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Background: Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrientintake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrientintake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods: This study is based on 40,108 women
Margaretha Haugen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Jan Alexander; Helle Margrete Meltzer
The effect of different types of calcium supple- ments on totalnutrientintake has not been studied. The effect of dietary calcium supplementation (calcium tablets or skim milk powder) on nutrientintake in 64 postmenopausal women was studied in a 4-y longitudinal study consisting of 2 y of intervention and 2 y of follow-up. Subjects also received advice on how
Although foods are the major source of mineral nutrients in the diet, drinking water can contribute variable fractions of the totalintake. The magnitude of the drinking water contribution, however, has not been characterized because little work has been done to quantify its contribution. The major reason is that drinking water intake is not included in most dietary surveys, and
Joyce Morrissey Donohue; R. D. Charles; O. Abernathy; D. Peter Lassovszky; George Hallberg
To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of glucose tolerance correlated positively with the degree of adiposity but tended to be negatively correlated with total food energy intake and its component nutrients (total carbohydrate, sucrose, and fat). This inverse trend was largely accounted for by highly significant inverse correlations between food energy intake and adiposity, a relation found in both sexes and in all three population samples and which extended across the whole range of nutrientintake and BMI. These findings suggest that greater degrees of adiposity are associated with lower than average food energy intakes and hence lower total energy expenditures. The association of increased adiposity with low food energy consumption may indicate an underlying "low energy throughput" state, and it may be the mechanisms of this, as well as the obesity, that are responsible for disease.
To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrientintake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...
The present study was conducted to document the association between plasma homocysteine levels and the presence of macrovascular angiopathy with food and nutrientintake patterns among patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in Korea. Plasma total homocysteine concentration was analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence detector method in 127 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Logistic regression analyses were performed respectively to study the association of plasma homocysteine levels with clinical and dietary characteristics and macroangiopathy (MA). The average plasma homocysteine level of patients with MA was 14.2 µmol/l, which was significantly higher than that of patients without MA (11.4 µmol/l). The proportions of patients with MA showed a significant difference, being 32.3% in hyperhomocysteinemic (>14.0 µmol/l) patients and 13.5% in others with homocysteine levels lower than 14.0 µmol/l. Odds ratios for macroangiopathy by tertile increase of plasma homocysteine concentration were 1.633 (Q2) and 4.831 (Q3), when adjusted for age, sex, and cigarette smoking. Patients with MA consumed reduced amounts of vitamin B1, B2, and folate. The results indicate that the plasma homocysteine levels are significantly increased in NIDDM patients who have macroangiopathy. Dietary management such as increased fruits and vegetables and decreased potatoes and starches might be beneficial for the prevention of macroangiopathy in diabetic patients.
The relationship between genetic and the environment represents a pathway to better understand individual variations in nutrition intake and food preferences. However, the present literature is weakened somewhat by methodological flaws (e.g., overreliance on self-report questionnaires), discrepancies in statistical approaches, and inconsistent findings. Little research on this topic to date has included examination of micronutrient intake. The purpose of this study is to improve the existing literature on genetic and environmental influences on energy and nutrientintake by addressing these gaps. Twin pairs (N = 358; age 11-13 years) provided 3-day food intake diaries, which were assessed for intake of total energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. Structural equation modeling revealed that genetic influences accounted for a significant portion of the total variance in total energy (48 %), macronutrients (35-45 %), minerals (45 %), and vitamins (21 %). Consistent with previous studies, the shared environment appeared to contribute little to nutritional intake. Findings on vitamin and mineral intake are novel and are particularly beneficial for further research on the contribution of micronutrients to individual physical health status. Better understanding of the linkage between genes, environment, and nutritional intake and deficiencies can clarify behavioral and physical outcomes, potentially informing risk reduction, primary prevention, and intervention strategies. PMID:23055091
Liu, Jianghong; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura
LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the role of breakfast in the diets of Americans including contribution to daily food and nutrientintake.The nutritional role of breakfast in American diets was examined by computing mean food and nutrientintakes from breakfast and the total diet, from food intake records from the USDA's 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The study
Providing all the critical nutrients during pregnancy is essential for the mother's and baby's health. Nutrition plays an important role in the outcome of pregnancy. Low birthweight (LBW), which is a common cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the United States, may be reduced if all the essential nutrients are available in sufficient amounts in the diets of pregnant
J. Arena; E. Kilbashian; Y. Labita; L. Torres; S. Wunderlich
No observational study has examined whether cancer-related biomarkers are associated with diet in Japanese. We therefore assessed sex-specific food and nutrientintakes according to serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, TGF-b1, total SOD activity and sFas levels, under a cross-sectional study of 10,350 control subjects who answered the food frequency questionnaire in the first-wave nested case-control study within the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. For both men and women, IGF-I levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, fruits, green tea, calcium and vitamin C. IGF-II levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and miso soup, and lower intakes of rice, coffee and carbohydrate. IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher intakes of milk, yogurt, fruits and vitamin C, and lower intakes of rice, energy, protein, carbohydrate, sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. TGF-b1 levels were associated with lower intakes of coffee intakes, and higher intakes of miso soup and sodium. Total SOD activity levels were associated with lower intakes of most nutrients other than energy, carbohydrate, iron, copper, manganese, retinol equivalents, vitamin A, B2, B12, niacin, folic acid, vitamin C and fish fat. sFas levels were associated with higher intakes of manganese and folic acids. The results of the present study should help to account for findings on those biomarkers regarding risks of cancer and other lifestyle-related diseases in terms of dietary confounding as causality. PMID:20553076
To study the role of nutritional factors in the genesis of diabetes, estimations of blood sugar concentration, food intake, and adiposity (as body mass index; BMI) were carried out on three normal population samples--namely, 961 employees of Beecham Ltd, 1005 employees of the Greater London Council, and 1488 middle-aged male civil servants (Whitehall study). Blood sugar concentrations and indices of
The nutrientintakes of 146 young girls in the age group of 10-16 years studying in a government school in Jaipur city was assessed. The mean intakes of energy, protein, total fats, calcium, iron, carotenes, vitamin A, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid were below the RDAs, except for thiamin and folic acid intakes. The mean intakes of pulses, green leafy
The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy. PMID:2705801
Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J
The diets of 20 children with cystic fibrosis were analysed for energy and nutrient content with simultaneous measurement of energy losses in stools. Median energy intakes were in excess of the WHO estimated daily requirements (118.2%) when expressed as MJ/kg/24 hours, the excess almost accounted for by energy losses in the stools. When expressed as MJ/24 hours, however, median energy intakes were 98.7% of that estimated for normal children of median weight for age. Compared with recently published data for normal school children the fat content of the diet was reduced (30.0%) as were intakes of iron and zinc. Children whose whole milk intakes were high had the greatest amount of fat and energy in their diets and were able to absorb energy in excess of that recommended. We conclude that many children with cystic fibrosis are still on low fat diets and whole milk is the single most useful food for the provision of extra dietary fat and energy.
Buchdahl, R M; Fulleylove, C; Marchant, J L; Warner, J O; Brueton, M J
Objective To document nutrient and food group serving intakes from food sources among Latina subgroups living in the same geographical area. Design A cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food group serving intakes were assessed by means of a 24 h recall administered immediately after a prenatal survey. Setting Hartford, CT, USA. Subjects A total of 233 low-income pregnant Latinas. For analyses, Latinas were classified into two groups on the basis of self-reported ethnic identity: Puerto Ricans and non-Puerto Rican Latinas. Results Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely than non-Puerto Rican Latinas to be more acculturated and to consume foods (i.e. processed meat, cheese, soft drinks) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fat, SFA, MUFA, trans fatty acids) that have been implicated in the development of chronic diseases. By contrast, non-Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely to consume foods (i.e. fruits, dark green/yellow vegetables, tomatoes, non-starchy vegetables) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fibre, vegetable protein, folate, ?-carotene) that promote health when compared with Puerto Rican Latinas. Conclusions Findings suggest that acculturation may play a role in dietary intake. Clinicians and dietitians need to be aware of these differences to encourage healthy eating patterns among more acculturated pregnant Latina clients.
Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael
Objective: To compare the diet of Spanish children against the nutrient and food intake guidelines. To calculate an index of overall diet quality and check its validity against nutrientintake.Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in four cities in Spain, where information on food and nutrientintake was obtained from schoolchildren through a food frequency questionnaire.Participants: The sample included 1112 children
M A Royo-Bordonada; L Gorgojo; J M Martín-Moreno; C Garcés; F Rodríguez-Artalejo; M Benavente; A Mangas; M de Oya
Objectives To identify if specific food allergies, elimination diets, or other variables associated with food allergies have an impact on the growth and nutrientintake of children with food allergies.Design Measurements of height, weight, and body mass index were used to determine potential growth problems. Estimates of energy and nutrientintakes were based on 3-day diet records. A questionnaire was
LYNN CHRISTIE; R. JEAN HINE; JAMES G. PARKER; WESLEY BURKS
OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrientintakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990\\/1 school
H McNulty; J Eaton-Evans; G Cran; G Woulahan; C Boreham; J M Savage; R Fletcher; J J Strain
Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrientintake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrientintakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrientintakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse.
Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.
This cross-sectional study examined the physical status, nutrientintake and dietary pattern of adolescent female factory workers in urban Bangladesh. A total of 1211 postmenarchial girls aged 14-19y from seventeen readymade garment industries spread over the Dhaka City participated in the study. Body weight, height and skin fold thickness were measured for all subjects. The nutrientintake was assessed by
This study examined the relationship between moderate exercise training (five 30- to 40-minute sessions per week for 12 weeks at 60% of heart rate reserve) and changes in nutrientintake in a group of 30 sedentary elderly women aged 67 to 85 years. Subjects were placed randomly into two groups (those who walked and those who did calisthenics) and were followed for 12 weeks. Measurements were done at three times (baseline, 5 weeks, and 12 weeks). Dietary intake was based on 7-day food records. The 12-week walking program resulted in a significant (12.6%) improvement in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) but no change in body weight or skinfold thicknesses compared with the calisthenics program. Despite the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, no significant group x time interaction effects were observed for most of the nutrientintake variables tested. To test the effects of high levels of physical activity on nutrientintake, cross-sectional comparisons were made at baseline between highly conditioned and sedentary elderly women. The highly conditioned elderly women had higher energy and nutrientintakes, especially when expressed on a weight-adjusted basis. However, no differences in measures of dietary quality were found. Dietitians should not expect spontaneous improvement in either the quantity or quality of nutrientintake by elderly women who adopt a moderate exercise program. Although nutrientintake was greater in highly conditioned elderly women, their level of fitness and physical activity may be beyond the reach of many elderly women. PMID:8509590
Butterworth, D E; Nieman, D C; Perkins, R; Warren, B J; Dotson, R G
Objective Assess nutrientintake according to dietary guidelines among US worker groups. Methods Participants of 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed two 24-hour recall dietary interviews to assess daily intake of protein, carbohydrate, fat, cholesterol, calcium, sodium, and fiber. Employed participants (n=8,987) were classified as: (1) white collar, (2) service worker, (3) farmer, and (4) blue collar. Results Nutrientintake varied by occupational group, particularly for fiber, sodium, calories, and percentage of calories from protein, saturated fat, and carbohydrate. Adherence to recommendations was noted for saturated fat and cholesterol, but workers were poorly adherent to recommendations for all other nutrients, particularly fiber. Conclusions Workers display differences in nutrientintake across occupational groups with poor eating behaviors evident across all groups. Fiber is particularly poorly consumed, with less than 5% of all US workers meeting the recommendations.
Kachan, Diana; Lewis, John E.; Davila, Evelyn P.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Fleming, Lora E.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Lee, David J.
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the totalintake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.
Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.
In March 1997, official dietary guidelines were for the first time published in Belgium by the National Council on Nutrition. These guidelines are entirely focussed on nutrientintake and do not translate this information into specific 'food-based' recommendations. In this paper, actual intake data for the adult Belgian population are compared to these guidelines. It is concluded that the overall
The main objective of this descriptive study was to determine the energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes as well as the dietary supplement use of female 2002 US national elite synchronized skaters. One hundred twenty-two female synchronized skaters (mean age = 15.7 ± 2.4 years) from the 2002 US national synchronized skating teams participated in the study. Nutrientintakes were determined
Objective The aim of this study was to measure nutrientintake and body composition in prepubescent children with Down syndrome to understand dietary barriers involved in the prevention and treatment of obesity.Design Dietary intake was determined from parent-reported 3-day diet records for children with Down syndrome and control subjects. Energy intake was compared with energy expenditure measured by the doubly
AMY LUKE; MARJORIE SUTTON; DALE A. SCHOELLER; NANCY J. M. ROIZEN
Background:Evidence indicates that maternal nutrientintake may play a role in the development of birth defects. We investigated the association of maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin supplements and dietary nutrients with risk of developing cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP).Methods:Data were from a population-based, case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants delivered in California in 1999-2003. Analyses included 170 cases with CP, 425 with CLP, and 534 nonmalformed controls. Dietary intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire.Results:Vitamin supplement intake was associated with a modestly decreased risk of clefts, but the confidence intervals (CIs) include 1.0. Among women who did not use vitamin supplements, dietary intake of several micronutrients was associated with risk of clefts. We found at least a twofold elevated risk of CP with low intake of riboflavin, magnesium, calcium, vitamin B12, and zinc; all CIs excluded 1.0. For CLP, we found at least a twofold elevated risk with low intake of niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, and calcium, and a decreased risk with high intake of folate and cryptoxanthin; all CIs excluded 1.0.Conclusion:The results suggest that periconceptional nutrientintake may be associated with risk of CP and CLP. PMID:23823175
Wallenstein, Matthew B; Shaw, Gary M; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L
The nutrientintakes and dietary practices of elite, U.S. national team, artistic female gymnasts (n = 33) were evaluated using 3-day food records. The gymnasts' reported energy intake was 43.4 kcal/kg (total 1,678 kcal/day), which was 20% below the estimated energy requirement. The contributions of protein, fat, and carbohydrate to total energy intake were 17%, 18%, and 66%, respectively. All reported vitamin intakes, except vitamin E, were above the RDA. The reported mineral intakes, especially calcium, zinc, and magnesium, were less than 100% of the RDA. The overall nutrient densities of the subjects' diets were higher than expected. Eighty-two percent of the gymnasts reported taking nonprescription vitamin and mineral supplements, and 10% reported taking prescription vitamin and mineral supplements. Forty-eight percent of the gymnasts reported being on a self-prescribed diet. Compared to NHANES III, the reported nutrientintake of these gymnasts was different from that of the average U.S. adolescent female. In summary, certain key nutrients such as calcium, iron, and zinc should be given more attention to prevent nutrient deficiencies and subsequent health consequences. PMID:9841954
Objectives: To determine the extent to which interpopulation (between-population) variance, relative to intrapopulation (within-population) variance, contribute to the total variability in nutrientintakes.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Five Public Health Center districts in Japan.Subjects: Two hundred and seven men and 183 spouses.Interventions: A three-day weighed food record.Main outcome measures: The total variance in the consumption of 17 nutrient variables was partitioned by
Y Tsubono; MT Fahey; T Takahashi; Y Iwase; Y Iitoi; M Akabane; S Tsugane
Our objective in this study was to estimate calcium intakes from food, water, dietary supplements, and antacids for U.S. citizens aged >or=1 y using NHANES 2003-2006 data and the Dietary Reference Intake panel age groupings. Similar estimates were calculated for vitamin D intake from food and dietary supplements using NHANES 2005-2006. Diet was assessed with 2 24-h recalls; dietary supplement and antacid use were determined by questionnaire. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual nutrientintake from dietary sources. The mean daily nutrientintake from supplemental sources was added to the adjusted dietary intake estimates to produce total usual nutrientintakes for calcium and vitamin D. A total of 53% of the U.S. population reported using any dietary supplement (2003-2006), 43% used calcium (2003-2006), and 37% used vitamin D (2005-2006). For users, dietary supplements provided the adequate intake (AI) recommendation for calcium intake for approximately 12% of those >or=71 y. Males and females aged 1-3 y had the highest prevalence of meeting the AI from dietary and total calcium intakes. For total vitamin D intake, males and females >or=71, and females 14-18 y had the lowest prevalence of meeting the AI. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher prevalence of groups meeting the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Monitoring usual totalnutrientintake is necessary to adequately characterize and evaluate the population's nutritional status and adherence to recommendations for nutrientintake. PMID:20181782
Bailey, Regan L; Dodd, Kevin W; Goldman, Joseph A; Gahche, Jaime J; Dwyer, Johanna T; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Sempos, Christopher T; Picciano, Mary Frances
Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrientintake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrientintake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrientintake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549
Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L
This is one of a series of nutrient data bases developed for use in the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food Consumption Surveys. Release 7 was developed for use in the 1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Release 7 con...
Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1–4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrientintakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrientintakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001–2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34–37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11–12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001–2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.
Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40-79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation.
This paper examines the effect of the new labeling regulations on nutrientintakes using an endogenous switching regression model. Using the 1994 - 96 CSFII\\/DHKS, we evaluate the impact of food label use on intakes of selected nutrients.
Sung-Yong Kim; Rodolfo M. Nayga Jr.; Oral Capps Jr.
A diet low in fat and rich in fibre has been recommended to optimize general health and in particular cardiovascular health. Health attitudes to fat and fibre were studied in relation to food and nutrientintake and sociocultural and lifestyle factors amongst the general population of Northern Ireland. The study population comprised 592 adults aged 16-64 years; health attitudes to fat and fibre were assessed by questionnaire (based on a social psychological model, which adjusted for taste and convenience factors). Dietary intake was estimated using the weighed inventory technique. Fat-phobic and fibre-philic attitudes were more prevalent in women than men. Fat-phobic attitudes in women were inversely related to intake of fat through a reduced intake of chips, butter and sausages. In contrast, men's fat-phobic attitudes were not strongly correlated with fat intake; consumption of chips and sausages was negatively associated with fat-phobic attitudes, but cake/biscuit, buns/pastries and milk consumption was positively associated with fat-phobic attitudes. Fibre-philic attitudes were positively associated with dietary fibre intake; intakes of potatoes, vegetables, wholemeal bread and breakfast cereal were positively associated with fibre-philic attitudes. There were clear sociocultural and lifestyle differences in relation to dietary attitude. These findings have implications for campaigns designed to effect population dietary change. PMID:8541271
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Many children with autism have idiosyncratic food preferences and eating habits that are difficult to regulate. The nutrientintake of 54 school-age Canadian children with autistic spectrum disorders, at mean age 13.3 years, was assessed using 3-day food consumption diaries compiled by parents or caregivers. The food records were analyzed for energy, minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, protein, and fat content and
There is little evidence of socioeconomic differences in dietary intake in the Japanese population. This study examined the association between household expenditures and dietary intake using nationally representative surveys of Japan. We analyzed data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2003-2007. For subjects ages 18 to 74 years (11,240 men and 11,472 women), the sex-specific association between household expenditure quartiles and selected nutrientintake was examined using comparison of means and prevalence of a healthy intake. Higher household expenditures were associated with an increase in the mean levels of total energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, calcium, vitamins A and C, niacin, and fiber for both men and women and salt for men. Prevalence comparison indicated that most of the recommendations for dietary intake were met for people with higher household expenditures than for those with lower household expenditures. There was no clear association between fat intake and expenditures. Higher household expenditures were associated with a healthy and balanced nutrientintake in Japanese adults. The findings suggest that socioeconomic differences in dietary patterns contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and morbidity in Japan. PMID:23006964
Purpose: To assess the contribution of breakfast consumption (with and without dietary supplement intake) on total daily nutrientintake of ninth-grade students.Methods: Twenty-four-hour recall of dietary intake was collected from a random sample of 711 ninth-grade students attending 12 Archdiocesan high schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. Analysis of variance techniques, Pearson’s Chi-square statistic, and Breznahn–Shapiro method with Scheffé probabilities were
Theresa A Nicklas; Christina Reger; Leann Myers; Carol O’Neil
Background/objectives: To assess the effects on macro- and micronutrient intake of a nutrition intervention program in corporate settings across the United States. Subjects/methods: Two hundred and ninety-two individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 sites of a US insurance company. Two hundred and seventy-one participants completed baseline diet recalls, and 183 participants completed dietary recalls at 18 weeks. Sites were randomly assigned to an intervention group (five sites) or to a control group (five sites) for 18 weeks. At intervention sites, participants were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and attend weekly group meetings. At control sites, participants continued their usual diets. At baseline and 18 weeks, participants completed 2-day diet recalls. Between-group differences in changes in nutrientintake were assessed using an analysis of covariance. Results: Compared with those in the control group, intervention-group participants significantly reduced the reported intake of total fat (P=0.02), saturated (P=0.006) and monounsaturated fats (P=0.01), cholesterol (P=0.009), protein (P=0.03) and calcium (P=0.02), and increased the intake of carbohydrate (P=0.006), fiber (P=0.002), ?-carotene (P=0.01), vitamin C (P=0.003), magnesium (P=0.04) and potassium (P=0.002). Conclusions: An 18-week intervention program in a corporate setting reduces intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and increases the intake of protective nutrients, particularly fiber, ?-carotene, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium. The reduction in calcium intake indicates the need for planning for this nutrient.
Mishra, S; Barnard, N D; Gonzales, J; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Levin, S
Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.
Only a few studies have investigated the impact of nutrients and food groups on hearing level (HL) with a population-based approach. We examined the 13-year association between intake of specific nutrients and food groups and HL in a sample of French adults. A total of 1823 subjects, aged 45-60 years at baseline, participating in the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals 2 cohort were selected. Nutrient and food intake was estimated at baseline among participants who had completed at least six 24 h dietary records. HL was assessed 13 years after baseline and was defined as the pure-tone air conduction of the worse ear at the following thresholds: 0·5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz. The relationship between quartiles of energy-adjusted nutrient and food intake and HL was assessed by multivariate linear regression analyses, in men and women separately. Intakes of retinol (P-trend ¼ 0·058) and vitamin B12 (P-trend=0·068) tended to be associated with better HL in women. Intakes of meat as a whole (P-trend=0·030), red meat (P-trend=0·014) and organ meat (P-trend=0·017) were associated with better HL in women. Higher intake of seafood as a whole (P-trend=0·07) and of shellfish (P-trend=0·097) tended to be associated with better HL in men. Consumption of meat is therefore associated with a better HL in women. Further research is required to better elucidate the mechanisms behind the associations between diet and hearing. PMID:23200201
We examined whether a same-sex peer's vegetable consumption would predict the number of vegetable pieces eaten by the participant. A total of 116 Dutch women (M age=20.28; M BMI=21.68) participated. Their nutrient-dense food intake was measured during a 15-min break between two tasks, consisting of rating television advertisements. Participants consumed more vegetables when exposed to a peer eating a large
Roel C. J. Hermans; Junilla K. Larsen; C. Peter Herman; Rutger C. M. E. Engels
The number of days of food intake data needed to estimate the intake of 29 male (n = 13) and female (n = 16) adult subjects, individuallyand as a group, was determined for food energy and 18 nutrients. The food intake records were collected in a year-long study con ducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research
P. PETER BASIOTIS; SCJSAN O. WELSH; FRANCES J. CRONIN; JUNE L KELSAY
Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrientintakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrientintakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrientintakes in the direction of the recommendations.
Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dotsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Leon; Seidell, Jacob C.
SUMMARY Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 y of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrientintake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children’s cognition at age 3 y was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioral and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/d increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 y was 1.6 points [95% CI: 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [?0.4 points per 2.6 µg/d; 95% CI: ?0.8, ?0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine, or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 y.
Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily
Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Apart from an increased intraocular pressure (IOP), oxidative stress and an impaired ocular blood flow are supposed to contribute to OAG. The aim of this study was to determine whether the dietary intake of nutrients that either have anti-oxidative properties (carotenoids, vitamins, and flavonoids) or influence the blood flow (omega fatty acids and magnesium) is associated with incident OAG. We investigated this in a prospective population-based cohort, the Rotterdam Study. A total of 3502 participants aged 55 years and older for whom dietary data at baseline and ophthalmic data at baseline and follow-up were available and who did not have OAG at baseline were included. The ophthalmic examinations comprised measurements of the IOP and perimetry; dietary intake of nutrients was assessed by validated questionnaires and adjusted for energy intake. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was applied to calculate hazard ratios of associations between the baseline intake of nutrients and incident OAG, adjusted for age, gender, IOP, IOP-lowering treatment, and body mass index. During an average follow-up of 9.7 years, 91 participants (2.6%) developed OAG. The hazard ratio for retinol equivalents (highest versus lowest tertile) was 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.90), for vitamin B1 0.50 (0.25-0.98), and for magnesium 2.25 (1.16-4.38). The effects were stronger after the exclusion of participants taking supplements. Hence, a low intake of retinol equivalents and vitamin B1 (in line with hypothesis) and a high intake of magnesium (less unambiguous to interpret) appear to be associated with an increased risk of OAG. PMID:22461101
Ramdas, Wishal D; Wolfs, Roger C W; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Jansonius, Nomdo M
Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to promote and protect public health by providing nutrition information so that consumers can make informed dietary choices. High levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in diets are linked to increased blood cholesterol levels and a greater risk of heart disease. Therefore, an understanding of consumer use of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels has important implications for public health and nutrition education. This study explores the association between dietary intakes of these three nutrients and psychological or demographic factors and the search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels. Psychology literature suggests a negative association between intakes of these nutrients and probability of search for their information on food labels. Health behavior theories also suggest perceived benefits and costs of using labels and perceived capability of using labels are associated with the search behavior. We estimate the relationship between label information search and its predictors using logistic regressions. Our samples came from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results suggest that search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels is less likely among individuals who consume more of the three nutrients, respectively. The search is also related to perceived benefits and costs of using the label, perceived capability of using the label, knowledge of nutrition and fats, perceived efficacy of diets in reducing the risk of illnesses, perceived importance of nutrition in food shopping, perceived importance of a healthy diet, and awareness of linkage between excessive consumption of the nutrients and health problems. These findings suggest encouraging search of food label information among consumers with unhealthy dietary habits would need innovative approaches. Yet, nutrition education can be instrumental in encouraging this search by stimulating motivation and providing technical help. PMID:15312929
Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Yen, Steven T
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine misreporting of total energy intake in older African-American men and women using the double-labeled water procedure; and (2) to identify significant physiological and demographic determinants of total energy intake misreporting in older African Americans.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining gender differences and determinants of misreporting of total energy intake in older African-American men and women.SUBJECTS: Sixty-four, older African-American
|Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrientintakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrientintakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrientintakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…
The stability of nizatidine in totalnutrient admixtures (TNAs) and the effect of the drug on the stability of lipid emulsions in the TNAs were studied. Duplicate 1476-mL amino acid-dextrose base solutions were prepared; nizatidine 300 mg was added to one. TNAs were prepared by adding to 75-mL samples of the base solutions Intralipid (KabiVitrum) or Liposyn II (Abbott) and sterile water as needed to achieve final lipid concentrations of 3% and 5%. Triplicate 100-mL samples for each lipid product and concentration were prepared; fat-free samples containing nizatidine were also studied. The theoretical final nizatidine concentration was 150 micrograms/mL. Samples were stored at 22 degrees C for 48 hours. Initially and at 12, 24, and 48 hours, the samples were visually inspected, tested for pH and particle-size distribution, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography for nizatidine concentration. No color change, precipitation, creaming, or oiling out was noted. For the 12 TNAs containing nizatidine, mean solution pH during the study was 5.88; stability of the lipid products requires pH values greater than or equal to 5.5. Particle-size distribution did not differ appreciably between the nizatidine-containing and drug-free TNAs. Nizatidine concentrations remained greater than 90% of the initial concentration. Nizatidine at a theoretical concentration of 150 micrograms/mL was stable for 48 hours at 22 degrees C in TNA solutions containing 3% and 5% Intralipid or Liposyn II and did not appear to affect lipid emulsion stability. PMID:1679293
Hatton, J; Holstad, S G; Rosenbloom, A D; Westrich, T; Hirsch, J
Objective To determine nutrient and food intakes of 72 white preschool children primarily from families of middle and upper socioeconomic status and to compare children's nutrientintakes with current recommendations.Design Six in-home interviews were conducted with mothers when children were 24 to 60 months old; at each time mothers provided 3 days of dietary information on the child. Children and
JEAN D. SKINNER; BETTY RUTH CARRUTH; KELLY S. HOUCK; WENDY BOUNDS; MELISSA MORRIS; DANA R. COX; JAMES MORAN; FRANCES COLETTA
The purpose of this article is to examine dietary intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients for the Taiwanese elderly in order to relate nutrientintakes to food choices and to provide suggestions for dietary improvement. The data were derived from the 24-hour recalls from 1,911 subjects (955 males and 956 females) aged 65 and above, who
This study is a comprehensive analysis of the nutrient adequacy of adolescent females, older adults, children and adults at risk of overweight, individuals living in food-insufficient households, low-income individuals, and individuals targeted by and participating in food and nutrition assistance programs. These segments of the population are at risk of inadequate nutrientintake, excessive intake, or dietary imbalances. The study,
Barbara Devaney; Myoung Kim; Alicia Carriquiry; Gabriel Camano-Garcia
Objective To compare reported energy intake with energy expenditure using doubly labeled water (DLW). Additionally, we compared reported nutrientintakes of our subject population with national survey population data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Design This was a cross-sectional study of children, balanced by race and gender, primarily characterized by 4 body types: lean, obese,
CATHERINE M CHAMPAGNE; NANCY B BAKER; JAMES P DeLANY; DAVID W HARSHA; GEORGE A BRAY
Parental dietary intake, lifestyle behavior, and parenting style influence a child's weight status. Few studies have examined associations between parent–child dietary intake, or specific father–child associations. This cross-sectional study examined associations between father–child dietary intakes of fruit, vegetables, and selected energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The study population consisted of overweight fathers with 50 father–child dyads included in the analysis; median (interquartile
Laura Hall; Clare E. Collins; Philip J. Morgan; Tracy L. Burrows; David R. Lubans; Robin Callister
Lifestyle, food consumption and nutrientintake patterns from a randomly selected group of 390 secondary pupils aged between\\u000a 12–18 were evaluated. Demographic information and anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and skinfold thickness\\u000a were taken. Nutrientintake was assessed using the 7-day dietary history method, using a photographic atlas as an aid. Mean\\u000a energy intakes for boys and girls aged 12–15
Background: Adolescence is a common time for the onset of an- orexianervosa(AN),aconditionassociatedwithlong-termmedical and hormonal consequences. Objective: The objective was to compare the nutrientintakes of community-dwelling girls with AN with those of healthy adoles- cents and to describe the associations between specific nutrient in- takes and nutritionally dependent hormones. Design: Nutrientintakes in 39 community-dwelling girls with AN and 39
Madhusmita Misra; Patrika Tsai; Ellen J Anderson; Jane L Hubbard; Katie Gallagher; Leslie A Soyka; Karen K Miller; David B Herzog; Anne Klibanski
Objective As women age total dietary intake falls which may increase the risk of dietary deficiencies in some individuals. The aims\\u000a of this study were to investigate the changes in nutrient and dietary intakes that occurred with aging in a seven-year longitudinal\\u000a study of elderly Australian women and to evaluate the adequacy of their dietary intakes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Longitudinal population based study on
K. Zhu; A. Devine; A. Suleska; C. Y. Tan; C. Z. J. Toh; D. Kerr; R. L. Prince
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrientintakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrientintakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrientintakes and some biomarkers in blood. PMID:23110799
This study was to examine dietary intakes and the inter-relationships in urban Chinese spouses in Taipei, Taiwan. We analyzed the dietary intakes and related household factors for 82 wives and their husbands by 24-h recalls and a Chinese food frequency questionnaire (CFFQ) designed with meal sequences in Taipei, Taiwan. The distributions of energy assessed from CFFQ by meals were similar for husbands and wives, with 16% for breakfast, 39% for lunch, 40% for dinner and 5% for snacks (afternoon and evening combined). Assessed by 24-h recalls, the means for total energy, the energy per kilogram body weight, and the percent energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrate were different: 2394 kcal, 34.4 kcal/kg, 31%, 15%, and 51% for husbands; and 1729 kcal, 32.0 kcal/kg, 34%, 16%, and 50% for wives, respectively. The P/M/S (polyunsaturated fat/monounsaturated fat/saturated fat) ratios were 1.5/1.2/1 for husbands and 1.3/1.2/1 for wives. A high eating-out frequency may account for the low correlations for most nutrientintakes between husbands and wives. Canonical correlation analysis for total energy, protein and carbohydrate reveals significant inter-relationships between husbands and wives. Carbohydrate is the consistent and important variable that weighted in an opposite direction with protein and energy intakes in both husbands and wives. These results support the observation that decreased rice consumption as a staple food, cooked at home, for urban Chinese couples, indicated by decreased carbohydrate intake in wives, may account for the increase of energy and protein intakes for husbands. PMID:15223600
Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research) was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n?=?291) were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings). Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24?±?1.07?years and Hispanic children 2.84?±?1.12?years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7?±?51 vs. 96.9?±?33, p?0.05). Hispanics consumed more fruits (22.0?±?10.7% vs. 14.7?±?13.7%, p?0.05), while African Americans consumed more grains (25.7?±?7.8% vs. 18.1?±?6.4%, p?0.05), meats (20.7?±?9.0% vs. 15.4?±?6.1%, p?0.05), fats (9.8?±?5.4% vs. 7.0?±?5.8%, p?0.05), sweet drinks (58.7?±?17.1% vs. 41.3?±?14.8%, p?0.05) and low-fat dairy products (39.5?±?19.3% vs. 28.9?±?12.6%, p?0.05). Among Hispanics, the proportional intake of fruits, fats and grains varied by total caloric intake, while no difference by total caloric intake was found for the dietary patterns of African Americans. Micronutrient intake also differed significantly between African American and Hispanic children. Conclusions Food group intake patterns among low-income children differ by ethnic group. There is a need for more research to guide program design and target nutritional interventions for this population.
This analysis aimed to examine the relationship of baseline body dissatisfaction with 1-year change in nutrientintake of inner-city, overweight and obese, African American children. This is a secondary analysis of 1-year pre-post data available for a convenience sample of 88 children. After adjusting for baseline intake of dietary variables and intervention group status, baseline body dissatisfaction was associated with 1-year increases in intake of energy, and all macronutrients in girls, but not in boys. These relationships were not substantially altered after adjusting for baseline BMIz and global self-worth. After including all adjustment factors, increasing baseline body dissatisfaction in girls was associated with 1-year increased intake of total energy, total sugars, total fat, discretionary fat, and total carbohydrates. This analysis suggests that, in girls but not necessarily in boys, body dissatisfaction might need to be targeted during interventions that aim to improve nutrientintake. PMID:22921270
Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean
Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrientintakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrientintake data (n = 725 at 6–8 months, n = 535 at 15–18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrientintake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6–8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6–8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition.
Smithers, Lisa G.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Brazionis, Laima; Emmett, Pauline; Northstone, Kate; Lynch, John W.
We evaluated nutrientintake (as measured by a 3-day food record) and nondietary factors that may influence nutrientintake in urban (n = 48) and rural (n = 47) elderly clients in the Title III C home-delivered meal program. Mean nutrientintake did not differ significantly between the two populations; each population met or exceeded 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for all nutrients other than energy, vitamin B-6, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. However, 70% of the individuals within each population had intakes below 66% of the RDA for three or more nutrients and were thus classified as having poor diets. Factors such as the need for assistance with shopping and cooking, living situation, vitamin/mineral supplementation, prescription drugs, and dentition did not significantly predict nutritional intake in either the urban or the rural cohorts. However, 50% to 70% of both the rural and the urban homebound elderly needed assistance with cooking and shopping for food. The rural elderly relied on family members for help with shopping and cooking to a greater extent than did their urban counterparts. We conclude that nutrientintake of the homebound elderly is not affected by geographic location. However, both rural and urban clients are at risk for developing nutrient deficiencies. PMID:1607568
ObjectivesTo examine the nutrientintakes, foods consumed, and feeding patterns of infants and toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).
Michael Ponza; Barbara Devaney; Paula Ziegler; Kathleen Reidy; Cathie Squatrito
Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...
|Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes…
Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…
Objective To examine the dietary intake of pregnant adolescents during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and to compare their nutrientintake with that of pregnant adults.Design Two 7-day food records (14 days) from subjects participating in a larger randomized clinical calcium trial: the first at 19 to 21 weeks and the second between 29 and 31 weeks gestation.
JACQUELINE BORAH GIDDENS; SUSAN K KRUG; REGINALD C TSANG; SHUMEI GUO; MENACHEM MIODOVNIK; JORGE A PRADA
Very little research has been directed towards the food and nutrientintake of rural and minority populations, particularly those residing in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of AR, LA and MS. FOODS 2000 was a cross sectional telephone survey of the rural LMD population. Food intake data wer...
Background. In maintenance haemodialysis patients, daily food intake is changeable; however, its relation- ship with nutritional status is unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the isolated, long-term effect of daily nutrientintake on nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We performed a prospective 1-year con- trolled study in 27 chronic haemodialysis patients, without recognized risk factors for malnutrition. Each day
Vincenzo Bellizzi; Biagio R. Di Iorio; Vincenzo Terracciano; Roberto Minutolo; Carmela Iodice; Luca De Nicola; Giuseppe Conte
BACKGROUND: Complementary feeding is currently recommended after six months of age, when the nutrients in breast milk alone are no longer adequate to support growth. Few studies have examined macro- and micro-nutrientintakes from complementary foods (CF) only. Our purpose was to assess the sources and nutritional contribution of CF over the first year of life. METHODS: In July 2003,
James K Friel; Rhona M Hanning; Corinne A Isaak; Daniel Prowse; Angela C Miller
The nutrientintake of 47 female nursing home residents, able to eat without help, and of 20 eating-dependent seniors was measured by weighing method. Hand grip strength was examined by a dynamometer. Furthermore the level of physical activity of the seniors able to eat without help was determined by means of a questionnaire. The results showed that the median energy intake of self-feeding elderly women was 1620 kcal (850-4450 kcal). More than one third of the seniors consumed less than 1700 kcal / d. The intake of vitamins and minerals remained below 40-90% of the recommended level. One important cause for the inadequate micronutrient intake was that 30% of the total energy intake is met by foods of a low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, spreadable fats, soups). The eating-dependent seniors were at high risk for protein-calorie malnutrition, consuming an average of 1130 kcal / d and 34 g protein / d. The level of physical activity was very low. Only 34% of the seniors were active for more than 2 hours per week (walking, gymnastics). 30% of the residents were largely inactive although they were able to walk. It is often ignored that immobility is a major risk factor for the development of malnutrition. Firstly inactivity accelerates the loss of muscle mass. This loss of metabolically active tissue decreases the energy requirements thus leading to a loss of appetite and reduced food intake. PMID:12917742
OBJECTIVE: The present study was conceived in response to a perceived lack of data about the nutritional status of free-living elderly Yoruba people living in a poor urban area in south-western Nigeria. The major focus was to assess the micronutrient status of elderly Yoruba people living in a slum of Ibadan. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect data on dietary intake and micronutrient status. SETTING: By means of a structured questionnaire and the estimated food record method, nutrientintake was assessed. Blood was taken from 120 people to determine serum micronutrient levels. SUBJECTS: A total of 240 elderly Yoruba people were selected from Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria using a random sampling technique. RESULTS: The diet of the elderly Yoruba participants was mainly plant based and inadequate in B vitamins (especially B1, B6 and folic acid) and micronutrients such as Zn. The intake of vitamin A ranged from 269 to 487 ?g/d, while vitamin B1 and B2 intakes ranged from 0·20 to 0·82 mg/d in both males and females. The intake of vitamin C varied from 24·8 to 42·8 mg/d. The majority of participants had insufficient serum levels of vitamins and minerals relative to reference values. Forty per cent were deficient in serum Ca, 71 % were deficient in serum Zn and 51 % were deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the elderly Yoruba people were deficient in Zn, ferritin and vitamin B6. This is the result of a diet lacking in vitamins and minerals. PMID:23211101
Background Tibetan food intake is influenced by the region's high altitude and unique culture. Few published studies of nutrientintakes among Tibetan women are available. The present study of Tibetan mothers with young children explores dietary patterns, nutrientintakes, and differences between socio-demographic groups. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 386 women with a child aged less than 24 months was conducted in rural areas surrounding Lhasa, Tibet. All participants were recruited using simple random sampling and were interviewed face-to-face by trained investigators. Dietary information was collected via a food frequency questionnaire. Nutrientintakes were calculated using food composition tables. Non-parametric tests were used to compare nutrientintakes according to socio-demographic variables, and to compare results with the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (2002 NNHS) and dietary reference intakes (DRIs). Results Median intakes of energy (p < 0.001), protein (p < 0.001), fat (p < 0.001), vitamin A (p < 0.001), vitamin B1 (p < 0.001), vitamin B2 (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), and vitamin E (p < 0.001) were lower than the average levels reported in 2002 NNHS. The median intakes of calcium (517 mg/d, p < 0.001), iron (35 mg/d, p < 0.001), and zinc (17.3 mg/d, p < 0.001) were higher than the average levels in 2002 NNHS. The highest education subgroup had significantly higher intakes of vitamins A and C than the lowest education subgroup. Conclusion Although the diet of Tibetan mothers with young children has been partially influenced by other factors, their dietary patterns are still mostly composed of Tibetan traditional foods. Compared with the 2002 NNHS, Tibetan women with young children appear to have insufficient intakes of many nutrients, which will affect their nutritional status.
The sustainability of dietary plant and animal protein consumption is an important issue, but few data are available to ascertain the health-related impact of animal and plant protein intake. The objective was to study the relationships between animal and plant protein intake and diet quality, as reflected by an integrated index of nutrient adequacy. Using data on 1912 adults from the French Individual and National Consumption Survey 2 (2006-2007), we assessed diet quality by using the PANDiet, a unique score combining 35 probabilities of having an adequate nutrientintake, and used multiple regression analysis to study the relationship with intakes of plant, animal, and related food source proteins. After adjustments for intakes of energy, alcohol, and protein from other sources and sociodemographic factors, plant protein intake was positively associated with the PANDiet, irrespective of sex (? = 0.50, P < 0.0001). By contrast, total and animal protein intakes were differently associated with the PANDiet according to sex, with a positive association in women (? = 0.07 and ? = 0.08, respectively; P < 0.01) and an inverse association in men (? = -0.07 and ? = -0.05, respectively; P < 0.01). The relationships between the PANDiet and intakes of protein from animal food sources varied: for instance, associations were inverse for red meat and poultry in men but not in women, whereas irrespective of sex, they were positive for fish, milk, and yogurt and inverse for processed meat, cheese, and eggs. These findings show that plant protein is a robust marker of a healthy diet, whereas total animal protein includes different subtypes of animal protein that largely vary in their relationship with diet quality. These data could help refine protein recommendations from a qualitative and dietary standpoint. PMID:23864509
Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Huneau, Jean-François; Carpentier, Florence; Dubuisson, Carine; Mariotti, François
Background/Objectives: To examine nutrientintake and body mass index (BMI) in the spinal cord injury (SCI) population according to level of injury and sex. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted at 2 SCI treatment centers. Participants/Methods: Seventy-three community-dwelling individuals with C5-T12 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) A or B SCI. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: male tetraplegia (N = 24), male paraplegia (N = 37), female tetraplegia (N = 1), and female paraplegia (N = 11). Mean age was 38 years; 84% were male; 34% were white, 41% were African American, and 25% were Hispanic. Participants completed a 4-day food log examining habitual diet. Dietary composition was analyzed using Food Processor II v 7.6 software. Results: Excluding the 1 woman with tetraplegia, total calorie intake for the other 3 groups was below observed values for the general population. The female paraplegia group tended to have a lower total calorie intake than the other groups, although macronutrient intake was within the recommended range. The male tetraplegia group, male paraplegia group, and the 1 woman with tetraplegia all had higher than recommended fat intake. Intake of several vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients did not meet recommended levels or were excessively low, whereas sodium and alcohol intake were elevated. Using adjusted BMI tables, 74.0% of individuals with SCI were overweight or obese. Conclusions: Women with paraplegia tended to maintain healthier diets, reflected by lower caloric and fat intakes, fewer key nutrients falling outside recommended guidelines, and less overweight or obesity. Individuals with tetraplegia tended to take in more calories and had higher BMIs, and using adjusted BMI, the majority of the population was overweight or obese. The majority of people with SCI would benefit from nutritional counseling to prevent emerging secondary conditions as the population with SCI ages.
Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrientintake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrientintake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)). Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M?:?F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39?years ± 10.5?y), Generally there was inadequate nutrientintake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49?±?3.49?mg). All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2?g/dL (11.4?±?2.60 male and 11.2?±?4.25 female). Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.
Onyango, Agatha Christine; Walingo, Mary Khakoni; Mbagaya, Grace; Kakai, Rose
The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225
The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights.
Background\\/Objectives: To examine the daily intake of bone health-related nutrients and to explore the association between diet composition and estimated net endogenous acid production (estimated NEAP) in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.Subject\\/Methods: In total, 171 boys and 180 girls aged 10–12 years of Chinese origin from nine primary schools from the Hong Kong Adolescent Bone Health Cohort Study. The study design
R S M Chan; J Woo; D C C Chan; C S K Cheung; D H S Lo; RSM Chan
Purpose Degrees of nutrientintake and food groups have been linked to differential chronic disease risk. However, intakes of specific nutrients may also be associated with differential diet costs and unobserved differences in socioeconomic status (SES). The present study examined degrees of nutrientintake, for every key nutrient in the diet, in relation to diet cost and SES. Methods Socio-demographic data for a stratified random sample of adult respondents in the Seattle Obesity Study were obtained through telephone survey. Dietary intakes were assessed using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n?=?1,266). Following standard procedures, nutrientintakes were energy-adjusted using the residual method and converted into quintiles. Diet cost for each respondent was estimated using Seattle supermarket retail prices for 384 FFQ component foods. Results Higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, D, E, and B12, beta carotene, folate, iron, calcium, potassium, and magnesium were associated with higher diet costs. The cost gradient was most pronounced for vitamin C, beta carotene, potassium, and magnesium. Higher intakes of saturated fats, trans fats and added sugars were associated with lower diet costs. Lower cost lower quality diets were more likely to be consumed by lower SES. Conclusion Nutrients commonly associated with a lower risk of chronic disease were associated with higher diet costs. By contrast, nutrients associated with higher disease risk were associated with lower diet costs. The cost variable may help somewhat explain why lower income groups fail to comply with dietary guidelines and have highest rates of diet related chronic disease.
Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam
Researchers compared data on 33 pregnant women attending nutrition education classes regularly over a 13-week period (nutrition education group) with data on 33 other pregnant women who did not receive such education (controls) to examine the impact of nutrition education on the pregnant women's food and nutrientintake. The 66 pregnant women were selected from two hospitals and two urban family welfare centers in Ludhiana city, India. All were from the low socioeconomic group (i.e., per capita income of Rs. 369/month). A dietary survey was conducted at 20 weeks gestation and again at 36 weeks gestation. At 20 weeks, the two groups were not statistically different. The intake of cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, fats and oils, and sugar and jagger were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI). On the other hand, intake was more than RDI for milk and milk products, other vegetables, and roots and tubers. Except thiamine and ascorbic acid, intake of nutrients was inadequate. In both the nutrition education group and the control group, nutrientintake was higher at 36 weeks than at 20 weeks due to the increased food requirements of pregnancy. Women in the nutrition education group were more likely than the control group to consume more protein, vitamin A, thiamine, folic acid, and vitamin C. This likely reflects a higher consumption of pulses, milk and milk products, fruits, and vegetables as well as adopting favorable nutritional practices (e.g., use of sprouted grains). Nevertheless, intake was below RDIs for many nutrients, even for women in the nutrition education group. These findings suggest that nutrition education for pregnant women does improve nutrientintake but also that more needs to be done to bring intake levels up even higher. PMID:12320377
Advances in our knowledge of the physiological functions of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have led to an increased interest in food sources and the level of dietary intake of these nutrients. Up to now, no representative data was available for the Belgian adult population. This study aimed to describe data on the intake and food sources of total and individual omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA for the Belgian population over 15 years old. PUFA intakes were assessed for 3,043 Belgian adults, based on two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Usual intakes were calculated using the multiple source method. The results showed that the intake of linoleic acid (LA) is in accordance with the recommendation for almost all Belgian adults. However, the intake of omega-3 PUFA is suboptimal for a large part of the studied population and also the intake of total PUFA should be increased for a part of the population. The main food source of LA and ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was the group of fats and oils (60.6 % for LA and 53.1 % for ALA). Fish and fish products were the most important sources of long chain omega-3 PUFA. Age influenced fatty acids intake, with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA in the older age groups. To fill the gap between the intake and recommendation of total PUFA, and in particular omega-3 PUFA, sustainable strategies and efficient consumer communication strategies will be needed. PMID:23588778
Sioen, Isabelle; Vyncke, Krishna; De Maeyer, Mieke; Gerichhausen, Monique; De Henauw, Stefaan
The influence of alternate bearing on nutrient utilization and total tree nutrient content was investigated in mature pistachio\\u000a (Pistacia vera L. cv Kerman trees). Removal of N, P and Zn in fruit and abscised leaves of cropping (‘on’) trees averaged 5, 6, and 2 times,\\u000a respectively, the removal in abscised leaflets of the non-fruiting, ‘off’ year trees. One hundred and
Patrick H. Brown; Steven A. Weinbaum; Geno A. Picchioni
The present study provides the dietary intakes of macro elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) from the Italian total diet. The contribution of the most representative food groups of the total diet (cereals and cereal products, vegetables, fruit, milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish) to the daily intakes of these nutrients was also evaluated. The Italian total diet was formulated following the 'market-basket' approach. Cereals represented the primary sources of Cu (35 %), Fe (30 %) and Mg (27 %). About 89 % of the total daily intake of Fe was derived from plant foods. The vegetables food group was the main source of dietary K (27 %). Most of the Ca (59 %) and P (27 %) was derived from the milk-and-dairy food group. Of the dietary Zn, 41 % was provided by meat, which, together with the fish food group, was the primary source of Se (20 %). The adequacy of the Italian total diet with respect to nutritional elements was assessed by comparing the daily intakes with the average requirement values of the Italian recommended dietary allowances. The present findings indicated that the dietary patterns of the Italian total diet were generally consistent with current Italian dietary recommendations for both macro and trace elements. The major concern was for Ca, for which daily intake was 76 % of the average recommendation for the Italian population. It should not be ruled out that there could be a potential risk of inadequate Fe intake in some segments of the population. PMID:14641971
This study evaluated dietary intake in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Pre-clinical research suggests that nutrient supplementation may attenuate cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. Currently, the dietary adequacy of essential nutrients in children with FASD is unknown. Dietary data were collected as part of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of choline supplementation in FASD. Participants included 31 children with FASD, ages 2.5-4.9years at enrollment. Dietary intake data was collected three times during the nine-month study via interview-administered 24-hour recalls with the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall. Dietary intake of macronutrients and 17 vitamins/minerals from food was averaged across three data collection points. Observed nutrientintakes were compared to national dietary intake data of children ages 2-5years (What we Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008) and to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Compared to the dietary intakes of children in the NHANES sample, children with FASD had lower intakes of saturated fat, vitamin D, and calcium. The majority (>50%) of children with FASD did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber, n-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, choline, and calcium. This pattern of dietary intake in children with FASD suggests that there may be opportunities to benefit from nutritional intervention. Supplementation with several nutrients, including choline, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids, has been shown in animal models to attenuate the cognitive deficits of FASD. These results highlight the potential of nutritional clinical trials in FASD. PMID:23871794
Fuglestad, Anita J; Fink, Birgit A; Eckerle, Judith K; Boys, Christopher J; Hoecker, Heather L; Kroupina, Maria G; Zeisel, Steven H; Georgieff, Michael K; Wozniak, Jeffrey R
Background: Clinical trial data show that reduction in total energy intake enhances weight loss regardless of the macronutrient composition of the diet. Few studies have documented dietary patterns or nutrientintakes that favor leanness [BMI (in kg/m2) ?25] in free-living populations. Objective: This investigation examined associations of usual energy, food, and nutrientintakes with BMI among US participants of the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Design: The INTERMAP is an international cross-sectional study of dietary factors and blood pressure in men and women (ages 40–59 y) that includes 8 US population samples. The present study included data from 1794 Americans who were not consuming a special diet and who provided four 24-h dietary recalls and 2 timed 24-h urine collections. Multivariable linear regression with the residual method was used to adjust for energy intake; sex-specific associations were assessed for dietary intakes and urinary excretions with BMI adjusted for potential confounders including physical activity. Results: Lower energy intake was associated with lower BMI in both sexes. Univariately, higher intakes of fresh fruit, pasta, and rice and lower intakes of meat were associated with lower BMI; these associations were attenuated in multivariable analyses. Lower urinary sodium and intakes of total and animal protein, dietary cholesterol, saturated fats, and heme iron and higher urinary potassium and intakes of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and magnesium were associated with lower BMI in both sexes. Conclusion: The consumption of foods higher in nutrient-dense carbohydrate and lower in animal protein and saturated fat is associated with lower total energy intakes, more favorable micronutrient intakes, and lower BMI.
