowans, 79 y of age and older. Subjects were interviewed (n = 420) using a standardized format on one occasion in their homes and instructed to complete 3-d diet records (n = 261) after the in-home interview. Standardized interviews assessed demographic information, cognitive function and dietary habits (Nutrition Screening Initiative Checklist). Adequate nutrient intake was defined as consumption of the nutrient's estimated average requirement, 67% adequate intake or 67% recommended dietary allowance. Mean age was 85.2 y, 57% lived alone and 58% were widowed. Subjects completing 3-d diet records were younger, more cognitively intact and less likely to be at nutritional risk than subjects not completing diet records. The percentage of subjects with inadequate intakes of selected nutrients was 75% for folate, 83% for vitamin D and 63% for calcium. Eighty percent of subjects reported inadequate intakes of four or more nutrients. Diet variety was positively associated with the number of nutrients consumed at adequate intakes (r = 0.498), total energy (r = 0.522) and dietary fiber (r = 0.421). Our results suggest that rural, community-dwelling old have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. Recommendations to increase diet variety and consume a nutrient supplement may be necessary for elderly people to achieve adequate nutrient intakes. PMID:11481416

Marshall, T A; Stumbo, P J; Warren, J J; Xie, X J

2001-08-01

23

Nutrient intake and food restriction in children with atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834

Lim, Hyunjin; Song, Kyunghee; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

2013-01-01

24

Nutrient intake in the GEICO multicenter trial: the effects of a multicomponent worksite intervention  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: To assess the effects on macro- and micronutrient intake of a nutrition intervention program in corporate settings across the United States. Subjects/methods: Two hundred and ninety-two individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 sites of a US insurance company. Two hundred and seventy-one participants completed baseline diet recalls, and 183 participants completed dietary recalls at 18 weeks. Sites were randomly assigned to an intervention group (five sites) or to a control group (five sites) for 18 weeks. At intervention sites, participants were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and attend weekly group meetings. At control sites, participants continued their usual diets. At baseline and 18 weeks, participants completed 2-day diet recalls. Between-group differences in changes in nutrient intake were assessed using an analysis of covariance. Results: Compared with those in the control group, intervention-group participants significantly reduced the reported intake of total fat (P=0.02), saturated (P=0.006) and monounsaturated fats (P=0.01), cholesterol (P=0.009), protein (P=0.03) and calcium (P=0.02), and increased the intake of carbohydrate (P=0.006), fiber (P=0.002), ?-carotene (P=0.01), vitamin C (P=0.003), magnesium (P=0.04) and potassium (P=0.002). Conclusions: An 18-week intervention program in a corporate setting reduces intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and increases the intake of protective nutrients, particularly fiber, ?-carotene, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium. The reduction in calcium intake indicates the need for planning for this nutrient. PMID:23942177

Mishra, S; Barnard, N D; Gonzales, J; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Levin, S

2013-01-01

25

Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.  

PubMed Central

North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

1977-01-01

26

Changes in dairy food and nutrient intakes in Australian adolescents.  

PubMed

Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

Parker, Carole E; Vivian, Wendy J; Oddy, Wendy H; Beilin, Lawrence J; Mori, Trevor A; O'Sullivan, Therese A

2012-12-01

27

Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O'Sullivan, Therese A.

2012-01-01

28

Sleep symptoms associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients.  

PubMed

Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533

Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L

2014-02-01

29

Revising the Daily Values May Affect Food Fortification and in Turn Nutrient Intake Adequacy123  

PubMed Central

The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007–2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ?4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs. PMID:24132571

Murphy, Mary M.; Spungen, Judith H.; Barraj, Leila M.; Bailey, Regan L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

2013-01-01

30

Meal pattern, food choice, nutrient intake and lifestyle factors in The Göteborg Adolescence Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To relate meal pattern of Swedish adolescents to food choice, nutrient intake and other lifestyle factors.Design: Cross-sectional study including diet history and interview about smoking, ethnicity, social factors and retrospectively collected data of menarche and growth.Setting: School setting, Göteborg, Sweden.Subjects: A total of 611 boys and 634 girls in grade 9 (15–16 y).Results: The majority of the students, 65%

A Sjöberg; L Hallberg; D Höglund; L Hulthén

2003-01-01

31

Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

2012-07-01

32

Usual Intake of Total protein foods excluding beans and peas  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total protein foods excluding beans and peas Table A21. Total protein foods excluding beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%

33

Usual Intake of Total vegetables including beans and peas  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total vegetables including beans and peas Table A6. Total vegetables including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%

34

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood Table A23. Total meat, poultry, and seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90%

35

Usual Intake of Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes Table A29. Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%

36

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Table A22. Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%

37

Usual Intake of Total red and orange vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total red and orange vegetables Table A9. Total red and orange vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95%

38

Usual Intake of Total protein from beans and peas (legumes)  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total protein from beans and peas (legumes) Table A32. Total protein from beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%

39

Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas Table A20. Total protein foods including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%

40

Usual Intake of Total vegetables excluding beans and peas  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total vegetables excluding beans and peas Table A7. Total vegetables excluding beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%

41

Parent-child relationships in nutrient intake: the Framingham Children's Study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient intake affects many ofthe identified risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Although CHD risk factors have been shown to aggregate within families, less is known about the familial aggregation of nutrient intake. We analyzed diet records for an average of 9 d per subject on 87 mothers, 83 fathers, and 91 children aged 3-5 y. A statistically significant

Susan A Oliveria; R Curtis Ellison; Lynn L Moore; Matthew W Gil; Ellen J Garrahie; Martha R Singer

42

Low Nutrient Intake Is an Essential Component of Frailty in Older Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Poor nutrient intake is conceptualized to be a component of frailty, but this hypothesis has been little investigated. We examined the association between low energy and nutrient intake and frailty. Methods. We used data from 802 persons aged 65 years or older participating to the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) study. Frailty was defined by

Benedetta Bartali; Edward A. Frongillo; Stefania Bandinelli; Fulvio Lauretani; Richard D. Semba; Linda P. Fried; Luigi Ferrucci

2006-01-01

43

Assessment of Energy Intake Underreporting by Doubly Labeled Water and Observations on Reported Nutrient Intakes in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare reported energy intake with energy expenditure using doubly labeled water (DLW). Additionally, we compared reported nutrient intakes of our subject population with national survey population data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design This was a cross-sectional study of children, balanced by race and gender, primarily characterized by 4 body types: lean, obese,

CATHERINE M CHAMPAGNE; NANCY B BAKER; JAMES P DeLANY; DAVID W HARSHA; GEORGE A BRAY

1998-01-01

44

Long-term Nutrient Intake and Early Age-Related Nuclear Lens Opacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relation between usual nutri- ent intake and subsequently diagnosed age-related nuclear lens opacities. Subjects: Four hundred seventy-eight nondiabetic women aged 53 to 73 years from the Boston, Mass, area without previously diagnosed cataracts sampled from the Nurses' Health Study cohort. Methods: Usual nutrient intake was calculated as the average intake from 5 food frequency questionnaires that

Paul F. Jacques; Leo T. Chylack; Susan E. Hankinson; Patricia M. Khu; Gail Rogers; Judith Friend; William Tung; John K. Wolfe; Nita Padhye; Walter C. Willett; Allen Taylor

2001-01-01

45

Adequacy and change in nutrient and food intakes with aging in a seven-year cohort study in elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  As women age total dietary intake falls which may increase the risk of dietary deficiencies in some individuals. The aims\\u000a of this study were to investigate the changes in nutrient and dietary intakes that occurred with aging in a seven-year longitudinal\\u000a study of elderly Australian women and to evaluate the adequacy of their dietary intakes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Longitudinal population based study on

K. Zhu; A. Devine; A. Suleska; C. Y. Tan; C. Z. J. Toh; D. Kerr; R. L. Prince

2010-01-01

46

Effects of different types of isocaloric parenteral nutrients on food intake and metabolic concomitants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%);

Gyorgy Bodoky; Michael M. Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; Alessandro Laviano

1995-01-01

47

Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the association between dietary intake of vitamins C and E, carotene, and riboflavin and cataract extraction in women. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study beginning in 1980 with eight years of follow up. SETTING--11 states of the United States. PARTICIPANTS--Female registered nurses who were 45 to 67 years of age. 50,828 women were included in 1980 and others were added as they became 45 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of extraction of senile cataracts. RESULTS--493 cataracts were extracted during 470,302 person years of follow up. Intake of carotene and vitamin A was inversely associated with cataract: in multivariate analyses, women in the highest fifth of total vitamin A intake (excluding supplements) had a 39% lower risk of cataract relative to women in the lowest fifth (relative risk 0.61; 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.81). Neither riboflavin nor dietary vitamins E or C were associated with cataract in a multivariate analysis. Among specific food items spinach (rather than carrots, the greatest source of beta carotene) was most consistently associated with a lower relative risk. The risk of cataract was 45% lower among women who used vitamin C supplements for 10 or more years(relative risk 0.55 (0.32 to 0.96)), but no association was noted for multivitamin intake. CONCLUSION--Dietary carotenoids, although not necessarily beta carotene, and long term vitamin C supplementation may decrease the risk of cataracts severe enough to require extraction. PMID:1392884

Hankinson, S. E.; Stampfer, M. J.; Seddon, J. M.; Colditz, G. A.; Rosner, B.; Speizer, F. E.; Willett, W. C.

1992-01-01

48

Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits. PMID:22818718

Gagne, Doris; Blanchet, Rosanne; Lauziere, Julie; Vaissiere, Emilie; Vezina, Carole; Ayotte, Pierre; Dery, Serge; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

2012-01-01

49

Total energy intake, adolescent discretionary behaviors and the energy gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean

K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker

2008-01-01

50

Food and nutrient intake in a cohort of 8-month-old infants in the south-west of England in 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate food and nutrient intakes in 8-month-old infants.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC), south-west England.Subjects: A total of 1131 singleton Caucasian infants (82% of those invited) from a 10% random sample of ALSPAC, known as Children in Focus (CIF).Methods: Diet was assessed using a structured 3-day unweighed dietary record. Food and nutrient intakes

S Noble; P Emmett

2001-01-01

51

Effect of changing milk and yogurt consumption on human nutrient intake and serum lipoproteins.  

PubMed

Thirty-two healthy, normolipemic male college students eating in a single dining hall participated in a study designed to ascertain the effect of changing milk consumption on nutrient intake and lipoprotein. The men drank no milk for 3 wk, then 1500 ml milk with 2% fat daily for 3 wk, their usual diet for 2 wk, no milk again for 3 wk, 1250 ml nonfat milk daily for 3 final wk. Similarly, 30 female college students consumed either 480 ml lowfat yogurt, then no yogurt for 4 wk each in a crossover design. Body weight and physical activity were not different among dietary treatments. Protein, energy, and calcium intake varied significantly with changes of milk consumption. Total dietary fat decreased significantly when no milk or nonfat milk was consumed, whereas dietary cholesterol was significantly lower only when nonfat milk was consumed. Yogurt supplementation significantly increased intake of calcium and carbohydrate. Although some serum lipid means differed significantly among some sampling points, there was no effect on total cholesterol, total triglycerides, high density lipoproteins cholesterol, or distribution of electrophoretic lipoprotein fractions that could be attributed to changing milk or yogurt consumption. PMID:6715624

Massey, L K

1984-02-01

52

Influence of body dissatisfaction on 1-year change in nutrient intake of overweight and obese inner-city African American children.  

PubMed

This analysis aimed to examine the relationship of baseline body dissatisfaction with 1-year change in nutrient intake of inner-city, overweight and obese, African American children. This is a secondary analysis of 1-year pre-post data available for a convenience sample of 88 children. After adjusting for baseline intake of dietary variables and intervention group status, baseline body dissatisfaction was associated with 1-year increases in intake of energy, and all macronutrients in girls, but not in boys. These relationships were not substantially altered after adjusting for baseline BMIz and global self-worth. After including all adjustment factors, increasing baseline body dissatisfaction in girls was associated with 1-year increased intake of total energy, total sugars, total fat, discretionary fat, and total carbohydrates. This analysis suggests that, in girls but not necessarily in boys, body dissatisfaction might need to be targeted during interventions that aim to improve nutrient intake. PMID:22921270

Sharma, Sushma; Ikeda, Joanne; Fleming, Sharon E

2013-01-01

53

Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

Wiseman, Juliet

54

Assessing adolescent lifestyle factors and their effects on obesity indicators and nutrient intake  

E-print Network

examines adolescents living in a rural community to determine if relationships exist between individual lifestyle factors (physical activity, television, dieting, and nutrient intake) and obesity. Components of adolescent lifestyle also were combined using...

Odefey, Misti Nicole

2012-06-07

55

Food consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and drug use in a non-institutionalized elderly population  

E-print Network

of energy and 29 nutrients was evaluated. Food consumption was compared among sex-age groups by establishing 18 food groups Dietary intake, serum levels of albumin, and other variables were used to compare subjects who used specific cardiovascular... as in the future. The purpose the this research is to assess the food, nutrient, and drug intake of a non-institutionalized elderly population according to gender and age group. Specific objectives of the study were: 1. to assess and compare the adequacy...

Gorham, Michele Kathleen

2012-06-07

56

Nutrient Intakes and Food Patterns of Toddlers' Lunches and Snacks: Influence of Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe nutrient intake and food patterns of lunches and snacks eaten at various locations by US toddlers. Design A national, cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers and primary caretakers reported toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects Toddlers (n632), aged 15 to 24 months, a subset in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. Analyses

PAULA ZIEGLER; RONETTE BRIEFEL; MICHAEL PONZA; TIMOTHY NOVAK; KRISTY HENDRICKS

57

Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

2013-01-01

58

Plant and animal protein intakes are differently associated with nutrient adequacy of the diet of French adults.  

PubMed

The sustainability of dietary plant and animal protein consumption is an important issue, but few data are available to ascertain the health-related impact of animal and plant protein intake. The objective was to study the relationships between animal and plant protein intake and diet quality, as reflected by an integrated index of nutrient adequacy. Using data on 1912 adults from the French Individual and National Consumption Survey 2 (2006-2007), we assessed diet quality by using the PANDiet, a unique score combining 35 probabilities of having an adequate nutrient intake, and used multiple regression analysis to study the relationship with intakes of plant, animal, and related food source proteins. After adjustments for intakes of energy, alcohol, and protein from other sources and sociodemographic factors, plant protein intake was positively associated with the PANDiet, irrespective of sex (? = 0.50, P < 0.0001). By contrast, total and animal protein intakes were differently associated with the PANDiet according to sex, with a positive association in women (? = 0.07 and ? = 0.08, respectively; P < 0.01) and an inverse association in men (? = -0.07 and ? = -0.05, respectively; P < 0.01). The relationships between the PANDiet and intakes of protein from animal food sources varied: for instance, associations were inverse for red meat and poultry in men but not in women, whereas irrespective of sex, they were positive for fish, milk, and yogurt and inverse for processed meat, cheese, and eggs. These findings show that plant protein is a robust marker of a healthy diet, whereas total animal protein includes different subtypes of animal protein that largely vary in their relationship with diet quality. These data could help refine protein recommendations from a qualitative and dietary standpoint. PMID:23864509

Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Huneau, Jean-François; Carpentier, Florence; Dubuisson, Carine; Mariotti, François

2013-09-01

59

Fat content of the diet among pre-school children in Britain; relationship with food and nutrient intakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between the percentage of energy from fat and food and nutrient intakes at 18 and 43 months of age.Design: Diet was assessed using a 3 day unweighed food record. The children were divided into quartiles of fat intake as a percentage of energy (QFI), and food and nutrient intakes in the different QFIs were compared.Subjects:

I Rogers; P Emmett

2002-01-01

60

Energy and nutrient intake and food patterns among Turkish university students.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225

Nesli?ah, Rak?c?o?lu; Emine, Akal Y?ld?z

2011-04-01

61

Nutrient Intake in Italian Infants and Toddlers from North and South Italy: The Nutrintake 636 Study  

PubMed Central

We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the intake of energy, macronutrients, fiber, sodium and iron and the anthropometric status of infants and toddlers living in North (Milano) and South Italy (Catania). Nutrient intake was evaluated using a 7-day weighed food record. Out of 400 planned children aged 6 to 36 months, 390 (98%) were recruited, 189 in Milano and 201 in Catania. The mean (standard deviation) age was 17 (9) months in Milano and 17 (10) months in Catania. Anthropometry, energy intake and macronutrient intake were similar in Milano and Catania. However, iron intake was 27% lower and fiber intake 16% higher in Milano than in Catania. Despite normal anthropometry and energy intake, in the pooled sample there was a high intake of proteins, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats and sodium, and a low intake of iron and fiber compared to Italian reference values. This is the first study to report the macro- and micro-nutrient intake of children aged <12 months using the 7-day weighed food record and one of the very few studies that have employed such reference method in children from the general population. PMID:25111122

Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cassatella, Cristina; Morelli, Ambra; Cucugliato, Maria Cristina; Catinello, Giuseppina; del Balzo, Valeria; Guidarelli, Lucia; Agostoni, Carlo; Mameli, Chiara; Troiano, Ersilia; Bedogni, Giorgio

2014-01-01

62

Intake of tapwater and total water by pregnant and lactating women.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. Despite theoretically higher requirements for water due to physiologic demands of pregnancy and lactation, little is known of actual ranges of intake in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS. Population-based estimates of total water and tapwater intake in women of reproductive age were derived using data from the 1977-78 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Three-day average intakes were calculated for 188 pregnant women, 77 lactating women, and 6,201 non-pregnant, non-lactating control women. RESULTS. Total water intake (mean +/- SD) was 1,940 +/- 686 g/day (median 1,835) for control women, 2,076 +/- 743 g/day (median 1,928) for pregnant women and 2,242 +/- 658 g/day (median 2,164) for lactating women. Tapwater intake was 1,157 +/- 635 g/day (median 1,065) for control women, 1,189 +/- 699 g/day (median 1,063) for pregnant women, and 1,310 +/- 591 g/day (median 1,330) for lactating women. Total water intake was equal to or greater than 3,000 g/day among 7 percent of control women, 11 percent of pregnant women, and 13 percent of lactating women. Tapwater intake was equal to or greater than 2,000 g/day among 10 percent of control women, 15 percent of pregnant women, and 8 percent of lactating women. CONCLUSIONS. These results should be useful in estimating amounts of nutrients and toxic substances that women of reproductive age obtain through the water supply. PMID:1994741

Ershow, A G; Brown, L M; Cantor, K P

1991-01-01

63

Impact of lifestyle factors and nutrients intake on occurrence of gastrointestinal cancer in Tunisian population.  

PubMed

This study aims to show the relationship between lifestyle and risk of colorectal and gastric cancers in Tunisian population. The food frequency survey method was used to obtain information about the dietary intake and way of life. Nutrients intake was calculated according to the food composition database. According to our results, the consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish, as well as coffee seems to be protective against digestive cancer, while the consumption of citrus and olive oil is protective against gastric cancer. Tobacco, alcohol, and tea represent a risk against gastrointestinal cancer. Highly educated people are more conscious of the crucial role of prevention. In addition, nutrients were significantly associated with colorectal and gastric cancer. The findings suggest that lifestyle is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Moreover, higher intake of nutrients from foods was observed more in cases with colorectal and gastric cancer than controls. PMID:24615521

Baroudi, Olfa; Chaaben, Arij Ben; Mezlini, Amel; Moussa, Amel; Omrane, Ines; Jilson, Irene; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Chabchoub, Soufia

2014-06-01

64

Optimal foraging when regulating intake of multiple nutrients  

E-print Network

littoralis. Ã? 2004 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights of Natural History, University of Oxford ySchool of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading z evidence that, rather than maximizing energy intake subject to constraints, many animals attempt

Behmer, Spencer T.

65

Impact of Adopting Lower-Fat Food Choices on Energy and Nutrient Intakes of American Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the energy and nutrient intake of free-living men and women who choose foods consistent with different fat-reduction strategies.Design For each year of the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals from 1989 through 1991, food codes were used to sort respondents by type of milk; type of meats; and type of cheese, yogurt, salad dressing, cake, and

SHARON PETERSON; MADELEINE SIGMAN-GRANT; BRENDA EISSENSTAT; PENNY KRIS-ETHERTON

1999-01-01

66

Longitudinal Study of Nutrient and Food Intakes of Infants Aged 2 to 24 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the nutrient and food intakes of healthy, white infants from families of middle and upper socio-economic status and to compare intakes to current recommendations.Design Using an incomplete random block design, we interviewed 98 mother-infant pairs longitudinally when infants were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 months old. Data obtained included 24-hour dietary

JEAN D. SKINNER; BETTY RUTH CARRUTH; KELLY S. HOUCK; FRANCES COLETTA; RICHARD COTTER; DANA OTT; MAX McLEOD

1997-01-01

67

Nutrient Intake, Physical Activity, and CVD Risk Factors in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Associations among dietary intake, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are inconsistent among male and female youth, possibly from lack of adjustment for pubertal status. The purpose of this report is to describe the associations of CVD risk factors among youth, adjusted for sexual maturation. Methods Data analyzed in 2007 from a sumsample of 556 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years in Project HeartBeat!, 1991–1993, provide cross-sectional patterns of CVD risk factors by age and gender, adjusting for sexual maturation, within dietary fat and physical activity categories. Results Girls consuming moderate- to high-fat diets were significantly less physically active than those consuming low-fat diets. Boys and girls consuming high-fat diets had higher saturated fat and cholesterol intakes than children in low-fat categories. Boys had no significant differences in physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, or plasma cholesterol levels across fat categories. Girls’ plasma cholesterol levels showed no significant differences across fat categories. Dietary intake did not differ across moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) categories within gender. There were no differences in BMI by fat or MVPA categories for either gender. Girls’ waist circumference differed significantly by fat category, and systolic blood pressure differed significantly across fat and MVPA categories. Boys’ fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure was significantly different across MVPA categories. Conclusions Girls consuming atherogenic diets were significantly less physically active than those with low fat intakes, whereas boys consuming high-fat diets did not show differences in physical activity measures. With the prevalence of overweight rising among youth, the impact of atherogenic diets and sedentary lifestyles on CVD risk factors is of concern to public health professionals. PMID:19524152

Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Barradas, Danielle T.

2009-01-01

68

Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance.  

PubMed

Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting dietary nutrient intake from 3 different diets that vary in energy and in protein contents from a cafeteria system at high temperature (HT; 31-32°C) and at normal temperature (NT; 31-21°C). Night temperature was set at 25°C at HT and at 18°C at NT and 12 h dark:12 h light. Control birds were fed a standard control diet (CP: 215 g/kg; ME: 2,895 kcal/kg) for broiler chickens. The choice-fed birds could choose between the control diet, a high-protein diet (CP: 299 g/kg; ME: 2,780 kcal/kg), and a high-energy diet (CP: 150.7 g/kg; ME: 3,241 kcal/kg). The diets had similar pellet size and color. Birds had access to each diet in a separate feeding trough from 1 to 42 d of age. Results showed that broilers spent 3.3% more time eating at NT than at HT and showed 42% more panting behavior at HT than at NT. High temperature decreased feed intake, protein intake, energy intake, and BW gain. Choice-fed birds had similar feed intake and BW gain, 14% lower protein intake, and 6.4% higher energy intake than control-fed birds. Body temperature and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were higher at HT than at NT. Water intake was 8% higher in control-fed birds than in choice-fed birds but similar at both temperature regimens. It can be concluded that broilers can compose a diet by selecting less protein but higher energy density from different diets compared with the control. Choice-fed birds had similar feed efficiency as control-fed birds at HT, indicating similar body composition for both groups. Extra energy intake of choice-fed birds at HT was used for panting activity. PMID:22334728

Syafwan, S; Wermink, G J D; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A

2012-03-01

69

Examining differences in nutrient intake and dietary quality on weekdays versus weekend days in Canada.  

PubMed

This study examined differences in dietary intake on weekdays versus weekends in Canada (n = 34?402) and found that energy intake was 62 ± 23 kcal higher, and dietary quality was slightly lower on weekends (p < 0.05). After energy adjustment, Canadians consumed 66% more alcohol, 10% more cholesterol, and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrates, protein, and most micronutrients (ranging from 2.0%-6.9% lower) on weekends. Findings suggest that Canadians consume a slightly less favourable nutrient profile and poorer dietary quality on weekends. PMID:25350458

Yang, Penny H W; Black, Jennifer L; Barr, Susan I; Vatanparast, Hassanali

2014-12-01

70

Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods. PMID:22304829

2012-01-01

71

Energy and Nutrient Intakes during Different Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Females in the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Evidence related to the influence of the menstrual cycle on energy and nutrient intakes is inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to investigate energy and nutrient intakes during different phases of the menstrual cycle in adult females in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: Forty-three females, aged between 18 and 30 years, were recruited to the study. Subjects

Leila I. Cheikh Ismail; Huda Al-Hourani; Helen J. Lightowler; Ayesha S. Aldhaheri; C. Jeya K. Henry

2009-01-01

72

Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

2012-01-01

73

Eat Drink Man Woman: Testing for Gender Bias in China Using Individual Nutrient Intake Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present unitary and sharing rule models of the household that explicitly account for three parental concerns that may lead to gender bias in the allocation of resources to children—equity, efficiency, and preferences. Deaton's test of the effect of household composition on adult good expenditures is employed using data on fathers' and mothers' nutrient intake from the China Health and

Albert Park; Pungpond Rukumnuaykit

74

Body Mass Index, Nutrient Intakes, Health Behaviours and Nutrition Knowledge: A Quantile Regression Application in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…

Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling

2010-01-01

75

A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common gastrointestinal symptom in Korea as well as in Western countries. This study was performed to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status, and life stress of functional constipation (FC) patients in Korean male college students. METHODS: Research data were collected in 2008 and a total of 104 male students (52 with FC patients and 52

Jeong-Soon You; Ji-Yeon Park; Kyung-Ja Chang

2010-01-01

76

Increased Energy Density of the Home-Delivered Lunch Meal Improves 24Hour Nutrient Intakes in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition

Heidi J. Silver; Mary S. Dietrich; Victoria H. Castellanos

2008-01-01

77

Nutrient intake of highly competitive male and female collegiate karate players.  

PubMed

Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes. PMID:12407989

Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko

2002-07-01

78

National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys  

PubMed Central

The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

2011-01-01

79

Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. METHODS: In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for

Ji-Yeon Park; Jeong-Soon You; Kyung-Ja Chang

2010-01-01

80

Patterns of nutrients' intake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrientsintake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrientsintakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

2014-01-01

81

Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.  

PubMed

Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

2014-07-01

82

Influence of Nutrient Intake after Weigh-In on Lightweight Rowing Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SLATER, G. J., A. J. RICE, K. SHARPE, D. JENKINS, and A. G. HAHN. Influence of Nutrient Intake after Weigh-In on Lightweight Rowing Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 184-191, 2007. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different nutritional recovery strategies between weigh-in and racing on 2000-m rowing ergometer

GARY J. SLATER; ANTHONY J. RICE; KEN SHARPE; DAVID JENKINS; ALLAN G. HAHN

2007-01-01

83

Effect of polyethylene glycol-6000 on nutrient intake, digestion and growth of kids browsing Prosopis cineraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was completed to assess effects of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) feeding on nutrient intake, its utilisation and growth performance of kids browsing on tannin-containing Prosopis cineraria shrub foliage. Twenty Kutchi weaner kids of comparable body weight (11.2±0.53kg) and age (3.0±0.11 month) were divided into two groups of 10 either supplemented with PEG-6000 (PEG group), or without PEG-6000 (tannin group).