Shay, Christina M; Van Horn, Linda; Stamler, Jeremiah; Dyer, Alan R; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Miura, Katsuyuki; Zhao, Liancheng; Okuda, Nagako; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul
Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrientintake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients.
Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.
Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134
Objective: The study was designed to investigate the iron intake and status of Australian, male vegetarians aged between 20 and 50 y.Design: Cross-sectional comparison of male vegetarians and age\\/sex matched omnivores.Setting: Free-living community subjects.Subjects: 39 ovolactovegetarians, 10 vegans and 25 omnivores were recruited by local advertisement.Outcome measures: A 12-d semiquantitative dietary record to assess iron and zinc intake. Iron status
Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrientintake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrientintake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrientintake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors.
Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of
Objective: To determine whether low fat intake is associated with increased risk of nutritional inadequacy in children 2 to 8 years old and to identify eating patterns associated with differences in fat intake. Study design: Using 2 days of recall from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996, we classified 2802 children into quartiles of
Carol Ballew; Sarah Kuester; Mary Serdula; Barbara Bowman; William Dietz
Background The methodology used in the first Belgian food consumption survey followed to a large extent the instructions of the European Food Consumption (EFCOSUM) reports, where repeated 24-hour recalls (24HR) using EPIC-SOFT were recommended. Objectives To evaluate the relative validity of two non-consecutive 24HR using EPIC-SOFT by comparison with 5-day estimated dietary records (EDR). To assess misreporting in energy for both methods by comparing energy intake with energy expenditure from accelerometery in a subsample. Design A total of 175 subjects (aged 15 and over) were recruited to participate in the study. Repeated 24HR were performed with an interval of 2–8 weeks. After completion of the second interview, subjects were instructed to keep an EDR. Dietary intakes were adjusted for within-person variability to reflect usual intakes. A Student's t-test was calculated to assess differences between both methods. Spearman and Kappa correlation coefficients were used to investigate agreement. Results In total, 127 subjects completed the required repeated 24HR, as well as the five record days. From 76 participants, accelerometer data were available. In both methods, about 35% of participants had ratios of Energy Intake/Total Energy Expenditure (EI/TEE) above or below 95% confidence intervals for EI/TEE, suggesting misreporting of energy. Significant differences between the two dietary intake methods were found for total energy, total fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, alcohol, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and iron. In general, intakes from 24HR were higher compared to EDR. Correlation coefficients for all nutrients ranged from 0.16 for thiamine to 0.70 for water. Conclusions The results from this study show that in the context of nutritional surveillance, duplicate 24HR can be used to asses intakes of protein, carbohydrates, starch, sugar, water, potassium and calcium.
De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; De Vriendt, Veerle; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Slimani, Nadia; Van Oyen, Herman; De Henauw, Stefaan
Objective:To determine the plate waste, energy and selected-nutrientintake, from elderly residents living in a high-level care (HLC) and low-level care (LLC) facility.Design:Three, single, whole day assessments of plate waste, energy, and selected nutrients, using a visual rating plate waste scale.Setting:Long-term residential care establishment.Subjects:One hundred and sixty-nine (93 HLC and 76 LLC) individual daily intakes.Main findings:The mean energy wasted throughout
|This report presents 3-day nutrientintake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…
This report presents 3-day nutrientintake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…
Objective. To estimate energy and nutrientintake and ad- equacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Material and Methods. Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309) and school (n=2 611) children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions,
Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera; Margarita Safdie; Mario Flores; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Fabricio Campirano
A population-based case-control study (601 cases and 717 controls) was conducted in 1995-2001 among Connecticut women to evaluate the relation between diet and nutrientintakes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). When the highest quartile of intake was compared with the lowest, the authors found an increased risk of NHL associated with animal protein (odds ratio = 1.7, 95%
Tongzhang Zheng; Theodore R. Holford; Brian Leaderer; Yawei Zhang; Shelia Hoar Zahm; Stuart Flynn; Giovanni Tallini; Bing Zhang; Kaiyong Zhou; Patricia H. Owens; Qing Lan; Nathaniel Rothman; Peter Boyle
Objective Case control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary intake of specific nutrients and risk of congenital, neonatal or early childhood disease require the ability to rank relative maternal dietary intake during pregnancy. Such studies are limited by the lack of validated instruments for assessing gestational dietary intake several years post-partum. This study aims to validate a semi-quantitative interview-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for retrospectively estimating nutrientintake at two critical time points during pregnancy. Methods The FFQ was administered to women (N=84), who 4 to 6 years earlier had participated in a prospective study to evaluate dietary intake during pregnancy. The FFQ queried participants about intake during the previous month (FFQ-month). This was then used as a reference point to estimate consumption by trimester (FFQ-pregnancy). The resulting data were compared to data collected during the original study from two 24-hour recalls (24hr-original) using Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon sign-rank-test. Results Total energy intake as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments did not differ and was only weakly correlated in the trimesters (1st & 3rd) as a whole (r = 0.18-32), though more strongly correlated when restricted to the first half of the 1st trimester (r=0.32) and later half of the 3rd trimester (r=0.87). After energy adjustment, correlation between the 24hR-original and FFQ-pregnancy in the 3rd trimester were r=0.25 (p<0.05) for dietary intake of vitamin A, and r=0.26 (p<0.05) for folate, and r= 0.23-0.77 (p<0.005) for folate, and vitamins A, B6 and B12 in the 1st and 3rd trimester after including vitamin supplement intake. Conclusions The FFQ-pregnancy provides a consistent estimate of maternal intake of key micronutrients during pregnancy and permits accurate ranking of intake 4-6 years post-partum.
Background No studies have investigated the relation between K?ras mutations and dietary factors in exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC), and fewer than 10 studies have done so in other neoplasms. Patients and Methods Incident cases of EPC were prospectively identified, and interviewed face?to?face during hospital admission. Food and nutrientintakes were measured with a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compare EPC cases (n?=?107) with and without K?ras mutations (case?case study). Results K?ras mutations were more common among daily consumers of milk and other dairy products than among non?daily consumers: the odds ratio adjusted by total energy, age, sex, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption (ORa) was 5.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 24.5, p?=?0.040). For all dairy products, including butter, the ORa for the medium and upper tertiles of intake were 5.4 and 11.6, respectively (p for trend?=?0.023). The ORa for regular coffee drinkers further adjusted by dairy consumption was 4.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 20.7, p?=?0.043). K?ras mutated cases reported a lower intake of vitamin E (ORa?=?0.2, p for trend?=?0.036), polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 fatty acids (ORa?=?0.2; p for trend <0.03). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that in EPC exposure to specific dietary components or contaminants may influence the occurrence or persistence of K?ras mutations.
Background Associations among dietary intake, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are inconsistent among male and female youth, possibly from lack of adjustment for pubertal status. The purpose of this report is to describe the associations of CVD risk factors among youth, adjusted for sexual maturation. Methods Data analyzed in 2007 from a sumsample of 556 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years in Project HeartBeat!, 1991–1993, provide cross-sectional patterns of CVD risk factors by age and gender, adjusting for sexual maturation, within dietary fat and physical activity categories. Results Girls consuming moderate- to high-fat diets were significantly less physically active than those consuming low-fat diets. Boys and girls consuming high-fat diets had higher saturated fat and cholesterol intakes than children in low-fat categories. Boys had no significant differences in physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, or plasma cholesterol levels across fat categories. Girls’ plasma cholesterol levels showed no significant differences across fat categories. Dietary intake did not differ across moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) categories within gender. There were no differences in BMI by fat or MVPA categories for either gender. Girls’ waist circumference differed significantly by fat category, and systolic blood pressure differed significantly across fat and MVPA categories. Boys’ fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure was significantly different across MVPA categories. Conclusions Girls consuming atherogenic diets were significantly less physically active than those with low fat intakes, whereas boys consuming high-fat diets did not show differences in physical activity measures. With the prevalence of overweight rising among youth, the impact of atherogenic diets and sedentary lifestyles on CVD risk factors is of concern to public health professionals.
Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Barradas, Danielle T.
OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the association between dietary intake of vitamins C and E, carotene, and riboflavin and cataract extraction in women. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study beginning in 1980 with eight years of follow up. SETTING--11 states of the United States. PARTICIPANTS--Female registered nurses who were 45 to 67 years of age. 50,828 women were included in 1980 and others were added
S. E. Hankinson; M. J. Stampfer; J. M. Seddon; G. A. Colditz; B. Rosner; F. E. Speizer; W. C. Willett
Southern states have the highest rates of overweight and obesity among children in the US. Assessments of children's food and nutrientintake are needed to assist in development of interventions to address childhood obesity. This study identified food group servings, nutrientintakes and BMI of no...
The stability of cimetidine hydrochloride in a totalnutrient admixture was studied. A totalnutrient admixture composed of 5% amino acid injection, 20% dextrose injection, and 3% intravenous fat emulsion was prepared aseptically in four 2-L ethylene-vinyl acetate bags. Cimetidine hydrochloride injection was added to three of the admixtures to yield final cimetidine concentrations of 600, 1200, and 1800 mg per 1500 mL of admixture; the fourth admixture served as a control. At 0, 24, and 48 hours, cimetidine content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the admixtures were tested for pH and visually inspected for signs of creaming, oiling out, or phase separation. Particle-size distribution in the admixtures was compared with that in 20% intravenous fat emulsion. No appreciable changes in cimetidine concentration or pH occurred over 48 hours, and no visual changes were observed. Particle sizes were comparable to those in the 20% intravenous fat emulsion control except in the admixture containing cimetidine hydrochloride 600 mg, which had significantly more particles larger than 9.9 microns at 48 hours. In the totalnutrient admixture studied, cimetidine hydrochloride in concentrations up to 1800 mg per 1500 mL was stable for 24 hours at room temperature, and the lipid emulsion was apparently not altered during this period by cimetidine. PMID:3933337
Baptista, R J; Palombo, J D; Tahan, S R; Valicenti, A J; Bistrian, B R; Arkin, C F; Blackburn, G L
Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...
The present investigation studied the effect of different types of exercise programmes (aerobic, strength, mixed i.e. combination of aerobic & strength) on daily dietary intake of nutrients in 120 females ranging in age from 20- 40 years. The subjects were divided into four groups' viz. aerobic, strength, mixed and control depending upon the type of exercise programme administered to them.
Dietary supplements have been suggested to have a role in cancer prevention and treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the nutrientintakes from foods and dietary supplements in women at the time of enrollment into a clinical trial to prevent breast cancer recurrence. Subjects were within four years of diagnosis with Stage I, II, or IIIA breast
Cheryl L. Rock; Vicky Newman; Shirley W. Flatt; Susan Faerber; Fred A. Wright; John P. Pierce
The analytically-based Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database-Release One (DSID-1) was recently released to the scientific community and made publicly available through a web site hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Complete information on nutrientintake from both foods and dietary supplem...
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition plays an important role in bone mass accrual and maintenance and has been demonstrated as a significant tool for the prevention of fractures in individuals with osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone health-related nutrientsintake and its association with osteoporotic fractures in a representative sample of 2344 individuals aged 40 years
Marcelo M Pinheiro; Natielen J Schuch; Patrícia S Genaro; Rozana M Ciconelli; Marcos B Ferraz; Lígia A Martini
Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...
The study investigated how the increased availability of self?grown foods was related to the adequacy of the energy and nutrientintake of rural women and preschoolers in Puerto Rico. The 109 women included in the study were found to be most seriously deficient in iron and calcium, and tended to suffer from obesity. The 50 preschoolers demonstrated no serious chronic\\/acute
|Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrientintake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…
Background: Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as changes in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrientintake adequacy among the elderly is important for disease prevention and health maintenance in this age group. Objective: ...
|Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrientintakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the body composition, dietary habits, daily intake of nutrients and clinical blood indices in female college students by body mass index of normal weight, overweight and obese. The subjects of this research were 141 respondents of a survey carried out on students, and subjects were given 60 minutes to answer questionnaires, by recording their own answers. The average heights and weights of subjects by BMI were 162.17 cm, 52.73 kg in normal weight group, 162.35 cm, 62.22 kg in overweight group and 161.72 cm, 69.82 kg in obesity group, respectively. As for the survey daily of meals, starving breakfast and kind of snacks of subjects were significantly different among the groups by BMI. In animal protein food intakes, meat intake was the highest 'every day' food consumed by subjects, and there was a significant difference in distribution of BMI among subjects. Fruits, and greenish and yellow vegetables intakes were the highest 'every day' foods indicated by the normal weight group. Consumption of carbonated beverages and juices showed a significant difference among groups by BMI. The average of total-cholesterol was the overweight group was the higher value. There was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure among the groups by BMI. Average daily calories intake levels were insufficient and the intake ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat was the normal weight group 68:17:15, the overweight group 64:18:18 and the obese group 73:14:13. Results of the daily vitamin intake analyses displayed riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folic acid levels lower than the RI levels. Fe intake was the normal weight group 81%, overweight group 76%, obese group 59% of the RI level. Therefore, it is necessary for college students to establish regular meals, good quality snacks and consuming more vitamin and mineral nutritions for optimal health conditions.
Food and dietary intake survey was carried out in an institutionalised elderly population aged 60 y and over, grouped 60–74 y and ?75 y. Gross deficiencies were observed in several major as well as minor nutrients. Calorie consumption was inadequate in both sexes, and in women calorie intakes were barely adequate to meet the basal metabolism. Deficient intakes of protein
Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on the natural vegetation. This management strategy therefore appears to be a valuable alternative to intensive livestock feeding in zero-grazing systems and may contribute to sustainable livestock production in ecologically fragile, semi-arid mountain regions. PMID:22445414
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrientintakes and nutritional status. The objectives of the present paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrientintakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS rolling programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64 years and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18 years. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrientintakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10 years, 11-18 years and 19-64 years). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children aged 4-10 years had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P < 0·0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children aged 4-10 years (P < 0·0001), contributing 13·7-14·6 % in 2008-09 compared with 16·8 % in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46 %) of girls aged 11-18 years and women aged 19-64 years (21 %) with mean daily Fe intakes below the lower reference nutrientintake. Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781
ObjectivesDietary intake patterns and socioeconomic variables are well-known indicators for assessing the nutrition status of a society. The Khasi society is matrilineal, and women play an important role in the tribal community, especially with respect to family nutrition. We investigated the existing food habits, beliefs, and trends contributing to the nutrition and health of these women.
The interrelationships between educational achievement (EA) and nutrientintake were investigated in 550 Chilean adolescent schoolers graduating from elementary and high school. The random sample included schoolers from both educational levels (1:1), from public and private schools (1:1), and from high, medium, and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1). Standard procedures for 24-hour dietary recall interviews were used to collect data, and adequacy of intake was assessed by the FAO/WHO Pattern. EA was measured by means of the Achievement Evaluation Program (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary and high school, respectively. In elementary school graduates, results showed a significant and positive correlation between EA (AEP) and energy, protein, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, calcium and vitamin A intake (Multiple r = 0.456 p less than 0.01; r2 = 0.208). The School Feeding Program beneficiaries who belonged to the low SES presented the lowest EA (AEP) together with a deficient nutrientintake, especially for energy, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A and calcium, at the same time that they registered the lowest values for those anthropometric parameters, indicators of past nutrition, that is to say height-for-age, weight-for-age, head circumference-for-age and a higher upper-to-lower segment ratio, as compared with non-beneficiaries from the same SES and with those from the higher strata. In high-school graduates, EA (AAT) was found to be significantly and positively correlated with protein, calcium, riboflavin and iron intake (Multiple r = 0.438 p less than 0.001; r2 = 0.192). Nevertheless, these interrelationship are strongly related to SES and sex. Results showed that educational achievement (EA) is significantly and positively associated with nutrientintake, this fact being important for educational planning related to the School Feeding Program. PMID:1841532
Ivanovic, D; Vásquez, M; Marambio, M; Ballester, D; Zacarías, I; Aguayo, M
Nutritional intake and iron status were investigated in 35 vegetarians (15 vegetarian males, 20 vegetarian females) and 32 nonvegetarians (13 vegetarian males, 19 nonvegetarian females). Each subject completed a 12-d diet record. Hemoglobin, plasma iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were measured. Vegetarians had lower dietary fat, protein, fiber, vitamin A, iron, cholesterol and sodium intakes than
Yi-Chia Huang; Woei-Jyue Lin; Chien-Hsiang Cheng; Kuo-Hsiung Su
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrientsintake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. METHODS: In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for
The aim of this study was to analyse effects that the degree of depression have on the life style variables, nutrientintake, iron indices and pregnancy outcome. Subjects were 114 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at a hospital in Seoul. We collected data for general characteristics and lifestyle variables from general survey instrument and for depression score from the questionnaire on depression. Dietary intakes of subjects were estimated by 24 hour dietary recall method. Also we analysed iron indices and pregnancy outcomes. We classified subjects by 10 point, which was the average depression score, into two groups [Low depression score group (LS) : High depression score group (HS)]. As to the intakes of total calcium, plant-calcium, plant-iron, potassium, total folate and dietary folate, LS group was far higher than HS group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). As to pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking, LS group had 41.9% in non-drinker, which was far higher than 28% in HS group in non-drinker (P < 0.05). As for drinking coffee during pre-pregnancy, pregnant women who don't drink coffee in LS group took 43.6%, which was higher than 38% in HS group (P < 0.01). Regarding delivery type, the cesarean section in LS group (18%) was significantly lower than that in HS group (45%) (P < 0.01). Bivariate analysis showed that birth weight was significantly associated with the gestational age (P < 0.01). The pregnant women with higher depression score tended to have undesirable life habit, which might affect negative pregnancy outcomes. A better understanding of how depression and intake of nutrients work together to modulate behavior will be benefit nutritional research.
Several studies have reported that heavy metals have a relation with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. In this study, we investigated the association between heavy metal exposure status, as assessed by serum major heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) and bone mineral density (BMD) status among Korean adults. A total of 64 adults participated in this study and were assigned to one of three study groups based on the T-score of spine BMD: a normal group (n = 21, T-score > -1), osteopenia group (n = 29, -2.5 < T-score ? -1) and osteoporosis group (n = 14, T-score ? -2.5). We also assessed serum levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and daily nutrient and food intakes for 3 days by using 24-hr recall method in the subjects. The mean age was significantly higher in the osteoporosis group compared with the osteopenia and normal groups (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in serum levels of Pb, Cd and Hg among the three groups after adjusting for age. Daily intakes of energy, nutrients were not significantly different among the three groups. The osteoporosis group consumed significantly higher fish and shellfish than the other groups (p < 0.05). In the correlation analysis controlling for age, sex, BMI, and BMD status, the serum Cd level was significantly negatively correlated with intake of cereals, milks and total food. In summary, we did not find a direct association between serum heavy metal levels and BMD status. However, negative relationships were found between serum heavy metal levels and intake of some foods.
Kang, Myung-Hwa; Park, Seung-Mi; Oh, Doo-Nam; Choi, Mi-Kyeong
2 Abstract: Micronutrient deficiency, namely: vitamin A, iron, iodine, zinc and burden of chronic diseases are prevalent. Eight communities selected from four States were used for this study. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions, nutrient composition and food intakes were used to ascertain use of local foods by households. Nutrient analysis on food recipes was carried out for all dishes
E. C. Okeke; H. N. Eneobong; A. O. Uzuegbunam; A. O. Ozioko; S. I. Umeh; H. Kuhnlein
Objective To compare nutrientintakes between vegetarians and nonvegetarians with similar health practices, and to assess relationships with eating behavior scores from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire.Design Survey.Setting Metropolitan area in western Canada.Subjects Subjects (n=45) were participants in a study comparing subclinical menstrual disturbances between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. To be included, women had to be 20 to 40 years old, be
SLATER, G. J., A. J. RICE, K. SHARPE, D. JENKINS, and A. G. HAHN. Influence of NutrientIntake after Weigh-In on Lightweight Rowing Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 184-191, 2007. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different nutritional recovery strategies between weigh-in and racing on 2000-m rowing ergometer
GARY J. SLATER; ANTHONY J. RICE; KEN SHARPE; DAVID JENKINS; ALLAN G. HAHN
We investigated the relationships between intakes of selected dietary nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer in a hospital-based, case-control study including 239 cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 979 hospital patients with nonneoplastic diagnoses who completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1982 and 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95%
Chaitali Ghosh; Julie A. Baker; Kirsten B. Moysich; Ruqayyah Rivera; John R. Brasure; Susan E. McCann
The influence of living arrangements and nationality on nutrientintakes and food habits and beliefs were explored in young adults. Two hundred and thirty-two participants (20.4±2.8 years) completed a food questionnaire and two 24-h food records. Sixty-nine percent were living at home, and 72% described their nationality as Australian. Most participants performed their own food preparation (84%); those living away
Lynnette J. Riddell; Bixia Ang; Russell S. J. Keast; Wendy Hunter
The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrientintake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrientintakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrientintake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of urea-treated fibrous diets on the intake, nutrient digestibility, performance and haematological parameters of Yankasa rams. A total of 48 Yankasa rams (BW 10.00 ± 1.50 kg; 6-8 months old) were allocated into four treatment groups in a completely randomised design (12 rams per treatment). Animals were placed on complete rations of yam peels, maize bran and rice husk treated with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0% urea. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. Yankasa rams fed with urea-treated diets had higher feed intake (949.88 and 938.04 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively), daily weight gain (227.67 and 181.00 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively) and better feed conversion ratio (4.17 and 5.18 for U?? and U??, respectively). Rams on urea-treated diets had higher haemoglobin and red blood cell contents and higher weight gains, indicating that urea treatment enhanced nutrient supply and utilisation at the tissue level. It was concluded that urea treatment of fibrous farm by-products is a promising feeding strategy especially during the dry season when there is scarcity of high-quality forages. Addition of 1.5% urea to roughage diets and farm by-products to form a total mixed ration may preclude the search for supplements. PMID:23397549
Objectives:To evaluate the role of ethnic foods as predictors of intake levels of selected nutrients that are important during pregnancy among the Bedouin Arab minority population in southern Israel, and to compare the main food predictors for Bedouin intakes of the selected nutrients with those for the region's Jewish majority population.Subjects\\/Methods:Ethnic foods\\/recipes (n=122) reported in the Bedouin Nutrition Study (BNS)
The objective of this research was to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on intake of total ?-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) in heart patients. The intervention design was a randomized trial comparing 2 interventions: decisional balance (DB) and no decisional balance (NDB). The outcome measures were total dietary n-3 FA intake and food sources. Intakes were measured
Kimberly B. Heidal; Nancy M. Lewis; Sharon M. Evans; Linda Boeckner
The aim of this study was to compare mean intake of energy and selected nutrients in groups with high perceived control over life, over health, general control and the remaining part of population. The study sample was 3544 men and women aged 45-4, residents of Kraków, randomly selected by sex, age and districts. Data on perceived control was collected by using 9-items questionaire. Nutrientintake was assessed by 24-hour recall. After adjustment to age and education, in men with high perceived control over life mean intake of witamin C was higher (56.3 mg) than in the remaining men (49.0 mg). Compared with other women, women with high perceived control over health had lower mean intake of total energy (6403.9 kJ vs 6831.9 kJ), proteins (56.3 g vs 60.1 g), carbohydrates (217.4 g vs 229.6 g), fat (55.1 g vs 59.8 g) and sodium (1347.5 mg vs 1446.6 mg). In women with high general control, there was lower mean energy intake (6403.9 kJ vs 6773,9 kJ) and SFA intake (18.3 g vs 20.1 g) than in the remaining women. P/S ratio was higher in women with high general control (0.55) then in other women (0.49). In men with high general control mean intake of carbohydrates was lower (292.3 g vs 310.3 g) then in the remaining men. There was no difference in nutrientintake in men with high perceived control over health and in women with high perceived control over life than in remaining part of the sample. In the study sample, high perceived control was related to more favourable diet in women, less effect was observed in men. PMID:16786750
Objective To compare demographic and maternal charac- teristics and usual nutrientintakes of Hispanic and non- Hispanic infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age in the United States. Design We conducted three interviews by telephone to collect information on sociodemographic and maternal characteristics, feeding practices, and dietary intake in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. We col-
RONETTE BRIEFEL; PAULA ZIEGLER; TIMOTHY NOVAK; MICHAEL PONZA
The aims of this study were to determine if feeding frequency (FF) of milk replacer (MR; meals/d) alters starter intake, growth, and efficiency of growth in nursery calves fed a conventional or accelerated MR. We hypothesized that smaller and more frequent MR meals would increase starter intake and growth when greater amounts of MR nutrients are fed to nursery calves. Forty-eight Holstein and Holstein-cross heifer and bull calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR and FF. Treatments included (1) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of body weight (BW; 2 meals/d; STD2), (2) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of BW (4 meals/d; STD4), (3) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (2 meals/d; MOD2), and (4) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (4 meals/d; MOD4; n=12). All calves were fed at 0600 and 1700 h and STD4 and MOD4 calves were fed 2 additional meals at 1100 and 1400 h, resulting in the same amount of MR offered for the 2 × and 4 × treatments. Treatments were fed from d 2 to 42 of age and all MR feeding rates were adjusted weekly to maintain MR solids intakes at 1.5 or 2.0% of BW for STD and MOD diets, respectively, and were reconstituted to 15% total solids. Milk replacer FF was reduced by 50% on d 36 and calves were weaned on d 42. Calves were housed in hutches bedded with straw and offered water and a texturized 18% CP starter ad libitum. Calf body weight and body structure were measured weekly and starter intake and fecal scores were measured daily. Through both 42 and 56 d, calves fed MOD had greater CP and fat intake, resulting in increased average daily gain, heart girth, circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and muscle total lipid compared with calves fed STD diets. Calves fed MOD diets consumed less starter grain than STD calves but total dry matter intake was similar among treatments. Increased FF for STD calves resulted in greater starter intake at weaning but increasing FF of MOD calves did not have this effect. Due to differences in starter intake, total dry matter by calves through d 56 was similar across treatments. Additionally, increased FF tended to increase serum NEFA concentrations. Serum NEFA concentration was negatively correlated with starter intake. The BW of calves fed STD2 and STD4 treatments almost doubled and the BW of calves on the MOD2 and MOD4 treatments doubled by d 56. Increased FF of the conventional MR program but not accelerated MR program increased starter intake. Increased FF did not affect growth, starter intake, or gain:feed ratio. PMID:23219113
Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B
Few studies have assessed the associations between breakfast intake and nutrient adequacy [where inadequacy reflects prevalence of usual intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) and potential excess reflects the prevalence above the tolerable upper intake level (UL)]. This study examined associations among breakfast, nutrientintakes, and nutrient adequacy in Canadian adults. Respondents aged ?19 y in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 19,913) were classified as breakfast nonconsumers (11%), ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) breakfast consumers (20%), or other breakfast consumers (69%). Nutrientintakes from food (24-h recall) and the prevalence of usual intakes below the EAR and above the UL from food alone and from food plus supplements were compared by breakfast group. Usual intake distributions were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. Breakfast consumers, and to a greater extent RTEC breakfast consumers, had significantly higher intakes of fiber and several vitamins and minerals than breakfast nonconsumers. Compared with nonconsumers, RTEC and other breakfast consumers had significantly lower prevalences below the EARs for vitamin A and magnesium. The prevalences below the EARs of these nutrients and calcium, thiamin, vitamin D, and iron were significantly lower with RTEC breakfasts than with other breakfasts. Similar patterns were observed from food alone compared with food plus supplements. Breakfast consumption did not affect prevalence above the UL based on food sources, although based on food plus supplements, breakfast consumers had slightly higher proportions that were above the UL than nonconsumers for several nutrients. Breakfast, especially an RTEC breakfast, is associated with improved nutrient adequacy and does not meaningfully affect prevalence above the UL. PMID:23173176
Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L
The purpose of this research was to measure nutrientintake, body fat, [estimated from seven skinfolds: chest, axilla, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh (Jackson and Pollock, 1985)], total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, and HDL3-C of 19 male and 8 female bodybuilders competing in the National Physique Committee's USA Bodybuilding Championships (Raleigh, NC, April 1988). Casual blood samples and anthropometric data were collected 18 hours prior to competition, whereas 7-day diet records were completed 1 week prior to competition. Only 11 males and 2 females provided blood samples. Competitors were not tested for steroid use. These data are unique because the measurements were collected on site at the competition. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. Estimated body fat for males (6.0 +/- 1.8%) and females (9.8 +/- 1.5%) was quite low. Blood lipids (mg%) for males (TC = 187 +/- 11, HDL-C = 37 +/- 6, HDL2-C = 13 +/- 4, and HDL3-C = 24 +/- 4) were not indicative of increased coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Data for the 2 females (TC = 190, 205; HDL-C = 56, 56; HDL2-C = 22, 8; and HDL3-C = 34, 48) could only be evaluated on an individual basis. Body fat was significantly correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.63; p = 0.04) and HDL3-C (r = 0.65; p = 0.03), but not TC nor HDL2-C. Of the dietary variables, only saturated fat was significantly correlated with HDL2-C (r = 0.60; p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2338462
Objective To determine whether nutrientintake from food alone was adequate across trimesters for middle- to upper-income pregnant women when compared with estimated average requirements (EAR), and to determine whether food intake exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any nutrient. Design Observational study in which pregnant women completed 3-day diet records each month during their pregnancy. Records were
R. Elaine Turner; Bobbi Langkamp-Henken; Ramon C. Littell; Michael J. Lukowski; Maria F. Suarez
Nutrientintakes of 2149 black and white, 9- and 10-year-old girls varied by race, household income, and parental education. Of the three variables, higher education was most consistently associated with more desirable levels of nutrientintakes, that is, lower percentage of dietary fat and higher levels of vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. Higher income was related to higher intakes of
Patricia B. Crawford; Eva Obarzanek; George B. Schreiber; Phyllis Barrier; Sue Goldman; Margaret M. Frederick; Z. I. Sabry
Objective:The aim of this study is to obtain distinct dietary patterns using principal components analysis (PCA) in men taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and to determine the associations with (a) the patterns derived in the study women (the men's partners), (b) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and (c) estimated nutrientintakes.Design and methods:A total of
Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food intake measures. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of five CLOCK single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) with food-intake and to explore the p...
The food consumption and food habits of Italian third-class-primary-school children were assessed and their energy and nutrientintakes were compared with requirements. The study involved 1740 subjects (900 males and 840 females) aged 8-9 years, from the north, centre and south of Italy. Body weight and height were measured. Parents filled in a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for their child. The results showed that the diet of Italian children is unbalanced in terms of macronutrients and deficient in fiber. The average daily intakes of fruit (234?g/d), vegetables (134?g/d) and legumes (17?g/d), were lower than the nationally recommended ones. The percentages of energy intake from fats (41%) and from carbohydrates (45%) were higher and lower respectively than recommended. Low intakes of fiber (13.5?g/d) were reported. A national nutrition policy in Italy should focus on nutrition education programs in schools and for parents. PMID:23480239
Summary DATA on expenditure on 125 food items in the Household Budget Survey 1980 was used to estimate nutrient consumption. Daily\\u000a per capita intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, starch and sugars were respectively 12.0MJ, 90.4g, 114.8g,\\u000a 390.5g, 23.3g, 224.4g and 158.1g. Average daily consumption of vitamins were: retinol, 1069ug; carotene, 2442ug; vitamin D,\\u000a 1.87ug; thiamin, 1.85 mg; riboflavin, 2.05mg;
Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization suggested that incorporating systematic (evidence) reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would provide a comprehensive and distilled evidence document to decision makers and enhance the transparency of the decision-making process the IOM used in recommending the Dietary Reference Intake values (DRIs) for US and Canadian populations. At the request of the US and Canadian government sponsors of the ongoing review of the 1997 vitamin D and calcium DRI values, the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center performed a systematic review for the current DRI Committee to use early in its deliberations. We described the approach used to include systematic review into the IOM process for updating nutrient reference values and highlighted major challenges encountered along with the solutions used. The challenges stemmed from the need to review and synthesize a large number of primary studies covering a broad range of outcomes. We resolved these challenges by 1) working with a technical expert panel to prioritize and select outcomes of interest, 2) developing methods to use existing systematic reviews and documenting the limitations by doing so, 3) translating results from studies not designed to address issues of interest by using a transparent process, and 4) establishing tailored quality-assessment tools to assist in decision making. The experiences described in this article can serve as a basis for future improvements in systematic reviews of nutrients and to better integrate systematic review into development of future nutrient reference values.
Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Ip, Stanley; Lee, Jounghee; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Raman, Gowri; Trikalinos, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Alice H
This study was performed to identify dietary behavior such as snack consumption, night-eating and nutrientsintake associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study was conducted on 219 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and 44 GDM subjects by using a questionnaire including dietary behavior, food frequency and 3-day food record. The mean age, OGTT, and delivery weight of GDM subjects were statistically higher than those in NGT. A larger proportion of NGT subjects consumed black coffee (49.8%) while the majority of GDM subjects (61.4%) drank mixed coffee with sugar and cream. Dairy products were the most frequently consumed snack item in NGT subjects (40.7%), while fruits were most frequently consumed food item in GDM subjects (34.4%). Many of NGT subjects (49.8%) answered that they hardly took night-eating snacks whereas most of GDM subjects (61.4%) took night-eating snacks more than once a week. For change of taste preference, the proportion of NGT subjects who showed less preference for salty taste (33.3%) or greasy taste (16.9%) was higher than that of GDM subjects (11.4%). Nutrientintakes of energy, fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), carbohydrate, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and vitamin E in GDM group were significantly higher than those in NGT group. Nutrient densities of SFA and vitamin C in GDM group were higher and nutrient density of calcium was lower than those in NGT group. Taken together, it is recommended to reduce night-eating snack and choose less salty and fatty foods, black-coffee rather than coffee with cream and sugar, and more dairy products to prevent GDM.
Park, Hee-jin; Lee, JinJu; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Hyun Ah
Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI), nutrientintake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET) survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrientintake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ?8 servings). Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.
Albertson, Ann M.; Wold, A. Christine; Joshi, Nandan
A test for determining the sterility of a totalnutrient admixture (TNA) containing equal quantities of 10% fat emulsion (Liposyn II), 8.5% amino acids injection, and 50% dextrose injection using the USP membrane filtration procedure was developed and evaluated. Membrane filter selection was determined by analysis of flow rates, membrane fluid compatibility, bubble point stability, and rinse fluid requirements. Microbial challenges employing five organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and both soybean casein digest and fluid thioglycollate media were used to confirm the ability of the test to detect low-level microbial contamination. A polyvinylidene fluoride membrane was determined to be the most appropriate of the membrane types studied because of its superior flow rate and membrane-fluid compatibility. Bubble point testing revealed no detrimental effects on the membrane. The potential problem of haziness caused by retention of the TNA by the membrane with subsequent release in the culture media (which could result in false-positive growth determinations) was diminished by using a sterile 0.1% peptone solution rinse and careful observation techniques. Performance of the sterility test by six hospital pharmacists required an average of 14.2 minutes. Sterility testing of alternate TNAs compounded with Intralipid and Nutralipid was not feasible because of prolonged filtration times. The basic USP membrane filtration procedure for large-volume injections can be used by hospital pharmacists for testing the sterility of TNAs. When fat emulsions are used in compounding, sterility-testing procedures specific to the emulsion product used should be developed and evaluated. PMID:3137813
Until quite recently, the dietary focus on prevention of CHD has been almost exclusively centered on reducing intake of cholesterol, total fat and saturated fat. The food industry responded vigorously with low fat products, some of which are helpful, particularly low fat dairy products; but others t...
This study was conducted to identify dietary factors that may affect the occurrence of gastric cancer in Koreans. Preoperative daily nutrition intake and diet quality of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were evaluated. Collected data were comparatively analyzed by gender. The results were then used to prepare basic materials to aid in the creation of a desirable postoperative nutrition management program. The subjects of this study were 812 patients (562 men and 250 women) who were diagnosed with gastric cancer and admitted for surgery at Soonchunhyang University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2010. Nutrition intake and diet quality were evaluated by the 24-hr recall method, the nutrient adequacy ratio, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), nutrient density (ND), index of nutritional quality (INQ), dietary variety score (DVS), and dietary diversity score (DDS). The rate of skipping meals and eating fast, alcohol consumption, and smoking were significantly higher in males than those in females. The levels of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and cholesterol consumption were significantly higher in males than those in females. Intake of fiber, zinc, vitamin A, retinol, carotene, folic acid were significantly higher in females than those in males. MAR in males was significantly higher (0.83) than that in females (0.79). INQ values were higher in females for zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and folic acid than those in males. The average DVS was 17.63 for females and 13.19 for males. The average DDS was 3.68 and the male's average score was 3.44, whereas the female's average score was 3.92. In conclusion, males had more dietary habit problems and poor nutritional balance than those of females. Our findings suggest that proper nutritional management and adequate dietary education for the primary prevention of gastric cancer should be emphasized in men.
Purpose Pre-eclampsia is a multi-system disorder caused by inadequate placentation in early pregnancy; however, little is known about the influence of nutrientintake on placental development during the crucial 1st trimester. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between nutrientintake and the raw values and ratios of angiogenic [placental growth factor (PlGF)] and antiangiogenic [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng)] placental biomarkers in the 1st trimester. Methods A cross-sectional study of low-income, pregnant women (n = 118). Average nutrientintake was calculated from three 24-h dietary recalls. Biomarker values were adjusted for gestational age and nutrients were adjusted for energy. Results The angiogenic to antiangiogenic ratio [PlGF/(sFlt-1 × sEng)] was positively related to intake of vitamin D (r = 0.24), vitamin B2 (r = 0.25), B12 (r = 0.20), dietary folate equivalents (r = 0.19), iron (r = 0.19), and zinc (r = 0.19) and negatively related to transfats (r = ?0.24). Principal component analysis revealed that a vitamin/mineral factor [t (112) = 2.58, p = 0.011] and transfats factor [t (112) = ?2.03, p = 0.045] were significant predictors of the PlGF/(sFlt-1 × sEng) ratio. The vitamin and mineral factor was a significant predictor of sFlt-1 [t (122) = 2.29, p = 0.024]. Conclusions Expression of placental biomarkers in the early weeks of pregnancy may be influenced by intake of nutrients. Understanding the influence of maternal nutrientintake and placental development in the 1st trimester may provide the opportunity to avert the development or blunt the severity of preeclampsia.
Walker, Lorraine O.; Marti, C. Nathan; Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Wommack, Joel; Bryant, Miranda; Kim, SungHun; Timmerman, Gayle M.
The spatial variability of soil totalnutrient levels, which may be greatly affected by parent material, plays an important role in both agriculture and environment, especially with regard to soil fertility and soil quality. Little research has been done that addresses the spatial characteristics of totalnutrients. Soil samples (0–20 cm) were taken from 111 points on an approximately 20-m
Jiang Hou-Long; Liu Guo-Shun; Wang Rui; Shi Hong-Zhi; Hu Hong-Chao
The purpose of this article is to report on baseline intakes of 1874 third-grade children representing a subsample of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) cohort. Intakes were assessed using a single, food record-assisted, 24-hour recall. The sample is unique in that it is drawn from four states and includes students from various ethnic backgrounds. Nutrients of
Leslie A. Lytle; Mary Kay Ebzery; Theresa Nicklas; Deanna Montgomery; Michelle Zive; Marguerite Evans; Patricia Snyder; Milton Nichaman; Steven H. Kelder; Debra Reed; Ellen Busch; Paul Mitchell
The present study investigated the inheritance of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and kilocalorie intake traits in an F(2) population derived from an intercross between C57BL/6J (fat-preferring) and CAST/EiJ (carbohydrate-preferring) mice. Mice were phenotyped for self-selected food intake in a paradigm which provided for 10 days a choice between two macronutrient diets containing 78/22% of energy as a composite of either fat/protein or carbohydrate/protein. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified six significant loci for macronutrient intake: three for fat intake on chromosomes (Chrs) 8 (Mnif1), 18 (Mnif2), and X (Mnif3), and three for carbohydrate intake on Chrs 17 (Mnic1), 6 (Mnic2), and X (Mnic3). An absence of interactions among these QTL suggests the existence of separate mechanisms controlling the intake of fat and carbohydrate. Two significant QTL for cumulative kilocalorie intake, adjusted for baseline body weight, were found on Chrs 17 (Kcal1) and 18 (Kcal2). Without body weight adjustment, another significant kcal locus appeared on distal Chr 2 (Kcal3). These macronutrient and kilocalorie QTL, with the exception of loci on Chrs 8 and X, encompassed chromosomal regions influencing body weight gain and adiposity in this F2 population. These results provide new insight into the genetic basis of naturally occurring variation in nutrientintake phenotypes. PMID:12388789
Smith Richards, Brenda K; Belton, Brenda N; Poole, Angela C; Mancuso, James J; Churchill, Gary A; Li, R; Volaufova, Julia; Zuberi, Aamir; York, Barbara
Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest folivores that are generally confined to a single host plant and hence do not experience much diversity in food nutrient ratios. We show that forest tent caterpillars do not independently regulate protein and carbohydrate intake. These findings are consistent with predictions that nutritional regulation abilities should be less important in animals with narrower diet breadths. PMID:16547301
Opinion statement Until quite recently, the dietary focus on prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been almost exclusively centered\\u000a on reducing intake of cholesterol, total fat, and saturated fat. The food industry responded vigorously with low-fat products,\\u000a some of which are helpful, particularly low-fat dairy products, but others that are less so, due to increases in refined carbohydrate\\u000a content. Recent
The aim of this study was to determine if (1) participation in Home-Delivered Meals (HDM) results in improved dietary patterns and nutrientintake, lower food insecurity, and reduced loss of weight; (2) subgroups of older persons are more likely to benefit; and (3) nutritional indicators of impact other than nutrientintake may be useful. The design used was quasi-experimental, with
Previouslyobservedstrongrelationshipsbetweendry matter (DM) intake and milk yield in dairy cows were the basis for this meta-analysis aimed to determine the influence of intake of specific dietary nutrients on milk yield and milk protein yield in Holstein dairy cows. Diets (563) from feeding trials published in the Journal of Dairy Science were evaluated for nutrient composi- tion using 2 diet evaluation
Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrientintake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general.
The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (?20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence. PMID:23576215
Objective: To explore differences in food and nutrientintake as well as cardiovascular risk factors between the eastern and western parts of Germany in 1998 and to compare food consumption information between 1991 and 1998.Design and subjects: In all, 4030 people, aged 18–79 y, sampled from the East and West parts of Germany participated in the German Nutrition Survey (1998)
Nutrientintakes of male and female cadets were evaluated during the 1979-80 academic year as part of a study to determine factors contributing to weight gain in the West Point cadets. Five consecutive days of dietary data were collected from 136 males an...
A four?day weighed food intake study was carried out in the wet and dry seasons in northern Anambra State, Nigeria, on pre?school children and (during the wet season) on pregnant women. In both seasons the energy, calcium, riboflavin and niacin of the diet of the children were low while the diet of the pregnant women was deficient in most nutrients.
We examined the contribution of RTEC to the nutrientintake status of African Americans (AA) children and adolescents. We analyzed the 24-h dietary recall data from 2371 participants aged 1-18 y from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In all age groups, compared to brea...
Weaner ewes were fed poor quality native pasture hay fortified with molasses–urea solutions, and a 42-day indoor metabolism study was conducted to determine forage intake and nutrient metabolism. Low quality native pastures in the Falkland Islands restrict sheep productivity, and methods to improve the value of this resource have been requested by local farmers. Fortification solutions used in the study
This study compared the measurement of percent body fat by skinfolds (SF) and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and evaluated self-reported nutrientintake by BMI and percent body fat in 8-11 year old African American girls. 56 girls were recruited based on se...
The USDA has issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrientintakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women, aged >18y, from the 2001-02 US National Health ...
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans indicate the US population is experiencing an epidemic of overweight and obesity while maintaining a nutrient-poor, energy-dense diet associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. To build upon the review of published research in the Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, this article aims to review the scientific literature pertaining to the consumption of dairy foods and the effects of dairy consumption on nutrientintakes and chronic disease risk published between June 2010, when the report was released, and September 2011. PubMed was searched for articles using the following key words: dairy, milk, nutrientintake, bone health, body composition, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and blood pressure. Evidence indicates that increasing dairy consumption to the recommended amount, i.e., three servings daily for individuals ?9 years of age, helps close gaps between current nutrientintakes and recommendations. Consuming more than three servings of dairy per day leads to better nutrient status and improved bone health and is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Conclusions from narrative qualitative reviews on differences in total tract digestibilities between goats and sheep did not account for variability among studies. Therefore meta-analytic techniques were used to describe the magnitude of these differences with numerical values. A unitless effect size (Hedges' g) was applied within studies to measure differences in digestibilities of dry matter (DM; 104 comparisons), organic matter (OM; 93 comparisons), crude protein (CP; 85 comparisons), neutral detergent fibre (NDF; 74 comparisons), acid detergent fibre (ADF; 59 comparisons), cellulose (24 comparisons), hemicellulose (18 comparisons) and gross energy (GE; 29 comparisons). The absence and inability to describe independent factors which contributed to variation among studies necessitated the use of frequentist random effects and hierarchical Bayesian models in the calculation of summary statistics across studies. Digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose were higher (p < 0.05) in goats than sheep when all-forage diets were fed. When concentrates were included in the diets, there were no such differences. Differences between goats and sheep in DM intake were found to be non-significant. Differences in nutrient digestibilities of forages as sole feed implies that species-specific values have to be used in feed formulation and feeding strategies. However, caution is needed when extrapolating results from stall-feeding, which is how digestibility data are usually measured, to grazing conditions. PMID:21762428
likelihood of meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for these nutrients. Only children who were non- consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages had a mean calcium intake that met the adequate intakes (AI). Con- sumption of sweetened dairy products and presweetened cereals was positively associated with the number of dairy servings consumed per day for both age groups. Conclusions: On average, consumption
The validation of dietary total fat measurements has been elusive because no specific biomarker exists. In metabolic studies with controlled diets, plasma fasting triglyceride levels are reduced with higher fat intake and can thus serve as an \\
Walter Willett; Meir Stampfer; Nain-Feng Chu; Donna Spiegelman; Michelle Holmes; Eric Rimm
Background/objectives: In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers. Subjects/methods: During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; body mass index, 23.2±2.7?kg/m2; 52% female) recorded food and fluid consumed, collected one first morning urine (FMU) void and three 24-h (24hU) samples. The strength of linear association between urinary hydration biomarkers and fluid intake volume was evaluated using simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeled the association between fluid intake and 24hU hydration biomarkers. Results: Strong associations (|r|?0.6; P<0.001) were found between total fluid intake volume and 24hU osmolality, color, specific gravity (USG), volume and solute concentrations. Many 24hU biomarkers were collinear (osmolality versus color: r=0.49–0.76; USG versus color: r=0.46–0.78; osmolality versus USG: 0.86–0.97; P<0.001). Measures in FMU were not strongly correlated to intake. Multivariate PLS and simple linear regression using urine volume explained >50% of the variance in fluid intake volume (r2=0.59 and 0.52, respectively); however the error in both models was high and the limits of agreement very large. Conclusions: Hydration biomarkers in 24hU are strongly correlated with daily total fluid intake volume in sedentary adults in free-living conditions; however, the margin of error in the present models limits the applicability of estimating fluid intake from urinary biomarkers.
Perrier, E; Rondeau, P; Poupin, M; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, L E; Lang, F; Stookey, J; Tack, I; Vergne, S; Klein, A
Tongan adults show one of the highest prevalences of obesity in the world. The present study aims to estimate Tongans' energy and nutrientintakes and food sources using a 24-hour recall survey for 14 days targeting 15 men and 19 women. The mean (SD) daily energy intake was 12.2 (2.3) MJ for men and 10.6 (2.2) MJ for women. Imported foods accounted for about half of their energy and macronutrient intakes, but for much less of their micronutrients. Some local food items, specifically pork, kava, and sea hare, contributed significantly to their vitamin, Fe, and Ca intakes, respectively. These findings suggest that heavy reliance on imported foods can lead not only to a high prevalence of obesity, but also to micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:21888600
This study investigated potential underreporting of energy intake in the 1990 Ontario Health Survey (OHS). Underreporting was higher in overweight individuals, Asian-born individuals, and respondents from urban areas. Intakes of underreporters were slightly closer to current dietary guidelines (less fat, more fruit and vegetables, fewer sweets). These results underline that caution is warranted when interpreting the association of dietary data
Joceline Pomerleau; Truls Østbye; Elizabeth Bright-See
This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrientintakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881
Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok; Chang, Namsoo
The dietary intake of total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and total mercury (tHg) in lunch and breakfast servings provided by the Chilean School Meal Program (SMP) was estimated, using the duplicate-portion variant of the total diet study. Lunch and breakfast samples were collected from 65 schools throughout the country in 2006. The population sample was a group of girls
J. M. Bastías; M. Bermúdez; J. Carrasco; O. Espinoza; M. Muñoz; M. J. Galotto; O. Muñoz
This study was conducted to record the ideal source and level of alkali treatment to treat jatropha meal (JM) and to determine the effect of inclusion of variously processed JM (pJM) on nutrientintake, digestibility, blood metabolites and hormonal status in goats. The JM was treated with 10 g/kg sodium chloride and 5 g/kg calcium hydroxide. The content of phorbol ester and hemagglutination (HA) activity of JM and pJM were assessed. A feeding trial for 90 days was conducted in short-haired multipurpose goats (n?=?15; five per group). The experimental animals were offered oat (Avena sativa) straw ad libitum throughout the experimental period of 90 days. Each group was assigned to one of the three diets, viz. R1-soybean meal, R2-sodium chloride (10 g/kg dry matter, DM), and R3-calcium hydroxide (5 g/kg DM), with pJM substituting 250 g/kg DM of crude protein (CP) of control (R1). At the end of the feeding period, digestion trial of 7 days was conducted. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period to assess the blood metabolites and hormonal status. The phorbol ester and HA activity were reduced considerably in pJM. The intake of DM, organic matter, CP, and nitrogen-free extract were comparable among all the groups. However, the intake of ether extract was significantly higher in pJM-fed groups. The hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum urea, triiodothyronine and testosterone contents decreased in R2 and R3 as compared to R1. Concentration of glucose and activity of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase increased (P?0.01) in goats fed pJM. It was concluded that phorbol ester content and HA activity markedly decreased by processing JM with sodium chloride and calcium hydroxide. However, they were not reduced to the levels of safe feeding, as reflected in unusual values of blood metabolites among the experimental animals. PMID:23526123
Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. NutrientIntake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052
Three ruminally fistulated beef heifers about 2.5 years old were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to investigate the effect of supplemental sodium fumarate on voluntary feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and blood metabolites. Experimental treatements were; control (tallow), tallow + 0.5% sodium fumarate (T1) and sunflower oil + 0.5%NaF (T2). At the end of experiment,
C. Yuangklang; K. Vasupen; S. Wittayakun; S. Wongsutthavas; K. Kongweha
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between parental smoking habits and the nutrientintake and food choice of teenagers aged 16-17 years, allowing for differences in teenage smoking and the social class and regional distribution of the participants. DESIGN: Data were collected from the 1970 longitudinal birth cohort, cross-sectionally at 16-17 years. The smoking habits of teenagers were evaluated from
Objective To evaluate the dietary patterns of 7-year-old children participating in an atherosclerosis prevention project and the relationship of those dietary patterns to nutrientintakes and serum cholesterol values.Design In the randomized, prospective Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) 1,062 children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=540; low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet) or to a control group
MINNA RÄSÄNEN; JAN-CHRISTIAN LEHTINEN; HARRI NIINIKOSKI; SOILI KESKINEN; SOILE RUOTTINEN; MARI SALMINEN; TAPANI RÖNNEMAA; JORMA VIIKARI; OLLI SIMELL
Objective To examine the effect of age, education, and residence on food consumption and nutrientintakes of older women living alone.Design In-home interviews were conducted using the Health Habits and History Questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute.Subjects One hundred fifty-two free-living, healthy women who were between the ages of 65 and 94 years.Statistical analysis Analysis of variance was used
The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrientsintake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC),\\u000a 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and
Sohail H. Khan; Muhammad Aasif Shahzad; Mahr Nisa; Muhammad Sarwar
Elevated serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and dementia. The prevalence rates of homozygous mutants among Japanese women (n = 300) were 17.3%, 1.3%, 18.6%, and 5.3% for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, reduced folate carrier (RFC-1) A80G, and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G, respectively. The tHcy value was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in young women with CC or CT of MTHFR than with TT (10.9+/-4.7 micromol/L) (n =250). Diversities of serum folate and tHcy in women with 23 combinations of different alleles at low folate intake converged to the highest (34.0+/-8.6 nmol/L) and lowest (7.6+/-1.5 micromol/L) levels, respectively, after folic acid (400 microg/day) supplementation. In the regression equation ( y= ax + b) of serum folate ( y nmol/L) plotted against mean folate intake ( x microg/day), the values of "a" were 0.032, 0.037, and 0.045 for individuals with CC, CT, and TT alleles, respectively, of MTHFR. PMID:15044114
Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.
Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R.
Data were collected on nutrientintakes, dining hall attendance, and some socio-anthropometric characteristics of enlisted Marine Corps personnel at Twentynine Palms (TNP), California. The study was designed to (1) assess the nutritional adequacy of the a...
M. J. Kretsch D. D. Schnakenberg R. D. Fults R. A. Nelson Y. C. LeTellier
Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrientintake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate. PMID:20881083
BACKGROUND: Food habits, nutrient needs and intakes differ between males and females, although few nutritional studies on patients with coeliac disease (CD) have reported results stratified by gender. OBJECTIVES: To compare energy and nutrientintakes among 13-year olds diagnosed with CD in early childhood with those of a non-coeliac (NC) age- and gender-matched control group, and also with estimated average requirements (EAR). METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Sweden 2006-2007 within the coeliac screening study ETICS (Exploring The Iceberg of Coeliacs in Sweden). Dietary intake was assessed among 37 adolescents (23 girls) diagnosed with CD at median age 1.7 years (CD group) and 805 (430 girls) NC controls (NC group) using a food-frequency questionnaire covering 4 weeks. Reported energy intake was validated by comparison with the calculated physical activity level (PAL). RESULTS: Regardless of CD status, most adolescents reported an intake above EAR for most nutrients. However, both groups had a low intake of vitamin C, with 13% in the CD-group and 25% in the NC-group below EAR, and 21% of boys in the CD-group below EAR for thiamine. The intake of fatty acids was unbalanced, with a high intake of saturated and a low intake of unsaturated fats. Girls and boys in the CD-group had an overall lower nutrient density in reported food intake compared to girls and boys in the NC-group. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrientintake of adolescent girls and boys with CD was mostly comparable to intakes of NC controls. Dietitians should take the opportunity to reinforce a generally healthy diet when providing information about the gluten-free diet. PMID:23701396
Recent increases in consumption of added sugars in the US can reduce intake of vital nutrients and increase the overall energy intakes. A comprehensive framework is necessary for addressing the controversy surrounding the effects of added sugars on nutrientintakes while controlling for dietary knowledge, behavioral factors, and total energy intakes, especially among low-income households. This paper analyzed the proximate
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS). DESIGN: The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed. SETTING: TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat). Subject Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively. RESULTS: Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46-0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35-0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37-0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38-0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44-0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35-45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0-6%)). CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants. PMID:23782894
Chiu, Tina Ht; Huang, Hui-Ya; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Wu, Yu-Ru; Chiu, Jason Pc; Li, Yi-Hwei; Chiu, Brian C-H; Lin, Chin-Lon; Lin, Ming-Nan
Year 2000 Nutrition Objectives for the U.S. population include increased intake of fruits and vegetables and calcium, and decreased intakes of fat, saturated fat and alcohol. This study describes variation in intake of fats, fruits and vegetables, antioxidant vitamins, complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, calcium and alcohol among 1161 male participants of the Normative Aging Study (NAS) in relation to age
Studies showing lower body mass index for vegetarians than non-vegetarians suggest that a vegetarian diet may be an approach for weight management. The purpose of this study was to compare nutrientintakes of vegetarians, non-vegetarians, and dieters to show that a vegetarian diet does not compromise nutrientintake. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2004) data were analyzed for persons
Bonnie Farmer; A. J. Rainville; G. U. Liepa; B. Larson; V. Fulgoni
Objective To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Design Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrientintakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4–6 years. Setting Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Subjects Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Results Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrientintakes. The majority (?80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended NutrientIntake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88% of boys and 86% of girls. Conclusions Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.
McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie MW; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, JJ
Timing of oral intake after total laryngectomy (TLE) is mostly delayed until postoperative day 10-12, under the assumption that this limits the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistulization (PCF). However, early oral intake could be advantageous and could reduce costs, providing that it does not lead to increased PCF. Comparison of PCF incidence in traditional 'late' oral intake protocol (start at postoperative day 10-12; LOI) and in early oral intake protocol (start at postoperative day 2-4; EOI). Retrospective cohort study comparing two different oral intake protocols in 247 consecutive patients laryngectomized between early 2000 until mid 2006 (LOI; N = 140), and mid 2006 until mid 2012 (EOI; N = 107). Both groups were comparable in terms of sex, age, origin of tumor, and TLE indication, except for the American Society of Anesthesiologists score (ASA), which was slightly more favorable in the LOI group (p = 0.047). Compliance with the oral intake protocols during both periods was good: the median day of starting oral intake was day 11 (range 6-103) in the LOI group vs. day 3 (range 2-84) in the EOI group (p = 0.001). The incidence of PCF was not significantly different between the two groups (25 % for LOI and 32 % for EOI; Fisher's exact: p = 0.255). In addition, no association was observed between the timing of oral intake and PCF (HR = 0.995; CI 0.98-1.01; p = 0.364). This study suggests that early oral intake is safe and does not increase pharyngocutaneous fistulization. PMID:23625389
Timmermans, A Jacqueline; Lansaat, Liset; Kroon, Gertruda V J; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M
This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrientintake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on
|Objective: To compare nutrientintake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Design: Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were…
The science supporting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride was examined in this review. Along with the previous article on calcium in this series both of these reviews represent all the DRI for nutrients considered essential for bone metabolism and health, as reported in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D,
Christine Bergman; Darlene Gray-Scott; Jau-Jiin Chen; Susan Meacham
Background: Little is known concerning the dietary habits during pregnancy of women with eating disorders that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective: We examined the nutrient and food group intakes of womenwithbulimianervosaandbinge-eatingdisorderduringpreg- nancy and compared these with intakes of women with no eating disorders. Design: Data on 30 040 mother-child pairs from the prospective Norwegian
Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Margaretha Haugen; Helle M Meltzer; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Cecilie Knopf-Berg; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M Bulik
Objective: To evaluate the food and nutrientintake of members of a birth cohort study when young children in 1950 and investigate differences from present-day children's diets. Design: One-day recall diet records from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) (1946 Birth Cohort) at age 4 years were analysed for energy and selected nutrients and compared to the
CJ Prynne; AA Paul; GM Price; KC Day; WS Hilder; MEJ Wadsworth
Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrientintake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrientintake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.
Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang
Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrientintake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrientintake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682
Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon
Dietary lignans may affect breast cancer by modifying tumor characteristics likely to affect prognosis. We investigated usual dietary intakes of total and specific lignans with tumor characteristics in 683 women with breast cancer and 611 healthy women without breast cancer enrolled in the Data Bank and BioRepository at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). Clinicopathologic data were abstracted from the RPCI breast cancer database. Dietary lignan intakes were calculated from FFQ. OR and 95% CI were estimated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders and stratified by menopausal status. Women in the highest compared to the lowest tertile of total lignan intakes had a 40–50% lower odds of breast cancer regardless of menopausal status and substantially reduced odds of an invasive tumor, especially among premenopausal women [OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.26–0.86)]. Lignan intakes were inversely associated with odds of grade 3 tumors among premenopausal women. Lignan intakes were inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor (ER) negative (ER?) breast cancer among premenopausal women [OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.03–0.44)] and particularly triple negative tumors [ER?, progesterone receptor negative, HER2 negative; OR 0.16 (95% CI 0.04–0.62)]. There were significant differences in the contribution to these effects by specific lignans, especially matairesinol and lariciresinol. In summary, in this case-control study of dietary lignan intakes and breast cancer, we found that higher lignan intakes were associated with lower risks of breast cancer with more favorable prognostic characteristics. Future investigations are warranted to explore the strong associations observed with ER? cancer in premenopausal women.
McCann, Susan E.; Hootman, Katie C.; Weaver, Anne M.; Thompson, Lilian U.; Morrison, Carl; Hwang, Helena; Edge, Stephen B.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Horvath, Peter J.; Kulkarni, Swati A.
An easily-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)\\/dietary screener was developed for current (adult) and retrospective (adolescent) intakes of nutrients important for bone development and maintenance. This tool quantified serving sizes and nutrients from foods using gender- and age-specific techniques. Nutrients of interest were calcium, vitamin D, caffeine and alcohol, and 15 categories of foods were selected for inclusion based on frequency
Julie M. E. Gilmore; Teresa A. Marshall; Steven M. Levy; Phyllis J. Stumbo
Data from the 1994 USDA nationwide survey (CSFII) on 190 non- smoking males (aged 20–29) were used to propose a method for adjusting total water intake for the diuretic effects of caffeine and alcohol, and evaluate the potential for related misclassification bias. The data were processed on a per meal basis. Under the assumption that subjects were in water balance
Methylmercury intake for adult males of twelve provinces in China was estimated by means of the 2007 Chinese Total Diet Study. Methylmercury levels were measured in twelve food groups of each province of four regions and was only found in the aquatic food groups. The range for methylmercury contents of aquatic foods was 3.29–31.60?µg?kg, being 50–87% of total mercury. Methylmercury
X. H. Shang; X. W. Li; L. Zhang; Y. F. Zhao; Y. N. Wu
Objective To examine the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) intake and colorectal cancer incidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods TAC intake was assessed in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort\\u000a study of 47,339 men. Between 1986 and 2004, 952 colorectal cancer cases were diagnosed. Cox proportional hazards regression\\u000a models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and
Rania A. MekaryKana; Kana Wu; Edward Giovannucci; Laura Sampson; Charles Fuchs; Donna Spiegelman; Walter C. Willett; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner
Undernutrition among children under five year is a significant public health problem in India. The present study was carried out to assess trends in nutritional status, nutrient and food intake among children under five year over two time periods. It was a community-based cross-sectional study, carried out in tribal areas of India. A total of 14,587 children, 0-5 years old were covered for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting and wasting. A 24 hour diet survey was carried out in a sub-sample of households surveyed. Wealth index was constructed using principle component analysis. The prevalence of underweight and stunting had declined significantly over the periods (49% vs 57%, 51% vs 58%, respectively), while the prevalence of wasting remained similar (22% vs 23%). There was marginal decrease in the intake of foods and nutrients over the periods, and was below recommended levels. Stepwise regression showed that the risk of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.01) higher among children of illiterate mothers and children from lowest and middle households wealth index. Morbidities during preceding fortnight had 1.3 times higher risk of underweight and wasting. In conclusion, undernutrition is a significant health problem among tribal children and is associated with literacy status of mothers, household wealth index and morbidities. Therefore implementation of appropriate nutritional intervention strategies and improvement in households food security through public distribution systems, food intakes, socioeconomic condition, literacy of parents and personal hygiene may help in improving the nutritional status of tribal children. PMID:23017315
Although 24-hour recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment, intake on a single day is a poor estimator of long-term usual intake. Statistical modeling mitigates this limitation more effectively than averaging multiple 24-hour recalls per respondent. In this article, we describe the statistical theory that underlies the four major modeling methods developed to date, then review the strengths and limitations
Kevin W. Dodd; Patricia M. Guenther; Laurence S. Freedman; Amy F. Subar; Victor Kipnis; Douglas Midthune; Janet A. Tooze; Susan M. Krebs-Smith
|Data on dietary intake and stages of change from 17,121 employees in the Working Well Trail show that a greater proportion have tried to reduce fat rather than increase fiber consumption. Stage of change predicted 8-13% of variance in dietary intake. (SK)|
Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour-flavour learning or flavour-nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P<0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P<0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P<0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P<0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children. PMID:23110783
Caton, Samantha J; Ahern, Sara M; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M
This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=3273), and adolescents 14-18 y (n=4044) participating in the NHANES 1999-2004 were assessed. LB was defined as beef with ?9.28 grams [g] fat/100 g (excess was discretionary fat). Means and standard errors were determined using appropriate sample weights. Consumption of LB contributed significantly to intake of protein and many key nutrients such as vitamins B6 and B12, zinc, iron, niacin, phosphorus, and potassium by US children and adolescents without providing significantly to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, or sodium. PMID:21093990
O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A
Objectives Physicians are often reluctant to advise older obese patients to lose weight for fear of compromised nutrition and excessive\\u000a loss of muscle mass and strength, all of which may lead to a loss of independence and accelerate disability. Therefore, the\\u000a purpose of this study was to examine nutrientintake in older obese adults undergoing a weight loss intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting The study
Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake.
Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo
Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention. PMID:22367072
Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P
Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ? .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (? 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrientintake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy-restricted diet for weight loss.
Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris
Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21d of age. The diets were 4L/head per day of WM (M); 4L/head per day of WM plus 200g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4L/head per day of WM plus 200g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrientintake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. PMID:23958020
Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrientintakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p?0.0001); vitamin K (p?=?0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p?0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p?0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p?0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrientintake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.
Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. PMID:23357431
de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry
Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to ?0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.
Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.
Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616
Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P
Objective: This study examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and attempting to lose weight for reporting of: (1) macro- and micronutrient intake; (2) intake of low-nutrient-density foods; and (3) serum biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular disease risk.Methods: Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994), n=13 095. Multiple regression
Objective: To assess the impact of nutrition counselling given to 7.5- to 9-y-old children and their parents on children's nutrition knowledge and nutrientintakes.Design and subjects: The study children are participants in a prospective, randomised STRIP study (Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children), whose aim was to decrease the intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol while increasing
M Räsänen; S Keskinen; H Niinikoski; T Heino; O Simell; T Rönnemaa; H Helenius; J Viikari
This study evaluated the relationship among diet and obesity (BMI >/ 30,calculated from self-reported height & weight), heart disease (HD), hypertension (HTP) and diabetes, in a representative sample of African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) adults from 36 counties in the LMD. Food intake was a...
The study was designed with the subjects receiving 40 g of protein as part of their 500-kcal/day intake. Under the conditions of this study, the caloric deficit was accounted for primarily through catabolism of fat stores, with body protein contributing 4...
C. F. Consolazio G. J. Isaac H. J. Krzywicki H. L. Johnson N. F. Witt
The Manual contains a four-week cycle of menus that will provide adequate nutrients to nursing home residents, based on their expected consumption of foods rather than the amounts they are served. Along with the menus are suggested serving sizes, expected...
Two groups in different population centers were studied to determine how often consumers frequented fast food restaurants, and consequently, how heavily they relied on this type of food for nutrients. A questionnaire was answered by 280 customers of two fast food restaurants of the same chain. They were asked how often they patronized fast food restaurants, their specific food choices, and other pertinent questions. Food choices were evaluated for energy and seven nutrients on the basis of published analyses of the menu items of the particular fast food chain. Fifty-two per cent of the subjects in the two groups considered their purchases to be meals. Seventy-seven per cent of these consumed one-third or more of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, but no more than 30 per cent received that amount of the other nutrients examined, including food energy. Calcium and particularly vitamin A were least often consumed in amounts equal to one-third of the recommended allowances. Consumer choices were responsible for low consumption of calcium, but no good sources of vitamin A were included on the menus. Fast food items were purchased so infrequently by the majority of our respondents that nutrient composition of the fast food meals or snacks would be of concern in only a small number of cases. This study indicates that any attempts to improve nutritive value of fast food snacks or meals must include efforts to lead consumers to make wiser food choices, as well as encourage the fast food industry to provide rich sources of all the nutrients in their menus. PMID:845349
The nutritional intakes and eating patterns of elite, world and Olympian figure skaters were evaluated. Three day diet records, weights and heights were collected. Participants included 20 females 17.7 ± 8 years of age and 18 males 19.5 ± 3.6 years of age. Average weight and height for females was 107.5 ± 15.0 pounds, 5.1 ± .2 feet and for
A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the norm. Seventy-six healthy rural Cretan boys aged 7–9 years were
C. Aravanis; R. P. Mensink; N. Karalias; B. Christodoulou; A. Kafatos; M. B. Katan
The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma estrone, estradiol?17?, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and prolactin levels was investigated in 14 premenopausal Seventh?day Adventist vegetarian (SV) women and 9 premenopausal non?Seventh?day Adventist nonvegetarian (NV) women. The SV subjects consumed less fat, especially saturated fat, and used significantly less fried foods than the NV subjects. Plasma levels of estrone and estradiol?17? in the
PURPOSE: Although the empirical weight (regression-based) method has theoretical advantages over the traditional food composition method in predicting nutrient levels from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), the empirical assessments have been limited.METHODS: We compared the validity of the two approaches for a 44-item questionnaire used in a population-based prospective study in Japan. Based on four 7-day diet records and questionnaire responses
Four, rumen fistulated crossbred (Brahman × native) beef cattle steers were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) or CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1) and Factor B was cotton seed meal level (CM); and 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). The animals were fed 5 g concentrate/kg BW, and urea-treated rice straw (UTS) (50 g urea/kg DM) was fed ad libitum. Carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, rumen fermentation, or microbial protein synthesis; however, animals fed with CC had a higher population of total viable bacteria than the CR3:1 treatment (P<0.05). Animals that received HCM had a lower total feed intake while ruminal pH was higher than the LCM fed treatment (P<0.05). The population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria in animals that received HCM were lower than the LCM fed treatment (P<0.05). Moreover, use of HCM in beef cattle diets resulted in lower microbial protein synthesis when compared with the LCM fed treatment (P<0.05) although efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was nonsignificantly different among treatments. Therefore, cassava chip combined with rice bran can be used in a concentrate diet for beef cattle. It is also noted that a high level of cotton seed meal in the concentrate may impact rumen fermentation and animal performance. PMID:22072076
Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians. Consumption of cereal fiber, calcium and carotene as well as fecal concentrations of iso-lithocholic acid were found to correlate positively with excreted concentrations of one or more fecapentaene analogues. On average, 22% of excreted fecapentaene concentrations was found to be related to nutrientintake in stepwise regression models. Dietary calcium intake was found to be the most significant factor positively correlating with excreted fecapentaene concentrations. Intake of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or fiber from vegetables and fruit could be shown to correlate with fecapentaene excretion to a lesser degree. Despite high fecapentaene concentrations in fecal dichloromethane extracts, only 1 out of 20 samples revealed significant mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. Further, aqueous extracts of feces from omnivores appeared to be equally mutagenic as feces from vegetarians and contained non-detectable concentrations of fecapentaenes. It is concluded that dietary factors do affect excreted fecapentaene levels, but only to a relatively minor extent. Since vegetarians at low risk for colorectal cancer excrete higher concentrations of fecapentaenes, it could be hypothesized that relatively increased fecapentaene excretion in combination with antimutagenic compounds in feces represents colon cancer prevention. PMID:1540928
de Kok, T M; van Faassen, A; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A; ten Hoor, F; Kleinjans, J C
ObjectiveLittle research has been conducted on health effects associated with consumption of flavored milk. The purposes of this study were to compare nutrientintakes and body measures among children and adolescents drinking flavored milk (with or without plain milk), exclusively plain milk, and no milk.
Mary M. Murphy; Judith S. Douglass; Rachel K. Johnson; Lisa A. Spence
The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrientintake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be compromised, and no study has described dietary status of a
Linda Jacobs Starkey; Katherine Gray-Donald; Harriet V. Kuhnlein
Two experiments were conducted to assess the nutrientintake, weight gain (ADG) and rumen degradation of napier grass (NG), lucerne (L) and sweet potato vines (SPV) fed to growing dairy heifers. In the first experiment, 33 Friesian heifers were randomly allocated to the three treatments namely; napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines which were fed for 104 days. In
J. N. Kariuki; C. K. Gachuiri; G. K. Gitau; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem; J. M. K. Muia; K. R. G. Irungu
A test of Fast Foods for Navy afloat feeding was conducted aboard the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga. A diary-interview technique was used by the team from Letterman Army Institute of Research to evaluate the nutrientintake of 203 enlisted sailors before ...
M. S. Morris D. D. Schnakenberg M. O'Connor T. Hixson H. L. Johnson
The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403
The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrientsintake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC), 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and concentrate as 50:50 (SSC), 100% millet silage (MiS) and millet silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MiSC), respectively. For this purpose, 24 Sipli lambs were randomly allotted to six experimental diets in a completely randomized design for 90 days, four lambs per diet. The results indicated that among various silage diets, lambs fed MS diet consumed higher dry matter (DM) than those fed SS and MiS diets. Likewise, lambs offered MSC had higher dry matter intake than those fed SSC and MiSC diets. Crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) consumed by the lambs also followed the similar trend. Higher DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were also observed in lambs fed MS and MSC diets than those fed SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. Overall digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were higher in experimental diets containing silage with concentrate. Lambs fed MS diet had 2.79 g/day and 4.45 g/day higher N retention than those fed SS and MiS, respectively. Similarly, lambs fed MSC diet had 2.24 g/day and 5.12 g/day higher N retention than those fed SSC and MiSC diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed MSC gained more daily weight gain had better feed conversion ratio than those fed MS, SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. The findings of the present study indicated that lambs fed MSC diet had higher nutrientsintake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain. PMID:21116714
Khan, Sohail H; Shahzad, Muhammad Aasif; Nisa, Mahr; Sarwar, Muhammad
The acquisition of nutrients is fundamental for the maintenance of bodily functions, growth, and reproduction in animals. As a result, fitness can be maximized only when animals are able to direct their attention to foods that reflect their current nutritional needs. Despite significant literature documenting the fitness consequences of nutrient composition and preference, less is known about the underlying genetic architecture of the dietary preferences themselves, specifically, the degree to which they can respond to selection. We addressed this by integrating evolutionary quantitative genetics and nutritional geometry to examine the shape of the sex-specific fitness surfaces and the availability of genetic variance for macronutrient preferences in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Combining these analyses, we found that the microevolutionary potential of carbohydrate and protein preference was above average in this population, because the expected direction of selection was relatively well aligned with the major axis of the genetic variance-covariance matrix, G. We also found that potential exists for sexually antagonistic genetic constraint in this system; macronutrient blends maximizing fitness differed between the sexes, and cross-sex genetic correlations for their consumption were positive. However, both sexes were displaced from their feeding optima, generating similar directional selection on males and females, with the combined effect being that minimal sex-specific genetic constraints currently affect dietary preferences in this population. PMID:23778229
Reddiex, Adam J; Gosden, Thomas P; Bonduriansky, Russell; Chenoweth, Stephen F
This study aimed to compare the nutritional intake values among 15-month-old rural Malawian children obtained by weighed food record (WFR) with those obtained by modified 24-hour recall (mod 24-HR), and to develop algorithm for adjusting mod 24-HR values so as to predict mean intake based on WFRs. The study participants were 169 15-month-old children who participated in a clinical trial. Food consumption on one day was observed and weighed (established criterion) by a research assistant to provide the estimates of energy and nutrientintakes. On the following day, another research assistant, blinded to the direct observation, conducted the structured interactive 24-hour recall (24-HR) interview (test method). Paired t-tests and scatter-plots were used to compare intake values of the two methods. The structured interactive 24-HR method tended to overestimate energy and nutrientintakes (each P < 0.001). The regression-through-the-origin method was used to develop adjustment algorithms. Results showed that multiplying the mean energy, protein, fat, iron, zinc and vitamin A intake estimates based on the test method by 0.86, 0.80, 0.68, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.76, respectively, provides an approximation of the mean values based on WFRs. PMID:21323866
Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Kuusipalo, Heli M; Maleta, Kenneth M; Phuka, John C; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun
Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to promote and protect public health by providing nutrition information so that consumers can make informed dietary choices. High levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in diets are linked to increased blood cholesterol levels and a greater risk of heart disease. Therefore, an understanding of consumer use of total fat, saturated
Chung-Tung Jordan Lin; Jonq-Ying Lee; Steven T. Yen
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementing chopped ryegrass hay with 0, 5, 10, or 20% fat coated with ruminal bypass protein (Prolip on ruminal digestion by cows and nutrient digestibility by sheep. Ruminal disappearances of DM, ADF, and NDF were measured by the in sacco technique using a cannulated cow. Degradation of DM, ADF, and NDF was not affected by protected fat supplementation at the 5, 10, or 20% level during the first 16 h in the rumen. In addition, supplementation with Prolip did not influence in vitro fermentation characteristics such as pH and VFA patterns. A digestibility experiment with six mature sheep in a switch-back design showed no decrease in feed intake or other undesired effects between unsupplemented (basal) and Prolip-supplemented diets. Whatever the diet fed to sheep, fiber digestibility was similar; however, DM and nitrogen digestibilities were significantly higher relative to the basal diet when ryegrass hay was substituted at 20% (64.2 vs 59.0% and 74.1 vs 71.1%, respectively). Ether extract digestion was enhanced by increasing level of Prolip; the corresponding values were 48.0, 64.9, 74.6, and 84.6% at 0, 5, 10, or 20% Prolip. Likewise, Prolip supplementation at the 10 or 20% level augmented digestibility of energy (62.7 or 65.9 vs 59.2%). Nitrogen and energy retentions were improved due to the decreases in fecal and(or) urinary excretion(s). PMID:8386715
Background Increasing evidence from epidemiologic studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a role in adult glioma. In addition to dietary antioxidants, antioxidant and weak estrogenic properties of dietary phytoestrogens may attenuate oxidative stress. Our hypothesis is that long-term consumption of dietary antioxidants and phytoestrogens such as genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, formononetin, matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, may reduce the risk of adult glioma. Methods Using unconditional logistic regression models, we compared quartiles of consumption for several specific antioxidants and phytoestrogens among 802 adult glioma cases and 846 controls from two study series from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study, 1991 – 2000, controlling for vitamin supplement usage, age, socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity and total daily calories. For cases, dietary information was either self-reported or reported by a proxy. For controls, dietary information was self-reported. Gender- and series- specific quartiles of average daily nutrientintake, estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, were computed from controls. Results Significant p-values (trend test) were evaluated using significance levels of either 0.05 or 0.003 (the Bonferroni corrected significance level equivalent to 0.05 adjusting for 16 comparisons). For all cases compared to controls, statistically significant inverse associations were observed for antioxidant index (p < 0.003), carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene combined, p < 0.05), daidzein (p = 0.003), matairesinol (p < 0.05), secoisolariciresinol (p < 0.003), and coumestrol (p < 0.003). For self-reported cases compared to controls, statistically significant inverse associations were observed for antioxidant index (p < 0.05) and daidzein (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results support inverse associations of glioma with higher dietary antioxidant index and with higher intake of certain phytoestrogens, especially daidzein.