Raghavendra Bhatta; A. K. Shinde; S. Vaithiyanathan; S. K. Sankhyan; D. L. Verma

2002-01-01

84

Beverage consumption habits "24/7" among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake  

PubMed Central

Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64?years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24?hrs and 7?days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53?L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03?L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5?L and 2?L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was <1?g/kcal. Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800?hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100?hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100?g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100?g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15?kcal, or 34?kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100?g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29?kcal change in EI or 35?kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47?kcal/100?g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Energy from beverages may be partly compensated. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations. PMID:23305461

2013-01-01

85

Dietary Pattern and Nutrient Intake of Korean Children with Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by itching and eczema-like skin lesions, and its symptoms alleviate with age. Recently, the prevalence of AD has increased among adolescents and adults. The increasing prevalence of AD seems to be related to westernized lifestyles and dietary patterns. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary patterns and nutrient intake of patients with AD. Methods The study population consisted of 50 children with AD who visited the Department of Dermatology at Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea from May 2008 to May 2009. Physical condition and calorie intake were evaluated using the Eczema Area and Severity Index score and Food Record Questionnaire completed by the subjects, and the data were analyzed using the Nutritional Assessment Program Can-pro 3.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, 2005) program to determine the gap between the actual ingestion and average requirements of 3 major nutrients (i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), vitamins (i.e. A, B, C, and E), niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc in all subjects. Results The intake rate of proteins was 18.02% (recommended dietary allowance [RDA], 7%~20%), of carbohydrates was 67.7% (RDA, 55%~70%), and of lipids was 14.24% (RDA, 15%~30%). Thirty-one subjects (62%) showed deficiency of folic acid, and 21 subjects (42%), of iron supplements. Conclusion Essential nutrient intake tends to be lower in AD patients than in healthy subjects, and this low intake is closely related to the severity of AD. PMID:25324648

Cui, Hui Song; Ahn, In Su; Byun, Yun Sun; Yang, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jin Hye; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One

2014-01-01

86

Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM); 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg). Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05). Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p<0.05). Buffalo fed with HCM had a lower roughage intake, nutrient intake, population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria and microbial nitrogen supply than the LCM fed group (p<0.05). However, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, population of protozoa and fungi, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by cottonseed meal levels (p>0.05). Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw. PMID:25049873

Wanapat, M; Pilajun, R; Polyorach, S; Cherdthong, A; Khejornsart, P; Rowlinson, P

2013-07-01

87

Changes in Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children Following a School-Based Intervention: Results from the CATCH Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Twenty-four-hour recalls were used to assess the change in nutrient intake among elementary-age school children exposed to the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). The purpose of this paper is to compare changes in nutrient intakes between treatment groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and the four CATCH sites.Methods.Twenty-four-hour recalls were administered to a subsample of the CATCH cohort at

Leslie A. Lytle; Elaine J. Stone; Milton Z. Nichaman; Cheryl L. Perry; Deanna H. Montgomery; Theresa A. Nicklas; Michelle M. Zive; Paul Mitchell; Johanna T. Dwyer; Mary Kay Ebzery; Marguerite A. Evans; Todd P. Galati

1996-01-01

88

A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common gastrointestinal symptom in Korea as well as in Western countries. This study was performed to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status, and life stress of functional constipation (FC) patients in Korean male college students. Methods Research data were collected in 2008 and a total of 104 male students (52 with FC patients and 52 healthy controls without FC) were included. FC patients were defined by the codes for the Rome? Modular Questionnaire and healthy controls without FC were matched for age, height, weight and BMI. A self-administered life stress score and 3-day recall method were used to assess life stress level and dietary intake, respectively. Results The averages of age, height, weight, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) of male students were 23.4 years, 174.1 cm, 71.9 kg, 19.0 % and 23.7 kg/m2, respectively. Average intake of dietary taurine was 126.8 mg/day in FC patients and 105.1 mg/day in control group. The average intake of total calorie (p<0.05), plant protein (p<0.01), plant fat (p<0.001), carbohydrate (p<0.05), plant calcium (p<0.05) of FC patients were significantly higher compared to control group. The average total life stress score (p<0.01), economy problem score (p<0.05), future problem score (p<0.05) and value problem score (p<0.05) of FC patients were significantly higher compared to control group. Conclusions These results may suggest that FC patients show a higher life stress score and intake of some nutrient such as total calorie, plant protein, plant fat, carbohydrate and plant calcium in Korean male college students. Therefore, a further large-scale study is needed about correlation between life stress and nutrients intake including dietary taurine. PMID:20804618

2010-01-01

89

Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.  

PubMed

Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards. PMID:24928105

Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

2014-09-01

90

Br J Nutr . Author manuscript Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and  

E-print Network

Br J Nutr . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes Clavel-Chapelonç Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the potential associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. Methods In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Results Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3±0.5cm, 55.3±1.0kg and 21.2±0.4kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4±0.7cm, 53.1±0.8kg and 20.3±0.2kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (p<0.05), ?-carotene (p<0.01), vitamin C (p<0.05), folic acid (p<0.05) and fiber (p<0.05) of depression patients were significantly lower compared to control group. The average total dietary habit score of depression patients (47.2) was significantly lower than that of control group (51.3) (p<0.01). The average dietary habit scores of “eating meals at regular times” (p<0.05), “eating adequate amount of meals” (p<0.05), “having meals with diverse foods” (p<0.05), “avoiding eating spicy foods” (p<0.01) and “eating protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs, beans more than 2 times a day” (p<0.05) were significantly lower in depression patients compare to control group. The average scores of total life stress (p<0.001) and all stress categories of depression patients were significantly higher than those of control group except faculty problem score. Conclusions These results show that depression patients have poor dietary habits and unbalanced nutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score. Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students. PMID:20804617

2010-01-01

92

A comparative study of nutrient intakes of migrant and Australian children in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Little is known about the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children in Australia. A study was undertaken in Perth on Australian and migrant children to obtain information on preschool diets. It was found that, although the mean nutrient intakes in both groups were adequate, some individual migrant national groups showed deficiencies of one or more nutrients. Many children were obtaining excessive calories and protein. The consumption of "empty calorie" foods was also high. In order to find different ways to teach good principles and practice of nutrition, the types of media which might influence parents were studied. It was considered that television and, to a lesser degree, radio were media which might exert a considerable effect if they were used to the best advantage. These forms of communication particularly were of potential value, as some migrant parents could not read English and some were illiterate. A positive nutrition education programme to combat commerical food advertising of "empty calorie" foods is recommended. PMID:1160747

Owles, E N

1975-07-26

93

Nutrients intake is associated with DNA methylation of candidate inflammatory genes in a population of obese subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNF?, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible associations between gene methylation and clinical blood parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride and homocysteine levels. We employed validated methods to assess anthropometric, clinical and dietary data, as well as pyrosequencing to evaluate DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in 165 overweight/obese subjects. There was no association between body mass index and DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in this group of subjects. Positive associations were observed between TNF? methylation and blood levels of LDL-C (? = 0.447, p = 0.002), TC/HDL-C (? = 0.467, p = 0.001) and LDL-C/HDL-C (? = 0.445, p = 0.002), as well as between HERV-w methylation and dietary intakes of ?-carotene (? = 0.088, p = 0.051) and carotenoids (? = 0.083, p = 0.029). TNF? methylation showed negative associations with dietary intakes of cholesterol (? = -0.278, p = 0.048), folic acid (? = -0.339, p = 0.012), ?-carotene (? = -0.332, p = 0.045), carotenoids (? = -0.331, p = 0.015) and retinol (? = -0.360, p = 0.008). These results suggest a complex relationship among nutrient intake, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. PMID:25340371

Bollati, Valentina; Favero, Chiara; Albetti, Benedetta; Tarantini, Letizia; Moroni, Alice; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; Conti, Diana Misaela; Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Vigna, Luisella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

2014-01-01

94

Nutrients Intake Is Associated with DNA Methylation of Candidate Inflammatory Genes in a Population of Obese Subjects  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNF?, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible associations between gene methylation and clinical blood parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride and homocysteine levels. We employed validated methods to assess anthropometric, clinical and dietary data, as well as pyrosequencing to evaluate DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in 165 overweight/obese subjects. There was no association between body mass index and DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in this group of subjects. Positive associations were observed between TNF? methylation and blood levels of LDL-C (? = 0.447, p = 0.002), TC/HDL-C (? = 0.467, p = 0.001) and LDL-C/HDL-C (? = 0.445, p = 0.002), as well as between HERV-w methylation and dietary intakes of ?-carotene (? = 0.088, p = 0.051) and carotenoids (? = 0.083, p = 0.029). TNF? methylation showed negative associations with dietary intakes of cholesterol (? = ?0.278, p = 0.048), folic acid (? = ?0.339, p = 0.012), ?-carotene (? = ?0.332, p = 0.045), carotenoids (? = ?0.331, p = 0.015) and retinol (? = ?0.360, p = 0.008). These results suggest a complex relationship among nutrient intake, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. PMID:25340371

Bollati, Valentina; Favero, Chiara; Albetti, Benedetta; Tarantini, Letizia; Moroni, Alice; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; Conti, Diana Misaela; Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Vigna, Luisella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia

2014-01-01

95

Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515

2011-01-01

96

A Study of Snack Consumption, Night-Eating Habits, and Nutrient Intake in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to identify dietary behavior such as snack consumption, night-eating and nutrients intake associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study was conducted on 219 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and 44 GDM subjects by using a questionnaire including dietary behavior, food frequency and 3-day food record. The mean age, OGTT, and delivery weight of GDM subjects were statistically higher than those in NGT. A larger proportion of NGT subjects consumed black coffee (49.8%) while the majority of GDM subjects (61.4%) drank mixed coffee with sugar and cream. Dairy products were the most frequently consumed snack item in NGT subjects (40.7%), while fruits were most frequently consumed food item in GDM subjects (34.4%). Many of NGT subjects (49.8%) answered that they hardly took night-eating snacks whereas most of GDM subjects (61.4%) took night-eating snacks more than once a week. For change of taste preference, the proportion of NGT subjects who showed less preference for salty taste (33.3%) or greasy taste (16.9%) was higher than that of GDM subjects (11.4%). Nutrient intakes of energy, fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), carbohydrate, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and vitamin E in GDM group were significantly higher than those in NGT group. Nutrient densities of SFA and vitamin C in GDM group were higher and nutrient density of calcium was lower than those in NGT group. Taken together, it is recommended to reduce night-eating snack and choose less salty and fatty foods, black-coffee rather than coffee with cream and sugar, and more dairy products to prevent GDM. PMID:23431085

Park, Hee-jin; Lee, JinJu; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Hyun Ah

2013-01-01

97

A study of snack consumption, night-eating habits, and nutrient intake in gestational diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

This study was performed to identify dietary behavior such as snack consumption, night-eating and nutrients intake associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study was conducted on 219 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and 44 GDM subjects by using a questionnaire including dietary behavior, food frequency and 3-day food record. The mean age, OGTT, and delivery weight of GDM subjects were statistically higher than those in NGT. A larger proportion of NGT subjects consumed black coffee (49.8%) while the majority of GDM subjects (61.4%) drank mixed coffee with sugar and cream. Dairy products were the most frequently consumed snack item in NGT subjects (40.7%), while fruits were most frequently consumed food item in GDM subjects (34.4%). Many of NGT subjects (49.8%) answered that they hardly took night-eating snacks whereas most of GDM subjects (61.4%) took night-eating snacks more than once a week. For change of taste preference, the proportion of NGT subjects who showed less preference for salty taste (33.3%) or greasy taste (16.9%) was higher than that of GDM subjects (11.4%). Nutrient intakes of energy, fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), carbohydrate, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin C, and vitamin E in GDM group were significantly higher than those in NGT group. Nutrient densities of SFA and vitamin C in GDM group were higher and nutrient density of calcium was lower than those in NGT group. Taken together, it is recommended to reduce night-eating snack and choose less salty and fatty foods, black-coffee rather than coffee with cream and sugar, and more dairy products to prevent GDM. PMID:23431085

Park, Hee-Jin; Lee, Jinju; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Yuri

2013-01-01

98

Sources of variation in nutrient intake and the number of days to assess usual intake among men and women in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea.  

PubMed

Sources of variation in nutrient intake have been examined for Western diets, but little is known about the sources of variation and their differences by age and sex among Koreans. We examined sources of variation in nutrient intake and calculated the number of days needed to estimate usual intake using 12 d of dietary records (DR). To this end, four 3 d DR including two weekdays and one weekend day were collected throughout four seasons of 1 year from 178 male and 236 female adults aged 20-65 years residing in Seoul, Korea. The sources of variation were estimated using the random-effects model, and the variation ratio (within-individual:between-individual) was calculated to determine a desirable number of days. Variations attributable to the day of the week, recording sequence and seasonality were generally small, although the degree of variation differed by sex and age (20-45 years and 46-65 years). The correlation coefficient between the true intake and the observed intake (r) increased with additional DR days, reaching 0·7 at 3-4 d and 0·8 at 6-7 d. However, the degree of increase became attenuated with additional days: r increased by 13·0-26·9 % from 2 to 4 d, by 6·5-16·4 % from 4 to 7 d and by 4·0-11·6 % from 7 to 12 d for energy and fifteen nutrients. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the day of the week, recording sequence and seasonality minimally contribute to the variation in nutrient intake. To measure Korean usual dietary intake using open-ended dietary instruments, 3-4 d may be needed to achieve modest precision (r>0·7) and 6-7 d for high precision (r>0·8). PMID:23745792

Kim, Dong Woo; Kyung Park, Min; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Kyungwon; Joung, Hyojee; Lee, Jung Eun; Paik, Hee Young

2013-12-14

99

Intakes of several nutrients are associated with incidence of arsenic-related keratotic skin lesions in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23077185

Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul

2012-12-01

100

Restricted nutrient intake does not alter serum-mediated measures of implant response in cell culture  

PubMed Central

Background During nutritional stress, reduced intake may reduce the efficacy of anabolic implants. This study was conducted to evaluate basic cellular responses to a growth promotant implant at two intake levels. Methods Sixteen crossbred steers (293?±?19.3 kg) were used to evaluate the impact of anabolic implants in either an adequate or a restricted nutritional state. Steers were trained to individual Calan gates, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of: presence or absence of an anabolic growth implant (Revalor-XS, 200 mg TBA and 40 mg estradiol; IMPLANT or CONTROL) and a moderate energy, pelleted, starting cattle diet fed at either 2.0?×?or 1.0?×?maintenance energy (NEM) requirements (HIGH or LOW). Serum (d 0, 14, and 28) was used for application to bovine muscle satellite cells. After treatment with the serum (20% of total media) from the trial cattle, the satellite cells were incubated for 72 h. Protein abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC), phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (phospho-ERK), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR) were analyzed to determine the effects of implant, intake, and their interaction (applied via the serum). Results Intake had no effect on MHC (P =?0.85) but IMPLANT increased (P intake status, and the interaction had no effect on the abundance of phospho-ERK (P???0.23). Implanting increased phospho-mTOR (P intake or intake?×?implant. Conclusions The nearly complete lack of interaction between implant and nutritional status indicates that the signaling molecules measured herein respond to implants and nutritional status independently. Furthermore, results suggest that the muscle hypertrophic effects of anabolic implants may not be mediated by circulating IGF-1. PMID:24245980

2013-01-01

101

A personal view of how ruminant animals control their intake and choice of food: minimal total discomfort.  

PubMed

Voluntary food intake and the selection between foods are important subjects especially in ruminants in view of the economic importance of this class of animal and the complex digestive system with its attendant metabolic peculiarities. There is evidence that intake is limited by the capacity of the rumen as well as by metabolic factors; some theories assume that intake is controlled by the first limiting factor but this is not satisfying on physiological grounds and there is evidence that signals from feedback factors are integrated in an additive manner. It is now well established from research in which animals are given the chance to learn the metabolic consequences of eating food with a particular sensory profile, including a choice of foods, that animals including ruminants can adjust their diet, both quantitatively and qualitatively, to their nutrient requirements. It is proposed that they do this in order to minimise the total of the discomfort generated by the several signals from various body systems. The learning process is aided by the considerable day-to-day variation often seen in the intake of individual animals. An optimisation model is proposed and presented in a simple form, involving the addition of discomforts (calculated as the square of the deviation of the supply of metabolisable energy, crude protein and neutral-detergent fibre) and iterative elucidation of the intake at which total discomfort is minimal. With parameters appropriate for growing lambs the model provides reasonable agreement with observations, both in terms of daily intake and selection between foods of different protein contents. Manipulation of food composition and of nutrient requirements produces predictions broadly in agreement with reality except that protein deficiency has less severe consequences for the model than for real animals; it is proposed that protein deficiency be given more weighting than protein excess, and this may be true for other resources as well. This model is proposed as a philosophy and a starting point for further development and is not purveyed as a complete, working model. It nevertheless provides support for the concept of total minimal discomfort as a suitable base from which to view the control of intake and selection in all animals. PMID:19079866

Forbes, J Michael

2007-12-01

102

Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria: I. Nutrient intake and food consumption.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of nutrient intake and food consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics and dietary data were determined in a sample of 231 disabled children chosen randomly from five specialized day care centers. Results showed that the age of the sample ranged from less than 7 to 24 years with a mean age of 12.6 +/- 4.7 years. Mental retardation represents the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and then Autism Male subjects were found to consume higher nutrients than females at all ages except age under seven years. The intake of both gender was less than the recommended for energy, calcium, vitamin A, niacin and zinc. While the intake of protein and vitamin C was more than the RDA Iron intake was below the recommended for females at all ages and within the acceptable level for male. The results also showed that there is a relationship between nutrient intake and disability type. Down syndrome children were found to consume more nutrients than mentally retarded and autistic subjects. PMID:16918148

Shabayek, Magda M

2004-01-01

103

Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions.  

PubMed

Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization suggested that incorporating systematic (evidence) reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would provide a comprehensive and distilled evidence document to decision makers and enhance the transparency of the decision-making process the IOM used in recommending the Dietary Reference Intake values (DRIs) for US and Canadian populations. At the request of the US and Canadian government sponsors of the ongoing review of the 1997 vitamin D and calcium DRI values, the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center performed a systematic review for the current DRI Committee to use early in its deliberations. We described the approach used to include systematic review into the IOM process for updating nutrient reference values and highlighted major challenges encountered along with the solutions used. The challenges stemmed from the need to review and synthesize a large number of primary studies covering a broad range of outcomes. We resolved these challenges by 1) working with a technical expert panel to prioritize and select outcomes of interest, 2) developing methods to use existing systematic reviews and documenting the limitations by doing so, 3) translating results from studies not designed to address issues of interest by using a transparent process, and 4) establishing tailored quality-assessment tools to assist in decision making. The experiences described in this article can serve as a basis for future improvements in systematic reviews of nutrients and to better integrate systematic review into development of future nutrient reference values. PMID:20504974

Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Ip, Stanley; Lee, Jounghee; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Raman, Gowri; Trikalinos, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lau, Joseph

2010-08-01

104

Dietary Total Fat Intake and Ischemic Stroke Risk: The Northern Manhattan Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dietary fat intake is associated with coronary heart disease risk, but the relationship between fat intake and ischemic stroke risk remains unclear. We hypothesized that total dietary fat as part of a Western diet is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Methods: As part of the prospective Northern Manhattan Study, 3,183 stroke-free community residents over 40 years of

Bernadette Boden-Albala; Mitchell S. V. Elkind; Halina White; Annette Szumski; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco

2009-01-01

105

Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.  

PubMed

Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

2009-02-01

106

A Statistical Method to Base Nutrient Recommendations on Meta-Analysis of Intake and Health-Related Status Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Nutrient recommendations in use today are often derived from relatively old data of few studies with few individuals. However, for many nutrients, including vitamin B-12, extensive data have now become available from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials, addressing the relation between intake and health-related status biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide new methodology for dietary planning based on dose-response data and meta-analysis. The methodology builds on existing work, and is consistent with current methodology and measurement error models for dietary assessment. The detailed purposes of this paper are twofold. Firstly, to define a Population Nutrient Level (PNL) for dietary planning in groups. Secondly, to show how data from different sources can be combined in an extended meta-analysis of intake-status datasets for estimating PNL as well as other nutrient intake values, such as the Average Nutrient Requirement (ANR) and the Individual Nutrient Level (INL). For this, a computational method is presented for comparing a bivariate lognormal distribution to a health criterion value. Procedures to meta-analyse available data in different ways are described. Example calculations on vitamin B-12 requirements were made for four models, assuming different ways of estimating the dose-response relation, and different values of the health criterion. Resulting estimates of ANRs and less so for INLs were found to be sensitive to model assumptions, whereas estimates of PNLs were much less sensitive to these assumptions as they were closer to the average nutrient intake in the available data. PMID:24682145

van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J.; Souverein, Olga W.; Doets, Esmee L.; van 't Veer, Pieter

2014-01-01

107

Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general. PMID:22439777

2012-01-01

108

Dietary patterns and nutrient intake of adult women in south-east China: a nutrition study in Zhejiang province  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the dietary patterns and nutrient intake of 652 adult women living in south-east China. Compared with data from previous national surveys and other nutrition studies in China, the results show different dietary patterns. The major differences include a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and animal foods, but a lower consumption of cereal and tuber foods. The mean

Min Zhang; Colin W Binns; Andy H Lee

2002-01-01

109

Influence of Some Social and Environmental Factors on the Nutrient Intake and Nutritional Status of School children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stated purpose of the study discussed here was to investigate the relationship of socio-economic factors to both nutrient intake and nutritional status using data gathered in Kent from September 1968 to March 1970; for each child in the study, information collected comprised a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical…

Jacoby, Ann; And Others

1975-01-01

110

Nutrient intake in an elderly population in Southern France (POLANUT): deficiency in some vitamins, minerals and 3 PUFA.  

E-print Network

Nutrient intake in an elderly population in Southern France (POLANUT): deficiency in some vitamins,version1 HAL author manuscript #12;Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the nutritional status of an elderly [4] and in Italy [5]. In an Italian elderly rural population Correa Leite et al [5] found a high

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers. Subjects/methods: During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; body mass index, 23.2±2.7?kg/m2; 52% female) recorded food and fluid consumed, collected one first morning urine (FMU) void and three 24-h (24hU) samples. The strength of linear association between urinary hydration biomarkers and fluid intake volume was evaluated using simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeled the association between fluid intake and 24hU hydration biomarkers. Results: Strong associations (|r|?0.6; P<0.001) were found between total fluid intake volume and 24hU osmolality, color, specific gravity (USG), volume and solute concentrations. Many 24hU biomarkers were collinear (osmolality versus color: r=0.49–0.76; USG versus color: r=0.46–0.78; osmolality versus USG: 0.86–0.97; P<0.001). Measures in FMU were not strongly correlated to intake. Multivariate PLS and simple linear regression using urine volume explained >50% of the variance in fluid intake volume (r2=0.59 and 0.52, respectively); however the error in both models was high and the limits of agreement very large. Conclusions: Hydration biomarkers in 24hU are strongly correlated with daily total fluid intake volume in sedentary adults in free-living conditions; however, the margin of error in the present models limits the applicability of estimating fluid intake from urinary biomarkers. PMID:23695204

Perrier, E; Rondeau, P; Poupin, M; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, L E; Lang, F; Stookey, J; Tack, I; Vergne, S; Klein, A

2013-01-01

112

Meeting and exceeding dairy recommendations: effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and risk of chronic disease.  

PubMed

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans indicate the US population is experiencing an epidemic of overweight and obesity while maintaining a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. To build upon the review of published research in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, this article aims to review the scientific literature pertaining to the consumption of dairy foods and the effects of dairy consumption on nutrient intakes and chronic disease risk published between June 2010, when the report was released, and September 2011. PubMed was searched for articles using the following key words: dairy, milk, nutrient intake, bone health, body composition, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and blood pressure. Evidence indicates that increasing dairy consumption to the recommended amount, i.e., three servings daily for individuals ?9 years of age, helps close gaps between current nutrient intakes and recommendations. Consuming more than three servings of dairy per day leads to better nutrient status and improved bone health and is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23550782

Rice, Beth H; Quann, Erin E; Miller, Gregory D

2013-04-01

113

Spatial Variability of Soil Total Nutrients in a Tobacco Plantation Field in Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability of soil total nutrient levels, which may be greatly affected by parent material, plays an important role in both agriculture and environment, especially with regard to soil fertility and soil quality. Little research has been done that addresses the spatial characteristics of total nutrients. Soil samples (0–20 cm) were taken from 111 points on an approximately 20-m

Jiang Hou-Long; Liu Guo-Shun; Wang Rui; Shi Hong-Zhi; Hu Hong-Chao

2012-01-01

114

Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT.  

PubMed

The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (?20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence. PMID:23576215

Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

2013-06-01

115

Effects of exposure to television advertising for energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in South Korea.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13?years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7?months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food. PMID:24996594

Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin

2014-10-01

116

Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid. PMID:25049836

Awawdeh, M. S.; Obeidat, B. S.

2013-01-01

117

Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid. PMID:25049836

Awawdeh, M S; Obeidat, B S

2013-05-01

118

Total energy intake and breast cancer risk in sisters: the Breast Cancer Family Registry.  

PubMed

Energy restriction inhibits mammary tumor development in animal models. Epidemiologic studies in humans generally do not support an association between dietary energy intake and breast cancer risk, although some studies suggest a more complex interplay between measures of energy intake, physical activity, and body size. We examined the association between total energy intake jointly with physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and the risk of breast cancer among 1,775 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2006 and 2,529 of their unaffected sisters, enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We collected dietary data using the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort food frequency questionnaire. Using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) associated with total energy intake, we observed an overall 60-70 % increased risk of breast cancer among women in the highest quartile of total energy intake compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 1.6, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.0; P (trend) < 0.0001); these associations were limited to pre-menopausal women or women with hormone receptor-positive cancers. Although the associations were slightly stronger among women with a higher BMI or lower level of average lifetime physical activity, we observed a positive association between total energy intake and breast cancer risk across different strata of physical activity and BMI. Our results suggest that within sisters, high energy intake may increase the risk of breast cancer independent of physical activity and body size. If replicated in prospective studies, then these findings suggest that reductions in total energy intake may help in modifying breast cancer risk. PMID:23225141

Zhang, Fang Fang; John, Esther M; Knight, Julia A; Kaur, Manleen; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra; Andrulis, Irene L; Stearman, Beth; West, Dee; Terry, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

119

Total Energy Intake and Breast Cancer Risk in Sisters: the Breast Cancer Family Registry  

PubMed Central

Energy restriction inhibits mammary tumor development in animal models. Epidemiologic studies in humans generally do not support an association between dietary energy intake and breast cancer risk, although some studies suggest a more complex interplay between measures of energy intake, physical activity and body size. We examined the association between total energy intake jointly with physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and the risk of breast cancer among 1,775 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2006 and 2,529 of their unaffected sisters enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR). We collected dietary data using the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort food frequency questionnaire. Using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with total energy intake, we observed an overall 60% -70% increased risk of breast cancer among women in the highest quartile of total energy intake compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: OR =1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0; P trend < 0.0001); these associations were limited to pre-menopausal women or women with hormone receptor positive cancers. Although the associations were slightly stronger among women with a higher BMI or lower level of average lifetime physical activity, we observed a positive association between total energy intake and breast cancer risk across different strata of physical activity and, BMI. Our results suggest that within sisters, high energy intake may increase the risk of breast cancer risk independent from physical activity and body size. If replicated in prospective studies, these findings suggest that reductions in total energy intake may help modify breast cancer risk. PMID:23225141

Zhang, Fang Fang; John, Esther M.; Knight, Julia A.; Kaur, Manleen; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra; Andrulis, Irene L.; Stearman, Beth; West, Dee; Terry, Mary Beth

2014-01-01

120

Comparison of dietary food and nutrient intakes by supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881

Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok

2013-01-01

121

Nutrient intake, digestibility, and blood metabolites of goats fed diets containing processed jatropha meal.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to record the ideal source and level of alkali treatment to treat jatropha meal (JM) and to determine the effect of inclusion of variously processed JM (pJM) on nutrient intake, digestibility, blood metabolites and hormonal status in goats. The JM was treated with 10 g/kg sodium chloride and 5 g/kg calcium hydroxide. The content of phorbol ester and hemagglutination (HA) activity of JM and pJM were assessed. A feeding trial for 90 days was conducted in short-haired multipurpose goats (n = 15; five per group). The experimental animals were offered oat (Avena sativa) straw ad libitum throughout the experimental period of 90 days. Each group was assigned to one of the three diets, viz. R1--soybean meal, R2--sodium chloride (10 g/kg dry matter, DM), and R3--calcium hydroxide (5 g/kg DM), with pJM substituting 250 g/kg DM of crude protein (CP) of control (R1). At the end of the feeding period, digestion trial of 7 days was conducted. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period to assess the blood metabolites and hormonal status. The phorbol ester and HA activity were reduced considerably in pJM. The intake of DM, organic matter, CP, and nitrogen-free extract were comparable among all the groups. However, the intake of ether extract was significantly higher in pJM-fed groups. The hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum urea, triiodothyronine and testosterone contents decreased in R2 and R3 as compared to R1. Concentration of glucose and activity of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P < 0.01) in goats fed pJM. It was concluded that phorbol ester content and HA activity markedly decreased by processing JM with sodium chloride and calcium hydroxide. However, they were not reduced to the levels of safe feeding, as reflected in unusual values of blood metabolites among the experimental animals. PMID:23526123

Katole, Shrikant; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Das, Asit; Sastry, Vadali Rama Bhadra; Lade, Munna Haridas; Prakash, Bhukya

2013-10-01

122

Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World  

PubMed Central

Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052

Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

123

Nutrient intake and brain biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease in at-risk cognitively normal individuals: a cross-sectional neuroimaging pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective There is increasing evidence to suggest that diet, one of the most important modifiable environmental factors, may play a role in preventing or delaying cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examines the relationship between dietary nutrients and brain biomarkers of AD in cognitively normal individuals (NL) with and without AD risk factors. Design As part of an ongoing brain imaging study, participants received clinical and laboratory examinations, a neurocognitive test battery, positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB; a measure of amyloid-? (A?) load) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG; a proxy of neuronal activity), and completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Setting Research centre affiliated with the Alzheimer's disease Core Center at New York University School of Medicine. Participants 49 NL individuals (age 25–72?years, 69% women) with dietary information, 11C-PiB and 18F-FDG PET scans were examined. Results Controlling for age and total caloric intake, higher intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D and ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was associated with lower A? load in AD regions on PiB-PET, while higher intake of ?-carotene and folate was associated with higher glucose metabolism on FDG-PET. ?-carotene and folate were associated with reduced glucose metabolism for women, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE4) carriers and participants with positive AD family history, but not for their risk-free counterparts. The associations of vitamin B12, vitamin D and ?-3 PUFA with PiB retention were independent of gender, APOE and family history. The identified nutrient combination was associated with higher intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish and legumes, and lower intake of high-fat dairies, meat and sweets. Conclusions Our data provide a potential pathophysiological mechanism for epidemiological findings showing that dietary interventions may play a role in the prevention of AD. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether there is a direct link between nutrient intake, brain biomarkers and risk of AD. PMID:24961717

Mosconi, Lisa; Murray, John; Davies, Michelle; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Spector, Nicole; Tsui, Wai H; Li, Yi; Butler, Tracy; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; McHugh, Pauline; Marmar, Charles R; de Leon, Mony J

2014-01-01

124

Associations of alcohol drinking and nutrient intake with chronic pancreatitis: findings from a case-control study in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine the association of alcohol drinking and nutrient intake with chronic pancreatitis in a hospital-based case-control study.METHODS:From July, 1997, to December, 1998, 91 male patients, who were newly diagnosed as having chronic pancreatitis, were recruited as cases, and 175 controls were individually matched to each case for gender, age (±5 yr), hospital, and

Yingsong Lin; Akiko Tamakoshi; Tetsuo Hayakawa; Michio Ogawa; Yoshiyuki Ohno

2001-01-01

125

Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Health Practices of Latinas and White Non-Latinas in the 3 Months Before Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the health practices and energy and nutrient intakes from diet and supplements of foreign- and US-born Latinas and white non-Latinas in the 3 months before pregnancy.Design A descriptive study in which data were obtained retrospectively from 2 questionnaires: an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the subject's medical, reproductive, family, occupational, and lifestyle history and a subject-administered (and interviewer-assisted) 100-item

DONNA M SCHAFFER; ELLEN M VELIE; GARY M SHAW; KAREN P TODOROFF

1998-01-01

126

Added Sugars Displaced the Use of Vital Nutrients in the National Food Stamp Program Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent increases in consumption of added sugars in the US can reduce intake of vital nutrients and increase the overall energy intakes. A comprehensive framework is necessary for addressing the controversy surrounding the effects of added sugars on nutrient intakes while controlling for dietary knowledge, behavioral factors, and total energy intakes, especially among low-income households. This paper analyzed the proximate

Alok Bhargava; Aliaksandr Amialchuk

127

Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women2  

E-print Network

1 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13 The objective of this study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits36 on age, lifestyle and41 health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and

Boyer, Edmond

128

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

2011-10-01

129

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

2011-01-01

130

Adolescents living in boarding houses in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria II: Quality of school meals and snacks and their contribution to nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of school meals and snacks and their contribution to nutrient intake of 25 male and 25 female adolescents aged 13–18 years were determined. The composition of the meals\\/snacks were determined by chemical analysis and use of food composition tables. Their quality was determined using the nutrient density concept and their ability to meet the nutritional needs of the

1993-01-01

131

How a mega-grazer copes with the dry season: food and nutrient intake rates by white rhinoceros in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Few studies have investigated how free-ranging wild herbivores adjust their food intake rate and nutrient gains during the dry season. Our study focused on the largest extant grazer, the white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum Burchell 1817). Field meas- urements were made on changes in bite mass, bite rate and nutrient concentrations of food eaten during the dry season.

A. M. SHRADER; N. OWEN-SMITH; J. O. OGUTU

2006-01-01

132

Parent-Child Associations in Selected Food Group and Nutrient Intakes among Overweight and Obese Adolescents.  

PubMed

Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:24951436

Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

2014-10-01

133

Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data.  

PubMed

Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg(-1) bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

Tennant, David R

2014-04-01

134

Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data  

PubMed Central

Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

Tennant, David R.

2014-01-01

135

Seafood Intake and Urine Concentrations of Total Arsenic, Dimethylarsinate and Arsenobetaine in the US Population  

PubMed Central

Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857

Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo

2010-01-01

136

Nutrient Ingestion, Protein Intake, and Sex, but Not Age, Affect the Albumin Synthesis Rate in Humans123  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of nutrient ingestion, dietary protein intake, age, and sex on the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin. Thirty-six healthy free-living individuals (8 females and 10 males aged 21–43 y and 9 females and 9 males aged 63–79 y) completed three 18-d periods of controlled feeding with protein intakes of 125% (P125, 1.00 g protein · kg?1 · d?1), 94% (P94, 0.75 g protein · kg?1 · d?1), and 63% (P63, 0.50 g protein · kg?1 · d?1) of the recommended dietary allowance. On d 12 of each trial, postabsorptive (PA) serum albumin concentration was determined and PA and postprandial (PP) albumin FSR were estimated from the rate of L-[1-13C] leucine incorporation into plasma albumin during an 8-h infusion. There were no age-related differences in PA and PP albumin FSR. Albumin FSR was higher PP than PA (P < 0.0001), and the increase in albumin FSR from PA to PP was smaller as dietary protein intake decreased from P125 to P94 and P63 (P < 0.05). Independent of protein intake, males had a higher albumin FSR (P < 0.05) and a greater increase in albumin FSR with feeding (P < 0.05). There was no age or dietary protein effect on serum albumin concentrations, but males had higher albumin concentrations than females (P < 0.0001). These results show that older persons are responsive to nutrient ingestion and dietary protein-related changes in albumin FSR. The greater albumin synthesis rate in males might contribute to a higher albumin concentration set point. PMID:17585023

Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Carnell, Nadine S.; Campbell, Wayne W.

2013-01-01

137

Improved nutrient intake in older obese adults undergoing a structured diet and exercise intentional weight loss program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Physicians are often reluctant to advise older obese patients to lose weight for fear of compromised nutrition and excessive\\u000a loss of muscle mass and strength, all of which may lead to a loss of independence and accelerate disability. Therefore, the\\u000a purpose of this study was to examine nutrient intake in older obese adults undergoing a weight loss intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  The study

Gary D. Miller; Winston-Salem NC

2010-01-01

138

Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche. PMID:21347271

Wiley, Andrea S.

2011-01-01

139

Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

2013-01-01

140

Seasonal changes of total body water and water intake in Shetland ponies measured by an isotope dilution technique.  

PubMed

Water is an essential nutrient necessary to support life, and adequate water supply is crucial for animal survival and productivity. The present study was designed to determine seasonal changes in the water metabolism of horses under outdoor conditions. Total body water (TBW) and total water intake (TWI) of 10 adult Shetland pony mares were estimated at monthly intervals for 14 mo by using the deuterium dilution technique. During the last 4 mo, 5 ponies were fed restrictively to simulate natural feed shortage in winter, and 5 ponies served as controls. The TBW (kg) was closely related to body mass [TBW (kg) = -2.86 + 0.67 × body mass (kg); P < 0.001; n = 105] explaining 86% of the variation. In contrast to TBW (kg), TBW (%) remained relatively stable across all measurements (57.8 to 71.2%). The TWI showed an increase in summer and a decrease in winter [TWI (mL·kg(-1)·d(-1)) = 15.07 + 23.69 × month - 1.45 × month(2) (R(2) = 0.64, P < 0.01)]. However, TWI measured at ambient temperatures (Ta) < 0°C did not follow the same trend as TWI at Ta > 0°C. Therefore, removing TWI values measured at Ta < 0°C from the analysis resulted in high correlations with locomotor activity (r = 0.87), Ta (r = 0.86), and resting heart rate (r = 0.88). The multiple regression among TWI, Ta, and heart rate explained 84% of the variation in TWI [TWI (mL·kg(-1)·d(-1)) = -13.38 + 1.77 × heart rate (beats/min) + 2.11 × Ta (°C); P < 0.001]. Feed restriction had no effect on TWI and TBW. The TBW content was unaffected by season and physical activity. The established regression equation for TBW and body mass can be used to predict TBW from body mass in ponies under field conditions. The comparison of TWI with published data on drinking water intake revealed that ponies had 1.7 to 5.1 times greater total water intakes when other sources of water such as feed and metabolic water were included. The TWI was highly influenced by environmental conditions and metabolic rate. Contrary to expectation, water supply during the cold seasons might be more critical than under summer conditions when water content of grass is high to allow for the compensation of limited availability of drinking water. PMID:23736044

Brinkmann, L; Gerken, M; Riek, A

2013-08-01

141

Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p?intakes of added sugars (p?intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p?nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations. PMID:23282226

2013-01-01

142

High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food/Beverage Intake and Video Gaming in Children as Potential Signals for Addictive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. PMID:22408581

Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

2011-01-01

143

Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets and that these differences are better reflected in terms of DMI, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility, but not in rumen pH. PMID:23758335

Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

2014-06-01

144

Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.  

PubMed

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention. PMID:22367072

Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

2012-08-01

145

Nutrient intake of range sheep on a buffelgrass ( Cenchrus ciliaris) pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to estimate and compare the organic matter (OM), energy and mineral intakes of grazing lambs in a buffelgrass pasture during 1 year. Vegetation in the study area (10 ha) consisted mainly of buffelgrass (70% of covered area) and shrubs such as blackbrush (Acacia rigidula), palo verde (Cercidium macrum) and cenizo (Leucophyllum texanum). Shrubs comprised about 27%

R. G. Ramírez; D. S. Alonso; G. Hernández; B. Ramírez

1995-01-01

146

[The use of total enteral formula with enriched nutrient in home Low Calorie Diet(LCD)therapy based on regular meal].  

PubMed

We made a low calorie diet(LCD)menu which added two commercial supporting nutritional supplements to a meal. Because a conventional formula food is very expensive, the patient was not able to afford it at home. Those supplements are a total enteral formula with enriched nutrient(ACURE EN800)and vitamin-mineral rich drink(V CRESC). The contents of vitamin and mineral in this menu satisfied the dietary reference intakes, though protein was a little low. However, we could keep the price low compared to the formula food. The patient was able to switch over to home LCD therapy with the menu. PMID:21368549

Hata, Akiko; Ibata, Takeshi; Shinoki, Keiji; Ando, Yukiko; Hirata, Takahiro; Kojima, Atsuko; Nishijima, Ritsuko; Doi, Seiko; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei

2010-12-01

147

Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index Based on the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) Using National French and US Dietary Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExisting diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation.ObjectiveTo develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations.Material and MethodsThe PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet

Eric O. Verger; François Mariotti; Bridget A. Holmes; Damien Paineau; Jean-François Huneau

2012-01-01

148

Effect of carbohydrate sources and cotton seed meal in the concentrate: II. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.  

PubMed

Four, rumen fistulated crossbred (Brahman × native) beef cattle steers were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) or CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1) and Factor B was cotton seed meal level (CM); and 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). The animals were fed 5 g concentrate/kg BW, and urea-treated rice straw (UTS) (50 g urea/kg DM) was fed ad libitum. Carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, rumen fermentation, or microbial protein synthesis; however, animals fed with CC had a higher population of total viable bacteria than the CR3:1 treatment (P<0.05). Animals that received HCM had a lower total feed intake while ruminal pH was higher than the LCM fed treatment (P<0.05). The population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in animals that received HCM were lower than the LCM fed treatment (P<0.05). Moreover, use of HCM in beef cattle diets resulted in lower microbial protein synthesis when compared with the LCM fed treatment (P<0.05) although efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was nonsignificantly different among treatments. Therefore, cassava chip combined with rice bran can be used in a concentrate diet for beef cattle. It is also noted that a high level of cotton seed meal in the concentrate may impact rumen fermentation and animal performance. PMID:22072076

Wanapat, Metha; Foiklang, Suban; Rowlinson, Peter; Pilajun, Ruangyote

2012-01-01

149

Omega-3 fatty acids from fish, other nutrient intake, and lifestyle factors: exploring the relationship in children.  

PubMed

The omega-3 fatty acids found mostly in seafood are essential nutrients that may help prevent or control a number of diseases; however, the evidence for this is not conclusive. The positive effects may be because of other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, we investigated the association between fish intake and other nutrition indicators and lifestyle and demographic factors among children. The study employed grade-4 student data of the 2000-2004 Hawaii Nutrition Education Needs Assessment Survey. In a sample 666 children (mean age = 9.57 ± 0.06 years, 55.6% female, 62.4% Asian/Pacific Islander), analysis indicated that fish consumption is positively associated with healthy lifestyle indicators, such as physical activity and a healthy body mass index. Fish consumption is also positively associated with protein and kilocalories intake but not with fruits and vegetables consumption. Findings suggest that the positive health behaviors linked to fish consumption may lie more in physical activity than in diet behaviors. Given that fish consumption is important for children, interventions promoting fish consumption in a balanced diet with fruit and vegetable, as well as other positive lifestyle behaviors are warranted. PMID:23666831

Chung, Hai V; Iversen, Cara S; Lai, Morris; Saka, Susan; Mahabub-ul Anwar, Md; Nigg, Claudio R

2014-09-01

150

Influence of contrasting Prosopis/Acacia communities on diet selection and nutrient intake of steers  

E-print Network

in the diets. Principle woody species consumed were 1 t~hf fg, ff 1 t t, Sit alit fl, h ~proso is glandulosa. Browse consumption only became important as grass and forb biomass depleted to levels lower than 1000 kg/ha. Intake of browse great. er than 20'L... subjected to rapid depletion of their herbage supply, L ITERATURE REVIEW Shrub/Grass Complex The shrub/grass complex of the South Texas Plains are relatively stable coavxunities. Little invasion or loss of indigenous species has occurred throughout...

Hanson, David Mark

2012-06-07

151

Risk and Presence of Food Insufficiency Are Associated with Low Nutrient Intakes and Multimorbidity among Homebound Older Women Who Receive Home-Delivered Meals1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the independent association of food sufficiency status with lowest nutrient intakes and multimorbidity among homebound older women who received home-delivered meals. Baseline data from the Nutrition and Function Study were used to identify three categories of food sufficiency status (food sufficient (FS), risk of food insufficiency (RFI) and food insufficient (FI)), calculate summary measures of musculo- skeletal

Joseph R. Sharkey

152

Dry matter intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and concentration of minerals in the blood and urine of steers fed rice straw treated with wood ash extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to evaluate the effects of feeding rice straw treated with wood ash extract (WAE) on dry matter (DM) intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and mineral concentrations in the blood and urine were conducted using 12 Boran steers. The steers were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of untreated, urea treated and WAE treated rice straws in a completely randomised

G. H. Laswai; J. D. Mtamakaya; A. E. Kimambo; A. A. Aboud; P. W. Mtakwa

2007-01-01

153

Kuwait's total diet study: dietary intake of organochlorine, carbamate, benzimidazole and phenylurea pesticide residues.  

PubMed

The State of Kuwait in cooperation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a Total Diet Study (TDS) to estimate intakes of pesticide residues by the population. The levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, carbamates, benzimidazoles, and phenylureas in the TDS core list are reported here. The TDS core list was established through a national food consumption survey. All food items (140 for the Kuwaiti adult) were prepared as eaten and analyzed for the pesticides mentioned above. The FDA's multiresidue methods in Volume I of the Pesticide Analytical Manual were used in gas, liquid, and gel permeation chromatographic analyses. Only vegetable and fruit samples contained pesticide residues (mg/kg), including the carbamates 1-naphthol (1.4) and 3H-carbofuran (0.94) in carrots; the OC pesticide vinclozolin (0.47), 3H-carbofuran (0.66), and fenuron (0.6) in kiwi fruit; the OC pesticide procymidone (0.32) and carbendazim (0.5) in grapes; 3H-carbofuran (5.0) in apricots; the OC pesticides captan (0.013) and thiabendazole (0.63) in pears; captan (0.035) in plums; and carbendazim (0.4) in mandarin oranges. The levels of 3H-carbofuran found in both apricots and kiwi fruit exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) of the United Nations. The daily intakes of pesticides by the different population groups are discussed in light of the FAO/WHO acceptable daily intakes. PMID:10589497

Sawaya, W N; al-Awadhi, F A; Saeed, T; al-Omair, A; Ahmad, N; Husain, A; Khalafawi, S; al-Omirah, H; Dashti, B; al-Amiri, H; al-Saqer, J

1999-01-01

154

Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach  

PubMed Central

The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

Nikolic, Marina; Glibetic, Maria; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Milesevic, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

2014-01-01

155

High-Resolution Mapping of a Genetic Locus Regulating Preferential Carbohydrate Intake, Total Kilocalories, and Food Volume on Mouse Chromosome 17  

PubMed Central

The specific genes regulating the quantitative variation in macronutrient preference and food intake are virtually unknown. We fine mapped a previously identified mouse chromosome 17 region harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) with large effects on preferential macronutrient intake-carbohydrate (Mnic1), total kilcalories (Kcal2), and total food volume (Tfv1) using interval-specific strains. These loci were isolated in the [C57BL/6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1-(D17Mit19-D17Mit50); B6.CAST-17.1] strain, possessing a ?40.1 Mb region of CAST DNA on the B6 genome. In a macronutrient selection paradigm, the B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice eat 30% more calories from the carbohydrate-rich diet, ?10% more total calories, and ?9% more total food volume per body weight. In the current study, a cross between carbohydrate-preferring B6.CAST-17.1 and fat-preferring, inbred B6 mice was used to generate a subcongenic-derived F2 mapping population; genotypes were determined using a high-density, custom SNP panel. Genetic linkage analysis substantially reduced the 95% confidence interval for Mnic1 (encompassing Kcal2 and Tfv1) from 40.1 to 29.5 Mb and more precisely established its boundaries. Notably, no genetic linkage for self-selected fat intake was detected, underscoring the carbohydrate-specific effect of this locus. A second key finding was the separation of two energy balance QTLs: Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 for food intake and a newly discovered locus regulating short term body weight gain. The Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 QTL was further de-limited to 19.0 Mb, based on the absence of nutrient intake phenotypes in subcongenic HQ17IIa mice. Analyses of available sequence data and gene ontologies, along with comprehensive expression profiling in the hypothalamus of non-recombinant, cast/cast and b6/b6 F2 controls, focused our attention on candidates within the QTL interval. Zfp811, Zfp870, and Btnl6 showed differential expression and also contain stop codons, but have no known biology related to food intake regulation. The genes Decr2, Ppard and Agapt1 are more appealing candidates because of their involvement in lipid metabolism and down-regulation in carbohydrate-preferring animals. PMID:25330228

Gularte-Merida, Rodrigo; DiCarlo, Lisa M.; Robertson, Ginger; Simon, Jacob; Johnson, William D.; Kappen, Claudia; Medrano, Juan F.; Richards, Brenda K.

2014-01-01

156

Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35–74 years, were administered a standardized, 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total carbohydrate, sugars, starch and fibre

A E Cust; M R Skilton; M M E van Bakel; J Halkjær; A Olsen; C Agnoli; T Psaltopoulou; E Buurma; E Sonestedt; M D Chirlaque; S Rinaldi; A Tjønneland; M K Jensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; M C Boutron-Ruault; R Kaaks; U Nöthlings; Y Chloptsios; D Zylis; A Mattiello; S Caini; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; G Skeie; C L Parr; E Molina-Montes; J Manjer; I Johansson; A McTaggart; T J Key; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani

2009-01-01

157

Do dietary intakes affect search for nutrient information on food labels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to promote and protect public health by providing nutrition information so that consumers can make informed dietary choices. High levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in diets are linked to increased blood cholesterol levels and a greater risk of heart disease. Therefore, an understanding of consumer use of total fat, saturated

Chung-Tung Jordan Lin; Jonq-Ying Lee; Steven T. Yen

2004-01-01

158

Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.  

PubMed

Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (?=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. PMID:22709645

Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

2012-01-01

159

Nutrient Status of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18060897

GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.

2011-01-01

160

Rapid Folin–Ciocalteu method using microtiter 96-well plate cartridges for solid phase extraction to assess urinary total phenolic compounds, as a biomarker of total polyphenols intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional markers have several advantages for epidemiologic and clinical assays, when compared to dietary data obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Few studies have assessed whether total polyphenol (TP) compounds provide a valid biomarker for TP intake. To date, there has been almost no literature describing methods to determine TP in complex matrices such as urine, which have many interfering substances.We

Alexander Medina-Remón; Ana Barrionuevo-González; Raúl Zamora-Ros; Cristina Andres-Lacueva; Ramón Estruch; Miguel-Ángel Martínez-González; Javier Diez-Espino; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventos

2009-01-01

161

Table 1. Nutrient content of corn grain and stover at 150 bu/acre yield Nutrient Grain Stover Total  

E-print Network

for Field, Vegetable and Fruit Crops (A2809). If insufficient nutrients are avail- able to the corn plant planting dates, selection of adapted hybrids, and effective weed and insect control. This publication. Liming for corn production Aglime recommendations are based on the target pH level of the most acid

Balser, Teri C.

162

Changes in time-trends of nutrient intake from fortified and non-fortified food in German children and adolescents – 15 year results of the DONALD Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980 s in Germany, data as to the\\u000a consumption of fortified food is sparse. Aim of the study: To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in\\u000a the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally

Wolfgang Sichert-Hellert; Mathilde Kersting; Friedrich Manz

2001-01-01

163

Gender differences in food and nutrient intakes and status indices from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of People Aged 65 Years and Over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed

CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch

1999-01-01

164

Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.  

PubMed

The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

2014-01-14

165

Web-Enabled and Improved Software Tools and Data Are Needed to Measure Nutrient Intakes and Physical Activity for Personalized Health Research123  

PubMed Central

Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009. PMID:20980656

Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim

2010-01-01

166

Soil Bulk Density as related to Soil Texture, Organic Matter Content and available total Nutrients of Coimbatore Soil  

E-print Network

Abstract- Bulk density of a soil is a dynamic property that varies with the soil structural conditions. In general, it increases with profile depth, due to changes in organic matter content, porosity and compaction. The main objective of this work was to investigate the dependence of bulk density on texture, organic matter content and available nutrients (macro and micro nutrients) for soil of Coimbatore. The relationships between some physical and chemical properties of soil such as, clay content (C), silt content (Si), sand content (S), CaCO3, organic matter content (OMC), total macro and micro nutrient content with soil bulk density (?b) were studied for eight surface soil samples (0-15 cm). Soil bulk density showed negative relationships with all soil properties (Si, C, CaCO3, OMC, total macro and total micro nutrient content) except with sand content (S). Besides texture and OMC, the nutrient concentration was also the most effective factor that affected the bulk density of soils. Index Terms- soil bulk density, clay content, silt content, sand content, organic matter content, total macro and micro nutrient content. S I.

Pravin R. Chaudhari; Dodha V. Ahire; Vidya D. Ahire; Manab Chkravarty; Saroj Maity

167

Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P?intakes, losses, and balance of N increased (P?

Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M

2014-01-01

168

Effect of total colectomy and PYY infusion on food intake and body weight in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

PYY (3-36) is postulated to act as a satiety factor in the gut–hypothalamic pathway to inhibit food intake and body weight gain in humans and rodent models. We determined the effect of 14-day continuous intravenous infusion of PYY (3-36) (175 ?g\\/kg\\/day) on food intake and body weight gain in colectomized male Wistar rats. Colectomy caused an increase in plasma PYY

M. Babu; A. K. Purhonen; T. Bansiewicz; K. Mäkelä; J. Walkowiak; P. Miettinen; K. H. Herzig

2005-01-01

169

Dairy Food at the First Occasion of Eating Is Important for Total Dairy Food Intake for Australian Children  

PubMed Central

The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295

Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.

2014-01-01

170

Associations between the dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese: a case-control study.  