Background Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by impaired postnatal mineralisation of the rapidly growing infant skeleton. Objective To longitudinally evaluate postnatal changes in tibial speed of sound (tSOS; which reflects cortical thickness and bone mineral density) and lower limb length (LLL; a measure of tibial growth) in very low birthweight preterm infants receiving contemporary neonatal care. Methods tSOS and LLL were measured using a quantitative ultrasound device and an electronic neonatal knemometer, respectively, in the same limb, weekly, for a median period of four weeks (3–16 weeks) in 84 preterm infants (median gestation 26.8 weeks (range 23–35.2?weeks) and median birth weight 869.5?g (range 418–1481?g)). Results Initial tSOS and LLL were correlated with gestation (r?=?0.42, p<0.001; r?=?0.76, p<0.001, respectively) and birth weight (r?=?0.23, p?=?0.038; r?=?0.93, p<0.001, respectively). Postnatally, tSOS decreased (r?=??0.15, p?=?0.011) whereas LLL increased (r?=?0.96, p<0.001) with age. The rate of postnatal change in LLL, but not in tSOS, was positively influenced by intake of calcium (p?=?0.03), phosphorus (p?=?0.01) and vitamin D (p?=?0.03). Conclusions The postnatal decline in tSOS, which is probably due to cortical thinning secondary to endocortical bone loss, and increase in LLL provide new insight into the development of long bones in preterm infants.
Mercy, J; Dillon, B; Morris, J; Emmerson, A J; Mughal, M Z
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; P<0.001) and moderated the relationship between parental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (?=.69; P<0.05). Parental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. PMID:22709645
Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D
The purpose of this study was to assess the metabolic profile and nutrientintake data in Korean adolescents according to exercise regularity using the forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 data. A total of 834 Korean adolescents (440 boys, 394 girls) aged 12 to 18 years were classified into exercising male (EM), non-exercising male (NM), exercising female (EF), and non-exercising female (NF) groups. EM exhibited significantly higher weight (P < 0.001), waist circumference (WC) (P < 0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001) than NM. EF showed significantly greater height (P < 0.01), weight (P<0.001), WC (P < 0.001), and BMI (P < 0.001) than NF. Although ratios of macronutrient intake were within the appropriate range in all groups, energy, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium were assessed as in adequate by the nutritional adequacy ratio (NAR) in all groups. Moreover, EF and NF had inadequate intake of vitamin A and iron according to NAR, respectively. There were significant correlations between height and NAR protein (r = 0.249, P < 0.001), and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) (r = 0.177, P < 0.01), and between weight and NAR protein (r = 0.180, P < 0.01), and MAR(r = 0.136, P < 0.05) in EM. On the other hand, there were significant correlations between weight and NAR protein (r = 0.270, P < 0.01), WC and NAR protein (r = 0.271, P < 0.01), and BMI and NAR protein (r = 0.326, P < 0.01) in NM. There were significant correlations height and NAR Fe (r = 0.153, P < 0.05) in EF. However, there were no significant correlations between metabolic factors and nutritional adequacy in NF. Although we noted no significant differences in MAR between the groups, the exercising groups showed higher MAR values than the non-exercising groups. Therefore, practicing of ideal dietary behaviors appears to be induced through physical activity and regular exercise in Korean adolescents. PMID:21487499
Elevated serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and dementia. The prevalence rates of homozygous mutants among Japanese women (n=300) were 17.3%, 1.3%, 18.6%, and 5.3% for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, reduced folate carrier (RFC-1) A80G, and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G, respectively. The tHcy value was significantly lower (p<0.001) in young women
Totalnutrient solution (TNS) is a new method for delivering total parenteral nutrition (TPN) by admixing dextrose, amino acids, and lipids in a single container. Recommendations are to use nonpolyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers for admixture of these solutions. PVC is a hard, brittle, and inflexible substance, and plasticizers, predominantly diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), are added to impart flexibility. DEHP is a lipid soluble suspected carcinogen, hepatotoxin, and teratogen which has been shown to leach from PVC products containing lipophilic admixtures. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the amount of DEHP which leaches from PVC bags containing TNS. Six study groups, which contained three formulas stored at 25 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C and 4 degrees C +/- 1 degree C, were assayed for DEHP at time 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hr, 1 wk, and 3 wk using high-performance liquid chromatography. The control group contained an amino acid source, a carbohydrate source, and standard electrolytes, and the other groups contained a 10% lipid source or a 20% lipid source in addition to the constituents of the control group. Lipid-containing groups demonstrated detectable levels of DEHP at 48 hr, and DEHP content increased in these groups throughout the 21-day study. DEHP concentrations were lower in lipid-containing groups stored at 4 degrees C than comparable groups stored at 25 degrees C. PMID:2494368
Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrientintake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight-loss arms from 2007 to 2008 with complete data at 12 months were
Angela Kong; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Catherine M. Alfano; Karen E. Foster-Schubert; Marian L. Neuhouser; Donna B. Johnson; Catherine Duggan; Ching-Yun Wang; Liren Xiao; Carolyn E. Bain; Anne McTiernan
Objective To assess the impact of increased consumption of milk, without other dietary advice, on older adults' energy and nutrientintakes, weight, cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, plasma lipid levels), and quality of life.Subjects\\/setting Two hundred four healthy men and women, aged 55 to 85 years, who consumed fewer than 1.5 dairy servings per day were chosen from six US
SUSAN I BARR; DAVID A McCARRON; ROBERT P HEANEY; BESS DAWSON-HUGHES; SARAH L BERGA; JUDITH S STERN; SUZANNE OPARIL
This experiment studied effects of increasing levels of dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on ruminal fluid pH, feed intake, nutrient utilization, body weight (BW) gain and feed conversion efficiency of lambs fed high concentrate diets offered ad libitum. Forty weaner (90 days) Malpura lambs, divided into four equal groups, were fed levels of NaHCO3: 0 (control), 7.5, 15.0, or 22.5g NaHCO3
M. K Tripathi; A Santra; O. H Chaturvedi; S. A Karim
SHIMBO, S., ZHANG, Z.-W., MATSUDA-INOGUCHI, N., HIGASHIKAWA, K., NAKATSUKA, H., WATANABE, T. and IKEDA, M. Effects of Life Away from Home and Physical Exercise on NutrientIntake and Blood\\/Serum Parameters among Girl Students in Japan. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 2004, 203 (4), 275-286 ?? This study was initiated to examine if the life away from home and participation in sport
Objective: To determine and evaluate changes in nutritional status, food consumption, energy and nutrientintake in rural Bangladesh, using appropriate statistical analyses.Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Two seasons in 1981–1982 and 1995–1996.Setting: Two villages with different production patterns.Subjects: Anthropometric measurements of 1883 individuals, food consumption data of 404 households.Methods: Repeated measurements of one-day food weighing and anthropometry in two seasons in
Expressing energy relative to protein provides some understanding of nutrient balance and protein-use efficiency in the ruminant. Total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) are a readily fermentable energy source in the rumen, and when expressed relative to crude protein (CP) concentrations appear to ...
Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrientintake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009.
Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim
Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrientintake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009. PMID:20980656
Stumbo, Phyllis J; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W; Pennington, Jean A; Tucker, Katherine L; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M; Kaput, Jim
Foods rich in sugar have been suggested to contribute to the increasing prevalence of obesity in children. The aim of this report is to investigate the dietary pattern in 1-year-old children who frequently receive foods rich in sugar but low in nutrients and to study associated demographic and parental factors. During 1977-9, 21,700 infants were invited to participate in this prospective, population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Screening questionnaires were completed for 16,070 infants after delivery. Follow-up questionnaires from 10,762 children at 1 year of age are included in the analysis. It was found that 24% of the children received sweets/pastries more often than one or two times per week. They had a higher intake of French fries, potato crisps and cream as well as a lower intake of fruit and vegetables. A frequent intake of sugar-rich, low-nutrient foods was significantly associated with several maternal factors (high intake of sweets/pastries during pregnancy, young age, mother living alone) as well as presence of older siblings. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal overweight were of borderline significance. Parental education level was inversely associated with the frequency of intake of sweets/pastries in the child. Children who frequently receive sweets/pastries also have an otherwise unfavourable dietary pattern. Several parental and demographic factors were associated with this feeding pattern, especially high intake of sweets/pastries during pregnancy. Screening of pregnant women for risk predictors like consumption of sweets/pastries, young age and smoking could be possible ways of identifying children at future risk for low dietary quality. PMID:17217574
Brekke, Hilde K; van Odijk, Jenny; Ludvigsson, Johnny
Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...
As part of an international nutrition project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (see footnote), Vienna, Austria, a number of bench-mark mixed total diet composites from the United States were collected and analyzed for minor and trace elements. In this segment of the project, the daily dietary intakes of the minor elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N and P
G. V. Iyengar; W. R. WoIf; J. T. Tanner; E. R. Morris
Background: The term total folate intake is used to represent folate that occurs naturally in food as well as folic acid from fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folic acid has been referred to as a double-edged sword because of its beneficial role in the preven- tion of neural tube defects and yet possible deleterious effects on certain cancers and cognitive
Regan L Bailey; Kevin W Dodd; Jaime J Gahche; Johanna T Dwyer; Margaret A McDowell; Elizabeth A Yetley; Christopher A Sempos; Vicki L Burt; Kathy L Radimer; Mary Frances Picciano
The effect of fat intake on total body (TB) and white blood cell (WBC) fat oxidation (FO) was studied during exercise in sedentary subjects. Four men and 6 women consumed diets of 19% and 50% energy from fat for 3 weeks each compared with their regular diet (30%). Before and after each diet, TB FO was measured at each stage
Kulwara Meksawan; David R. Pendergast; Georgirene D. Vladutiu; Atif B. Awad
When all above-stump parts of southern pine trees are harvested, only 16 to 22 percent more biomass is obtained than in conventional harvests. This additional biomass is of low quality because of its high moisture and bark content and low wood specific gravity. In addition, its harvest doubles the removal of certain important soil nutrients. When hardwood stands are total-tree
Clinical experience supports a critical role for nutrition in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three-day dietary intake records were analyzed for 156 visits in 47 SMA type I patients, 25 males and 22 females, ages 1month to 13years (median 9.8months) and compared to dietary reference intakes for gender and age along with anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) data. Using standardized growth curves, twelve patients met criteria for failure to thrive (FTT) with weight for age <3rd percentile; eight met criteria based on weight for height. Percentage of body fat mass was not correlated with weight for height and weight for age across percentile categories. DEXA analysis further demonstrated that SMA type I children have higher fat mass and lower fat free mass than healthy peers (p<0.001). DEXA and dietary analysis indicates a strong correlation with magnesium intake and bone mineral density (r=0.65, p<0.001). Average caloric intake for 1-3years old was 68.8±15.8kcal/kg - 67% of peers' recommended intake. Children with SMA type I may have lower caloric requirements than healthy age-matched peers, increasing risk for over and undernourished states and deficiencies of critical nutrients. Standardized growth charts may overestimate FTT status in SMA type I. PMID:22832342
Poruk, Katherine E; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Smart, Abby L; Chisum, Benjamin S; Lasalle, Bernie A; Chan, Gary M; Gill, Gurmail; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J
Ron Phibun District, approximately 800 km south of Bangkok, is the site of tin mines operated almost 100 years ago. As a result of mining activities, arsenic contaminated the soil and groundwater of the district. The specific aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 20 adults (10 males and 10 females) residing in Ron Phibun District by a duplicate food approach for 7-consecutive days. The weekly intake rates of inorganic arsenic ranged from 5.54 to 13.3 microg/kg BW for males and 6.11-12.1 microg/kg BW for females. PMID:20039017
Supplement intake is hypothesized to in crease the risk of some diseases while decreasing the risk of others. Both diet and lifestyle behaviors, how ever, may be associated with supplement use and con found observed associations. Nutrientintake from a food frequency questionnaire, demographic character istics and lifestyle among supplement users and non- users were examined in 11,643 adults who
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the macronutrient composition of intake and waist circumference. METHODS: Regression analysis evaluated the relationship between composition and waist circumference. SAMPLE: This study used data from the third National ...
The present study investigated the inheritance of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and kilocalorie intake traits in an F(2) population derived from an intercross between C57BL\\/6J (fat-preferring) and CAST\\/EiJ (carbohydrate-preferring) mice. Mice were phenotyped for self-selected food intake in a paradigm which provided for 10 days a choice between two macronutrient diets containing 78\\/22% of energy as a composite of either fat\\/protein
Richards B Smith; B N Belton; A C Poole; J J Mancuso; R Li; J Volaufova; A Zuberi; B York
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however, increased with greater amounts of water added to the TMR. The increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery were enhanced by higher ambient temperatures; this may be indicative of feed spoilage and thus may have contributed to the reduced DMI observed. Overall, these results suggest that the addition of water to high-moisture TMR (less than 60% DM) containing primarily haylage and silage forage sources will not always discourage cows from sorting, but rather may increase this behavior and limit the nutrient consumption of cows, particularly when ambient temperature is high. PMID:20494174
Voluntary food intake, digestibility and water turnover were determined in adult Malaysian lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given unlimited access to lundai foliage (Sapium baccatum). Daily dry matter (DM) intake was 42.4 g\\/kg metabolic live mass (M0.73) or 3.7% M. Digestible energy intake was 853 kJ\\/day (571 kJ metabolisable energy per M0.73), calculated to be used with 79% efficiency. Apparent digestibility
J. V. Nolan; J. B. Liang; N. Abdullah; H. Kudo; H. Ismail; Y. W. Ho; S. Jalaludin
Persons who use tables of food composition have often found that foods that vegetarians commonly eat are not included. To help remedy this situation, a table is presented which includes the 49 foods on the vegetarian Exchange Lists and 18 additional nonmeat foods. Nutrient contents of household measures of these foods are given for water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folacin. Nutrient amounts were derived from USDA sources and from other published research when available. Nutrient amounts from foods assumed to be identical to those in the table were placed in parentheses. When nutrient amounts were not available, they were estimated from similar foods and placed in brackets. When values found for a single nutrient in a food varied by 20% or more, the total range was shown. When a dash was found in a literature reference and the amount of the nutrient was known to be insignificant, a zero was presented in the table. Thus, there are no gaps in the table. Until accurate laboratory-derived data are available for the nutrients in vegetarian foods, this table, used with appropriate judgment, should be useful for estimating the nutrientintakes of persons who eat vegetarian foods. PMID:6361102
Statistical modeling of habitual micronutrient intake from food and dietary supplements using short-term measurements is hampered by heterogeneous variances and multimodality. Summing short-term intakes from food and dietary supplements prior to simple correction for within-person variation (first add then shrink) may produce estimates of habitual total micronutrient intake so badly biased as to be smaller than estimates of habitual intake from food sources only. A 3-part model using a first shrink then add approach is proposed to estimate the habitual micronutrient intake from food among nonsupplement users, food among supplement users, and supplements. The population distribution of habitual total micronutrient intake is estimated by combining these 3 habitual intake distributions, accounting for possible interdependence between Eq. 2 and 3. The new model is an extension of a model developed by the USA National Cancer Institute. Habitual total vitamin D intake among young children was estimated using the proposed model and data from the Dutch food consumption survey (n = 1279). The model always produced habitual totalintakes similar to or higher than habitual intakes from food sources only and also preserved the multimodal shape of the observed total vitamin D intake distribution. This proposed method incorporates several sources of covariate information that should provide more precise estimates of the habitual totalintake distribution and the proportion of the population with intakes below/above cutpoint values. The proposed methodology could be useful for other complex situations, e.g. where high concentrations of micronutrients appear in episodically consumed foods. PMID:21956963
Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dodd, Kevin W; Dekkers, Arnold L M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C
Millions of people worldwide have severe chronic physical disablities (e.g., polio, spinal cord injury). We hypothesized that these people are at risk for poor antioxdant nutrientintakes and status, because of their dtypically low energy expenditures and low socioeconomic status. We sureveyed ant...
Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910
Valid and reliable estimates of adolescent food and supplement intakes are needed for the monitoring and documentation of micronutrient adequacy and excess. The goal of this study was to describe whether users of vitamin-mineral supplements differed from nonusers in micronutrient intakes or in nutr...
This study examined the relationships among dietary intake, substance use, socioeconomic and acculturation-related factors among Latinas in Miami-Dade County. Substance abuse is rising among Latinas. A fuller understanding of this problem is needed given the rise of the Hispanic population and the role of women in Latin society. A better understanding between substance use and dietary intake can guide nutrition
Earlier studies with rats have shown that greater protein intake raises apparent magnesium ab sorption (ingested magnesium minus fecal magnesium). We addressed the question of whether high protein intake affects true magnesium absorption. Rats were fed either a normal (175 g casein\\/kg) or a high (525 g casein\\/kg) protein diet. Extra protein was added at the expense of the glucose
MIRJAM J. F. VERBEEK; GERRIT J. VAN DENBERG; ARNOLDINA G. LEMMENS; ANDANTON C BEYNEN
Three experiments with five wether each were carried out in order to investigate the influence of various levels of flavomycin (0, 5 and 10 mg per animal and day) on apparent digestibility of artificially dried grass. A short time individual feeding experiment (42 days) with 9 bulls and a long term individual feeding experiment (225 days) with 52 heifers were conducted. Animals consumed 0 or 30 mg flavomycin per day. Parameters of rumen fermentation were investigated. Feed intake and weight gain were measured in the experiment with heifers. Flavomycin did not significantly influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude nutrients as well as parameters of rumen fermentation. Flavomycin did not influence dry matter intake, but increased significantly weight gain (49 g per animal and day, 10.5%) and reduced feed and energy required per kg weight gain (10.6%) in heifers. The reasons of ergotropic effects of flavomycin are mostly unknown at present. PMID:1859272
In 1985–86 a food consumption survey covering about 4000 people was carried out in 11 locations of Dhaka city. Comparison of the results with those of the 1962–64 study revealed a deteriorating food and nutrition situation of the urban population. Among food groups, consumption of pulses and food from animal sources in particular have greatly declined. Among nutrients the foremost
OBJECTIVE: To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrientintakes and sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. SUBJECTS: Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data. RESULTS: Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern, a 'Processed' pattern, a 'Snacks/sugared drinks' pattern and a 'Vegetarian' pattern. The 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The 'Processed' and 'Snacks/sugared drinks' patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health-conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration. PMID:23782861
Northstone, Kate; Smith, Andrew Dac; Cribb, Victoria L; Emmett, Pauline M
Introduction Energy-containing beverages, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), may contribute to weight gain and obesity development. Yet, no rapid assessment tools are available which quantify habitual beverage intake (grams, energy) in adults. Objective Determine the factorial validity of a newly developed beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ) and identify potential to reduce items. Methods Participants from varying economic and educational backgrounds (n=1,596; age 43±12 yrs; BMI 31.5±0.2 kg/m2) completed a 19-item BEVQ (BEVQ-19). Beverages that contributed <10% to total beverage, or SSB, energy and grams were identified for potential removal. Factor analyses identified beverage categories that could potentially be combined. Regression analyses compared BEVQ-19 outcomes with the reduced version’s (BEVQ-15) variables. Inter-item reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha. Following BEVQ-15 development, a subsequent study (n=70; age 37±2 yrs; BMI 24.5±0.4 kg/m2) evaluated the relative validity of the BEVQ-15 through comparison of three 24-hour dietary recalls’ (FIR) beverage intake. Results Three beverage items were identified for elimination (vegetable juice, meal replacement drinks, mixed alcoholic drinks); beer and light beer were combined into one category. Regression models using BEVQ-15 variables explained 91–99% of variance in the four major outcomes of the BEVQ-19 (all P<0.001). Cronbach’s Alpha ranged 0.97–0.99 for all outcomes. In the follow-up study, BEVQ-15 and FIR variables were significantly correlated with the exception of whole milk; BEVQ-15 SSB (R2=0.69) and total beverage energy (R2=0.59) were more highly correlated with FIR than previously reported for the BEVQ-19. The BEVQ-15 produced a lower readability score of 4.8, which is appropriate for individuals with a fourth grade education or greater. Conclusion The BEVQ-19 can be reduced to a 15-item questionnaire. This brief dietary assessment tool will enable researchers and practitioners to rapidly (administration time of ~2 min) assess habitual beverage intake, and to determine possible associations of beverage consumption with health-related outcomes, such as weight status.
Hedrick, Valisa E.; Savla, Jyoti; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Nsiah-Kumi, Phyllis A.; Ortmeier, Stacie; Davy, Brenda M.
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the relationship between fat and saturated fat intakes and serum lipid values in hyperlipidemic children consuming very low fat diets.The Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol levels in Children and Adolescents of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association recommend a low fat (<30%), low saturated fat (<10%),
N. Copperman; L. Josberger; J. Schebendach; M. A. Arden; M. S. Jacobson
The relationship between maternal dietaryintakes of energy or fat maternal body composition andthe milk fat concentration is an important element inunderstanding the role of breast-milk in infantnutrition. In most studies in both developing anddeveloped countries, no relation between maternal energyintake and milk fat content was observed. In only onepublished study, in which maternal fat intake comprised a very low 5%
Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...
Translation initiation is known to be regulated by the binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by binding proteins (4EBPs), and there is evidence that amino acid deprivation and other cellular stresses upregulate 4EBP1 expression. To pursue the question of whether diets limited in an essential amino acid lead to induction of 4EBP1 expression in vivo, diets that varied in methionine and cystine content were fed to rats for 7 days, and 4EBP1 mRNA and protein levels and 4EBP1 phosphorylation state were determined. Total 4EBP1 mRNA and protein abundance increased in liver of rats with severely deficient intakes of sulfur amino acids (0.23% or 0.11% methionine without cystine) but not in animals with a less restricted intake of sulfur amino acids (0.11% methionine plus 0.35% cystine) but a similarly restricted intake of total diet (53 to 62% of control). The amount of 4EBP1 binding activity (? + ? forms) was elevated in liver of rats fed sulfur amino acid-deficient diets, whereas the hyperphosphorylation of 4EBP1 was not affected by dietary treatment. Results suggest that changes in total 4EBP1 expression should be considered when examining mechanisms that attenuate protein synthesis during amino acid deficiency states.
Sikalidis, Angelos K.; Mazor, Kevin M.; Kang, Minji; Liu, Hongyun; Stipanuk, Martha H.
The effect of salinity (NaCl) on chlorophyll, leaf water potential, total soluble sugars, and mineral nutrients in two young Iranian commercial olive cultivars (‘Zard’ and ‘Roghani’) was studied. One-year-old trees of these cultivars were planted in 10-L plastic pots containing equal ratio of sand-perlite mixture (1:1). Sodium chloride at concentrations of 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 mM plus Hoagland's
A. Mousavi; H. Lessani; M. Babalar; A. R. Talaei; E. Fallahi
Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrientintakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, especially for studies involving both the female and male HH.
Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. PMID:23207191
Consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether their protective effects are due to antioxidant vitamins or folate and metabolically related B vitamins. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that intake of fruits and vegetables, which are major sources of antioxidant and vitamin B complex vitamins, reduces the risk of stroke. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with first event of stroke (n = 69). Controls (n = 69) were age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched to cases. Multivariable-adjusted regression analysis showed that subjects who ate four to six servings of vegetable per day had a 32% reduction in the risk of stroke, and those with more than six servings per day had a reduction of 69% after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and family history of stroke. Intakes of total fat, plant fat, calcium, potassium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, niacin, and folate were significantly and negatively associated with the risk of stroke. Although the trend was not significant, stroke risk was reduced in the second quartile (1.21-2.66 servings per week) of fish intake. However, intake of fruits (average daily intake of 1.0 serving) and antioxidant vitamins such as carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E was not associated with the risk of stroke. In conclusion, our observational study suggests that intake of fat and vegetables, rich sources of vitamin B complex, calcium, and potassium may protect against stroke.