PubMed

The role of oxidative stress in skeletal health is unclear. The present study investigated whether a high dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, animal-derived vitamin A, retinol equivalents, Zn and Se) is associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. This 1:1 matched case-control study involved 726 elderly Chinese with hip fracture and 726 control subjects, recruited between June 2009 and May 2013. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to determine habitual dietary intakes of the above-mentioned seven nutrients based on a seventy-nine-item FFQ and information on various covariates, and an antioxidant score was calculated. After adjustment for potential covariates, dose-dependent inverse associations were observed between the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene, and Se and antioxidant score and the risk of hip fracture (P for trend ? 0·005). The OR of hip fracture for the highest (v. lowest) quartile of intake were 0·39 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·56) for vitamin C, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·33) for vitamin E, 0·51 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·73) for ?-carotene, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·70) for Se and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·36) for the antioxidant score. A moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents in quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (OR range: 0·51-0·63, P< 0·05). No significant association was observed between dietary Zn or animal-derived vitamin A intake and hip fracture risk (P for trend >0·20). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, and Se and a moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents are associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. PMID:25287150

Sun, Li-Li; Li, Bao-Lin; Xie, Hai-Li; Fan, Fan; Yu, Wei-Zhong; Wu, Bao-Hua; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Chen, Yu-Ming

2014-11-01

171

Alcohol Consumption Modifies the Total Lung Capacity in Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking-related airflow obstruction can develop with or without emphysema. Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to diminish the risk of centrilobular emphysema caused by smoking. Our aim was to study the influence of total energy and nutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol) intake on smoking-related emphysema. Lung function and nutrient intake including alcohol consumption were recorded at the age of

K. Ström; L. Janzon; B. S. Hanson; B. Hedblad; H.-E. Rosberg; M. Arborelius

1996-01-01

172

Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan

2010-01-01

173

Total 4EBP1 Is Elevated in Liver of Rats in Response to Low Sulfur Amino Acid Intake  

PubMed Central

Translation initiation is known to be regulated by the binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by binding proteins (4EBPs), and there is evidence that amino acid deprivation and other cellular stresses upregulate 4EBP1 expression. To pursue the question of whether diets limited in an essential amino acid lead to induction of 4EBP1 expression in vivo, diets that varied in methionine and cystine content were fed to rats for 7 days, and 4EBP1 mRNA and protein levels and 4EBP1 phosphorylation state were determined. Total 4EBP1 mRNA and protein abundance increased in liver of rats with severely deficient intakes of sulfur amino acids (0.23% or 0.11% methionine without cystine) but not in animals with a less restricted intake of sulfur amino acids (0.11% methionine plus 0.35% cystine) but a similarly restricted intake of total diet (53 to 62% of control). The amount of 4EBP1 binding activity (? + ? forms) was elevated in liver of rats fed sulfur amino acid-deficient diets, whereas the hyperphosphorylation of 4EBP1 was not affected by dietary treatment. Results suggest that changes in total 4EBP1 expression should be considered when examining mechanisms that attenuate protein synthesis during amino acid deficiency states. PMID:24089634

Sikalidis, Angelos K.; Mazor, Kevin M.; Kang, Minji; Liu, Hongyun; Stipanuk, Martha H.

2013-01-01

174

Associations between snacking and weight loss and nutrient intake among postmenopausal overweight-to-obese women in a dietary weight loss intervention  

PubMed Central

Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrient intake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight loss arms from 2007–2008 with complete data at 12-months were included in these analyses. Generalized linear models were used to test the associations between snacking and weight loss (%) and nutrient intake at the 12-month time point. Participants were on average 58 years old and mainly non-Hispanic White (84%). Ninety-seven percent reported ? 1 snack/day. Weight loss (%) was significantly lower among mid-morning (10:30am–11:29am) snackers (7.0%, 95% CI 4.3, 9.7) compared to non-mid-morning snackers (11.4%, 95% CI 10.2, 12.6; p value: 0.004). A higher proportion of mid-morning snackers reported more than 1 snack/day (95.7%), compared to afternoon (82.8%) and evening (80.6%) snackers, though differences were not statistically significant. Women who reported ?2 snacks/day vs. ? 1 snack/day had higher fiber intake (p=0.027). Afternoon snackers had higher fruit and vegetable intake compared to non-afternoon-snackers (p=0.035). These results suggest that snack meals can be a source for additional fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich foods; however, snacking patterns might also reflect unhealthy eating habits and impede weight loss progress. Future dietary weight loss interventions should evaluate the effects of timing, frequency, and quality of snacks on weight loss. PMID:22117666

Kong, Angela; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Johnson, Donna B.; Duggan, Catherine; Wang, Ching-Yun; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E.

2011-01-01

175

Estimation of dietary intake of radioactive materials by total diet methods.  

PubMed

Radioactive contamination in foods is a matter of great concern after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In order to estimate human intake and annual committed effective dose of radioactive materials, market basket and duplicate diet samples from various areas in Japan were analyzed for cesium-134 ((134)Cs), -137 ((137)Cs), and natural radionuclide potassium-40 ((40)K) by ?-ray spectroscopy. Dietary intake of radioactive cesium around Fukushima area was somewhat higher than in other areas. However, maximum committed effective doses obtained by the market basket and duplicate diet samples were 0.0094 and 0.027 mSv/year, respectively, which are much lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) in foods in Japan. PMID:25212819

Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

2014-01-01

176

Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women.  

PubMed

A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P?=?0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing. PMID:23855730

Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yeo, SeonAe; Murashima, Sachiyo

2014-06-01

177

Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.  

PubMed

A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75)  day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p < 0.05) with increasing FI level. The net disappearance in the large intestine (in % of ileal recovery) decreased for DM, N and energy (p < 0.05) with increasing FI level. The design of the study allowed for estimating ileal endogenous loss of N and total tract endogenous loss of ash, N and EE, for estimating corresponding true ileal and total tract digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. PMID:24589011

Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

2014-12-01

178

Nutrient intake of adult women in Jilin province, China, with special reference to urban–rural differences in nutrition in the Chinese continent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate possible urban–rural differences in food intakes in Jilin province and in continental China as a whole, and to examine possible implications for nutritional status of urban and rural populations.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Communities.Subjects: In total, 499 adult women in six urban sites and four rural sites, 10 sites in total, including two

JB Qu; ZW Zhang; S Shimbo; ZM Liu; XC Cai; LQ Wang; T Watanabe; H Nakatsuka; N Matsuda-Inoguchi; K Higashikawa; M Ikeda

2000-01-01

179

Rate of maturation during the teenage years: nutrient intake and physical activity between ages 12 and 22.  

PubMed

This longitudinal study evaluates the relationship of food intake and physical activity with biological maturation of 200 boys and girls during adolescence and young adulthood. The subjects were followed during 9 years from ages 12 to 22 years, with repeated measurements at ages 13, 14, 15, 16, and 21. Biological maturation was estimated four times between ages 12 and 17 as skeletal age by radiographs of the left hand and wrist. Daily nutritional intake (macro- and micronutrients) was assessed with a cross-checked dietary history method. Daily physical activity was assessed through structured interview, whereby average weekly time spent in activity was used to assign a weighted activity score. The 107 girls and 93 boys were divided into three maturity groups: early maturers, late maturers, and average maturers. It was concluded that in both sexes, late maturation seemed to coincide with a higher energetic food intake and a slightly higher activity pattern than early maturation during adolescence. PMID:9286746

Kemper, H C; Post, G B; Twisk, J W

1997-09-01

180

Effects of prey macronutrient content on body composition and nutrient intake in a web-building spider.  

PubMed

The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients. PMID:24911958

Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J; Wilder, Shawn M

2014-01-01

181

NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOADS FOR FIVE NORTH DAKOTA RESERVOIRS  

EPA Science Inventory

Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...

182

Intake of milk, but not total dairy, yogurt, or cheese, is negatively associated with the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents. PMID:24418246

Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge; Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Santos, Paula-Clara; Santos, Rute

2014-01-01

183

Influence of Salinity on Chlorophyll, Leaf Water Potential, Total Soluble Sugars, and Mineral Nutrients in Two Young Olive Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity (NaCl) on chlorophyll, leaf water potential, total soluble sugars, and mineral nutrients in two young Iranian commercial olive cultivars (‘Zard’ and ‘Roghani’) was studied. One-year-old trees of these cultivars were planted in 10-L plastic pots containing equal ratio of sand-perlite mixture (1:1). Sodium chloride at concentrations of 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 mM plus Hoagland's

A. Mousavi; H. Lessani; M. Babalar; A. R. Talaei; E. Fallahi

2008-01-01

184

A Survey of the Nutritional Status of School Children : Relation Between Nutrient Intake and Socio-Economic Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey focused on school children 8-11 and 13-15 years in Kent (England) between September 1968 and March 1970. Sex, age, and weight were found independently associated with highly significant differences in nutritional intake. Social class, number of siblings, and mother's work status were not generally associated with significant differences in…

Cook, Judith; And Others

1973-01-01

185

Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

2014-01-01

186

Iron deficiency in older people: Interactions between food and nutrient intakes with biochemical measures of iron; further analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantitatively investigate relationships between food consumption, nutrient intake and biochemical markers of iron status in a population of older people.Design: National Diet and Nutrition Survey: cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative population of men and women aged 65 y and over.Setting: Mainland Great BritainSubjects: 1268 participants (651 men and 617 women) who provided both dietary intake and blood

W Doyle; H Crawley; H Robert; CJ Bates; Wendy Doyle

1999-01-01

187

Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

2014-01-01

188

TOTAL DIET STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...

189

The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

2012-01-01

190

Food and Nutrient Intake, Anthropometric Measurements and Smoking according to Alcohol Consumption in the EPIC Heidelberg Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The study was carried out to determine associations of reported alcohol intake with dietary habits, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and smoking. Subjects and Methods: 24,894 subjects who participated in the baseline examination of the German part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg and were between 35 and 65 years of age

T. Ruf; G. Nagel; H.-P. Altenburg; A. B. Miller; B. Thorand

2005-01-01

191

Effect of folate supplementation on DNA methylation of rectal mucosa in patients with colonic adenomas: correlation with nutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the effect of folate supplementation (5 mg\\/day) on global deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation status of the rectal mucosa of 20 patients with resected colonic adenomas in a prospective, controlled, cross-over study. Baseline values of DNA methylation were inversely correlated with caloric (P = 0.03) and fat intake (P = 0.05) and patients harbouring multiple polyps consumed significantly

M. L. Cravo; A. G. Pinto; P. Chaves; J. A. Cruz; P. Lage; C. Nobre Leitão; F. Costa Mira

1998-01-01

192

A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471

2014-01-01

193

Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053

Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S

2013-12-01

194

ESTABLECIMIENTO DE CULTIVOS DE COBERTURA Y EXTRACCIÓN TOTAL DE NUTRIENTES EN UN SUELO DE TRÓPICO HÚMEDO EN LA AMAZONÍA PERUANA ESTABLISHMENT OF COVER CROPS AND THEIR GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN A HUMID TROPICAL SOIL OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Con la finalidad de evaluar el establecimiento de cinco cultivos de cobertura y determinar su aporte potencial a la fertilidad del suelo en función a la extracción total de nutrientes, se instaló un experimento en la Estación Experimental \\

Fernando Puertas; Enrique Arévalo; Luis Zúñiga; Julio Alegre; Oscar Loli; Hugo Soplin; Virupax Baligar

2008-01-01

195

Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

2000-03-01

196

Presweetened and Nonpresweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereals at Breakfast Are Associated With Improved Nutrient Intake but Not With Increased Body Weight of Children and Adolescents: NHANES 1999-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared nutrient intake and body weight measures in children 4 to 8 (n = 1480) and 9 to 13 (n = 1790), and adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (n = 1826) participating in 1999-2002 NHANES and consuming a presweetened ready-to-eat cereal (PSRTEC), a non-PSRTEC (NPSRTEC), or other breakfast (OB). Sample weights were applied, and logistic regression

Carol E. O’Neil; Michael Zanovec; Theresa A. Nicklas; Susan S. Cho

2012-01-01

197

Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

1995-01-01

198

Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture - A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15 to 17-y follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Methods 366 men and 592 women (mean age 75 yr ± 5) completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 1988–89 and were followed for non-vertebral fracture until 2003 and hip fracture until 2005. Tertiles of vitamin C intake were created from estimates obtained using the Willett FFQ, after adjusting for total energy (residual method). Hazard Ratios were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards regression, adjusting for covariates. Results Over follow-up 100 hip fractures occurred. Subjects in the highest tertile of total vitamin C intake had significantly fewer hip fractures (P trend=0.04) and non-vertebral fractures (P trend=0.05) compared to subjects in the lowest tertile of intake. Subjects in the highest category of supplemental vitamin C intake had significantly fewer hip fractures (P trend=0.02) and non-vertebral fractures (P trend=0.07) compared to non-supplement users. Dietary vitamin C intake was not associated with fracture risk (all P>0.22). Conclusion These results suggest a possible protective effect of vitamin C on bone health in older adults. PMID:19347239

Sahni, Shivani; Hannan, Marian T.; Gagnon, David; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P.; Tucker, Katherine L.

2009-01-01

199

Low energy density diets are associated with favorable nutrient intake profile and adequacy in free-living elderly men and women.  

PubMed

Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n = 1150) and women (n = 1094) >65 y, examined in 2 population-based cross-sectional surveys (2000 and 2005) in northeast Spain (Girona). Dietary data were recorded using a 165-item FFQ. Reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis was used to identify an energy density-associated dietary pattern. A nutrient adequacy score (NAS) and Mediterranean diet score (MDS) were computed to estimate the association of diet adequacy with energy density. The RRR-derived factor (dietary pattern) predicted 75.4% of the variance in energy density of the diet. Vegetables, fruits, legumes, cooked potatoes, and low-fat milk and yogurt were key to the low energy density of the diet. Higher proportions of men and women consuming low energy density diets met dietary recommendations for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total fiber, vitamin C, vitamin E, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, calcium, and magnesium than their peers on high energy density diets. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed an inverse association (P < 0.001) of the NAS and MDS with energy density and energy density-related patterns. A low energy density diet has a higher capacity to prevent nutrient deficiency, despite lower energy content, than a high energy density diet in the elderly population studied. PMID:18641194

Schröder, Helmut; Vila, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Covas, Maria-Isabel

2008-08-01

200

Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. PMID:23607799

Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

2013-06-01

201

Mixed diet reference materials for nutrient analysis of foods: Preparation of SRM1548 Total Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mixed component diet materials have been available for use as reference materials for determination of elemental contents in food. These included H-9, issued by the IAEA and RM-8431, issued by NIST. Wide acceptance of these materials has exhausted supplies and they are no longer available. A new mixed food Standard Reference Material, SRM-1548 Total Diet, has been prepared and

Wayne R. Wolf; G. V. Iyengar; J. T. Tanner

1990-01-01

202

Dynamics of nutrients, total organic carbon, prokaryotes and viruses in onboard incubations of cold-water corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential influence of the cold-water corals (CWCs) Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata on the dynamics of inorganic nutrient and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and the abundances of prokaryotes and viruses in bottom water was assessed in onboard incubation experiments. Ammonium, nitrite, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and TOC concentrations and N:P ratios were typically higher in incubation water with corals than in controls, whereas nitrate concentrations did not reveal a clear trend. Mucus release (normalized to coral surface) was estimated by the net increase rate of TOC concentrations and averaged 23 ± 6 mg C m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 21 ± 8 mg C m-2 h-1 for M. oculata. Prokaryotic and viral abundance and turnover rates were typically stimulated in incubation water with corals. This estimated prokaryotic stimulation averaged 6.0 ± 3.0 × 109 cells m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 8.4 ± 2.9 × 109 cells m-2 h-1 for M. oculata, whereas the estimated viral stimulation averaged 15.6 ± 12.7 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 4.3 ± 0.4 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 M. oculata. Our data suggest that prokaryotes and viruses are released from corals and that nutrient and mucus release enhanced prokaryotic and viral production. The result of this stimulation could be a fuelling of bottom water in CWC reefs with nutrients and organic matter and consequently an enhancement of microbe-mediated processes.

Maier, C.; de Kluijver, A.; Agis, M.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van Duyl, F. C.; Weinbauer, M. G.

2011-09-01

203

Dynamics of nutrients, total organic carbon, prokaryotes and viruses in onboard incubations of cold-water corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential influence of the cold-water corals (CWCs) Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata on the dynamics of inorganic nutrient and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and the abundances of prokaryotes and viruses in bottom water was assessed in onboard incubation experiments. Ammonium, nitrite, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and TOC concentrations and N:P ratios were typically higher in incubation water with corals than in controls, whereas nitrate concentrations did not reveal a clear trend. Mucus release (normalized to coral surface) was estimated by the net increase rate of TOC concentrations and averaged 23 ± 6 mg C m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 21 ± 8 mg C m-2 h-1 for M. oculata. Prokaryotic and viral abundance and turnover rates were typically stimulated in incubation water with corals. This prokaryotic stimulation averaged 6.0 ± 3.0 × 109 cells m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 8.4 ± 2.9 ×109 cells m-2 h-1 for M. oculata, whereas the viral stimulation averaged 15.6 ± 12.7 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 4.3 ± 0.4 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 M. oculata. Our data suggest that prokaryotes and viruses are released from corals and that nutrient and mucus release enhanced prokaryotic and viral production. The result of this stimulation could be a fuelling of bottom water in CWC reefs with nutrients and organic matter and consequently an enhancement of microbe-mediated processes.

Maier, C.; de Kluijver, A.; Agis, M.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van Duyl, F. C.; Weinbauer, M. G.

2011-04-01

204

Use of nutritional supplements by elite adult Portuguese athletes is not associated with nutritional intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to characterise the nutritional intake according the use of nutritional supplements (NS) by elite adult Portuguese athletes. Two hundred and two adult (23±4 years) athletes (78% males), representatives of Portugal in 13 sports, voluntarily filled a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire about the use of NS. The total nutritional daily intake did not consider the nutrients

M Sousa; M J Fernandes; P Moreira; V H Teixeira

2010-01-01

205

Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P?nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P?>?0.05), CR-III (P?>?0.05), and CR-IV (P??0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P??0.05), 133.46 (P?nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs. PMID:24585217

Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

2014-06-01

206

School Lunch Contribution to Nutritional Intake of Low Income West Virginia Sixth Graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe compliance of consumed school lunches to nutrient goals and the strengths and weaknesses of lunch contributions to total daily intakes of 6th graders from low income areas of West Virginia.The purpose of this study was to assess compliance of the consumed school lunch (SL) to nutrient goals and to identify SL contributions to the daily nutritional

W. L. Stuhldreher

1996-01-01

207

The effects of total extract and its different fractions of Iranian black orthodox tea on weight, food intake and blood sugar in type I diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Diabetes is one the most common endocrine disorders, obesity, improper nutrition, and inactivity was considered as proposing factors. Historically plant extracts are used for diabetes control. This study was implemented to determine the effect of total and different fraction of Iranian black orthodox tea on weight, food intake and blood sugar in type I diabetic rats. Methods: This study

Ostad Rahimi

208

Food intake in women two years or more after bariatric surgery meets adequate intake requirements.  

PubMed

Restricted food intake after bariatric surgery can be an important factor both in the long-term control of body weight and in the onset of nutritional deficiencies. The objective of this study was to assess the adequacy of food intake in women two or more years after bariatric surgery according to the excess weight lost. A group of 141 women who underwent banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was divided according to the percentage of excess weight they lost (%EWL)<50; 50?75; = 75. The habitual energy and nutrient intakes were determined by a 24-hour recall over two days and the probability of adequate intake was based on the Dietary Reference Intake. The mean total estimated energy requirement (EER) as well as energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intakes did not differ among the groups. Only the %EWL<50 group had an intake equal to their EER, but they presented a higher number of inadequacies, such as low levels of magnesium, folic acid and vitamins C and E. Calcium and dietary fiber intakes were extremely low in all three groups. In conclusion, weight loss after surgery is associated with food habits that favor energy intake over micronutrient intake. PMID:22652372

Novais, Patrícia Fátima Sousa; Rasera, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Marin, Flávia Andréia; de Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques

2012-05-01

209

Major nutrient patterns and bone mineral density among postmenopausal Iranian women.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the influence of overall nutrient intake on bone mineral density (BMD) is limited because most studies to date have focused on the intakes of calcium, vitamin D, or a few isolated nutrients. Therefore, we examined the association of major nutrient patterns with BMD in a sample of postmenopausal Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 160 women aged 50-85 years were studied and their lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire, and daily intakes of 30 nutrients were calculated. All nutrient intakes were energy adjusted by the residual method and were submitted to principal component factor analysis to identify major nutrient patterns. Overall, three major nutrient patterns were identified, among which only the first pattern, which was high in folate, total fiber, vitamin B6, potassium, vitamin A (as retinol activity equivalent), vitamin C, ?-carotene, vitamin K, magnesium, copper, and manganese, had a significant association with BMD. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate adjusted mean of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores was significantly higher than those in the lowest tertile (mean difference 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.15; P = 0.01). A nutrient pattern similar to pattern 1, which is associated with high intakes of fruits and vegetables, may be beneficial for bone health in postmenopausal Iranian women. PMID:24687522

Karamati, Mohsen; Yousefian-Sanni, Mahboobeh; Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Rashidkhani, Bahram

2014-06-01

210

Differences in Energy, Nutrient, and Food Intakes in a US Sample of Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Mexican-American women and men migrate to the United States and\\/or become more acculturated, their diets may become less healthy, increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to compare whether energy, nutrient, and food intakes differed among three groups of Mexican-American women (n = 1,449) and men (n

Lori Beth Dixon; Jan Sundquist; Marilyn Winkleby

211

Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread  

PubMed Central

Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population's folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand's (FSANZ) custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND) was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200??g/100?g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159??g per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid. PMID:22957218

Dugbaza, Jacinta; Cunningham, Judy

2012-01-01

212

Eating and aging: Trends in dietary intake among older Americans from 1977–2010  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined trends from 1977–2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older. Design Cross-sectional time series. Setting A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population. Participants Older Americans aged ?55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977–1978, 1989–1991, 1994–1996, and 2005–2010. Measurements Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year. Results Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977–2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994–2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts. Conclusion Increases in total calorie intake from 1977–2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet nutrient requirements while staying within energy needs. PMID:24626749

Johnston, Rachel; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

2013-01-01

213

Ruminal Degradability and Summative Models Evaluation for Total Digestible Nutrients Prediction of Some Forages and Byproducts in Goats  

PubMed Central

In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2) of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (y-axes) and observed IVTDMD (x-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats. PMID:23762592

Lopez, Rafael

2013-01-01

214

Dietary Intake of Total and Inorganic Arsenic by Adults in Arsenic-Contaminated Dan Chang District, Thailand, Using Duplicate Food Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dan Chang district, approximately 100 km west of Bangkok, was a site of tin mines operated almost 40 years ago. Mining operations\\u000a caused arsenic contamination in soil, surface water, and groundwater within the district. The specific aim of this study was\\u000a to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 60 adults (30 males and 30 females) residing in Dan

Nongluck Ruangwises

2011-01-01

215

Effect of feed intake and method of feeding and digestibility of nitrogen, amino acids and energy at the distal end of the small intestine and over the total tract in growing-finishing swine  

E-print Network

measured nutrients except lysins, methionine and phenylala- nine which had higher (P&. 01 or P&. 10) ileal than total tract digestibi- lities. The higher total tract digestibilities indicate extensive loss of dietary nutrients in the large intestine... modification of both nitrogenous and energy com- pounds that occur in the large intestine of the pig. Collection of ileal digests before it enters the large intestine should provide a more accu- rate measure of nutrients that are actually available...

Haydon, Keith Dale

2012-06-07

216

Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population  

PubMed Central

Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 ?g L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 ?g L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

2011-01-01

217

Online Dietary Intake Estimation: Reproducibility and Validity of the Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire Against a 4-Day Weighed Food Record  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts) for food group intake. The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 80% and 78% for nutrient and food group intake, respectively. There were no significant differences between energy intakes estimated using the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for both energy and energy-controlled nutrient intakes. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the online Food4Me FFQ is reproducible for assessing nutrient and food group intake and has moderate agreement with the 4-day WFR for assessing energy and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. The Food4Me FFQ is a suitable online tool for assessing dietary intake in healthy adults. PMID:25113936

Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J

2014-01-01

218

Nutritional status of infants aged 4 to 18 months on macrobiotic diets and matched omnivorous control infants: a population-based mixed-longitudinal study. I. Weaning pattern, energy and nutrient intake.  

PubMed

Information on food intake during weaning was collected as part of a mixed-longitudinal study on the nutritional status and growth of the 1985 Dutch birth cohort of infants on macrobiotic diets (n = 53) and a matched control group on omnivorous diets (m = 57). Weighed food records over 3d, including breast-milk, were obtained on 49 macrobiotic and 57 control infants at 2-monthly intervals between the ages of 6 and 16 months. Intake of energy and nutrients was calculated using the Dutch food composition table which was supplemented by our own analyses of 50 macrobiotic foods. Ninety-six per cent of the macrobiotic infants and 74 per cent of the control infants had been breast-fed, but breast-feeding continued longer in the macrobiotic group (13.6 vs 6.6 months, P less than 0.001). In the macrobiotic group, complementary feeding started at 4.8 months with water-based cereal porridges, followed later by vegetables, sesame seeds and pulses. Fruits were rarely given and products of animal origin were avoided. For all age groups combined, the intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin B12 was significantly lower in the macrobiotic infants, whereas their intake of polysaccharides, fibre, iron and thiamin was higher than that of the control infants. The macrobiotic weaning diet tended to be bulky with a low energy density (2.4 kJ/g, controls: 3.4 kJ/g, P less than 0.05) and a high fibre content. Protein intake of the macrobiotic infants was only 80 per cent of the Dutch recommended daily intakes at the age of 6-8 months, and at 8 months, 69 per cent of this was derived from plant sources. Calcium intake was 280 mg/d; correction for calcium derived from hard tap-water raised the calcium intake to 308 mg in the macrobiotic age group of 14 months. The evidence of biochemical deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium is discussed. It is suggested that the macrobiotic diet should be supplemented with fat, fatty fish and dairy products. PMID:2544417

Dagnelie, P C; van Staveren, W A; Verschuren, S A; Hautvast, J G

1989-05-01

219

Effects of spontaneous heating on estimates of total digestible nutrients for alfalfa-orchardgrass hays packaged in large round bales.  

PubMed

Large round or large square hay packages are more likely to heat spontaneously during storage than hay packaged in conventional (45 kg) bales, and the effects of this phenomenon on the associated energy estimates for these hays can be severe. Our objectives for this project were to assess the relationship between estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and spontaneous heating and to describe any important differences in energy estimates that may result specifically from 2 methods of estimating truly digestible fiber (TD-Fiber). Using the summative approach to estimate TDN, TD-Fiber can be estimated from inputs of protein-corrected neutral detergent fiber (NDFn) and acid detergent lignin (TD-FiberLIG) or from NDFn and 48-h neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TD-FiberNDFD). Throughout 2006 and 2007, mixed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hays from 3 individual harvests were obtained from the same 8.2-ha research site near Stratford, Wisconsin. Both options for estimating TD-Fiber (TD-FiberLIG or TD-FiberNDFD) were then used independently via the summative approach to estimate the total TDN concentrations (TDN-LIG or TDN-NDFD, respectively) within these hays. Estimates of both TDN-LIG and TDN-NDFD then were related to heating degree days >30 degrees C accumulated during storage by various regression techniques. Changes (poststorage - prestorage) in TDN-LIG that occurred during storage (DeltaTDN-LIG) were best fitted with a nonlinear decay model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=(11.7 x e(-0.0000033xxxx)) - 11.6; R(2)=0.928]. For changes in TDN-NDFD (DeltaTDN-NDFD), a quadratic regression model provided the best fit (Y=0.0000027x(2) - 0.010x+0.4; R(2)=0.861). Generally, DeltaTDN-LIG estimates were 2.0 to 4.0 percentage units lower than DeltaTDN-NDFD estimates when heating exceeded 500 HDD. For regressions on maximum internal bale temperature, both DeltaTDN-LIG (Y=-0.38x+16.3; R(2)=0.954) and DeltaTDN-NDFD (Y=-0.25x+10.2; R(2)=0.848) were best fitted by linear models with heterogeneous (P<0.001) slopes and intercepts. In both cases, coefficients of determination were high, suggesting that simple measures of spontaneous heating are excellent predictors of energy losses in heated forages. Regardless of method, reductions in TDN were associated primarily with losses of nonfiber carbohydrate, which is known to occur via oxidation of sugars during spontaneous heating. For heated forages, some discrepancy between TDN-LIG and TDN-NDFD existed because the relationship between NDFD and spontaneous heating was shown previously to be very poor, resulting in minimal changes for estimates of TD-FiberNDFD as a consequence of heating. In contrast, TD-FiberLIG declined in close association with heating, largely because TD-FiberLIG was sensitive to changes in concentrations of both NDFn and acid detergent lignin. Discrepancies between TDN-LIG and TDN-NDFD were exacerbated further when neutral detergent fiber rather than NDFn was used to estimate TD-FiberNDFD. Estimates of TDN declined by as much as 13.0 percentage units within severely heated hays, and this is a serious consequence of spontaneous heating. PMID:20630254

Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C

2010-07-01

220

Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls  

PubMed Central

This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841

Moore, Lynn L.; Singer, Martha R.; Qureshi, M. Mustafa; Bradlee, M. Loring; Daniels, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

221

Dietary sources of nutrient consumption in a rural Japanese population.  

PubMed

We determined the sources of nutrient intake of 59 men and 60 women in two rural towns in the Miyagi Prefecture, a northeastern part of Japan. Four 3-day food records were collected in four seasons within a year. The total dishes and recipes were classified into 197 items. Their percent contributions to the total population consumption of energy and 14 nutrients were calculated as the sum of the nutrient intake contributed by a given dish or recipe divided by the total nutrient intake from all the items. Rice was the largest contributor for energy (29.8%), protein (13.0%) and carbohydrates (45.3%). Miso soup, as a dish, was a leading contributor (7.1%) for fat. The largest contributor for sodium, calcium, carotene, vitamin C were miso soup (17.1%), milk (16.6%), spinach (23.6%), green tea (13.6%), respectively. The result suggests that the examination of nutrient sources based on dishes and recipes, rather than on food materials, may be useful in characterizing the dietary patterns of populations. PMID:11848179

Ogawa, Keiko; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Takao; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Takahashi, Nobuko; Kawamura, Mieko; Tsuji, Ichiro; Hisamichi, Shigeru

2002-01-01

222

Nutrients & Diagnosing Nutrient Needs  

E-print Network

Organic matter decomposition Weathering of soil minerals and rocks Atmosphere & precipitation OrganicNutrients & Diagnosing Nutrient Needs Carrie Laboski Dept. of Soil Science UW-Madison #12;Sources of nutrients available for plant uptake Nutrients in the soil solution are: In ionic form At low

Balser, Teri C.

223

Dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries.  

PubMed

School age and adolescence is a dynamic period of growth and development forming a strong foundation for good health and productive adult life. Appropriate dietary intake is critical for forming good eating habits and provides the much needed nutrients for growth, long-term health, cognition and educational achievements. A large proportion of the population globally is in the school age or adolescence, with more than three quarters of these groups living in developing countries. An up-to-date review and discussion of the dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is suitable to provide recent data on patterns of dietary intake, adequacy of nutrient intake and their implications for public health and nutrition issues of concern. This review is based on literature published from 2000 to 2014 on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents aged 6-19 years. A total of 50 studies from 42 countries reporting on dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents were included. The dietary intake of schoolchildren and adolescents in developing countries is limited in diversity, mainly comprising plant-based food sources, but with limited intake of fruits and vegetables. There is a low energy intake and insufficient micronutrient intake. At the same time, the available data indicate an emerging trend of consumption of high-energy snacks and beverages, particularly in urban areas. The existence of a negative and positive energy balance in the same population points to the dual burden of malnutrition and highlights the emerging nutrition transition in developing countries. This observation is important for planning public health nutrition approaches that address the concerns of the two ends of the nutrition divide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341871

Ochola, Sophie; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

2014-01-01

224

The Impact of a Two-Year School Breakfast Program for Preschool-Aged Children on Their Nutrient Intake and Pre-Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…

Worobey, John; Worobey, Harriet S.

1999-01-01

225

Experimental manipulation of breakfast in normal and overweight/obese participants is associated with changes to nutrient and energy intake consumption patterns.  

PubMed

The effect of breakfast and breakfast omission on daily food intake in normal and overweight participants was investigated. 37 participants were recruited for this experimental study and assigned to one of four groups on the basis of their body mass index (BMI) (normal weight BMI <25 kg/m(2) or overweight/obese BMI >25 kg/m(2)) and breakfast habits (breakfast eater or breakfast omitter). All participants were requested to eat breakfast for an entire week, and then following a washout period, omit breakfast for an entire week, or vice versa. Seven-day food diaries reporting what was consumed and the timing of consumption were completed for each breakfast condition. Overall more energy was consumed during the breakfast than the no breakfast week. The present study revealed significant effects of timing on energy intakes; more energy was consumed during the afternoon in the no breakfast week compared to the breakfast week. Overweight participants consumed greater amounts of energy than normal weight participants in the early evening. Breakfast omitters consumed more than did breakfast eaters later in the evening. All groups consumed significantly less energy, carbohydrate and fibre in the no breakfast week; however, overweight participants increased their sugar intakes. Consumption of the micronutrients iron and folate was reduced in the no breakfast week. The findings highlight that the timing of food intake and habitual breakfast eating behaviour are important factors when investigating why breakfast consumption may be associated with BMI. PMID:24866910

Reeves, Sue; Huber, Jörg W; Halsey, Lewis G; Horabady-Farahani, Yasmin; Ijadi, Mehrnaz; Smith, Tina

2014-06-22

226

Canadian Total Diet Study in 1998: Pesticide levels in foods from Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, and corresponding dietary intake estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Total Diet Study is a national survey to determine the level of chemical contaminants in the Canadian food supply. Food samples were collected from Whitehorse, Yukon, supermarkets as part of the study in 1998. Whitehorse was chosen as a sampling centre, despite its small population (n = 19?000), to determine if residue levels were different in foods available

D. F. K. Rawn; X.-L. Cao; J. Doucet; D. J. Davies; W.-F. Sun; R. W. Dabeka; W. H. Newsome

2004-01-01

227

Feeding Problems and Nutrient Intake in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…

Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.

2013-01-01

228

Small weight loss on long-term acarbose therapy with no change in dietary pattern or nutrient intake of individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To see if the long-term treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) with the ?-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose affects food intake and body weight. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design clinical trial of 12 months duration. SUBJECTS: Subjects with NIDDM in four treatment strata: 77 on diet alone, 83 also treated with metformin, 103 also treated with sulfonylurea and 91 also

TMS Wolever; J-L Chiasson; RG Josse; JA Hunt; C Palmason; NW Rodger; SA Ross; EA Ryan; MH Tan

1997-01-01

229

Magnesium intake is associated with strength performance in elite basketball, handball and volleyball players.  

PubMed

Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID:21983266

Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José

2011-12-01

230

Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.  

PubMed

Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

2013-08-01

231

Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.  

PubMed

Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (?36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932

Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

2011-07-01

232

Introduction to dietary reference intakes.  

PubMed

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference standards used for planning and assessing the diets of apparently healthy Canadians and Americans. The development of DRIs reflects a joint initiative by the United States and Canada to update, expand on, and replace the former Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Americans. DRIs include the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The EAR is the average daily intake level that meets the requirement of 50% of healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group, whereas the RDA is set at a level that will meet the requirements of almost all (97%-98%) individuals in that life stage and gender group. An AI is a recommended intake level that is thought to meet the needs of almost all healthy individuals, and is set when there are insufficient data to establish an EAR (and therefore an RDA). The UL represents a threshold above which adverse effects of excessive intake may increase. In addition to these DRIs, macro nutrients have an Acceptable Macro nutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) and, for energy, an Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is described. PMID:16604144

Barr, Susan I

2006-02-01

233

Food surveillance in the Basque Country (Spain). II. Estimation of the dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals, arsenic, aflatoxin M1, iron and zinc through the Total Diet Study, 1990\\/91  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total diet samples purchased at monthly intervals between March 1990 and December 1991 were analysed for different contaminants and nutrients. Each total diet sample included 91 food items which were combined after preparation and\\/or cooking into 16 groups of similar foods. The ‘market basket’ was based on a food survey which referred to the adult population (25–60 years) carried out

I. Urieta; M. Jalón; I. Eguileor

1996-01-01

234

Recommended Amounts of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total grains Table B8. Total grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

235

Recommended Amounts of Total seafood  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total seafood Table B12. Total seafood: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake

236

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

237

9 CFR 317.354 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”  

...relation to the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV) established for that nutrient (excluding total carbohydrate) in § 317.309(c), may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if: (1) The claim uses one...

2014-01-01

238

9 CFR 317.354 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...relation to the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV) established for that nutrient (excluding total carbohydrate) in § 317.309(c), may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if: (1) The claim uses one...

2012-01-01

239

9 CFR 381.454 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...relation to the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV), established for that nutrient (excluding total carbohydrate) in § 381.409(c), may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if: (1) The claim uses one...

2011-01-01

240

9 CFR 317.354 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...relation to the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV) established for that nutrient (excluding total carbohydrate) in § 317.309(c), may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if: (1) The claim uses one...

2011-01-01

241

9 CFR 381.454 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...relation to the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV), established for that nutrient (excluding total carbohydrate) in § 381.409(c), may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if: (1) The claim uses one...

2013-01-01

242

9 CFR 381.454 - Nutrient content claims for “good source,” “high,” and “more.”  

...relation to the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) or Daily Reference Value (DRV), established for that nutrient (excluding total carbohydrate) in § 381.409(c), may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if: (1) The claim uses one...

2014-01-01

243

Usual Intake of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

244

Usual Intake of Total fruit  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

245

The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documentation at the food and nutrient levels to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations. The International Agency for

U. R. Charrondiere; J. Vignat; A. Møller; J. Ireland; W. Becker; S. Church; A. Farran; J. Holden; C. Klemm; A. Linardou; D. Mueller; S. Salvini; L. Serra-Majem; G. Skeie; W. van Staveren; I. Unwin; S. Westenbrink; N. Slimani; E. Ribol

2002-01-01

246

Traditional nutritional analyses of figs overestimates intake of most nutrient fractions: a study of ficus perforata consumed by howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana).  

PubMed

There continue to remain uncertainty concerning the nutritional importance of figs (Ficus spp.) in the primate diet. Although studies have been performed on the nutritional analysis of fig pulp and seed fractions separately, there has not been an attempt to quantify the contribution of animal matter within figs. Here we report nutritional values of figs (Ficus perforata) (Urostigma) consumed by a troop of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana). Separate nutritional assays were performed on the pulp, seed, and animal fraction. Whole-fig analyses significantly exaggerate the concentrations of all nutrients (lipids especially) as seeds, which represent a large proportion of the fig (45%), cannot be digested. Animal matter only represents 1% of the fig, and augments fig protein and lipid content by 0.44 and 0.30%, respectively. This represents the 11 and 9% of the fraction available for digestion. Differences in fig consumption were observed between age and sex classes (P=0.04) and periods of the day (P=0.001); females consumed more figs than males and the highest consumption of figs was observed in the afternoon. F. perforata figs may be an important component of the howler monkeys diet owing to their high content of water and calcium. PMID:18161827

Urquiza-Haas, Tania; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Salazar, Laura Teresa

2008-05-01

247

The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient intake, digestibility and finishing performance of lambs fed a diet based on dried molasses sugar beet-pulp.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC47) on finishing performance, digestibility, some blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of male lambs fed a diet based on dried Molasses Sugar Beet-Pulp (MSBP). Eighteen Sanjabi male lambs (20.95 +/- 2.7 kg initial body weight and 3 month of age) were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments (with or without yeast). Digestibility and nitrogen balance experiment was carried out using six mature rams on finishing diet with and without yeast. Serum metabolites were determined in samples taken from lambs at the end of finishing period. Dry matter digestibility of finishing diet was significantly increased by yeast addition. However, yeast did not have any significant effect on apparent digestibility of OM, NDF, CP and energy. Nitrogen retention was also not affected by yeast addition. Yeast resulted in a significant increase in the average daily gain, dry matter and organic matter intake. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by addition of yeast. The concentration of the serum metabolites including glucose, urea, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and cratinine were not affected significantly by yeast supplementation, but triglyceride concentrations increased significantly when yeast was fed. Addition of yeast to the diet did not have any significant effect on the carcass characteristics. Results of this study suggest that feeding saccharomyces cerevisiae with a diet based on MSBP can improve the performance of fattening lambs without any change in carcass characteristics or cuts. PMID:19093506

Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F

2007-12-15

248

Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study  

PubMed Central

Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001) from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3. PMID:23645026

Volgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N.; Hare, Marion E.; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A.

2013-01-01

249

Dietary patterns in pregnancy and effects on nutrient intake in the Mid-South: the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study.  

PubMed

Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m(2)). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001) from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3. PMID:23645026

Völgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N; Hare, Marion E; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A

2013-05-01

250

Food intake and absorption are affected by dietary lipid level and lipid source in seabream ( Sparus aurata L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine larval nutrition studies have classically focused on essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements and very little is known regarding the effect of total lipid level or lipid source on food ingestion and absorption, which are important factors determining growth. In the present work two experiments analysed food intake and nutrient absorption in seabream larvae in response to two dietary lipid

Sofia Morais; Michal Torten; Oryia Nixon; Sigal Lutzky; Luís E. C. Conceição; Maria Teresa Dinis; Amos Tandler; William Koven

2006-01-01

251

Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)  

PubMed Central

The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (? = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health. PMID:23429440

Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

2013-01-01

252

Nutrient Needs at a GlanceExtension Nutrition Specialists The Texas A&M System  

E-print Network

component Daily Values: (DVs): the amount of a nutrient needed daily as determined by the Food and Drug Adequate Intake (AI): set when there is no data to set the RDA Acceptable Macronutrient range of intake Intakes general term for a set of reference values for planning (DRIs) and assessing nutrient intakes

253

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and energy, macro-, and micronutrient intakes in older persons.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean-type diet combines several foods and nutrients already individually proposed as potential protective factors against adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to describe the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The study sample consisted of 1,595 individuals from Bordeaux, France, included in 2001-2002 in the Three-City Study. Adherence to a MeDi (scored as 0 to 9) was computed from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Total energy intake (EI) and nutrient intake were evaluated on a 24 h recall. Statistical analyses were stratified by gender. Both in men and women, greater MeDi adherence was associated with higher total vegetal protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), notably n - 6 PUFA, and lower total saturated fat intakes, as expressed in percentage of EI. Higher total monounsaturated fat and oleic acid intakes (% EI) were observed with greater MeDi adherence in men. Women with the highest MeDi adherence exhibited a higher mean carbohydrate, polysaccharide, and total n - 3 PUFA intakes (% EI). The consumption of fibers; vitamins B6, C, and E; folate; magnesium; potassium; and iron increased with greater MeDi adherence, both in men and women. However, consumption of calcium significantly decreased with greater MeDi adherence in women, while the ratio of n - 6/n - 3 PUFA precursors increased. This cross-sectional study provides the nutrient-related basis of the Mediterranean-type diet of French elderly community dwellers, which might participate to its well-documented beneficial effects on health. PMID:22760695

Feart, Catherine; Alles, Benjamin; Merle, Bénédicte; Samieri, Cécilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

2012-12-01

254

Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate  

PubMed Central

The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day) for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg) compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg). The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed. PMID:22254072

Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A.; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W.; Prince, Richard L.

2010-01-01

255

Usual Dietary Intakes: Details of the Method  

Cancer.gov

If estimating usual intakes of nutrients (or any dietary component consumed daily), the steps are simpler because there is no need to model probability. Therefore, a two-part model is not needed in Step 1.

256

A comparison of the effects of d- and l-fenfluramine and d-amphetamine on energy and macronutrient intake in human subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anorectic activity of thed andl isomers ofd-fenfluramine (d-FF) (l-FF) were compared withd-amphetamine (d-amp) when given separately and together in 12 healthy male volunteers. The study was double blind and placebo controlled.\\u000a Food intake was measured using an automated food dispenser. Anorectic activity was examined using a) total energy intake b)\\u000a nutrient selection c) selection of foods categorised by nonsweet\\/sweet

Elizabeth Goodall; Sean Feeney; Joan McGuirk; Trevor Silverstone

1992-01-01

257

Amylinergic control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylin is a pancreatic B-cell hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of nutrient fluxes. As such, amylin reduces food intake in laboratory animals and man, slows gastric emptying and it reduces postprandial glucagon secretion. Amylin deficiency which occurs concomitantly to insulin deficiency in diabetes mellitus, may therefore contribute to some of the major derangements associated with this

Thomas A. Lutz

2006-01-01

258

Evaluation of dietary intake of lactating women in China and its potential impact on the health of mothers and infants  

PubMed Central

Background Optimal nutrition for lactating mothers is importance for mother and infants’ health and well-being. We determined the nutrient intake and dietary changes during the first 3-month of lactation, and its potential effect on health and disease risk. Method Personal interviews were conducted to collect a 24h diet recall questionnaire from 199 healthy lactating women in the postpartum days 2, 7, 30, 90 and healthy 58 non-pregnant women served as the controls. Results We found in lactating women (1) the mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake was lower than that of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI, 2600 Kcal, 357.5?~?422.5g) by 11%?~?17% and 33%?~?49%, respectively; (2) the fat intake increased from 3% to 13%, which was 9?~?77% higher than the RNI (57?~?86.7g); (3) the protein intake exceeded the RNI of 85g by 32?~?53%; (4) the total calories consumed from carbohydrate (39%-44%), fat (34%?~?42%) and protein (20%-23%) failed to meet Chinese RNI (5) the intake of vitamin C, B1, folate, zinc, dietary fiber, and calcium was 5%?~?73% lower than the RNI while vitamin B2, B3, E, iron and selenium intake was 20% to 3 times higher than the RNI. Nutrient intake in the control group was lower for all nutrients than the recommended RNI. Conclusion Lactating women on a self-selected diet did not meet the Chinese RNI for many important micronutrients, which may influence the nutritional composition of breast milk and thus impact the potential health of mothers and infants. RNI should consider the regional dietary habits and culture. A single national RNI is not applicable for all of China. Nutritional education into the community is needed. PMID:22800437

2012-01-01

259

Maternal protein intake is not associated with infant blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Animal data show that low protein intake in pregnancy programs higher offspring blood pressure, but similar data in humans are limited. We examined the associations of first and second trimester maternal protein intake with offspring blood pressure (BP) at the age of six months. Methods In a prospective US cohort study, called Project Viva, pregnant women completed validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to measure gestational protein intake. Among 947 mother-offspring pairs with first trimester dietary data and 910 pairs with second trimester data, we measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) up to five times with an automated device in the offspring at the age of six months. Controlling for blood pressure measurement conditions, maternal and infant characteristics, we examined the effect of energy-adjusted maternal protein intake on infant SBP using multivariable mixed effects models. Results Mean daily second trimester maternal protein intake was 17.6% of energy (mean 2111 kcal/day). First trimester nutrient intakes were similar. Mean SBP at age 6 months was 90.0 mm Hg (SD 12.9). Consistent with prior reports, adjusted SBP was 1.94 mm Hg lower [95% confidence interval (CI) ?3.45 to ?0.42] for each kg increase in birth weight. However, we did not find an association between maternal protein intake and infant SBP. After adjusting for covariates, the effect estimates were 0.14 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.12 to ?0.40) for a 1% increase in energy from protein during the second trimester, and ?0.01 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.24 to ?0.23) for a 1% increase in energy from protein in the first trimester. Conclusions Variation in maternal total protein intake during pregnancy does not appear to program offspring blood pressure. PMID:15576466

Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Lipshultz, Steven E; Gillman, Matthew W

2007-01-01

260

Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake.  

PubMed

Aging is often associated with overweight and obesity. There exists a long-standing debate about whether meal pattern also contributes to the development of obesity. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin regulates appetite and satiety by activating its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In mice, circulating ghrelin concentrations and brain GHS-R expression were shown to increase with aging. To assess whether GHS-R regulates feeding pattern during aging, we studied meal patterns for the following cohorts of male mice fed a normal unpurified diet: 1) 3-4 mo, young wild-type (WT) mice; 2) 3-4 mo, young Ghsr-null (Ghsr(-/-)) mice; 3) 12-14 mo, middle-aged WT (WT-M) mice; 4) 12-14 mo, middle-aged Ghsr(-/-) (Ghsr(-/-)-M) mice; 5) 24-26 mo, old WT (WT-O) mice; and 6) 24-26 mo, old Ghsr(-/-) (Ghsr(-/-)-O) mice. Although the total daily food intake of Ghsr(-/-) mice was similar to that of WT controls, Ghsr(-/-)-M and Ghsr(-/-)-O mice had 9% (P = 0.07) and 16% (P < 0.05) less body weight compared with WT-M and WT-O mice, respectively, primarily due to reduced fat mass (P < 0.05, WT-M vs. Ghsr(-/-)-M and WT-O vs. Ghsr(-/-)-O). Intriguingly, Ghsr(-/-)-M mice ate larger meals (on average, Ghsr(-/-)-M mice ate 0.117 g/meal and WT-M mice ate 0.080 g/meal; P < 0.01) and took a longer time to eat (Ghsr(-/-)-M, 196.0 s and WT-M, 128.9 s; P < 0.01), but ate less frequently (Ghsr(-/-)-M, 31.0 times/d and WT-M, 42.3 times/d; P < 0.05) than WT-M controls. In addition, we found that expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), was relatively lower in aged WT mice (P = 0.09 for NPY and P = 0.06 for AgRP), but anorexic peptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression remained unchanged between the WT age groups. Interestingly, old Ghsr(-/-) mice had greater hypothalamic NPY expression (102% higher; P < 0.05) and AgRP expression (P = 0.07) but significantly lower POMC expression (P < 0.05) when compared with age-matched WT-O controls. Thus, our results indicate that GHS-R plays an important role in the regulation of meal pattern and that GHS-R ablation may modulate feeding behavior through the regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Our results collectively suggest that ghrelin receptor antagonism may have a beneficial effect on metabolism during aging. PMID:24991043

Lin, Ligen; Nuotio-Antar, Alli M; Ma, Xiaojun; Liu, Feng; Fiorotto, Marta L; Sun, Yuxiang

2014-09-01

261

Age considerations in nutrient needs for bone health.  

PubMed

Age exerts a major influence on the nutritional needs for bone health. Age influences the nutrient requirements for bone health by influencing: the growth and development of bone; the deposition of minerals leading to peak bone mass; the rate of bone loss; the levels of hormones which influence bone; the absorption and retention of nutrients required for optimal bone health, physical activity, food intake, and the level of sun exposure. Adequate calcium intake benefits bones at any age. However, dietary calcium needs vary at different ages. In June 1994, a National Institutes of Health expert panel recommended higher calcium intakes than current Recommended Dietary Allowance for several age groups. Many population groups in the United States, including young girls and women, continue to consume significantly less calcium than current recommended levels. In addition, diets low in calcium are often low in many other essential nutrients important for good bone health, including vitamin D, vitamin B6, and magnesium. Dietary recommendations for bone health should be placed in the full context of the total diet rather than a singular emphasis on calcium. To truly benefit consumers, dietary recommendations for bone health should emphasize consumption of foods high in calcium as part of a healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle. PMID:8951731

Miller, G D; Groziak, S M; DiRienzo, D

1996-12-01

262

Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers  

PubMed Central

This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

2011-01-01

263

Quantitative evolutionary design of nutrient processing: Glucose  

PubMed Central

Quantitative evolutionary design involves the numerical relationships, evolved through natural selection, of biological capacities to each other and to natural loads. Here we study the relation of nutrient-processing capacities of the intestine and of organs beyond it (such as liver and kidneys) to each other and to natural loads of nutrients normally consumed. To control experimentally the rate of nutrient delivery to organs beyond the intestine, we administered nutrients directly into the veins of rats by the method of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Control rats consuming the TPN solution by mouth ingested glucose at 42 mmol/day and processed it completely, as gauged by negligible appearance of glucose in urine and feces. Experimental rats receiving TPN were able to process infused glucose completely at rates up to 92 mmol/day. At higher infusion rates, they were unable to process further glucose, as gauged by rises in serum and urinary glucose levels and serum osmolality. At the highest infusion rates, they exhibited diuresis, dehydration, and both decreased weight gain and survival. These symptoms closely resemble the human diabetic condition known as nonketotic hypertonicity. Thus, a rat's body has a safety factor of 2.2 (=92/42) for glucose processing: it can process glucose at a rate 2.2 times its voluntary intake. This safety factor represents apparent excess capacity that may have evolved to process other nutrients converted into glucose, to minimize the risk of loads swamping capacities, to handle suddenly increased nutrient requirements, or to effect rapid mobilization of glucose. PMID:12077313

Steyermark, Anthony C.; Lam, Mandy M.; Diamond, Jared

2002-01-01

264

Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234  

PubMed Central

Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

2012-01-01

265

Assessing vitamin status in large population surveys by measuring biomarkers and dietary intake - two case studies: folate and vitamin D  

PubMed Central

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time. The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary), and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC) folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism. Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys. PMID:22489219

Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Johnson, Clifford L.; Coates, Paul M.

2012-01-01

266

Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3-7 y. old children at multi-item laboratory lunches  

PubMed Central

Dietary survey data show that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is negatively associated with intake of milk, but these findings have yet to be confirmed by laboratory feeding studies. The objectives of the present study were to analyze children’s intake across 2 laboratory-based ad libitum lunches to 1) investigate the relationships between intake of sweetened beverages, milk, and calcium and 2) explore relationships between beverage consumption and child age and weight status. Data were extracted from a cohort of 126, 3–7 year (y.)-old twins from diverse ethnic backgrounds who participated in a cross-sectional study (conducted from November 1999 – September 2002) designed to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to eating and body weight. At 2 visits, children ate ad libitum from lunches that offered a variety of sugar-sweetened and calcium-rich beverages. Total beverage and nutrient intakes were computed from the test meals. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed on the final visit. Regression analyses tested the associations among intake of sweetened beverages, calcium, and milk (primary aim) and whether these variables were associated with child age and weight status (secondary aim). Sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with both milk (p < 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.01) intakes, and these relationships remained after controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity (p < 0.01). Child age was negatively associated with milk intake (r=?0.22, p < 0.01) but positively associated with intake of sweetened beverages (r=0.27, p < 0.01). Results support the notion that sugar-sweetened beverages displace milk in a single meal, and this phenomenon may vary with child age. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, future investigations are needed to determine the long-term implications of this consumption pattern. The possibility that limiting sweetened beverages may help optimize dietary calcium during childhood is a topic that merits further research. PMID:19248869

Keller, Kathleen L.; Kirzner, Jared; Pietrobelli, Angelo; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Faith, Myles S.

2009-01-01

267

Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3- to 7-year-old children at multi-item laboratory lunches.  