This paper relies on 24-h dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of approximately 3350 students to analyze the dietary intakes of students. Most US students eat at least five times during the day, and nearly all eat at least three times per day. The average daily intake of vitamins and minerals at least meets the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs). Overall, students consume more food energy on average than recommended, suggesting that some may be at risk of consuming more food energy than is optimal. Students also consume more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium than is recommended for good health. National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants' mean intakes of most nutrients at lunch meet the program goal of at least one-third of the RDA. NSLP participants, however, consume more fat, saturated fat, and sodium than is recommended. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants' mean intakes of most nutrients at breakfast also exceed the program goal of one-fourth of the RDA. However, their breakfast intakes of saturated fat as a percentage of food energy, cholesterol, and sodium exceed dietary recommendations. PMID:7832167
The Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requires detailed methodologies to identify sources of flows and pollutants (particles and nutrients) for estimating time-variant loads as input data for the Lake Tahoe clarity model. Based on field data and a modeling study, the major sources of pollutant loads include streams (three subdivisions of this category are urban, nonurban, and stream channel erosion), intervening zones (IZs) (two subdivisions of this category are urban and nonurban), atmosphere (wet and dry), groundwater and shoreline erosion. As Lake Tahoe remains well oxygenated year-round, the contribution of internal loading from the bottom sediments was considered minor. A comprehensive quantitative estimate for fine particle number (< 16 ?m diameter) and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading is presented. Uncertainties in the estimation of fine particle numbers and nutrients for different sources are discussed. Biologically available phosphorus and nitrogen were also evaluated. Urban runoff accounted for 67% of the total fine particle load for all sources making it the most significant contributor although total urban runoff was only 6%. Non-urban flows accounted for 94% of total upland runoff, but the nitrogen, phosphorus and fine sediment loadings were 18%, 47% and 12%, respectively of the total loadings. Atmospheric nitrogen, phosphorus, and fine particle loadings were approximately 57%, 20%, and 16%, respectively of the total loading. Among streams and IZs, IZ 8000, Upper Truckee River, Trout Creek, Blackwood Creek, and Ward Creek are the top fine particle, nitrogen and phosphorus contributors. The relative percentage contribution of inorganic fine particles from all sources based on annual average for the period 1994-2008 on size classes 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-16 ?m are 73%, 19%, 5%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. These results suggest clear priorities for resource managers to establish TMDL on sources and incoming pollutants and preserving lake clarity. PMID:23314069
Sahoo, G B; Nover, D M; Reuter, J E; Heyvaert, A C; Riverson, J; Schladow, S G
A dry matter intake (DMI) prediction equation was estimated by using a data file that contained 124 treat- ment means collected from published studies. Animal factors considered for inclusion in the prediction model were body weight (BW) and its natural logarithm, BW0.75, milk yield (MY) and its natural logarithm, milk fatandproteinyields,monthoflactationanditssquare, as well as its natural logarithm. The dietary factors
J. Fuentes-Pila; M. Ibañez; J. M. De Miguel; D. K. Beede
Background: The accuracy of dietary energy assessment tools is critical to understanding the role of diet in the increasing rate of obesity. Objectives: The purposes of our study in overweight adolescent boys and girls were 1) to assess the energy reporting bias of diet records against the referent of total energy expenditure (TEE) and 2) to compare the methods of determining energy needs by using measured metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and TEE. Design: Twenty girls [12–15 y, body mass index (in kg/m2) = 33.0 ± 5] and 14 boys (12–14 y, body mass index = 27.4 ± 4) participated in two 3-wk metabolic balance studies. TEE was measured by using doubly labeled water (TEEDLW), and MEI was measured by bomb calorimetry of composite daily diet, urine, and fecal collections. Food records were collected before each study. Results: Food records underreported TEEDLW by 35 ± 20%. Underreporting of energy intake was correlated with all macronutrient intake concentrations (g or kcal) (P < 0.0001). A multiple regression model showed that 86.4% of the variance in underreporting error was explained by dietary fat (g), BMI, and sex. The intrasubject CV was 3.9% for TEEDLW and 9.9% for MEI. MEI for weight stability (MEIwtstb) averaged 99 ± 11% of TEE. Conclusions: The increased underreporting of dietary intake with increasing body weight in teens may explain in part previous reports noting that there has been an increased incidence of obesity, although energy intakes have not appeared to increase. MEIwtstb and TEEDLW gave similar estimates of energy needs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00592137.
Singh, Rajni; Martin, Berdine R; Hickey, Yvonne; Teegarden, Dorothy; Campbell, Wayne W; Craig, Bruce A; Schoeller, Dale A; Kerr, Deborah Anne
Resumen Con la finalidad de evaluar el establecimiento de cinco cultivos de cobertura y determinar su aporte potencial a la fertilidad del suelo en función a la extracción total de nutrientes, se instaló un experimento en la Estación Experimental \\
Fernando Puertas; Enrique Arévalo; Luis Zúñiga; Julio Alegre; Oscar Loli; Hugo Soplin; Virupax Baligar
The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g?1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g?1 dry basis and 13.5 ?mol g?1 dry
Anna Lucia C. H Villavicencio; Jorge Mancini-Filho; Henry Delincée; Ralf Greiner
The objective was to investigate the impact of nutrientintake during the early growth period on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes in skeletal muscle of cross-bred cattle. From 1.5 to 5 months of age, group H (n=7) animals were intensively fed a high-protein and low-fat milk replacer [crude protein (CP) 28%; ether extracts (EE) 18%; max: 2.0 kg, 12 l/day], and group R (n=7) animals were fed a restricted amount of normal milk replacer (CP 25%; EE 23%; max 0.5 kg, 4 l/day). From 6 to 10 months of age, group H cattle were fed a high-nutrition total mixed ration mainly prepared from grain feed, and group R cattle were fed only roughage. Blood samples were taken from each animal at three biopsy times (1.5, 5 and 10 months of age), and the blood plasma concentration of glucose and insulin was analysed. In glucose concentration, there were no significant differences; however, the concentrations of insulin were higher in group H than in group R at 5 and 10 months of age. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) at 1.5, 5 and 10 months of age. We analysed mRNA expression levels using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), hexokinase 1 (HK1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). Although no differences were detected at 1.5 and 5 months of age, at 10 months of age, GLUT1, HK1 and TNF? mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in group H than in group R. These results suggested Glut1 that affects insulin-independently mediated glucose uptake was more responsive to improved nutrition during early growth stage than GLUT4 that insulin-dependently mediated glucose uptake in LT of cattle. PMID:22698257
Ebara, F; Inada, S; Morikawa, M; Asaoka, S-H; Isozaki, Y; Saito, A; Etoh, T; Shiotsuka, Y; Roh, S G; Wegner, J; Gotoh, T
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that carotenoids may inhibit bone resorption; yet no previous study has examined individual carotenoid intake (other than beta-carotene) and the risk of fracture. We evaluated associations of total and individual carotenoid intake (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene,...
The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g-1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g-1 dry basis and 13.5 ?mol g-1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g-1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g-1 dry basis and 7.5 ?mol g-1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.
Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Greiner, R.
Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, P<.01) and moderately correlated with ORAC (r=0.34, P<.05). Pearson correlation analyses showed that plasma TAC values by VCEAC and ORAC had positive correlation with plasma uric acid (r=0.56 for VCEAC; r=0.49 for ORAC) and total phenolics (r=0.63 for VCEAC; r=0.36 for ORAC). However, TAC measured by FRAP was correlated only with uric acid (r=0.69). After multivariate adjustment, plasma TAC determined by VCEAC was positively associated with dietary intakes of ?-tocopherol (P<.001), ?-carotene (P<.05), anthocyanidins (P<.05), flavones (P<.05), proanthocyanidins (P<.01) and TAC (P<.05), as well as with plasma total phenolics (P<.05), ?-tocopherol (P<.001), ?-cryptoxanthin (P<.05) and uric acid (P<.05). The findings indicate that plasma TAC measured by VCEAC reflects both dietary and plasma antioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. PMID:22617460
Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of initial body condition and level of feed intake on body composition. Before the experiment, 27 wethers were fed to achieve high body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5, with 1 = extremely thin and 5 = extremely fat) and BW (I-F) and 27 were f...
The US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) set by the US National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM), have provided goals for evaluating diets since the first nutrient calculation software appeared. Early standards were often perceived as being too high, and nutritionists set values such as 23 of the RDA as a more reasonable standard. Such arbitrary rules had no
This article examines the fat and fibre intakes of Malaysian adults and highlights discrepancies and practical limitations if these intakes are to match the levels for these nutrients advocated in the World Health Organisation (WHO) and American Heart Association (AHA) 'diet models'. Local data on food consumption showed that the total fat intakes amongst Malaysian adults, contrary to common perception,
Background: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. Design: This was a case-cohort study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, 12,403 incident diabetes cases, and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. Habitual fish intake (lean fish, fatty fish, total fish, shellfish, and combined fish and shellfish) was assessed by country-specific dietary questionnaires. HRs were estimated in each country by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: No overall association was found between combined fish and shellfish intake and incident T2D per quartile (adjusted HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.06; P-trend = 0.99). Total fish, lean fish, and shellfish intakes separately were also not associated with T2D, but fatty fish intake was weakly inversely associated with T2D: adjusted HR per quartile 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), with an HR of 0.84 (0.70, 1.01), 0.85 (0.76, 0.95), and 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) for a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the lowest quartile of intake, respectively (P-trend = 0.06). Conclusions: These findings suggest that lean fish, total fish, and shellfish intakes are not associated with incident diabetes but that fatty fish intake may be weakly inversely associated. Replication of these findings in other populations and investigation of the mechanisms underlying these associations are warranted. Meanwhile, current public health recommendations on fish intake should remain unchanged.
Patel, Pinal S; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Schulze, Matthias B; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline WJ; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Crowe, Francesca L; de Lauzon-Guillan, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Halkjaer, Jytte; Huerta, Jose Maria; Key, Timothy J; Kuhn, Tilman; Masala, Giovanna; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Schmidt, Erik B; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith JM; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J
A feeding trial was conducted at the farm of Qinghai Academy of Animal and Veterinary Science, Xining, China during 1996–1997 with three dry yak cows (initial body weight 163–197 kg, age 5–6 years) by using 3×3 Latin Square Design to determine the effect of levels of feed intake on digestion, nitrogen balance and purine derivative excretion in urine of yak
R. J Long; S. K Dong; Z. Z Hu; J. J Shi; Q. M Dong; X. T Han
The nutritional implications of consuming reduced fat or reduced energy foods (RED) were examined in 50 women who were participating in a larger study of iron status while enrolled in the U.S. Army Medical Department Officer Basic Course. The subjects recorded their food intake for a 7-day period. Reduced fat or reduced energy foods were identified as foods labeled “reduced-calorie,
Aims: The study was carried out to determine associations of reported alcohol intake with dietary habits, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and smoking. Subjects and Methods: 24,894 subjects who participated in the baseline examination of the German part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg and were between 35 and 65 years of age
T. Ruf; G. Nagel; H.-P. Altenburg; A. B. Miller; B. Thorand
An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. Afactorialarrangementwasusedtotesteffectsofprotein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet con- tained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein
Objective Describe whether users of vitamin-mineral supplements differed from nonusers in micronutrient intakes or in nutrition awareness.Design Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects One thousand five hundred thirty-two students now in grade 8, who participated in the Third Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health tracking study and who also provided a single 24-hour dietary recall.Statistical analyses performed Mixed-model analysis of covariance
JOHANNA T DWYER; ANNE O GARCEAU; MARGUERITE EVANS; DONGLIN LI; LESLIE LYTLE; DEANNA HOELSCHER; THERESA A NICKLAS; MICHELLE ZIVE
A strict vegetarian diet (vegan diet (VD)l was investigated. Six middle-aged vegans (three men and three women) collected copies of 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition was determined in detail and compared with corresponding figures ofa normal mixed Swedish diet. In the VD 30% ofthe energy originated from fat compared with 40%
Nils-Georg Asp; Knud Berthelsen; Dowen Birkhed; Ingrid Dencker; Kurt Kolar; Baboo M. Nair; Peter Nilsson-Ehle; Ake Nord; Solvig Rassner; Sven Svensson; BjOrn Akesson; Per-Arne Ockerman
|This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrientintake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…
Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook
The potential influence of the cold-water corals (CWCs) Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata on the dynamics of inorganic nutrient and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and the abundances of prokaryotes and viruses in bottom water was assessed in onboard incubation experiments. Ammonium, nitrite, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and TOC concentrations and N:P ratios were typically higher in incubation water with corals than in controls, whereas nitrate concentrations did not reveal a clear trend. Mucus release (normalized to coral surface) was estimated by the net increase rate of TOC concentrations and averaged 23 ± 6 mg C m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 21 ± 8 mg C m-2 h-1 for M. oculata. Prokaryotic and viral abundance and turnover rates were typically stimulated in incubation water with corals. This estimated prokaryotic stimulation averaged 6.0 ± 3.0 × 109 cells m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 8.4 ± 2.9 × 109 cells m-2 h-1 for M. oculata, whereas the estimated viral stimulation averaged 15.6 ± 12.7 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 4.3 ± 0.4 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 M. oculata. Our data suggest that prokaryotes and viruses are released from corals and that nutrient and mucus release enhanced prokaryotic and viral production. The result of this stimulation could be a fuelling of bottom water in CWC reefs with nutrients and organic matter and consequently an enhancement of microbe-mediated processes.
Maier, C.; de Kluijver, A.; Agis, M.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van Duyl, F. C.; Weinbauer, M. G.
The potential influence of the cold-water corals (CWCs) Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata on the dynamics of inorganic nutrient and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and the abundances of prokaryotes and viruses in bottom water was assessed in onboard incubation experiments. Ammonium, nitrite, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and TOC concentrations and N:P ratios were typically higher in incubation water with corals than in controls, whereas nitrate concentrations did not reveal a clear trend. Mucus release (normalized to coral surface) was estimated by the net increase rate of TOC concentrations and averaged 23 ± 6 mg C m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 21 ± 8 mg C m-2 h-1 for M. oculata. Prokaryotic and viral abundance and turnover rates were typically stimulated in incubation water with corals. This prokaryotic stimulation averaged 6.0 ± 3.0 × 109 cells m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 8.4 ± 2.9 ×109 cells m-2 h-1 for M. oculata, whereas the viral stimulation averaged 15.6 ± 12.7 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 for L. pertusa and 4.3 ± 0.4 × 109 particles m-2 h-1 M. oculata. Our data suggest that prokaryotes and viruses are released from corals and that nutrient and mucus release enhanced prokaryotic and viral production. The result of this stimulation could be a fuelling of bottom water in CWC reefs with nutrients and organic matter and consequently an enhancement of microbe-mediated processes.
Maier, C.; de Kluijver, A.; Agis, M.; Brussaard, C. P. D.; van Duyl, F. C.; Weinbauer, M. G.
Several mixed component diet materials have been available for use as reference materials for determination of elemental contents in food. These included H-9, issued by the IAEA and RM-8431, issued by NIST. Wide acceptance of these materials has exhausted supplies and they are no longer available. A new mixed food Standard Reference Material, SRM-1548 Total Diet, has been prepared and
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and
Clarence William Murray; Sara Kathleen Egan; Henry Kim; Nega Beru; Philip Michael Bolger
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary inclusion levels of betaine on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities and intestinal bacterial metabolites in piglets. A total of eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.9 kg were randomly allocated to one of the four assay diets with two pigs per treatment in four repeated measurement periods. The assay diets included a basal diet based on wheat, barley and soybean meal alone, or supplemented with a liquid betaine product at dietary levels of 1.5, 3.0, or 6.0 g betaine per kilogram diet (as-fed). Ileal digestibilities of dry matter and neutral detergent fibre increased both quadratically and linearly, and ileal digestibility of glycine increased linearly as dietary betaine level increased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, total tract digestibility of crude protein increased quadratically (p < 0.05) and total tract digestibilities of most amino acids tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.06 to p = 0.11) with increasing dietary betaine level. Moreover, there were linear increases in the concentrations of most bacterial metabolites which were significant p < 0.05 for ileal d-lactic acid and for faecal diaminopimelic acid. The results demonstrate that dietary betaine supplementation stimulates bacterial fermentation of fibre in the small intestine and bacterial degradation of crude protein in the large intestine. PMID:20455968
Ratriyanto, A; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Eklund, M
Stormwater discharged from highly urbanised catchments on the southern shore of Sydney estuary, Australia, has been identified as the primary source of contaminants responsible for ecological degradation and reduction in recreational value of the waterway. Effective management of this pollution requires knowledge of contaminant loads associated with various stormwater flow conditions in three highly urbanised catchments in Sydney estuary catchment. The majority (>90%) of metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) and total suspended solid annual loads were contributed during high-flow conditions (>50 mm rainfall day(t1)), whereas ?55% of TN and ?21% of total phosphorus were contributed to annual loading by dry weather base-flow conditions. All flow conditions posed an in-stream ecological threat because contaminant concentrations exceeded water quality guidelines for all analytes measured, except Pb. Irregular, temporal variability in contaminant concentrations associated with base-flow (within day and amongst days), high-flow (amongst events) and irregular discharges indicated that contaminant contributions in stormwater were strongly controlled by human activity in the three catchments. Significant variation in contaminant concentrations under all flow conditions revealed unique chemical signatures for each catchment despite similarities in land uses, location and geology amongst catchments. These characteristics indicate that assessment and management of stormwater pollution needs to be conducted on an individual-catchment basis for highly urbanised regions of Sydney estuary catchment. PMID:21448629
Objective:To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total, animal and
J Halkjær; A Olsen; L J Bjerregaard; G Deharveng; A Tjønneland; A A Welch; F L Crowe; E Wirfält; V Hellstrom; M Niravong; M Touvier; J Linseisen; A Steffen; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M D Chirlaque; N Larrañaga; P Ferrari; P Contiero; G Frasca; D Engeset; E Lund; G Misirli; M Kosti; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham
Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status. PMID:7572745
Coburn, S P; Thampy, K G; Lane, H W; Conn, P S; Ziegler, P J; Costill, D L; Mahuren, J D; Fink, W J; Pearson, D R; Schaltenbrand, W E
Introduction Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15 to 17-y follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Methods 366 men and 592 women (mean age 75 yr ± 5) completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 1988–89 and were followed for non-vertebral fracture until 2003 and hip fracture until 2005. Tertiles of vitamin C intake were created from estimates obtained using the Willett FFQ, after adjusting for total energy (residual method). Hazard Ratios were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards regression, adjusting for covariates. Results Over follow-up 100 hip fractures occurred. Subjects in the highest tertile of total vitamin C intake had significantly fewer hip fractures (P trend=0.04) and non-vertebral fractures (P trend=0.05) compared to subjects in the lowest tertile of intake. Subjects in the highest category of supplemental vitamin C intake had significantly fewer hip fractures (P trend=0.02) and non-vertebral fractures (P trend=0.07) compared to non-supplement users. Dietary vitamin C intake was not associated with fracture risk (all P>0.22). Conclusion These results suggest a possible protective effect of vitamin C on bone health in older adults.
Sahni, Shivani; Hannan, Marian T.; Gagnon, David; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P.; Tucker, Katherine L.
Most previous studies of meat intake and total or cause-specific mortality were conducted in North America, whereas studies in other areas have been limited and reported inconsistent results. This study investigated the association of red meat or poultry intake with risk of total and cause-specific mortality, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), in two large population-based prospective cohort studies of 134,290 Chinese adult women and men in Shanghai. Meat intakes were assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires administered in person at baseline. Vital status and dates and causes of deaths were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry and Shanghai Cancer Registry databases and home visits every 2-3 years. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of death associated with quintiles of meat intake. During 803,265 person-years of follow up for women and 334,281 person-years of follow up for men, a total of 4,210 deaths in women and 2,733 deaths in men accrued. The median intakes of red meat were 43 g/day among women and 54 g/day among men, and pork constituted at least 95% of total meat intake for both women and men. Red meat intake was associated with increased total mortality among men, but not among women; the HR (95% CI) comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 1.18 (1.02-1.35) and 0.92 (0.82-1.03), respectively. This sex difference was statistically significant (P?=?0.01). Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (HR?=?1.41, 95% CI?=?1.05-1.89) and with decreased risk of hemorrhagic stroke mortality (HR?=?0.62, 95% CI?=?0.45-0.87). There were suggestive inverse associations of poultry intake with risk of total and all-CVD mortality among men, but not among women. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the sex-specific associations between red meat intake and mortality. PMID:23451121
This study examines the degree of under-reporting of energy intake by elite, female gymnasts, and the impact this predicted under-reporting has on associated macro and micro nutrientintake. Twenty-eight female U.S. national team artistic gymnasts participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records, and the degree of under-reporting was predicted from the ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rate (BMRestd), using the standards described by Goldberg et al. (10). Sixty-one percent of the subjects had an EI/BMRestd ratio of < 1.44, and were classified as under-reporters. The under-reporters had higher BMIs and percent body fat, and lower reported total energy intakes than the adequate energy reporters. Additionally, under-reporting of energy intake had a significant impact on reported micro nutrientintake. The under-reporting of energy intake seen in these subjects has an impact on the reported intake of macro and micro nutrients that can influence the interpretation of the nutritional status of these athletes and the strategy for nutrition intervention. Therefore, when assessing dietary intakes of elite gymnasts, some means of determining the accuracy of the reported energy and nutrientintake should be employed to more accurately identify the true nutritional problems experienced by these elite athletes. PMID:10997955
Three corn hybrids, Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337 (which contains a brown midrib trait), and Pioneer 3861 were compared in a plot trial, an intake trial, and a lactation trial. In the plot trial, the three corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2 x 385-m plots. Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337 had lower yields of dry matter (DM), higher concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, and higher in vitro true DM disappearance compared with Pioneer 3861. Mycogen TMF94 had a higher yield of DM than Cargill F337 despite having a lower plant population. However, Cargill F337 had a higher in vitro true DM disappearance than Mycogen TMF94. In the intake trial, six individually penned Holstein heifers were blocked and assigned randomly to one of three total mixed rations containing 79% (DM basis) Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337, or Pioneer 3861 corn silages in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares. Heifers fed the Pioneer 3861-based TMR had lower DMI than heifers fed Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337-based TMR. In the lactation trial, 75 midlactation Holstein cows were blocked and assigned randomly to one of three total mixed rations containing 31% (DM basis) Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337, or Pioneer 3861 corn silages used in the intake trial. Milk production was highest for cows fed Cargill F337-based total mixed rations. It is concluded from this study that Mycogen TMF94 was higher yielding, but less digestible, and resulted in lower milk production by lactating cows than Cargill F337. In addition, Mycogen TMF94 had higher in vitro true DM disappearance, and similar DM yield and milk production by lactating cows when compared with Pioneer 3861. PMID:11233029
Ballard, C S; Thomas, E D; Tsang, D S; Mandebvu, P; Sniffen, C J; Endres, M I; Carter, M P
Our objective was to determine the effects of frequency of soybean meal (SBM) supplementation on forage intake and net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic flux of nutrients in ewes that consume low-quality forage. Six Polled Dorset ewes (BW+/-SD = 82+/-9 kg) fitted with hepatic venous, hepatic portal, abdominal aortic, and mesenteric venous catheters were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. Ewes consumed bromegrass hay (7.5% CP; DM basis). Treatments were no supplement (control), SBM fed once every 24 h, or SBM fed once every 72 h. In the SBM treatments, SBM was fed to provide 80 g/d of CP. Blood flow and net flux measurements were made on the 3rd d of each period so that ewes supplemented every 72 h were sampled the day of, the day after, and 2 d after supplementation. Arterial concentrations of alpha-amino N (AAN) and ammonia N were lower (P < .01) when SBM was fed, whereas arterial concentrations of urea N and oxygen were higher (P < .01). Feeding SBM increased net PDV release of AAN and ammonia N, net PDV removal of urea N, and oxygen consumption. A SBM x sampling day interaction (P < .05) occurred and resulted in greater net PDV absorption of AAN and ammonia N on the day after SBM supplementation when ewes were fed SBM on a 72-h interval. Net hepatic removal of AAN, ammonia N, and oxygen, and net hepatic release of urea N were greater (P < .01) with feeding SBM. The results indicate that the interval of SBM supplementation may affect the pattern of absorption without affecting the net absorption of nutrients. PMID:9781502
Background Dietary phosphorus (P) intake in Western countries is 2- to 3-fold higher than recommended, and phosphate is widely used as a food additive in eg. cola beverages and processed meat products. Elevated serum phosphate concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CVD itself in several studies in patients with renal dysfunction and in a few studies in the general population. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a CVD risk factor, thus the aim of the study was to determine if an association between dietary P, especially food additive phosphate (FAP), intake, and IMT exists. Methods Associations among total phosphorus (TP) and FAP intake and carotid IMT were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 37- to 47-year-old females (n?=?370) and males (n?=?176) in Finland. Associations among TP intake, FAP intake, and IMT were tested by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in quintiles (TP) and sextiles (FAP) using sex, age, low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, smoking status, and IMT sonographer as covariates. Results No significant associations were present between TP or FAP intake and IMT (p?>?0.05, ANCOVA), but in between-group comparisons some differences were found indicating higher IMT among subjects with higher P intake. When testing for a significant linear trend with contrast analysis, a positive trend was observed between energy-adjusted TP intake and IMT among all subjects (p?=?0.039), and among females a tendency for a trend existed (p?=?0.067). Among all subjects, a significant positive linear trend was also present between FAP intake and IMT (p?=?0.022); this trend was also seen in females (p?=?0.045). In males, no significant associations or trends were noted between TP or FAP intake and IMT (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Our results indicate that a significant linear trend exists between energy-adjusted TP intake and FAP intake, and IMT among all subjects. Based on these results, high dietary P intake should be further investigated due to its potential association with adverse cardiovascular health effects in the general population.
One hundred and three women who were habitual distance runners and 74 age-matched physically inactive women provided three-day diet records. Intergroup differences in intakes of energy nutrients, micronutrients, cholesterol and fiber were evaluated via analysis of variance and, to assess qualitative differences, via analysis of covariance with total caloric intake entered as the covariate. Women runners reported consuming more carbohydrate (192.4 vs 165.0 g.d-1) and less fat (57.5 vs 66.1 g.d-1) than did the inactive women (p less than .05). After controlling for the non-significant intergroup difference in caloric intake, these differences persisted and protein intake was lower in the runners. Cholesterol and saturated fat intakes were lower and fiber intake was greater in the runners, with and without control for differences in caloric intake. These data suggest that female runners, when compared to inactive counterparts, tend to follow dietary practices that conform more closely to the current recommendations of health authorities. PMID:1962760
A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates h...
This study aimed to characterise the nutritional intake according the use of nutritional supplements (NS) by elite adult Portuguese athletes. Two hundred and two adult (23±4 years) athletes (78% males), representatives of Portugal in 13 sports, voluntarily filled a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire about the use of NS. The total nutritional daily intake did not consider the nutrients
Feed intake, growth performance and nutrient utilization by juvenile rainbow trout fed diets with and without fish meal were compared between two feeding regimes: manual feeding and self-feeding. A fish meal-based diet and two non-fish meal diets, fortified with and without essential amino acids (EAA) to simulate the EAA composition of the fish meal diet, were prepared. The two non-fish
Few studies have explored the relationship between sugar content in cereal and health outcome among children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the associations between ready-to-eat cereals, categorized by sugar content, with weight indicators and nutrientintake profiles. Data collected from 6- to 18-year-old US children and adolescents (N = 9660) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination
Ann M. Albertson; Douglas R. Thompson; Debra L. Franko; Norton M. Holschuh
Background—Gene-nutrient interactions affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations may contribute to the interindividual variability of the cardiovascular disease risk associated with dietary fat intake. Hepatic lipase (HL) is a key determinant of HDL metabolism. Four polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium have been identified in the HL gene (LIPC), defining what is known as the 514T allele. This allele has been associated
Jose M. Ordovas; Dolores Corella; Serkalem Demissie; L. Adrienne Cupples; Patrick Couture; Oscar Coltell; Peter W. F. Wilson; Ernst J. Schaefer; Katherine L. Tucker
In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2) of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (y-axes) and observed IVTDMD (x-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats.