PubMed

Dietary survey data show that intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is negatively associated with intake of milk, but these findings have yet to be confirmed by laboratory feeding studies. The objectives of the present study were to analyze children's intake across two laboratory-based ad libitum lunches to (a) investigate the relationships between intake of sweetened beverages, milk, and calcium, and (b) explore relationships between beverage consumption and child age and weight status. Data were extracted from a cohort of 126 3- to 7-year-old twins from diverse ethnic backgrounds who participated in a cross-sectional study (conducted from November 1999 to September 2002) designed to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to eating and body weight. At two visits, children ate ad libitum from lunches that offered a variety of sugar-sweetened and calcium-rich beverages. Total beverage and nutrient intakes were computed from the test meals. Weight, height, and waist circumference were assessed on the final visit. Regression analyses tested the associations among intake of sweetened beverages, calcium, and milk (primary aim), and whether these variables were associated with child age and weight status (secondary aim). Sweetened beverage intake was negatively correlated with both milk (P<0.01) and calcium (P<0.01) intakes, and these relationships remained after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity (P<0.01). Child age was negatively associated with milk intake (r=-0.22, P<0.01) but positively associated with intake of sweetened beverages (r=0.27, P<0.01). Results support the notion that sugar-sweetened beverages displace milk in a single meal, and this phenomenon may vary with child age. Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, future investigations are needed to determine the long-term implications of this consumption pattern. The possibility that limiting sweetened beverages may help optimize dietary calcium during childhood is a topic that merits further research. PMID:19248869

Keller, Kathleen L; Kirzner, Jared; Pietrobelli, Angelo; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Faith, Myles S

2009-03-01

268

Food sources of energy and nutrients among adults in the US: NHANES 2003–2006.  

PubMed

Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003-2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy - yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein-poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat - other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids - cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate - soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber - yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium - milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D - milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium - milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999

O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

2012-12-01

269

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Adults in the US: NHANES 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy—yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat—other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber—yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium—milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D—milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium—milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999

O'Neil, Carol E.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.

2012-01-01

270

Seasonal variation of food intake of adults from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The measurement of usual food intake (FI) is necessary to accurately establish the relationship between diet and disease. In most studies data are collected at one particular time of the year, which may influence the interpretation of the results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of seasonality on FI in a sample of adults from Niterói, RJ, Brazil. A total of 102 healthy subjects (69 women) aged between 20 and 69 years were interviewed to obtain six 24-hour dietary recalls, three in summer and three in winter. In both seasons, the intake of energy (EI) and 23 nutrients was determined and the percent of subjects who met the recommendations for the nutrients were computed. The data of FI were deattenuated considering the within-person variability and adjusted for energy. The intake of energy and some nutrients were significantly different between men and women. EI did not differ between seasons, for both sexes, but the intake of macro and micronutrients was different. The results of this study suggest that the seasonality in the measurement of FI should be considered in order to improve the methods and instruments used in population dietary surveys. PMID:24142021

Costa, Amine Farias; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Antonio dos Anjos, Luiz; Wahrlich, Vivian; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Henn, Ruth Liane; Waissmann, William

2013-06-01

271

Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:24769296

Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

2014-08-01

272

NUTRIENT CONTROL OF HUNGER BY EXTRINSIC GASTROINTESTINAL1 NEURONS2  

E-print Network

are key determinants in the control of appetite32 and food intake. In normal individuals a precise in terms of control of food intake by the16 central nervous system (CNS). Nutrient sensing that20 control food intake and body weight, which might pave the way to future approaches in the21

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Peptides and Food Intake  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

274

Dietary intake of Senegalese adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

2010-01-01

275

Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in

X.-L. Cao; C. Perez-Locas; G. Dufresne; G. Clement; S. Popovic; F. Beraldin; R. W. Dabeka; M. Feeley

2011-01-01

276

Responses of the splanchnic tissues of ruminants to changes in intake: absorption of digestion end  

E-print Network

depends on changes in blood flow with intake, whereas active absorption capacity of nutrients. Metabolic rate of gut tissue is lower than that of liver but much higher than that of hind limbs. Intake may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Optimal dietary calcium and possibly vitamin D intake throughout childhood and adolescence may enhance bone mineral accrual. Little data on the intake of these nutrients in Mediterranean countries exist, and predictors of their suboptimal intake are not well defined.Objective: To evaluate systematically the effect of gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status on mean calcium and vitamin D intake in

M M Salamoun; A S Kizirian; R I Tannous; M M Nabulsi; M K Choucair; M E Deeb; G A El-Hajj Fuleihan

2005-01-01

278

Ruminant nutrition from an environmental perspective: factors affecting whole-farm nutrient balance.  

PubMed

Nutrient budgeting strategies focus primarily on recycling manure to land as fertilizer for crop production. Critical elements for determining environmental balance and accountability require knowledge of nutrients excreted, potential nutrient removal by plants, acceptable losses of nutrients within the manure management and crop production systems, and alternatives that permit export of nutrients off-farm, if necessary. Nutrient excretions are closely related to nutrient intake and can be predicted by subtracting predicted nutrients in food animal products exported from the farm from total nutrients consumed. Intensifying crop production with double- or triple-cropping often is necessary for high-density food animal production units to use manure without being forced to export manure or fertilizer coproducts to other farms. Most manures are P-rich relative to N largely because of 1) relatively large losses of volatilized NH3, most of it converted from urea in urine, 2) denitrification losses in soil under wet, anaerobic conditions, and 3) ability of many crops to luxury-consume much more N than P. Most soils bind P effectively and P usually is permitted to accumulate, allowing for budgets to be based on N. However, P budgeting may be required in regions where surface runoff of P contributes to algae growth and eutrophication of surface waters or where soil P increases to levels of concern. Research is needed to determine whether dietary P allowances can be lowered without detriment to animal production or health in order to lower P intake and improve N:P ratios in manure relative to fertilization needs. PMID:8994923

Van Horn, H H; Newton, G L; Kunkle, W E

1996-12-01

279

Herbivore physiological response to predation risk and implications for ecosystem nutrient dynamics  

PubMed Central

The process of nutrient transfer through an ecosystem is an important determinant of production, food-chain length, and species diversity. The general view is that the rate and efficiency of nutrient transfer up the food chain is constrained by herbivore-specific capacity to secure N-rich compounds for survival and production. Using feeding trials with artificial food, we show, however, that physiological stress-response of grasshopper herbivores to spider predation risk alters the nature of the nutrient constraint. Grasshoppers facing predation risk had higher metabolic rates than control grasshoppers. Elevated metabolism accordingly increased requirements for dietary digestible carbohydrate-C to fuel-heightened energy demands. Moreover, digestible carbohydrate-C comprises a small fraction of total plant tissue-C content, so nutrient transfer between plants and herbivores accordingly becomes more constrained by digestible plant C than by total plant C:N. This shift in herbivore diet to meet the altered nutrient requirement increased herbivore body C:N content, the C:N content of the plant community from which grasshoppers select their diet, and grasshopper fecal C:N content. Chronic predation risk thus alters the quality of animal and plant tissue that eventually enters the detrital pool to become decomposed. Our results demonstrate that herbivore physiology causes C:N requirements and nutrient intake to become flexible, thereby providing a mechanism to explain context dependence in the nature of trophic control over nutrient transfer in ecosystems. PMID:20713698

Hawlena, Dror; Schmitz, Oswald J.

2010-01-01

280

Effect of amphetamine on human macronutrient intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six male subjects participated in a 15-day residential study examining the effects of amphetamine on macronutrient intake. During the first 11 days, carbohydrate intake was manipulated by providing lunch meals high (155 g) or low (25 g) in carbohydrate. Subjects received oral d-amphetamine (5, 10 mg\\/70 kg, BID) or placebo. Total daily caloric intake was similar under both lunch conditions

Richard W. Foltin; Thomas H. Kelly; Marian W. F

1995-01-01

281

Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)  

PubMed Central

The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers. PMID:23478398

Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

2013-01-01

282

A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

2013-01-01

283

Dietary polyamine intake and polyamines measured in urine.  

PubMed

Dietary polyamines have recently been associated with increased risk of pre-malignant colorectal lesions. Because polyamines are synthesized in cells and taken up from dietary sources, development of a biomarker of exposure is challenging. Excess polyamines are primarily excreted in the urine. This pilot study seeks to identify dietary correlates of excreted urinary polyamines as putative biomarkers of exposure. Dietary polyamines/other nutrients were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and correlated with urinary levels of acetylated polyamines in 36 men using 24-h urine samples. Polyamines, abundant in cheese and citrus, were highly positively correlated with urinary N(8)-acetylspermidine (correlation coefficient; r = 0.37, P = 0.03), but this correlation was attenuated after adjustment for total energy intake (r = 0.07, P = 0.68). Dietary energy intake itself was positively correlated with urinary total acetylated polyamine output (r = .40, P = 0.02). In energy-adjusted analyses, folic acid and folate from food were associated with urinary N(1),N(12)-diacetylspermine (r = 0.34, P = 0.05 and r = -0.39, P = 0.02, respectively). Red meat negatively correlated with total urinary acetylated polyamines (r = -0.42, P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that energy, folate, folic acid, saturated fat, and red meat intake, as opposed to FFQ-estimated dietary polyamines, are correlated with urinary polyamines. PMID:25204413

Vargas, Ashley J; Ashbeck, Erin L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Gerner, Eugene W; Thompson, Patricia A

2014-10-01

284

Antioxidant Intake and Risks of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Women  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants may protect against development of rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus by combating oxidative stress. The authors identified and confirmed incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus among 184,643 US women followed in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II cohorts in 1980–2004. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires assessed intakes of vitamins A, C, and E and ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin from foods and supplements. The authors examined total antioxidant intake by calculating a “ferric-reducing ability of plasma” score, a new method for quantifying the total antioxidant effect of a food based on the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron by antioxidants. Cumulative updated total energy-adjusted dietary intakes were used. Associations between intake of each nutrient and incident rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus were examined in age-adjusted and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders. Results from the cohorts were pooled meta-analytically by using random-effects models. The authors identified 787 incident rheumatoid arthritis cases and 192 systemic lupus erythematosus cases for whom prospective dietary information was available. In these large, prospective cohorts of women, antioxidant intake was not associated with the risk of developing either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:20534819

Costenbader, Karen H.; Kang, Jae Hee; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

2010-01-01

285

Inadequate food intake among adults living with HIV.  

PubMed

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Brazil is between 600,000 and 890,000. Assessing the diet is important in planning healthcare actions and improving PLHIV's quality of life. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inappropriate protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, fiber, sodium, calcium and cholesterol intake among PVHIV on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study in nine Specialized STD/AIDS Healthcare Centers in São Paulo. METHODS Men and women aged 20 to 59 years, on HAART for at least three months, were included. Nutrient intake was assessed using 24-hour food recall applied in person and repeated among 30% of the population by telephone. The between and within-person variances were corrected. RESULTS 507 individuals were evaluated: 58% male, mean age 41.7 years (standard deviation, SD = 7.8). The mean time since HIV diagnosis was 6.6 years (SD = 4.1), and since HAART onset, 5.1 years (SD = 3.3). More than 20% of the population presented intake above the recommendations for saturated fat, cholesterol and/or sodium, and below the recommendations for fiber. The recommended maximum tolerable sodium level was exceeded by 99% of the sample, and 86% of men and 94% of women did not reach the daily recommendations for calcium. Protein, carbohydrate and total fat intakes were adequate for the majority of the population. CONCLUSIONS A significant portion of the population presented inappropriate intake of saturated fat, sodium, fiber and calcium. Interventions aimed at improving PLHIV's dietary quality are needed. PMID:23903262

Giudici, Kelly Virecoulon; Duran, Ana Clara Fonseca Leitao; Jaime, Patricia Constante

2013-01-01

286

Determination of total arsenic levels by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in foods from south-east Spain: estimation of daily dietary intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total concentration of arsenic in different foods from south-east Spain was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Mineralization was carried out with an HNO3-HClO4 mixture in a thermostated sand bath. Arsenic determination was performed by the standard addition method. Analyses of NIST and CBR-CEC reference materials demonstrated the reliability and accuracy of the technique. The highest arsenic levels

C. Delgado-Andrade; M. Navarro; H. López; M. C. López

2003-01-01

287

Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

1997-01-01

288

Nutrient-Specific Foraging in Invertebrate Predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many herbivores and omnivores adjust their food selection behavior to regulate the intake of multiple nutrients. Carnivores, however, are generally assumed to optimize the rate of prey capture rather than select prey according to nutrient composition. We showed experimentally that invertebrate predators can forage selectively for protein and lipids to redress specific nutritional imbalances. This selection can take place at different stages of prey handling: The predator may select among foods of different nutritional composition, eat more of a prey if it is rich in nutrients that the predator is deficient in, or extract specific nutrients from a single prey item.

Mayntz, David; Raubenheimer, David; Salomon, Mor; Toft, Søren; Simpson, Stephen J.

2005-01-01

289

Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.  

PubMed

Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was <50% for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. For women, mean or median adequacy was <50% for all nutrients except vitamin B-6 and niacin and was <1% for calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. The mean PA (MPA) was correlated with energy intake and dietary diversity, and multivariate models including these variables explained 71-76% of the variance in MPA. The degree of micronutrient inadequacy among young children and women in rural Bangladesh is alarming and is primarily explained by diets low in energy and little diversity of foods. PMID:23256144

Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

2013-02-01

290

A Comparison of Eye-Health Nutrients, Lutein (L)/Zeaxanthin (Z) Intakes and L/Z Rich Food Choices between College Students Living in Los Angeles and Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) were related to macular health. With respect to increasing life expectancy, age-related macular disease (AMD) has become a concern on public health. The objective was to investigate dietary L/Z intake and its related food preference in populations living in different areas. A three-day dietary record and a supplement…

Wang, Li Hui; Tam, Chick F.; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.

2008-01-01

291

Effect of feeding tamarind ( Tamarindus indica) seed husk as a source of tannin on dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients and production performance of crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of feeding tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed husk (TSH) as a source of tannin on dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, N balance, milk yield and milk composition was studied in crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation. The study included lactation and metabolism trials. The lactation trial was conducted using nine multiparous cows in mid-lactation in a switchback design. The cows

R Bhatta; U Krishnamoorthy; F Mohammed

2000-01-01

292

Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels. PMID:22476733

Gupta, Lokesh; Kumar, Roy Ashwani; Ghanshyam, Tiwari; Rajesh, Dhuria; Garg, Rajeev

2012-10-01

293

Total nutrient and sediment loads, trends, yields, and nontidal water-quality indicators for selected nontidal stations, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 1985–2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 1985–2011 and for 32 stations in the years 2002–2011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 2006–2011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as “improving water-quality trend and a low yield” than “degrading water-quality trend and a high yield” for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.

Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.

2013-01-01

294

Carbohydrate Intake in the Etiology of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Diet may have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In previous studies, the associations between increased intakes of carbohydrates, sugar, starch, and inflammatory bowel disease are inconsistent. However, few prospective studies have investigated the associations between these macronutrients and incident Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: A total of 401,326 men and women were recruited between 1991 and 1998. At recruitment, dietary intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, and starch were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored identifying participants who developed incident CD or UC. Cases were matched with 4 controls, and odds ratios were calculated for quintiles of total carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intakes adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, and smoking. Results: One hundred ten participants developed CD, and 244 participants developed UC during follow-up. The adjusted odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total carbohydrate intake for CD was 0.87, 95% CI = 0.24 to 3.12 and for UC 1.46, 95% CI = 0.62 to 3.46, with no significant trends across quintiles for either (CD, Ptrend = 0.70; UC, Ptrend = 0.41). Similarly, no associations were observed with intakes of total sugar (CD, Ptrend = 0.50; UC, Ptrend = 0.71) or starch (CD, Ptrend = 0.69; UC, Ptrend = 0.17). Conclusions: The lack of associations with these nutrients is in agreement with many case–control studies that have not identified associations with CD or UC. As there is biological plausibility for how specific carbohydrates could have an etiological role in inflammatory bowel disease, future epidemiological work should assess individual carbohydrates, although there does not seem to be a macronutrient effect. PMID:25265262

Luben, Robert; van Schaik, Fiona; Oldenburg, Bas; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hallmans, Göran; Karling, Pontus; Lindgren, Stefan; Grip, Olof; Key, Timothy; Crowe, Francesca L.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Racine, Antoine; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tumino, Rosario; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Hart, Andrew R.

2014-01-01

295

Calcium Intake and Body Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Five clinical studies of calcium intake, designed with a primary skeletal end point, were reevaluated to explore associations be- tween calcium intake and body weight. All subjects were women, clustered in three main age groups: 3rd, 5th, and 8th decades. Total sample,size was,780. Four of the studies,were,observational;,two were cross-sectional, in which body mass index was regressed against entry level

K. Michael Davies; Robert P. Heaney; Robert R. Recker; Joan M. Lappe; M. Janet Barger-lux; Karen Rafferty; Sharilyn Hinders

2000-01-01

296

Influence of supplemental high molecular weight pullulan or gamma-cyclodextrin on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and microbial populations in the dog.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine if supplemental pullulan and gamma-cyclodextrin affect canine nutrient digestibility, microbial populations, and fecal characteristics. Ileal cannulated dogs were fed a commercial diet, and treatments were administered daily in a 5 x 5 Latin square design: (i) no supplement; (ii) 2 g pullulan; (iii) 4 g pullulan; (iv) 2 g gamma-cyclodextrin; (v) 4 g gamma-cyclodextrin. Ileal and fecal samples were collected the last 4 d of each 14-d period. Increasing pullulan tended (p < 0.10) to linearly increase ileal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and quadratically increase fecal lactobacilli. A similar response was noted in ileal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli with gamma-cyclodextrin. Gamma-Cyclodextrin resulted in a quadratic decrease (p < 0.05) in fecal Clostridium perfringens. Increasing pullulan linearly increased (p < 0.05) fecal score, while gamma-cyclodextrin resulted in a linear decrease (p < 0.05). Pullulan and gamma-cyclodextrin supplementation may have beneficial effects on the microbial ecology of dogs. PMID:16320814

Spears, Julie K; Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Fahey, George C

2005-08-01

297

On Carbohydrate Intake and Dental Status in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

People's dental status has the potential to affect dietary intake and, at the same time, diet may affect the health of the dentition. To study the associations, the elderly appear to be an appropriate group and carbohydrates the appropriate nutrients. The aim of the thesis was to explore the associations between intake of carbohydrates and dental status in the elderly.

Torgny Alstad

298

RESEARCH Open Access Relationship between self-reported dietary intake  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) have been shown to have a beneficial effect on bone in animal studies, although little is known about their role in bone metabolism in humans. We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and daily n-3 fatty acid intake. This cross-sectional, community-based, epidemiologic study was conducted among 205 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 63.5 years, range 46-79). We examined BMD, serum N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), urinary type-I collagen cross-linked-N-telopeptide (uNTX), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple regression analysis showed that intake of neither n-3 fatty acid nor n-6 fatty acid was associated with age or lipid metabolism indices. However, simple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with both lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMD. n-6 fatty acid intake was positively associated with femoral neck BMD but not lumbar spine BMD. Multiple regression analysis showed that n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, BMI, duration of menopausal state, grip strength, PINP, uNTX, and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, and n-6 fatty acid. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acid intake was positively associated with lumbar spine BMD independent of bone resorption and serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in postmenopausal women. PMID:23708886

Nawata, Kiyoko; Yamauchi, Mika; Takaoka, Shin; Yamaguchi, Toru; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

2013-08-01

300

Foods or Nutrients: Validity of Assessment Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To compare changes in dietary patterns based on food pyramid\\/CSFII groupings rather than Recommended Dietary AllowancesPeople select and consume foods not nutrients. Nutritionintervention appears to be most effective when clients are instructed about specific foods to eat and not eat. Yet when programs are evaluated for effectiveness, pre- and post-intervention intakes are compared based on specific nutrients in

PG Wolman; SF Stallings; CH Goodner

1996-01-01

301

Recommended Amounts of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total starchy vegetables Table B6. Total starchy vegetables: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation

302

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

303

Nutrient Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

2010-02-09

304

Fruit and Vegetable Intakes Are Associated with Lower Risk of Bladder Cancer among Women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study12  

PubMed Central

Fruits and vegetables have been examined for their possible effects on the risk of bladder cancer, as they contain numerous nutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidants with potentially anticarcinogenic properties. In a prospective analysis of 185,885 older adults participating in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we examined whether the consumption of fruits and vegetables, or of nutrients concentrated in fruits and vegetables, was associated with bladder cancer risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for bladder cancer in relation to dietary intakes. A total of 581 invasive bladder cancer cases (429 men and 152 women) were diagnosed over a mean follow-up period of 12.5 y. In women, total fruits and vegetables [HR = 0.35 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.56); highest vs. lowest quartile], total vegetables [HR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.83)], yellow-orange vegetables [HR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.77)], total fruits [HR = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.85)], and citrus fruits [HR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.90)] were inversely associated with the risk of invasive bladder cancer in risk factor-adjusted models. In addition, women with the highest intakes of vitamins A, C, and E; the carotenoids ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and ?-cryptoxanthin; and folate had a lower risk of bladder cancer. For men, no associations for fruits, vegetables, or nutrients were found overall, although inverse associations were observed for vegetable intake among current smokers, and in ethnic-specific analyses, for fruit and vegetable intake among Latinos specifically. Our findings suggest that greater consumption of fruits and vegetables may lower the risk of invasive bladder cancer among women and highlight the need for specific subgroup analyses in future studies. PMID:23739308

Park, Song-Yi; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Woolcott, Christy G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

2013-01-01

305

Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of 14 Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7?20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22875754

Koushik, Anita; Spiegelman, Donna; Albanes, Demetrius; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Bergkvist, Leif; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Mannisto, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Millen, Amy E.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shikany, James M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

306

The effect of improved food composition data on intake estimates in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of improved food composition data on nutrient intake estimates was determined by re-analyzing dietary intake data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994–1996, 1998 with the multi-year version of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 1.0, wherein only the data improvements such as those due to new analytical data replaced the

Jaspreet K. C. Ahuja; Joseph D. Goldman; Betty P. Perloff

2006-01-01

307

Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

308

The sodium and potassium intake of 3 to 5 year olds.  

PubMed Central

The sodium intake of preschool children in their home environment was investigated and the major sources of sodium other than added table salt identified. Thirty five children from a Southampton general practice were studied. Twenty four hour urinary sodium excretion was measured as a reliable indicator of daily total sodium intake. The daily intake of sodium other than that from added table salt, and of potassium and other nutrients, was also calculated from three day dietary diaries collected using the household measures method. Median excretion of sodium was 62 mmol/24h (range 28-105, 28 urine collections) and of potassium was 25 mmol/24 h (range 14-46). The sodium:potassium ratio was 2.7 (1.4-5.2). From the diaries, the average daily intake of sodium was 68 mmol (32-98) and of potassium was 47 mmol (24-95), and the sodium:potassium ratio was 1.4 (0.5-2.7) (median and ranges, 35 children). Foods contributing more than 30 mmol sodium to one day's intake were mainly processed convenience foods. PMID:3954440

Allison, M E; Walker, V

1986-01-01

309

Differences in Dietary Intakes between Normal and Short Stature Korean Children Visiting a Growth Clinic  

PubMed Central

This study compared birth stature, parents' stature, and food and nutrient intakes between normal and short stature Korean children visiting a growth clinic. A total of 143 growth clinic visitors agreed to participate in the study. Out of the 143 subjects, 37 children with height below the fifth percentile (short stature group) and 58 children with height above the twenty-fifth percentile (normal group) were included in the study analysis. Data were collected through a survey of parents or guardians of children and anthropometric measurements. The ratio of short stature in either parent was significantly higher in short stature group. The mean intakes of protein, fat, calcium, and iron were lower in short stature children compared to normal children. Among five major food groups, the intake frequency of vegetables and fruits was significantly lower in short stature group and that of meat·fish·egg·legume group was also significantly lower in short stature group. In further analysis categorized into 11 detail food groups, the intake frequency of fruit group and legume group was significantly lower in short stature group. Nutritional counseling should be provided to emphasize adequate intake of various food groups including vegetables, fruits, and legumes to short stature children visiting a growth clinic. PMID:23430972

Lee, Eun Mi; Park, Mi Jung; Ahn, Hong Seok

2012-01-01

310

Intakes of plain water, moisture in foods and beverages, and total water in the adult US population—nutritional, meal pattern, and body weight correlates: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a surprising paucity of studies that have systematically examined the correlates of water intake in the US population. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of con- tributors of water intake with dietary characteristics, meal consump- tion, and body weight in the US population. Design: We used 24-h dietary recall data from the National Health and

Ashima K Kant; Barry I Graubard; Elizabeth A Atchison

311

The Role of Nutrients in Bone Health, from A to Z  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of individuals. Dietary intake is an important modifiable factor for bone health. Inadequate intake of nutrients important to bone increases the risk for bone loss and subsequent osteoporosis. The process of bone formation requires an adequate and constant supply of nutrients, such as calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, potassium, and

Cristina Palacios

2006-01-01

312

Quantification of allochthonous nutrient input into freshwater bodies by herbivorous waterbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Waterbirds are considered to import large quantities of nutrients to freshwater bodies but quantification of these loadings remains problematic. We developed two general models to calculate such allochthonous nutrient inputs considering food intake, foraging behaviour and digestive performance of waterbirds feeding in terrestrial habitats: an intake model (IM), mainly based on an allometric relationship for energy requirements and a

S. M. Hahn; S. Bauer; M. R. J. Klaassen

2008-01-01

313

Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient and energy retention in young racing. No difference in body weight was observed between groups. Despite feed restriction, intake was higher for enzyme-sup- plemented diet. When related to feed intake, excreta were lower by 11% for enzyme-supplemented diet. Enzyme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

Nutrient sources in the American diet: quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. I. Vitamins and minerals.  

PubMed

Dietary data from 11,658 adult respondents in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to provide quantitative information regarding the contribution of specific foods to the total population intake of the following 10 nutrients: vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Data are reported in the companion paper regarding the number of adults in the US population consuming each of 147 food items, representing all foods reported by these respondents. The percentage of total nutrient intake which each food provides is presented for the top 50 contributors of each of the nutrients listed above. Foods sometimes overlooked as important sources are found in some instances to be quantitatively important to population intake, such as spaghetti dishes as an independent source of carotenoids. These data should be useful to epidemiologists with a substantive interest in dietary etiologies or a methodological interest in the development of dietary assessment instruments. In addition, they may be useful to health care planners or nutrition educators. PMID:4014190

Block, G; Dresser, C M; Hartman, A M; Carroll, M D

1985-07-01

315

Dietary intake and risk for reflux esophagitis: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Background. Specific dietary components have been associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Europe and the United States. However, the relationship between dietary components and GERD in Chinese still remains unclear. Methods. A total of 268 patients who were newly diagnosed as reflux esophagitis (RE) in Outpatient Endoscopy Center of Tongji Hospital were recruited. In addition, 269 sex- and age-matched subjects were also recruited as controls. The body measurements were determined, and the dietary intake during the previous year was evaluated using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between nutrients and RE. Results. After adjustment for WC, WHR, total energy intake, and demographics, there were a positive dose-response relationship between RE and calcium, meat, oils, and salt and a negative dose-response relationship between RE and protein, carbohydrate, calories from protein (%), vitamin C, grains and potatoes, fruits, and eggs. Conclusion. High intake of meat, oils, salt, and calcium is associated with an increased risk for RE while high intake of protein, carbohydrate, calories from protein (%), vitamin C, grains and potatoes, fruits, and eggs correlates with a reduced risk for RE. PMID:23690762

Wu, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Hu; Ai, Zi-Sheng; Sun, Hui-Hui; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yuan-Xi; Tong, Yi-Li; Xu, Shu-Chang

2013-01-01

316

Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ?3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

2014-01-01

317

Eating frequency is associated with energy intake but not obesity in midlife women.  

PubMed

Midlife women tend to gain weight with age, thus increasing risk of chronic disease. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between overweight/obesity and behavioral factors, including eating frequency, in a cross-sectional national sample of midlife women (n = 1,099) (mean age = 49.7 years, and BMI = 27.7 kg/m²). Eating behaviors and food and nutrient intakes were based on a mailed 1-day food record. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight, and level of physical activity was assessed by self-reported questionnaire. After exclusion of low-energy reporters (32% of sample), eating frequency was not associated with overweight/obesity (P > 0.05) and was not different between BMI groups (normal, 5.21 ± 1.79; overweight, 5.16 ± 1.74; obese, 5.12 ± 1.68, P = 0.769). Adjusted logistic regression showed that eating frequency, snacking frequency, breakfast consumption, eating after 10 PM and consuming meals with children or other adults were not significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Total energy intake increased as eating frequency increased in all BMI groups, however, obese women had greater energy intake compared to normal weight women who consumed the same number of meals and snacks. Intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, dietary fiber, dairy, and added sugars also increased as eating frequency increased. While eating frequency was not associated with overweight/obesity, it was associated with energy intake. Thus, addressing total energy intake rather than eating frequency may be more appropriate to prevent weight gain among midlife women. PMID:20966909

Mills, Jordan P; Perry, Courtney D; Reicks, Marla

2011-03-01

318

Short communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an isotope dilution technique.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas. PMID:23332845

Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H

2013-03-01

319

Effects of dietary supplementation of DL-methionine or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid on food intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and urinary and blood metabolites in healthy, growing dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on nutritional responses of supplemental DL-methionine and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) in a commercial-type diet in growing dogs. A nitrogen balance study was conducted as a randomized complete block design using 30 Pointer puppies (72-d-old; 5.5 kg). A corn and poultry byproduct meal based diet was supplemented with 0.1 or 0.2% DL-methionine or HMTBA on an equimolar basis. Organic matter and gross energy tended (p < 0.10) to be less digestible by dogs fed the 0.1% HMTBA diet compared with the 0.2% DL-methionine diet, but other nutrients were unaffected. Postprandial urinary calcium tended (p < 0.10) to be lower for the basal and HMTBA treatments. Fecal ammonia tended (p < 0.10) to be lower for the 0.1% HMTBA diet than for the 0.2% DL-methionine diet. At the levels tested, DL-methionine and HMTBA appear to act similarly when included in a corn and poultry by-product meal diet fed to young dogs. PMID:16921927

Middelbos, Ingmar S; Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K; Folador, Juliana; Vazquez-Anon, Mercedes; Yi, Ganfeng; Fahey, George C

2006-08-01

320

Dietary Intake as a Link between Obesity, Systemic Inflammation, and the Assumption of Multiple Cardiovascular and Antidiabetic Drugs in Renal Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

We evaluated dietary intake and nutritional-inflammation status in ninety-six renal transplant recipients, 7.2 ± 5.0 years after transplantation. Patients were classified as normoweight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB), if their body mass index was between 18.5 and 24.9, 25.0 and 29.9, and ?30?kg/m2, respectively. Food composition tables were used to estimate nutrient intakes. The values obtained were compared with those recommended in current nutritional guidelines. 52% of the patients were NW, 29% were OW, and 19% were OB. Total energy, fat, and dietary n-6 PUFAs intake was higher in OB than in NW. IL-6 and hs-CRP were higher in OB than in NW. The prevalence of multidrug regimen was higher in OB. In all patients, total energy, protein, saturated fatty acids, and sodium intake were higher than guideline recommendations. On the contrary, the intake of unsaturated and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber was lower than recommended. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity was high in our patients, and it was associated with inflammation and the assumption of multiple cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs. Dietary intake did not meet nutritional recommendations in all patients, especially in obese ones, highlighting the need of a long-term nutritional support in renal transplant recipients. PMID:23984354

Guida, Bruna; Maresca, Immacolata Daniela; Germanò, Roberta; Trio, Rossella; Nastasi, Anna Maria; Federico, Stefano; Memoli, Andrea; Apicella, Luca; Memoli, Bruno; Sabbatini, Massimo

2013-01-01

321

How does fortification affect the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake at the school lunch for fifth-grade children?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the usual intake distribution of calcium and vitamin B(1) of fifth-grade children based on a 3-d dietary survey and to assess nutrient intake using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs 2010). A cross-sectional study was undertaken from October 2007 to February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 94 fifth-grade children attending 5 elementary schools participated in the study. The weighed plate waste method and observation were used to collect data on the school lunches and dietary records by children, accompanied by photographs used to collect data on meals at home. The study lasted 3 d, 2 non-consecutive days with school lunches and 1 d without. The estimated proportion of subjects below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium intake with milk in the school lunch decreased by 40% compared to the calcium intake without milk in the school lunch. Vitamin B1 intake from less than 0.45 mg/1,000 kcal fortified rice was estimated to be 0%. The intake distribution of calcium has increased by 150 mg by taking milk and the intake distribution of vitamin B1 has increased 0.20 mg by taking fortified rice in the school lunch. Calcium and vitamin B1 intake in the school lunch has changed the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake upward, and decreased the number of estimated subjects that were below EAR. However, the distribution was not shifted across the board and the shape of the distribution has changed. PMID:23535536

Nozue, Miho; Jun, Kyungyul; Ishihara, Yoko; Taketa, Yasuko; Naruse, Akiko; Nagai, Narumi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishida, Hiromi

2013-01-01

322

Relationship between dietary intake and dental caries in preschool children.  

PubMed

This study assessed the relationship between intake of nutrients and dental caries in preschool children. One hundred and eighty-two children aged three to six years were recruited from nine day care centers in central Taiwan. These children had an oral health examination, and their parents or guardians answered a questionnaire. Each child's intake of nutrients was estimated using the 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire data. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the associations between dental caries and intake of each nutrient or food group, with adjustment for potential confounders. The prevalence of dental caries was 73 % and increased with age. Not being a first-born and having more between-meal snacks were associated with increased caries risk. After controlling for other important factors, vitamin A intake was significantly associated with fewer dental caries (deft, decayed, indicated for extraction, and filled primary teeth: ? 4 vs. < 4), with an odds ratio of 0.97 (95 % confidence interval: 0.94 - 0.99) for an 100-?g increase in vitamin A intake. There was no significant association between dental caries and energy, macronutrient intake, and Ca/P ratio, respectively. Vegetable intake was also significantly associated with lower dental caries score. PMID:21234862

Yen, Chin-En; Huang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Suh-Woan

2010-06-01

323

Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: The Physicians' Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Previous studies of diet and coronary heart disease (CHD) have focused on intake of nutrients rather than whole foods. Because of the findings that dietary fibre, folate and antioxidants may be protective for CHD, increased intake of vegetables has been recommended. However, due to the chemical and physical complexity of vegetables, the effects of individual nutrients may differ if

Simin Liu; I-Min Lee; Umed Ajani; Stephen R Cole; Julie E Buringa; JoAnn E Manson

324

Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared

Elizabeth Dunford; Jacqui Webster; Federica Barzi; Bruce Neal

2010-01-01

325

Environmental stewardship in the future: Nutrient management issues and options for beef cattle feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confinement feeding of beef cattle concentrates nutrient wastes, which could lead to environmental concerns. At present, public and legislative concern seems to be focused on excretion of N and P. Nutrient input should be a function of the animal's requirement for a given nutrient, with diets then formulated to meet the requirement given an expected or predicted feed intake. With

M. L. Galyean

2009-01-01

326

A comparison of micronutrient inadequacy and risk of high micronutrient intakes among vitamin and mineral supplement users and nonusers in Canada.  

PubMed

Although supplement use is prevalent in North America, there is little information on how supplements affect the prevalence of nutrient adequacy or risk of intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and percent of intakes greater than the UL from diet alone between supplement users and nonusers and determine the contribution of supplements to nutrient intakes. Dietary intakes (24-h recall) and supplement use (previous 30 d) from respondents ?1 y in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 34,381) were used to estimate the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and intakes greater than the UL. Software for Intake Distribution Evaluation was used to estimate usual intakes. The prevalence of nutrient adequacy from diet alone was not significantly higher among supplement users than nonusers for any nutrient. Based on diet alone, children 1-13 y had a low prevalence of nutrient adequacy (<30%) except for vitamin D and calcium. Among respondents ?14 y, inadequacies of vitamins A and D, calcium, and magnesium were >30%. For other nutrients, there was a low prevalence of nutrient adequacy. There were no nutrient intakes greater than the UL from diet alone, except zinc in children. When supplements were included, ?10% of users in some age/sex groups had intakes of vitamins A and C, niacin, folic acid, iron, zinc, and magnesium greater than the UL, reaching >80% for vitamin A and niacin in children. In conclusion, from diet alone, the prevalence of nutrient adequacy was low for most nutrients except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A and D. For most nutrients, supplement users were not at greater risk of inadequacy than nonusers; supplement use sometimes led to intakes greater than the UL. PMID:22298574

Shakur, Yaseer A; Tarasuk, Valerie; Corey, Paul; O'Connor, Deborah L

2012-03-01

327

Breakfast consumption is positively associated with nutrient adequacy in Canadian children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Although breakfast is associated with more favourable nutrient intake profiles in children, limited data exist on the impact of breakfast on nutrient adequacy and the potential risk of excessive intakes. Accordingly, we assessed differences in nutrient intake and adequacy among breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts with ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) and consumers of other types of breakfasts. We used cross-sectional data from 12 281 children and adolescents aged 4-18 years who took part in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey, 2004. Mean nutrient intakes (obtained using a multiple-pass 24 h recall method) were compared among the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Usual nutrient intake distributions, generated using the National Cancer Institute method, were used to determine the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy or the potential risk of excessive intakes from food sources alone and from the combination of food plus supplements. Of these Canadian children, 10 % were breakfast non-consumers, 33 % were consumers of RTEC breakfasts and 57 % were consumers of other types of breakfasts. Non-consumption of breakfast increased with age (4-8 years: 2 %; 9-13 years: 9 %; 14-18 years: 18 %). Breakfast consumers had higher covariate-adjusted intakes of energy, many nutrients and fibre, and lower fat intakes. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy for vitamin D, Ca, Fe and Mg (from food alone or from the combination of food plus supplements) was highest in breakfast non-consumers, intermediate in consumers of other types of breakfasts and lowest in consumers of RTEC breakfast. For vitamin A, P and Zn, breakfast non-consumers had a higher prevalence of nutrient inadequacy than both breakfast groups. The potential risk of excessive nutrient intakes was low in all groups. Efforts to encourage and maintain breakfast consumption in children and adolescents are warranted. PMID:25196844

Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L

2014-10-01

328

[Arterial hypertension and salt intake].  

PubMed

More than 25% of adult population worldwide and according to the EHUH study 37% of the adult population of Croatia have hypertension. In the last decades, a dramatic increase has been recorded in the prevalence of hypertension, and it is predicted that this trend will lead to an even higher prevalence in the near future. This could primarily be explained by strong influence of environmental factors. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have proved that high salt intake is one of the most important risk factors. High salt intake increases total peripheral vascular resistance, induces oxidative stress and inflammation, thus accelerating the atherosclerotic process. Independently of the effects on blood pressure, salt intake promotes left ventricular hypertrophy and microalbuminuria and increases the risk of stroke. Interventional studies have shown that salt intake reduction is associated with lower blood pressure and lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake in daily meals should be the main measure in primary prevention of cardiovascular and renal diseases, and it should be repeatedly emphasized not only to hypertensive patients, but also to the population at large. PMID:20649075

Jelakovi?, Bojan; Vukovi?, Ivana; Reiner, Zeljko

2010-05-01

329

Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: I. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance.  

PubMed

The effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of yearling heifers were investigated in a 150-day feeding trial. Eighteen, crossbred heifers (Brahman x Thai native) were randomly allotted according to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Low or high levels of CEP (15 or 30% of concentrate, LCEP, or HCEP) were basal treatments and 0, 2, and 4% CPO were daily top-dressed. Concentrate was supplemented at 1.75% of body weight (BW) and rice straw offered ad libitum. CEP level had no significance on feed intake. CPO increased roughage intake, concentrate intake, and total feed intake when expressed as %BW/d (P < 0.01) and as metabolic BW (kg(0.75)/d, P < 0.05). Intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) were similar (P > 0.05). Intake of fat increased with higher levels of CPO (P < 0.001). The DM, OM, CP, and EE digestibility of cattle-fed HCEP was lower than LCEP, but adding 4% CPO increased digestibility. Growth performance was similar for all diets (P > 0.05). We concluded that CEP can be used up to 30% in the diet, with or without additional fat inclusion. PMID:24510198

Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong; Berg, Eric Paul

2014-04-01

330

Protective association of milk intake on the risk of hip fracture: results from the Framingham Original Cohort.  

PubMed

Dairy foods are rich in bone-beneficial nutrients, yet the role of dairy foods in hip fracture prevention remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, and milk?+?yogurt intakes with incident hip fracture in the Framingham Original Cohort. A total of 830 men and women from the Framingham Original Cohort, a prospective cohort study, completed a food-frequency questionnaire (1988 to 1989) and were followed for hip fracture until 2008. In this population-based study, Cox-proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) by categories of energy-adjusted dairy intake (servings/wk), adjusting for standard confounders and covariates. The exposure was energy-adjusted intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, cream, and milk?+?yogurt (servings/wk). Risk of hip fracture over the follow-up was the primary outcome; the hypothesis being tested was formulated after data collection. The mean age at baseline was 77 years (SD 4.9, range 68 to 96). Ninety-seven hip fractures occurred over the mean follow-up time of 11.6 years (range 0.04 to 21.9 years). The mean?±?SD (servings/wk) of dairy intakes at baseline were: milk?=?6.0?±?6.4; yogurt?=?0.4?±?1.3; cheese?=?2.6?±?3.1; and cream?=?3.4?±?5.5. Participants with medium (>1 and <7 servings/wk) or higher (?7 servings/wk) milk intake tended to have lower hip fracture risk than those with low (?1 serving/wk) intake (high versus low intake HR 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-1.06, p?=?0.078; medium versus low intake HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.36-1.08, p?=?0.071; p trend?=?0.178]. There appeared to be a threshold for milk, with 40% lower risk of hip fracture among those with medium/high milk intake compared with those with low intake (p?=?0.061). A similar threshold was observed for milk?+?yogurt intake (p?=?0.104). These associations were further attenuated after adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density. No significant associations were seen for other dairy foods (p range?=?0.117 to 0.746). These results suggest that greater intakes of milk and milk?+?yogurt may lower risk for hip fracture in older adults through mechanisms that are partially, but not entirely, attributable to effects on bone mineral density. PMID:24760749

Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Tucker, Katherine L; Kiel, Douglas P; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

2014-08-01

331

Observed dietary intake in adults with intellectual disability living in the community  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge is lacking about dietary habits among people with intellectual disability (ID) living in community residences under new living conditions. Objective To describe the dietary habits of individuals with ID living in community residences, focusing on intake of food, energy and nutrients as well as meal patterns. Design Assisted food records and physical activity records over a 3-day observation period for 32 subjects. Results Great variation was observed in daily energy intake (4.9–14 MJ) dispersed across several meals, with on average 26% of the energy coming from in-between-meal consumption. Main energy sources were milk products, bread, meat products, buns and cakes. The daily intake of fruit and vegetables (320±221 g) as well as dietary fiber (21±9.6 g) was generally low. For four vitamins and two minerals, 19–34% of subjects showed an intake below average requirement (AR). The physical activity level (PAL) was low for all individuals (1.4±0.1). Conclusion A regular meal pattern with a relatively high proportion of energy from in-between-meal eating occasions and a low intake of especially fruits were typical of this group of people with ID. However, the total intake of energy and other food items varied a great deal between individuals. Thus, every adult with ID has to be treated as an individual with specific needs. A need for more knowledge about food in general and particularly how fruit and vegetables could be included in cooking as well as encouraged to be eaten as in-between-meals seems imperative in the new living conditions for adults with ID. PMID:19109653

Adolfsson, Paivi; Sydner, Ylva Mattsson; Fjellstrom, Christina; Lewin, Barbro; Andersson, Agneta

2008-01-01

332

Nutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Bariatric surgery, and in particular, gastric bypass, is an increasingly utilized and successful approach for long-term treatment of obesity and amelioration of comorbidities. Nutrient deficiencies after surgery are common and have multiple causes. Preoperative factors include obesity, which appears to be associated with risk for several nutrient deficiencies, and preoperative weight loss. Postoperatively, reduced food intake, suboptimal dietary quality, altered digestion and absorption, and nonadherence with supplementation regimens contribute to risk of deficiency. The most common clinically relevant micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass include thiamine, vitamin B??, vitamin D, iron, and copper. Reports of deficiencies of many other nutrients, some with severe clinical manifestations, are relatively sporadic. Diet and multivitamin use are unlikely to consistently prevent deficiency, thus supplementation with additional specific nutrients is often needed. Though optimal supplement regimens are not yet defined, most micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass currently can be prevented or treated by appropriate supplementation. PMID:23642197

Saltzman, Edward; Karl, J Philip

2013-01-01

333

Effects of dietary fat on appetite and energy intake in health and obesity--oral and gastrointestinal sensory contributions.  

PubMed

While epidemiological studies have revealed a strong positive relationship between the intake of dietary fat with total energy intake and body weight, laboratory-based studies investigating physiological effects of fat have demonstrated that the direct exposure of receptors in the oral cavity and small intestine to fat, specifically fatty acids (FAs), induces potent effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and gut peptide secretion that favor the suppression of appetite and energy intake. Recent studies in humans have demonstrated an association between a decreased ability to detect the presence of FAs in the oral cavity with increased energy intake and body mass index suggesting that impairment of oral fat sensing mechanisms may contribute to overeating and obesity. Furthermore, while sensing of the presence of FAs in the small intestine results in the modulation of GI motility, stimulation of GI hormone release, including cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY), and suppression of subsequent energy intake, recent data indicate that these effects of fat are attenuated in individuals with reduced oral sensitivity to fat, and following consumption of a high-fat diet. This review will focus on emerging knowledge about the physiological mechanisms that sense the presence of fat in both the oral cavity and the small intestine, and environmental factors, such as high-fat diet exposure and energy restriction, that may modulate sensitivity to nutrients, and thereby contribute to the regulation of appetite and body weight. PMID:21596051

Little, Tanya J; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

2011-09-26

334

A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children.  

PubMed

The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the diets of healthy people. The reference values include both recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). The ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. The term "tolerable intake" was chosen to avoid the implication of a possible beneficial effect. Instead, the term is intended to connote a level of intake that can, with a high probability, be tolerated biologically. Yet, with intakes above the ULs, the risk of adverse health effects increases. Thus, there is no obvious benefit for healthy individuals to consume quantities of nutrients above the UL. PMID:16424135

Zlotkin, Stanley

2006-02-01

335

Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.  

PubMed

To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution. PMID:20163602

Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

2009-08-01

336

Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens  

PubMed Central

Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ?90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

2013-01-01

337

Dietary Intakes and Physical Activity among Preschool Aged Children living in Rural American Indian Communities Prior to a Family-based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective To report dietary intake and physical activity among preschool-aged children living in rural American Indian (AI) communities prior to a family-based healthy lifestyle intervention and to compare data to current age-specific recommendations. Subjects/Design One hundred thirty-five preschool-aged children, living in rural AI communities, provided diet and physical activity data, prior to a two-year randomized healthy lifestyle intervention. Three 24-hour dietary recalls assessed nutrient and food and added sugar intake, which were compared to the National Academy of Science's Daily Reference Intakes, the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPyramid, and the American Heart Association recommendations. Time watching television and moderate plus vigorous activity (MVA) was compared to the MyPyramid and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations. Statistical analysis Nutrient, food group, added sugar intake and time watching television and in MVA were compared to recommendations by computing the percent of recommendations met. Nonparametric tests identified differences in diet and physical activity among age groups and normal and overweight children (body mass index < 85th and ? 85th percentile). Results Average nutrient intakes met recommendations whereas food group intakes did not. Mean fruit and vegetable intakes for two to three year-olds were 0.36 cups/day fruit and 0.45 cups/day vegetables and, for four to five year-olds, 0.33 cups/day fruit and 0.48 cups/day vegetables. Both age groups reported consuming more than 50 grams of added sugar, exceeding the recommendation of 16 grams. Overweight versus normal weight children reported significantly more sweetened beverage intake (8.0 ± 0.10 vs. 5.28 ± 0.08 ounces/day, p < 0.01) On average, all children reported watching television 2.0 hours/day and significant differences were observed for total television viewing and non-viewing time between overweight and normal weight children (8.52 ± 0.6 vs. 6.54 ± 0.6 hours/day, p < 0.01). All children engaged in less than 20 minutes/day of MVA. Conclusions Overall, children in this sample did not meet MyPyramid recommendations for fruits or vegetables and exceed added sugar intake recommendations. Viewing and non-viewing television time was highly prevalent along with low levels of MVA. The HCSF intervention has the potential for improving nutrition and physical activity among preschool children living in rural AI communities. PMID:20630162

LaRowe, Tara L.; Adams, Alexandra K.; Jobe, Jared B.; Cronin, Kate A.; Vannatter, SuAnne M.; Prince, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

338

Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803

2014-01-01

339

Carbohydrate Intake Considerations for Young Athletes  

PubMed Central

Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes. Key pointsAthletic girls show lower carbohydrate intakes compared to boys.Substrate oxidation during exercise appears to be maturity related, fat being the preferred fuel for oxidation in younger athletic children.Children appear to have lower endogenous but greater exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise.Carbohydrate intake during exercise appears to show no additional performance improvement in young athletes. Perhaps fat intake or a combination of both nutrients may be a better approach for nutrient supplementation during exercise.Gastric emptying physiology of young athletes is not well known. Adult sport drinks showed a tendency to delay gastric emptying in young athletes during exercise at higher intensities.More research is needed in paediatric sports nutrition. PMID:24149421

Montfort-Steiger, Veronica; Williams, Craig A.

2007-01-01

340

Recommended Amounts of Total red and orange vegetables  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total red and orange vegetables Table B4. Total red and orange vegetables: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting

341

Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.

2013-01-01

342

The endocrinology of food intake.  

PubMed

Many questions must be considered with regard to consuming food, including when to eat, what to eat and how much to eat. Although eating is often thought to be a homeostatic behaviour, little evidence exists to suggest that eating is an automatic response to an acute shortage of energy. Instead, food intake can be considered as an integrated response over a prolonged period of time that maintains the levels of energy stored in adipocytes. When we eat is generally determined by habit, convenience or opportunity rather than need, and meals are preceded by a neurally-controlled coordinated secretion of numerous hormones that prime the digestive system for the anticipated caloric load. How much we eat is determined by satiation hormones that are secreted in response to ingested nutrients, and these signals are in turn modified by adiposity hormones that indicate the fat content of the body. In addition, many nonhomeostatic factors, including stress, learning, palatability and social influences, interact with other controllers of food intake. If a choice of food is available, what we eat is based on pleasure and past experience. This article reviews the hormones that mediate and influence these processes. PMID:23877425

Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

2013-10-01

343

Intake and food sources of ascorbic acid in China.  

PubMed

Investigating differences in the intake of nutrients is of potential importance in characterizing diet-disease relationships and determining the level of intake necessary for optimal health. The intake and food sources of ascorbic acids were examined in an ecologic study of 64 rural counties in the People's Republic of China and compared with data reported for the United States. The mean (± SEM) and median individual intakes of ascorbic acid for all counties combined were 140 (± 88) and 128 mg/day, respectively (range 6-429 mg/day). This compares to a mean intake of 99 mg/day for adult men and 84 mg/day for adult women in the United States. The foods that contributed the most to ascorbic acid intake were sweet potatoes (37.2%), cabbages (23.9%), leafy green vegetables (10.6%), radishes (8.8%), and hot peppers (6.5%). In contrast to the US, where fruits supply 43% of ascorbic acid to the diet, fruits contributed a relatively small amount to overall ascorbic acid intake in rural China ( 1%). The wide range of ascorbic acid intake among counties resulted, in part, from differences in the availability of fresh produce which is grown and consumed locally. Despite this, the mean intake was still greater than the US because of the large contribution of plant products (approximately 90%), especially tubers and other vegetables, to the diet. PMID:24351205

Hensrud, D D; Heimburger, D C; Chen, J; Li, M; Wang, G

1994-03-01

344

[Salt intake in children].  

PubMed

Very early in life, sodium intake correlates with blood pressure level. This warrants limiting the consumption of sodium by children. However, evidence regarding exact sodium requirements in that age range is lacking. This article focuses on the desirable sodium intake according to age as suggested by various groups of experts, on the levels of sodium intake recorded in consumption surveys, and on the public health strategies implemented to reduce salt consumption in the pediatric population. Practical recommendations are given by the Committee on nutrition of the French Society of Pediatrics in order to limit salt intake in children. PMID:24686038

Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Hankard, R; Goulet, O; Simeoni, U; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M

2014-05-01

345

Organizing a grazing route to motivate intake on coarse resources  

E-print Network

Rumin, 1, 225-228). The diversity of dietary choices did affect total intake. We can model a relation, but also on the animal's capacity to become part of the social life of the herd, in other words, to meet between this total intake and the difference in choices between plant species at different times along

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Dairy-food, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D intake and endometriosis: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The etiology of endometriosis is poorly understood, and few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Dairy foods and some nutrients can modulate inflammatory and immune factors, which are altered in women with endometriosis. We investigated whether intake of dairy foods, nutrients concentrated in dairy foods, and predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were associated with incident laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis among 70,556 US women in Nurses' Health Study II. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. A score for predicted 25(OH)D level was calculated for each participant. During 737,712 person-years of follow-up over a 14-year period (1991-2005), 1,385 cases of incident laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were reported. Intakes of total and low-fat dairy foods were associated with a lower risk of endometriosis. Women consuming more than 3 servings of total dairy foods per day were 18% less likely to be diagnosed with endometriosis than those reporting 2 servings per day (rate ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.95; P(trend) = 0.03). In addition, predicted plasma 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with endometriosis. Women in the highest quintile of predicted vitamin D level had a 24% lower risk of endometriosis than women in the lowest quintile (rate ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97; P(trend) = 0.004). Our findings suggest that greater predicted plasma 25(OH)D levels and higher intake of dairy foods are associated with a decreased risk of endometriosis. PMID:23380045

Harris, Holly R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Malspeis, Susan; Willett, Walter C; Missmer, Stacey A

2013-03-01

347

Nutrient patterns and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Although Iran is a high-risk country for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the contribution of overall nutrient intakes to this high incidence rate is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nutrient patterns and risk of ESCC in Iran. Forty-seven patients with ESCC and 96 frequency-matched hospital controls underwent private interviews, and dietary habits were collected using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted and two major nutrient patterns were retained; factor 1 (high in pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, vitamin B(6), magnesium, folate, thiamin, copper, carbohydrate, vitamin K, niacin, ?-tocopherol, zinc, total fiber, fluoride, and polyunsaturated fatty acids) and factor 2 (high in saturated fatty acid, biotin, selenium, monounsaturated fatty acids, riboflavin, sodium, fat, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, protein, iron, vitamin E, manganese, vitamin D, and vitamin B(12)). Factor 2 was inversely associated with ESCC (OR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01-0.28; P = 0.008), whereas no significant association was found for factor 1 (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.11-1.82). The results of the present study suggested a possible role for a nutrient pattern similar to factor 2 in reducing the risk of ESCC. PMID:21966937

Hajizadeh, B; Jessri, M; Akhoondan, M; Moasheri, S M; Rashidkhani, B

2012-07-01

348

Consideration of nutrient levels in studies of cognitive decline.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest that certain micronutrients may improve or maintain cognitive function. Consistent demonstration of benefits in intervention trials has been elusive, possibly because most intervention trials do not select subjects on the basis of nutrient status and/or intake. The objective of this review was to identify levels of intake or markers of nutrient insufficiency that define at-risk older adult populations to determine whether these populations will benefit from nutritional intervention. This review examines evidence from interventional and prospective observational studies that evaluated the effects of folate, vitamin B12 , and vitamin E on cognitive decline in older populations. The studies suggest that supplementation may protect against cognitive decline when serum folate is <12?nmol/L or vitamin E intake is <6.1?mg/day. The literature is inadequate to define a level for vitamin B12 . Epidemiological studies investigating the relations of nutrients to cognitive decline should consider nutrient status in the reporting and interpretation of results. Randomized trials should design inclusion and exclusion criteria to select individuals with low intake and to disallow multivitamin intake. These recommendations may be useful for the design of valid trials and to advance the current understanding of nutrition and neurological diseases. PMID:25323849

Barnes, Jennifer L; Tian, Min; Edens, Neile K; Morris, Martha Clare

2014-11-01

349

Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

2012-01-01

350

Food intake, nutritional anthropometry and blood chemical parameters in 3 selected Dutch schoolchildren populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major health problems in populations of economically developed countries at the present time are of a chronic nature with, as their main clinical characteristic, the frequently occurring premature coronary heart disease. When food intake data are to be evaluated, it would be incorrect in this situation to devote attention chiefly to the intake of essential nutrients. Instead, investigations into

Haar van der F; D. Kromhout

1978-01-01

351

Australian Food Sources and Intakes of Omega–6 and Omega–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Both ?–6 and ?–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognised as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet we have little information on the extent to which different food sources contribute to their intake. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the daily intakes and food sources of ?–6 and ?–3 PUFAs in our local community. Methods:

Tennille E. Ollis; Barbara J. Meyer; Peter R. C. Howe

1999-01-01

352

Geographical distribution of cerebrovascular disease mortality and food intakes in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focusses on an analysis of the relationship between cerebrovascular disease mortality and food intake. For this purpose, standardized mortality ratios(SMRs) from cerebrovascular disease were calculated for 3341 basic administrative units (wards, cities, towns and villages) between 1969 and 1978 in Japan. The major nutrient intakes and 30 selected food items were obtained from the 1974-1974 Ministry of

Toshitaka Omura; Shunichi Hisamatsu; Yukio Takizawa; Masumi Minowa; Hiroshi Yanagawa; Itsuzo Shigematsu

1987-01-01

353

Estimated healthcare savings associated with adequate dairy food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical literature that has coalesced during the past two to three decades has identified adequate intake of nutrients from dairy foods as a common factor in the reduction of the disease burden of several common medical conditions. These include obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, kidney stones, certain outcomes of pregnancy, and some cancers. Treatment of these disorders, particularly cardiovascular,

David A McCarron; Robert P Heaney

2004-01-01

354

Terpenes and carbohydrate source influence rumen fermentation, digestibility, intake, and preference in sheep.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that toxins and nutrients in foods interact to influence foraging behavior by herbivores. Based on this hypothesis we predicted that 1) terpenes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) influence intake and preference in sheep for diets varying in sources of nonstructural (barley grain) and structural (sugar beet pulp) carbohydrates, and 2) these effects are due to the differential effects of terpenes on fermentation products and apparent digestibility of each class of carbohydrates. Lambs were fed 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with varying proportions of the same ingredients (beet pulp- and barley grain-based diet) or offered a choice between the 2 diets; all feeds were fed without and with terpenes, in consecutive periods. We also compared intake and preference of the beet pulp-and barley-based diets before and after the lambs ate a meal of sagebrush. Finally, we assessed the effect of terpenes on ruminal variables and in vivo digestibility. Lambs ate less when fed beet pulp or when they were offered a choice of diets with terpenes (P < 0.001), and intake of the beet pulp-based diet was the most affected (P < 0.05). Lambs preferred the beet pulp-to the grain-based diet with terpenes, but their preference reversed when terpenes were removed from the diets (P < 0.05). When lambs were offered both diets, intake and preference did not differ (P > 0.20) before eating sagebrush, but they preferred the beet pulp-based diet after eating sagebrush (P < 0.05). Intake of sagebrush did not differ among groups consuming the test diets (P = 0.21). Addition of terpenes to both diets increased the digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF and decreased concentrations of total VFA and acetate (P < 0.05). Terpenes also depressed butyrate concentration in the barley-based diet (P < 0.05). Propionate concentrations were not affected by terpenes in either feed (P = 0.63). In summary, the predominant type of feed ingredient (beet pulp, grain) ingested with terpenes influenced fermentation products, intake, and preference in lambs. The source of energy from supplements, or other plants in the diet, is likely to influence intake and preference for sagebrush in sheep foraging on rangelands. Moreover, ingesting terpenes from sagebrush may also influence intake and preference for other plant species or supplements. PMID:16908651

Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Olson, K C

2006-09-01

355

Dietary Sources of Nutrients among US Adults, 1989 to 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify major food sources of 27 nutrients and dietary constituents for US adults.Design Single 24-hour dietary recalls were used to assess intakes. From 3,970 individual foods reported, 112 groups were created on the basis of similarities in nutrient content or use. Food mixtures were disaggregated using the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food grouping system.Subjects\\/setting A nationally representative

AMY F SUBAR; SUSAN M KREBS-SMITH; ANNETTA COOK; LISA L KAHLE

1998-01-01

356

Fat intake and injury in female runners  

PubMed Central

Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women. PMID:18173851

Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

2008-01-01

357

Usual Intake of Poultry  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

358

Usual Intake of Yogurt  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Yogurt Table A35. Yogurt: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.1 (0.01) 0.0 (0.00) 0.0

359

Usual Intake of Cheese  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Cheese Table A36. Cheese: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1

360

Usual Intake of Tomatoes  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Tomatoes Table A10. Tomatoes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2 (0.01) 0.1 (0.01) 0.1

361

Root nutrient foraging.  

PubMed

During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

Giehl, Ricardo F H; von Wirén, Nicolaus

2014-10-01

362

Changes in total carbon and nutrients in soil profiles and accumulation in biomass after a 30-year rotation of Pinus radiata on podzolized sands: Impacts of intensive harvesting on soil resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of plantations of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) in southern Australia have been established on podzolized coastal sands with low nutrient reserves. Inter-rotational management of the forest floor and harvesting residues has been shown to be critical to maintain the productive capacity of these soils. In 1974 a study was initiated at the end of the

Peter Hopmans; Stephen R. Elms

2009-01-01

363

Food Patterns and Nutrient Intake in Relation to Childhood Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Childhood and adolescence are pivotal periods in human life characterized, among others by intense metabolic rate, continuous\\u000a body growth and development, physical and psychological changes, and the onset of habits that will probably continue in later\\u000a ages. All these characteristics may confer high vulnerability in relation to the risk of obesity development in predisposed\\u000a subjects. Body composition and psycho-social changes

Gerardo Rodríguez; Agneta Sjöberg; Lauren Lissner; Luis A. Moreno

364

Original article Biomass and nutrient cycling of a highly productive  

E-print Network

Original article Biomass and nutrient cycling of a highly productive Corsican pine stand on former 14 April; accepted 22 September 1997) Abstract - Biomass and nutrient cycling were examined in a 62 on a coarse and dry sandy soil with low exchangeable nutrient pools. Total aboveground biomass was estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

365

The beverage intake questionnaire: determining initial validity and reliability.  

PubMed

Consuming energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) that estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed across 19 beverage categories. Participants (N=105; aged 39+/-2 years) underwent assessments of height, weight, body mass index, and dietary intake using 4-day food intake records from June 2008 to June 2009. The BEVQ was completed at two additional visits (BEVQ1, BEVQ2). Urine samples were collected to objectively determine total fluid intake and encourage accurate self-reporting. Validity was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 with food intake record results; reliability was assessed by comparing BEVQ1 and BEVQ2. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, paired samples t tests, and independent samples t tests. Self-reported water and total beverage intake (in grams) were not different between the BEVQ1 and food intake records (mean difference 129+/-77 g [P=0.096] and 61+/-106 g [P=0.567], respectively). Total beverage and sugar-sweetened beverage energy intake were significantly different, although mean differences were small (63 and 44 kcal, respectively). Daily consumption (in grams) of water (r=0.53), total beverages (r=0.46), and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.49) determined by the BEVQ1 were correlated with reported intake determined by the food intake record, as was energy from total beverages (r=0.61) and sugar-sweetened beverages (r=0.59) (all P values <0.001). Reliability was demonstrated, with correlations (P<0.001) detected between BEVQ1 and BEVQ2 results. The BEVQ is a valid, reliable, and rapid self-administered dietary assessment tool. PMID:20656099

Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L; Estabrooks, Paul A; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M

2010-08-01

366

Biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient loading by riverine input into estuarine systems has increased by 6–50 times for the N load from pristine conditions to present, whereas a 18–180 times increase has been observed in the P load. Reductions in the ratio of N to P delivery has also occurred with time. In a review of nutrient limitation in estuarine systems, it is shown

Daniel J. Conley

1999-01-01

367

Nutrient analysis methodology: a review of the DINE developmental literature.  

PubMed

In 1986, a collaborative effort among professional associations resulted in the publication of Worksite Nutrition: A Decision Maker's Guide (The American Diabetic Association, 1986). The booklet describes nutrient analysis methodology as a good "promotional gimmick". The development of DINE was an effort to move nutrient analysis from the gimmick level to a viable educational component level. A few examples of the innovative effects of this methodology are (1) individuals' using their own data can learn energy balance by monitoring their food intake and physical activity, (2) individuals can learn the Dietary Goals for the United States (U. S. Senate Select Subcommittee on Nutrition and Human Needs, 1977) and are able graphically to compare how their diet approximates or is different from these goals, and (3) individuals can also learn, from verifications of their own food records, which of their food selections were high in calories, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, and low in complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber. Alternative healthful food choices are identified and the effects of reducing or increasing portion sizes is described. The DINE development team has been working for the past eight years to decrease nutrient analysis variability so that the procedure can be used as an effective independent measure to improve nutritional behavior. Research has been conducted related to database validity and reliability. Formative and process evaluations have been conducted to improve interactive aspects of the software and related manuals and books. DINE procedures have been modified for ease of use, in general, and specifically for elementary students and university students. PMID:2516071

Dennison, D; Dennison, K F

1989-12-01

368

Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. Objective: How RRVfood is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Design: Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRVfood, the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. Results: The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRVprop) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRVprop was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. Conclusion: These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117. PMID:21543545

Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

2011-01-01

369

PHOSPHORUS CONTAINING FOOD ADDITIVES AND THE ACCURACY OF NUTRIENT DATABASES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RENAL PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Objective Phosphorus containing additives are increasingly added to food products. We sought to determine the potential impact of these additives. We focused on chicken products as an example. Methods We purchased a variety of chicken products, prepared them according to package directions, and performed laboratory analyses to determine their actual phosphorus content. We used ESHA Food Processor SQL Software to determine the expected phosphorus content of each product. Results Of 38 chicken products, 35 (92%) had phosphorus containing additives listed among their ingredients. For every category of chicken products containing additives, the actual phosphorus content was greater than the content expected from nutrient database. For example, actual phosphorus content exceeded expected phosphorus content by an average of 84 mg/100g for breaded breast strips. There was also a great deal of variation within each category. For example, the difference between actual and expected phosphorus content ranged from 59 to 165 mg/100g for breast patties. Two 100 g servings of additive containing products contain an average of 440 mg of phosphorus, or about half the total daily recommended intake for dialysis patients. Conclusion Phosphorus containing additives significantly increase the amount of phosphorus in chicken products. Available nutrient databases do not reflect this higher phosphorus content, and the variation between similar products makes it impossible for patients and dietitians to accurately estimate phosphorus content. We recommend that dialysis patients limit their intake of additive containing products and that the phosphorus content of food products be included on nutrition facts labels. PMID:17720105

Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

2007-01-01

370

Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  

PubMed

A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

2013-10-01

371

What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study  

PubMed Central

Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

2012-01-01

372

Nutrients by the Numbers: Using Math to Explore Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students strengthen their percentage and fraction skills by comparing the nutritional values of similar food products. They individually calculate their own daily intake of various nutrients and compare their diets to recommended daily percentages. Discussion questions, additional activities, and suggestions for assessment are included with the lesson plan.

Dekorne, Clayton; Khan, Javaid

2002-10-03

373

Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less than 15% of the prescribed intakes. Growth velocity between the age when full EN was achieved and 36 weeks' PMA was 6.7% lower than Ziegler's estimate. One-third to one-half of the infants have EUGR at 36 weeks' PMA.

Allevato, Anthony J.

374

Usual Intake of Eggs  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Eggs Table A28. Eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.4 (0.03) 0.1 (0.02) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2

375

Usual Intake of Meat  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

376

Usual Intake of Oils  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Oils Table A37. Oils: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 grams Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 11.3 (0.36) 5.2 (0.40) 6.2 (0.38) 8.2

377

Maternal Calcium Intake and Offspring Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

Background Few data exist on the intergenerational influence of calcium intake during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. Methods and Results As part of the ongoing US prospective cohort study Project Viva, we analyzed 4091 Dinamap blood pressure measurements from 936 six-month-old infants whose mothers had completed food frequency questionnaires during the second trimester of pregnancy. We used mixed models to estimate effects of maternal calcium intake on offspring systolic blood pressure. Mean±SD daily total maternal calcium intake was 1494±523 mg, consisting of 1230±486 mg from foods and 264±191 mg from supplements. Mean±SD 6-month blood pressure was 89.9±12.9 mm Hg. From bottom to top quartile of dietary calcium from foods adjusted for energy intake and measurement conditions, mean infant systolic blood pressures were 91.0, 90.2, 90.9, and 90.2 mm Hg (trend P=0.62). From calcium supplements only, the values were 91.5, 90.2, 90.4, and 88.4 mm Hg (trend P=0.006). After further adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, dietary, social, and economic variables, the decrease in 6-month systolic blood pressure was ?3.0 mm Hg (95% CI, ?4.9 to ?1.1) for each 500-mg increment of maternal supplemental calcium intake during pregnancy. We did not find evidence of effect modification by maternal vitamin D or potassium intake or by infant body mass index. First-trimester calcium intake was not associated with offspring blood pressure. Conclusions These observational data suggest that supplementing maternal midgestational calcium intake may lower offspring blood pressure, thus helping to prevent hypertension in the next generation. PMID:15451777

Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Lipshultz, Steven E.

2007-01-01

378

The Association between Dietary Intake of Folate and Physical Activity with Psychological Dimensions of Depressive Symptoms among Students from Iran  

PubMed Central

Depression in students is a major public health problem. Although several risk factors associated with depression have been identified, the cause of depression is still not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that physical activity and nutrient intake, such as increased levels of B vitamins in serum, decrease symptoms of depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity and dietary intake of vitamins B6, B9, and B12 and symptoms of depression among postgraduate students. The results of this study suggest that intake of vitamin B9 may modulate the total score of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and two subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect and interpersonal difficulties. This study also showed that moderate/high levels of physical activity were inversely and significantly associated with symptoms of depression (total scores) and three subscales of the CES-D including depressive affect, positive affect, and somatic complaints. PMID:24324965

Yary, Teymoor

2013-01-01

379

US adolescent food intake trends from 1965 to 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo examine adolescent food consumption trends in the United States with important chronic disease implications.METHODSAnalysis of dietary intake data from four nationally representative United States Department of Agriculture surveys of individuals 11–18 years of age (n = 12 498).RESULTSFrom 1965 to 1996, a considerable shift in the adolescent diet occurred. Total energy intake decreased as did the proportion of energy

Claude Cavadini; Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Barry M Popkin

2000-01-01

380

Haemodynamic Effects of Food Intake during Haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is some doubt whether food intake during haemodialysis (HD) is detrimental to haemodynamic stability. Methods: We studied 20 stable non-diabetic HD patients during a single session. A standard meal was given 45 min into dialysis. Relative blood volume (RBV), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and extracellular fluid (ECF) resistance were monitored continuously. Total protein and albumin

Murugan Sivalingam; Anindya Banerjee; Gail Nevett; Ken Farrington

2008-01-01

381

Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on a total of 120 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Partially purified CCK was injected intraperitoneally into fasted Ss prior to food presentation. The hormone produced a large dose-related suppression of intake of solid and liquid diets. Identical doses of the synthetic terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produced identical results. An effective dose of CCK did

James Gibbs; Robert C. Young; Gerard P. Smith

1973-01-01

382

Dietary Flavonoids: Intake, Health Effects and Bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal studies. An estimation of the total flavonoid intake is difficult, because only limited data on food contents are

P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

1999-01-01

383

Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus  

PubMed Central

The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

2013-01-01

384

The impact of dairy product consumption on nutrient adequacy and weight of Head Start mothers  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the relationship of dairy product consumption on diet quality and weight of low-income women. Setting Head Start centres in Texas and Alabama, USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Women were divided into dairy consumption groups: ?1, >1 to ?2 and >2 servings/d. Nutrient intake/diet quality was determined by calculating the percentage meeting the Estimated Average Requirement, guidelines for fat and added sugar, and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR). Mean BMI was compared for the dairy consumption groups. Subjects Mothers with children in Head Start; 609 African-Americans (43 %), Hispanic-Americans (32 %) and European-Americans (24 %). Results Fifteen per cent of participants consumed >2 servings of dairy products and 57% consumed ?1 serving of dairy daily. Intakes of protein, vitamin D, riboflavin, P, Ca, K, Mg and Zn were significantly higher in those consuming >2 servings/d. Total SFA were higher and added sugars were lower in those consuming >2 servings of dairy products daily compared with those consuming ?2 servings/d. Forty-one per cent of women consuming >2 servings of dairy daily had MAR scores under 85 compared with 94% consuming ?1 serving/d. Mean BMI was 30·36 kg/m2; there was no association between BMI and dairy product consumption. Conclusions Consumption of dairy products was low and was not associated with BMI in this low-income population. Higher levels of dairy product consumption were associated with higher MAR scores and improved intakes of Ca, K and Mg, which have been identified as shortfall nutrients in the diets of adults. PMID:19000345

O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Franklin, Frank A

2009-01-01

385

Effects of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent of nutrient digestion in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Four lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of grain source and fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion in the rumen and in the intestine, and milk production. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used; two grains (barley and hull-less barley) were combined with and without enzyme. The enzyme supplement (Pro-Mote; Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE) contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities and was applied daily to the total mixed diet. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet, but starch intake was greatest when hull-less barley was fed. Starch from hull-less barley was more digestible in the rumen and in the total tract than was starch from barley, but opposite results occurred for fiber digestion, indicating that hull-less barley depressed fiber digestion. As a result, cows fed the hull-less barley diets tended to produce more milk with a higher milk lactose content than did cows fed the barley diets. Enzyme supplementation had minimal effects on ruminal digestion but increased nutrient digestibility in the total tract and the proportion of microbial N in nonammonia N. Consequently, cows fed diets supplemented with enzyme had a higher milk protein content and tended to produce more 4% fat-corrected milk than did control cows. These results indicate that the use of hull-less barley rather than barley increased the digestible energy intake of dairy cows, resulting in higher milk production. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme mixture enhanced feed digestibility and milk production. PMID:10068959

Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

1999-02-01

386

The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.  

PubMed

The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and improved G:F rate in relation to other treatments. The MPG and MPI programs showed values for ADFI, ADG, G:F, final BW, and nitrogen and phosphorus retention that were similar to those obtained for the 3P feeding program. However, compared with the 3P treatment, the MPI feeding program reduced the standardized ileal digestible lysine intake by 27%, the estimated nitrogen excretion by 22%, and the estimated phosphorus excretion by 27% (P < 0.05). Organs, carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition. PMID:25057024

Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

2014-09-01

387

News from the Women's Health Initiative: Reducing Total Fat Intake May Have Small Effect on Risk of Breast Cancer, No Effect on Risk of Colorectal Cancer, Heart Disease, or Stroke  

Cancer.gov

Following an eating pattern lower in total fat did not significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer, heart disease, or stroke, and did not reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in healthy postmenopausal women, according to the latest clinical trial results from the Women's Health Initiative.

388

Effects of chito-oligosaccharide supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum composition in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A total of 196 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a study conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of chito-oligosaccharide (COS) on growth, nutrient digestibility, and serum composition. The experimental diets consisted of an unsupplemented control diet based on corn, soybean meal, and fish meal or similar diets supplemented with either chlortetracycline, 50 mg/kg of COS, or 100 mg/kg of COS. Each treatment was fed to 7 replicate pens of birds, with 7 birds per pen. Broiler performance, nutrient digestibility, cecal microbial concentrations, and serum indices were measured at the end of the starter (d 21) and grower phases (d 42). During the starter period and overall, broilers fed 50 or 100 mg/kg of COS had better (P<0.05) average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion than the control birds. The performance of birds fed chlortetracycline was generally intermediate between that of the control and the 2 COS treatments. Compared with the birds in the control or chlortetracycline treatments, the birds receiving 100 mg/kg of COS had better nutrient digestibility of DM, energy, calcium, and phosphorus; higher (P<0.05) concentrations of cecal Lactobacillus; and lower (P<0.05) serum triglyceride and total cholesterol during the starter phase. During the grower phase, the birds fed 100 mg/kg of COS had higher (P<0.05) calcium digestibility and CP retention than those fed the chlortetracycline treatment, and lower concentrations of cecal Escherichia coli than birds in the control treatment. The serum growth hormone level in birds fed 50 mg/kg of COS was higher (P<0.05) than in the other treatments. The birds fed 100 mg/kg of COS had lower (P<0.05) serum triglyceride, higher (P<0.05) serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher serum total protein content than birds in the other treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with COS appeared to improve the average daily gain of broilers by increasing the average daily feed intake and nutrient digestibility and modulating the concentrations of cecal microbial flora. Additionally, COS increased serum protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased serum triglyceride. PMID:17495080

Li, X J; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Liu, P; Wang, L; Shen, Y B; Jung, S C; Lee, H S

2007-06-01

389

Estimating nutrient surplus and nutrient use efficiency from farm characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on nutrient losses from agricultural systems should try to relate these losses to farm characteristics. This was done for private farms in two districts in Poland. Using data from a farm survey, nutrient surpluses and Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of outgoing and incoming nutrients) were calculated for nitrogen and phosphorus. Both nutrient surplus and NUE

J. W. A. Langeveld; G. B. Overbosch

1995-01-01

390

Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland  

SciTech Connect

Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)] [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)] [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

2010-08-15

391

Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes  

PubMed Central

Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

2014-01-01

392

Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass (EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides L.) will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of dry matter (DM) ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The objective of this research was to determine whether the fibrous nature of this perennial warm-season grass could be effective in reducing the caloric density and DMI of corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets for replacement dairy heifers. A total of 120 Holstein dairy heifers were blocked by body weight (heavy, 424 ± 15.9 kg; medium, 369 ± 11.8 kg; light, 324 ± 22.4 kg), and then assigned to 15 individual pens containing 8heifers each. Eastern gamagrass forage was harvested, ensiled, and subsequently incorporated into blended corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of the total dietary DM (EGG0, EGG9, EGG18, and EGG27, respectively). These diets were offered during a 105-d evaluation period for ad libitum intake; however, the EGG0 diet also was offered on a limit-fed basis (LF), which was set at 85% of the voluntary intake of EGG0. Serial additions of EGG increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber in blended diets from 39.6 (EGG0) to 48.7% (EGG27), and simultaneously reduced corresponding estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) from 68.2 to 61.3%, and net energy for gain from 1.07 to 0.83 Mcal/kg. Dry matter intakes for all diets offered ad libitum were greater than observed for LF (9.06 vs. 8.07 kg/d); however, DM intakes for diets containing EGG were reduced relative to EGG0 (9.40 vs. 8.94 kg/d). Similarly, intakes of TDN were greater for diets offered for ad libitum intake than for LF (5.84 vs. 5.50 kg/d); however, inclusion of EGG reduced TDN intakes relative to EGG0 (6.41 vs. 5.65 kg/d). This reduction was explained by both linear and quadratic effects of the inclusion rate of EGG in the diet. Over the 105-d trial, total weight gains ranged from 89 kg (0.85 kg/d) for heifers offered EGG27 up to 114 kg (1.09 kg/d) for those offered EGG0. Performance was similar between heifers offered EGG27 and LF diets (0.85 vs. 0.88 kg/d). Eastern gamagrass haylage proved to be a completely nonsortable additive within corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets. It also was effective in limiting the caloric density and DM intake of these diets, as well as undesirable weight gains by dairy heifers. PMID:22901472

Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

2012-10-01

393

Association of arsenic with nutrient elements in rice plants.  

PubMed

Rice is the main cereal crop that feeds half of the world's population, and two thirds of the Chinese population. Arsenic (As) contamination in paddy soil and irrigation water elevates As concentration in rice grains, thus rice consumption is an important As intake route for populations in south and south-east Asia, where rice is the staple food. In addition to direct toxicity of As to human, As may limit the accumulation of micro-nutrients in rice grains, such as selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). These micro-nutrients are essential for humans, while mineral deficiencies, especially iron (Fe) and Zn, are prevalent in China. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions between As and micro-nutrients in rice plants, which is the principal source of these nutrients for people on rice diets. In addition, during the processes of As uptake, translocation and transformation, the status of macro-nutrients (e.g. silicon (Si), phosphors (P), sulfur (S)) are important factors affecting As dynamics in soil-plant systems and As accumulation in rice grains. Recently, synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques have been applied to map the distribution of As and nutrient elements in rice plants, which will aid to understand how As are accumulated, complexed and transported within plants. This paper reviews the interactions between As and macro-nutrients, as well as micro-nutrients in rice plants. PMID:23771154

Duan, Guilan; Liu, Wenju; Chen, Xueping; Hu, Ying; Zhu, Yongguan

2013-06-01

394

Replacing Sweetened Caloric Beverages with Drinking Water Is Associated with Lower Energy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs.Research Methods and Procedures: Secondary

Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Christopher D. Gardner; Barry M. Popkin

2007-01-01

395

The Association of Dietary Intake of Purine-Rich Vegetables, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Dairy with Plasma Urate, in a Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a) food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and purine-rich vegetables; b) related nutrients: lactose, calcium and fructose. Methods A total of 2,076 healthy participants (44% female) from a population-based case-control study in Scotland (1999–2006) were included in this study. Dietary data was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient intake was calculated using FFQ and composition of foods information. Urate concentration was measured in plasma. Results Mean urate concentration was 283.8±72.1 mmol/dL (females: 260.1±68.9 mmol/dL and males: 302.3±69.2 mmol/dL). Using multivariate regression analysis we found that dairy, calcium and lactose intakes were inversely associated with urate (p?=?0.008, p?=?0.003, p?=?0.0007, respectively). Overall SSB consumption was positively associated with urate (p?=?0.008), however, energy-adjusted fructose intake was not associated with urate (p?=?0.66). The intake of purine-rich vegetables was not associated to plasma urate (p?=?0.38). Conclusions Our results suggest that limiting purine-rich vegetables intake for lowering plasma urate may be ineffectual, despite current recommendations. Although a positive association between plasma urate and SSB consumption was found, there was no association with fructose intake, suggesting that fructose is not the causal agent underlying the SSB-urate association. The abundant evidence supporting the inverse association between plasma urate concentration and dairy consumption should be reflected in dietary guidelines for hyperuricemic individuals and gout patients. Further research is needed to establish which nutrients and food products influence plasma urate concentration, to inform the development of evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:22701608