Objective To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data extraction Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. Results 33 randomised controlled trials (73?589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval ?2.0 to ?1.2 kg, I2=75%, 57?735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (?0.51 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval ?0.76 to ?0.26, nine trials, I2=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval ?0.58 to ?0.02, 15?671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain. Conclusions There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in body weight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people.
Concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 96 food composite samples from eight varieties of food groups from the Chinese total diet study (TDS) in 2007. The concentrations of samples, expressed as WHO toxic equivalents (TEQ), ranged from 0.001 pg TEQ g(-1) to 0.85 pg TEQ g(-1) (fresh weight). Dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of 12 age/gender subgroups of the Chinese population subsequently estimated ranges from 15.4 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) to 38.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) for average population and from 68.5 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) to 226.1 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) for high consumers (the 97.5th percentile). Dietary exposure of children (mean: 32.5 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1)) is significantly higher than that of the adults (mean: 21.5 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1)) (p<0.01) presumably due to more food consumed by children relative to their body weight compared to adults. There is no difference of dietary exposure, expressed as pg TEQ kg(-1) bw, found between different genders. Across various regions in China, there are large differences of dietary exposure of adult population and pattern of contribution of food groups to total exposure due to different contamination level and food habits. Dietary exposures of average population of various subgroups were all below the PTMI recommended by JECFA, but those of higher consumers were found exceeding or comparable to the PTMI. PMID:23010224
Mixed diet composites containing 201 different foods from the United States Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study have been prepared to represent the intake of a 25- to 30-year-old male in the US. To date, foods from ten different collections have been received and composites representing six collections have been prepared and assayed. Each composite, representing one of four
Kudrna V.: Effect of Different Feeding Frequency Employing Total Mixed Ration (TMR) on Dry Matter Intake and Milk Yield in Dairy Cows during the Winter . Acta Vet. Brno 2003, 72: 533-539. The aim of the study was to study the effects of changes in feeding frequency of TMR (2 - 1 - 2 times a day) on milk yield
Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...
Background—Although several prospective cohort studies have found an inverse association between fish consumption and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) or sudden cardiac death in the general population, limited data are available among diabetic patients. Methods and Results—We examined prospectively the association between intake of fish and -3 fatty acids and risk of CHD and total mortality among 5103 female
Frank B. Hu; Eunyoung Cho; Kathryn M. Rexrode; Christine M. Albert; JoAnn E. Manson
Two hundred and forty Ross Broiler chicken were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the apparent digestibility of Obatampa, a quality protein maize (QPM) and normal maize (NM) nutrients with respect to crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free extract, as well as total tract and Ileal amino acids. There were 4 dietary treatments, each
P. A. Onimisi; I. I. Dafwang; J. J. Omage; J. E. Onyibe
Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population's folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand's (FSANZ) custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND) was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200??g/100?g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159??g per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of phytase on plasma metabolites and AA and energy digestibility in swine. In Exp. 1, eight barrows (surgery BW = 52 kg) were fitted with steered ileocecal cannulas. The experiment was a Latin rectangle and the treatments were 1) corn-soybean meal diet adequate in Ca and P (0.5% Ca, 0.19% available P [aP]), 2) corn-soybean meal diet with reduced Ca and P (0.4% Ca, 0.09% aP), 3) Diet 1 with 500 phytase units/kg, or 4) Diet 2 with 500 phytase units/kg. Pigs were fed twice daily to a total daily energy intake of 2.6 x maintenance (106 kcal of ME/kg of BW(0.75)). For each ileal digesta sample, digesta samples were collected for two 24-h periods and combined for each pig. The combination of supplementing with phytase and decreasing the concentration of dietary Ca and P increased average ileal AA (P < 0.02), starch (P < 0.02), GE (P < 0.04), and DM (P < 0.03) digestibilities. In Exp. 2, a feeding challenge was conducted with barrows (eight per treatment; average BW of 53 kg). The treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal diet or corn-soybean meal diet + 500 phytase units per kilogram of diet. In the diet with no phytase, Ca and aP were at 0.50% and 0.19%, respectively, and, in the diet with phytase, Ca and aP were each decreased by 0.12%. A catheter was surgically inserted into the anterior vena cava of each pig 6 d before the start of the feeding challenge. The barrows were penned individually, and the diets were fed for 3 d before the challenge. The pigs were held without feed for 16 h, and blood samples were obtained at -60, -30, and 0 min before the pigs were fed (2% of BW). Blood samples were then collected at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, and 300 min after feeding. Glucose area under the response curve and plasma glucose, insulin, urea N, and total alpha-amino N concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the diet with reduced Ca and P and the phytase addition. Area under the response curve for insulin, urea N, and total alpha-amino N; insulin:glucose; and plasma NEFA concentration, clearance, and half-life were not affected by diet. In conclusion, the combination of Ca and P reduction and phytase addition increased nutrient and energy digestibility in diets for pigs and increased plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, urea N, and alpha-amino N. PMID:15032427
Johnston, S L; Williams, S B; Southern, L L; Bidner, T D; Bunting, L D; Matthews, J O; Olcott, B M
Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) total tract DM and starch digestibility (from 77.8 to 72.9%, and 89.2 to 81.5%, respectively). Daily N and P intakes linearly increased (P = 0.06 and P = 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. Fecal and urinary N, P, S, Mg, and K excretion linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DDGS concentration; however, Se and Na excretion did not differ (P > 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased. PMID:22952356
Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C
Decreasing fat intake in subjects at risk of cardiovascular diseases and particularly diabetics is a major issue. To investigate whether low-fat (41%) butter (LFB) is of any benefit compared to regular butter (RB), 97 hospitalized diabetics (41 insulin-dependent) were studied on four consecutive days. Breakfast (bread, butter and drink) was served at 0830 hrs, on successive mornings. LFB and RB
G. SLAMA; F. ROSSI; F. BELLISLE; P. CASASSUS; P. FIQUET; A. S. CHAPPUIS; N. DESPLANQUE; A. LAFFITTE
We investigated the independent associations of total and beverage-specific ethanol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in middle-aged Japanese males, because of the scarcity of epidemiologic data in Japan. The subjects were 2227 male self-defense officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka, Kumamoto, and Sapporo Hospitals. Data on alcohol intake, smoking,
We assessed the validity of a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire to estimate energy intake in young children by comparison with total energy expenditure (TEE). TEE was measured in 45 children (22 males and 23 females; 4.2-6.9 y of age) by the doubly labeled water method and body composition was estimated from bioelectrical resistance (20.2 ± 4.0 kg body weight, 4.6 ±
Plant growth and metabolism can be impaired by the nutritional status of the media in which it is grown. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of NO3?N and FeSO4?Fe regimes on growth, nutrient uptake, and total amino acid?N content of tomato and wheat plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture with three levels of
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding Borrena hirticulata (BH), Ficus hirta (FH), rice straw (RS) and concentrate-based total mixed ration (TMR) on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation and growth in mithun. Growing male mithun calves were randomly allotted to 2 feeding groups (6 in each), TMR1 and TMR2. The TMRs consisted of RS 300 g kg?1, concentrate 400 g kg?1
B. Prakash; A. Dhali; A. Mech; K. Khate; H. Moaakum; C. Rajkhowa
The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the variation of nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites and oxidative stress parameters triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and 2) evaluate the ability of pelleted beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground corn to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets during four successive17-day periods: 1) total mixed ration (TMR) containing 0% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W0); 2) TMR containing 10% FGW (W10); 3) TMR containing 20% FGW (W20); and 4) TMR containing 10% BP as a replacement for 10% ground corn (BP10). The SARA induction protocol reduced the mean ruminal pH from 6.37 to 5.94, and the minimum ruminal pH decreased from 5.99 to 5.41 from baseline to challenge period. Mean ruminal pH increased from 5.94 to 6.05, and minimum daily ruminal pH increased from 5.41 to 5.63, when BP was substituted for corn. The apparent digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the dietary treatments, except that the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) was reduced in cows fed the W20 diet compared with cows fed the W0 and W10 diets, and cows fed the BP10 diet had higher NDF and ADF digestibility than the cows fed the W20 diet. Cows fed the W20 diet had a lower plasma concentration of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, triglyceride, and total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and a higher plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, malonaldehyde (MDA), super oxygen dehydrogenises (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) than cows fed the W0 diet. Substitution of BP for corn increased concentrations of plasma BHBA and TAC, but decreased concentrations of plasma MDA. Our results indicate that reduction of fibre digestion; the concomitant increase of plasma glucose and insulin; the decrease of plasma BHBA, NEFA, cholesterol, and triglyceride; and changes of plasma oxidative stress parameters are highly related to SARA induced by W20 diets. These variables may be alternative candidates for SARA diagnosis. We also suggest that the substitution of BP for corn could reduce the risk of SARA, increase fibre digestion, and improve the antioxidant status in dairy cows.
There is a large variation in caloric intake and macronutrient preference between individuals and between ethnic groups, and these food intake patterns show a strong heritability. The transition to new food sources during the agriculture revolution around 11,000 years ago probably created selective pressure and shaped the genome of modern humans. One major player in energy homeostasis is the appetite-stimulating
Clara C. Elbers; Carolien G. F. de Kovel; Yvonne T. van der Schouw; Juliaan R. Meijboom; Florianne Bauer; Diederick E. Grobbee; Gosia Trynka; Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk; Cisca Wijmenga; N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; Peter Heutink
Objective Our aim was to examine the relative contributions of changes in dietary fat intake and use of cholesterol-lowering medications to changes in concentrations of total cholesterol among adults in the United States from 1988–1994 to 2007–2008. Method We used data from adults aged 20–74 years who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1988–1994 to 2007–2008. The effect of change in dietary fat intake on concentrations of total cholesterol was estimated by the use of equations developed by Keys, Hegsted, and successors. Results Age-adjusted mean concentrations of total cholesterol were 5.60 mmol/L (216 mg/dl) during 1988–1994 falling to 5.09 mmol/L (197 mg/dl) in 2007–2008 (P<0.001). No significant changes in the intake of total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and dietary cholesterol were observed from 1988–1994 to 2007–2008. However, the age-adjusted use of cholesterol-lowering medications increased from 1.6% to 12.5% (P<0.001). The various equations suggested that changes in dietary fat made minimal contributions to the observed trend in mean concentrations of total cholesterol. The increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications was estimated to account for approximately 46% of the change. Discussion Mean concentrations of total cholesterol among adults in the United States have declined by ?4% since 1988–1994. The increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications has apparently accounted for about half of this small fall. Further substantial decreases in cholesterol might be potentially achievable by implementing effective and feasible public health interventions to promote the consumption of a more healthful diet by US adults. Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g?1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g?1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g?1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g?1), canned peas (16.8 ng g?1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g?1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g?1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g?1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84–2.46 ng g?1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g?1), baking powder (0.64 ng g?1), some cheeses (0.68–2.24 ng g?1), breads and some cereals (0.40–1.73 ng g?1), and fast foods (1.1–10.9 ng g?1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age–sex groups, with 0.17–0.33 ?g kg?1 body weight day?1 for infants, 0.082–0.23 ?g kg?1 body weight day?1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052–0.081 ?g kg?1 body weight day?1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504
Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M
Novel methodology is described for the estimation of food intake in the particularly difficult circumstance where groups of people eat directly from a shared bowl of cooked food. Detailed observation and measurement of meal preparation is combined with food table values for composition to calculate the nutrient content of each meal. The distribution of food between individuals is estimated by a suitable algorithm. The ability of the algorithm to identify seasonal changes in energy intakes is demonstrated by comparison of the calculated energy intakes with values for the total energy expenditure of free-living adult male subjects, as measured by the stable isotope, doubly-labelled water technique. This comparison suggests that the energy intake calculated from detailed observation of two cooked meals per day is equivalent to approximately 80% of the total energy expenditure and, by inference, total dietary energy intake. The remaining energy intake may well be derived from uncooked 'snack foods', such as raw fruit and vegetables, or from cooked food obtained, by purchase or as a gift, away from the home. This is the first description of a successful method for the estimation of food intake when people eat directly from shared bowls of food. PMID:7794871
Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 ?g L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 ?g L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.
Background: Nutritional intake has been overlooked as a possi- ble contributing factor to lower-extremity physical performance, especially in homebound elderly persons. Objectives: Our objectives were to examine the association of a summary measure of calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and phos- phorus intakes with 1) the inability to perform lower-extremity physical performance tests and 2) declining levels of summary lower-extremity physical
Joseph R Sharkey; Carol Giuliani; Pamela S Haines; Laurence G Branch; Jan Busby-Whitehead; Namvar Zohoori
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was
Erin Hennessy; Sheryl O. Hughes; Jeanne P. Goldberg; Raymond R. Hyatt; Christina D. Economos
The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198
Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S
In situ and in vivo digestibility experiments were conducted to determine the acceptability, digestibility, and safety of a return chewing gum/packaging (G/P) material mixture when fed to steers. In the in situ experiment, both ruminal and intestinal disappearances were measured. Two ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers, which were given free access to alfalfa hay (AH), were used in this study. Duplicate Dacron bags containing the G/P were incubated in the rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. After ruminal incubation, the 12-, 24-, and 48-h bags were placed in the duodenum and collected in the feces to determine intestinal disappearance. In situ ruminal DM disappearance was greater than 70% for all substrates tested at 0 h, indicating high solubility of the substrates in water, and began to reach a plateau after 12 h of incubation. Intestinal in situ disappearance was not different (P>.25) from zero. In the digestion trial, four ruminally cannulated steers (337+/-21.3 kg BW; mean +/- SD) were used in a 4x4 Latin square design with the following treatments: 0) 50% corn (C), 50% AH; 10) 45% C, 45% AH, 10% G/P; 20) 40% C, 40% AH, 20% G/P; 30) 35% C, 35% AH, 30% G/P. Steers fed G/P-containing diets had greater (P<.01) DMI than the control steers. Increasing the G/P resulted in a linear (P<.05) increase in DMI. Apparent DM digestibility tended to be higher (P<.10) for the G/P-containing diets than for the control. A quadratic effect (P<.05) on digestible DMI was observed, with greater (P<.01) digestible DMI values for G/P-containing diets (4.8 vs. 5.8 kg/d). Digestible organic matter and total nonstructural carbohydrate intakes followed trends similar to those of DM. Apparent aluminum digestibility of G/P-containing diets was not different (P>.13) from zero. The level of G/P in the diet had no effect (P>.2) on total VFA concentration or ruminal pH. There was a linear decrease (P<.01) in the molar percentage of isobutyrate and isovalerate in addition to a linear increase (P<.01) in butyrate and valerate with increasing levels of G/P. There was a quadratic effect (P<.01) on molar proportions of acetate and propionate and on the acetate:propionate ratio. Results of both experiments suggest that G/P may be fed to safely replace up to 30% of corn-alfalfa hay diets for growing steers with advantages in improving DMI and digestibility. PMID:10641889
Selected nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrient), suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids surface-water data were compiled from January 1980 through December 1995 within the Great Salt Lake Basins National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, which extends from southeastern Idaho to west-central Utah and from Great Salt Lake to the Wasatch and western Uinta Mountains. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality database. The Division of Water Quality database includes data that are submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STOrage and RETrieval system. Water-quality data included in this report were selected for surface-water sites (rivers, streams, and canals) that had three or more nutrient, suspended-sediment, or total suspended-solids analyses. Also, 33 percent or more of the measurements at a site had to include discharge, and, for non-U.S. Geological Survey sites, there had to be 2 or more years of data. Ancillary data for parameters such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow (discharge), dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, and turbidity also were compiled, as available. The compiled nutrient database contains 13,511 samples from 191 selected sites. The compiled suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database contains 11,642 samples from 142 selected sites. For the nutrient database, the median (50th percentile) sample period for individual sites is 6 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 52 and the 75th percentile is 110 samples. For the suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database, the median sample period for individual sites is 9 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 76 and the 75th percentile is 120 samples. The compiled historical data are being used in the basinwide sampling strategy to characterize the broad-scale geographic and seasonal water-quality conditions in relation to major contaminant sources and background conditions. Data for this report are stored on a compact disc.
The Japanese population routinely consumes iodine-rich seaweed, thereby probably making Japan the nation with the highest iodine intake worldwide. The present study aimed to estimate the duration of dietary records (DRs) needed to calculate the usual iodine intake and to ascertain the frequency of iodine intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese. Four 3-d DRs for the 4 seasons within a year were collected for 55 men and 58 women. On the basis of analysis of variance, the total variance in iodine intake was classified into inter-individual and intra-individual components. The frequency of appearance for high iodine intakes was estimated. The most commonly consumed types of iodine-containing food items were seaweed, milk and milk products, fish and shellfish, and tofu. The percentage contribution of intra-individual variance was markedly greater than that of inter-individual variance, and the excessive iodine intake was intermittent rather than continuous. The duration for which dietary records were required to assess the usual intake of iodine within 10% of their true mean was 6,276 d for men and 4,953 d for women. The period that transpired until a value was exceeded once was 6.3 d/occurrence for values above UL (2,200 ?g), 8.5 d/occurrence for values above 3,000 ?g, 9.8 d/occurrence for values above 4,000 ?g, 11.2 d/occurrence for values above 5,000 ?g, and 16.7 d/occurrence for values above 10,000 ?g. To avoid errors in interpretation, it is inappropriate to assess the habitual nutrientintake of a nutrient that is intermittently consumed at maximal levels. It is important to assess the iodine intake in consideration of the range of the nutrientintake and of the time period in which the upper limit is exceeded. PMID:24064731
Goat husbandry in Oman’s Hajar Mountains supplies income and manure to farmers. An earlier analysis concluded that it uses purchased feeds inefficiently, but did not value the contribution of mountain pastures to goat nutrition and cropland fertilization. Therefore intake of pasture vegetation, cultivated forages and purchased feeds was determined in goats from three villages in spring and autumn 2005. Faecal
E. Schlecht; U. Dickhöfer; M. Predotova; A. Buerkert
This study was conducted to determine the effects of adding yeast culture and sodium bicarbonate to the finishing diets for lambs on intake, digestibility, rumina1 parameters and nitrogen retention. Twenty Pelibuey male lambs, weighing an average of 23kg, were assigned to one of four treatment groups according to a completely randomized design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were: (1)
J. R. Kawas; R. García-Castillo; H. Fimbres-Durazo; F. Garza-Cazares; J. F. G. Hernández-Vidal; E. Olivares-Sáenz; C. D. Lu
This study of 94 postmenopausal female smokers evaluated the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and hormone therapy (HT) on change in weight, energy intake, and physical activity during 2 weeks of smoking abstinence. Women, stratified by current use of HT, were randomized to nicotine or placebo patch. After 2 weeks of abstinence, women on nicotine patch had significantly larger
Sharon S. Allen; Dorothy Hatsukami; Dawn M. Brintnell; Tracy Bade
Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…
Two experiments were carried out with castrated male pigs to determine the effect of protein intake on water balance and N output via urine. In Expt. 1, the appearance of N and water in urine was determined with the balance technique at mean live weights of 45.5 and 68.5 kg when pigs were fed different amounts of dietary protein. In
A. Pfeiffer; H. Henkel; M. W. A. Verstegen; I. Philipczyk
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. Ninety-nine parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. C...
|Two studies examined nutritional differences between home breakfasts and breakfasts served at preschool following School Breakfast Program guidelines and evaluated nutritional impact of program participation on 4-year olds' preacademic performance. Results indicated that breakfast intake was altered under school breakfast conditions. Performance…
Afternoon herbage allocations have shown to improve animal performance due to an increment in herbage intake during dusk, when herbage quality is higher. However, this phenomenon might not yet be maximized. This work aimed to assess the impact of timing of herbage and fasting allocation on patterns ...
To assess the impact of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) intake on diet and weight in Head Start mothers, three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected on 609 Black (43%), Hispanic (33%), or White (24%) women in AL and TX. Women were divided into four beverage consumption groups: low milk/high SwB, ...
This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227
Laying performance, egg quality and carcase traits were recorded in broiler breeders (29–48 weeks of age) fed diets in which pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica) or broken rice fully replaced yellow maize (50% of the diet) from the reference diet. Constant ratios of metabolizable energy to other nutrients were maintained in all the
S. V. Rama Rao; M. R. Reddy; N. K. Prarharaj; G. Shyam Sunder
Objective:Several lines of evidence indicate that nutrient restriction during perinatal development sensitizes the offspring to the development of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in adulthood via the programming of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. Given the link between the circadian clock and energy metabolism, and the resetting action of food on the circadian clock, in this study, we have
R Orozco-Solís; R J B Matos; S Lopes de Souza; I Grit; B Kaeffer; R Manhães de Castro; F Bolaños-Jiménez
To evaluate the effects of balancing to- tal diet degradable intake protein with dietary total digestible nutrients (TDN), we conducted two studies during2yrwith100(302 ±8kginitialBW)mixed-breed yearlingsteersand12ruminallycannulatedsteers(526 ± 28 kg). Steers individuallyreceived one of four supple- ments 5 d\\/wk while grazing dormant native tallgrass prairie. Supplements included: 1) corn and soybean meal, balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to
As obesity and being overweight continue to increase in the United States, public concern is growing about the quality of American diets. We compare the changes in nutrients contributed by major food groups in the periods 1953-1980 and 1981-2008 and find that there is reduced cholesterol intake and increased calcium intake, but the levels of food energy and total fats increase substantially. To understand how economic factors affect the overall nutritional quality of American diets, we estimate a complete food demand system and conduct a nutrient demand analysis. Among our findings, we conclude that some price manipulations such as subsidizing fruits and vegetables could be effective to increase produce consumption, but the effects of taxing fats to reduce the consumption of fats could be limited. Increasing income would improve intakes of nutrients such as calcium and various vitamins (likely now insufficient), but intakes of nutrients such as energy, saturated fats, and cholesterol (likely now excessive) would also rise with increased income.
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrientintake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The population was divided into children aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, and adults 19+ years, and each group was dichotomized into OOHN consumers and nonconsumers. Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d. Means, standard errors, and covariate-adjusted analyses of variance were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Significance was set at P < .05. The percent of OOHN consumers increased with age: 2.1% ± 0.3%, 2.6% ± 0.3%, 6.5% ± 0.5%, and 9.6% ± 0.5% those aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, 19 to 50, and 51+ years, respectively. The 2 latter groups were combined into a single group of consumers aged 19+ years for subsequent analyses. Consumers of OOHN from all age groups had higher intakes of energy, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, copper, and magnesium and lower intakes of carbohydrates, cholesterol, and sodium than did nonconsumers. Diet quality was higher in OOHN consumers of all age groups. In children aged 2 to 11 years, consumers had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. In those aged 12 to 18 years, weight and percent overweight were lower in consumers. Adult consumers had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, red blood cell folate, and serum folate levels and lower insulin, glycohemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels than did nonconsumers. Adult consumers also had a 19% decreased risk of hypertension and a 21% decreased risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data suggested that OOHN consumption was associated with improved nutrientintake, diet quality, and, in adults, a lower prevalence of 2 risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Consumption of OOHN, as part of a healthy diet, should be encouraged by health professionals. PMID:22464805
O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L
Purpose: To evaluate Costa Rican adolescents’ dietary intake as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor.Methods: Dietary intake was determined using 3-day food records; nutrient content of fast foods prepared in school cafeteria was calculated by the weighted records.Results: Around 30% of adolescents exceed the American Heart Association dietary recommendation for total fat and saturated fat. About 50% reported a cholesterol
The Canadian Total Diet Study is a national survey to determine the level of chemical contaminants in the Canadian food supply. Food samples were collected from Whitehorse, Yukon, supermarkets as part of the study in 1998. Whitehorse was chosen as a sampling centre, despite its small population (n = 19?000), to determine if residue levels were different in foods available
D. F. K. Rawn; X.-L. Cao; J. Doucet; D. J. Davies; W.-F. Sun; R. W. Dabeka; W. H. Newsome
The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women) as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia. PMID:22848405
The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women) as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia.
Three corn hybrids, Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337 (which contains a brown midrib trait), and Pioneer 3861 were compared in a plot trial, an intake trial, and a lactation trial. In the plot trial, the three corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2 × 385-m plots. Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337 had lower yields of dry matter (DM), higher concentrations of
C. S. Ballard; E. D. Thomas; D. S. Tsang; P. Mandebvu; C. J. Sniffen; M. I. Endres; M. P. Carter
Food consumption patterns, using the 24?hour dietary recall and frequency methods, as well as food beliefs, were studied in rural areas of Sirjan, Iran, the households being chosen by cluster?sampling. Foods were mainly of a plant origin, wheat, in the form of bread, being the main staple. Energy and protein intakes were only 75% of the 1985 WHO\\/FAO\\/UNU recommendations in
The objective was to determine the relative effects of a specific increase in grass silage sucrose concentration, or a specific supplement of a starch-based concentrate, on rumen fermentation and nutrient supply to the omasum in beef cattle. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein–Friesian steers were fed grass silage only (G), G plus 3kgconcentrates\\/day (GC), G plus 90gsucrose\\/kgdry matter (DM) (GS) and G
Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (?36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrientintake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932
Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra
Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented as per capita intake or for consumers only. To identify the foods mostly consumed, foods are reported and ranked according to total number of times consumed, number of consumers, totalintake, or nutrient contribution by individual foods or food groups. Presentation of food intake data primarily depends on a study's aim; reported data thus often are not comparable across studies. Food intake data further depend on the dietary assessment methodology used and foods in the database consulted; and are influenced by the inherent limitations of all dietary assessments. Intake data can be presented as either single foods or as clearly defined food groups. Mixed dishes, reported as such or in terms of ingredients and items added during food preparation remain challenging. Comparable presentation of food consumption data is not always possible; presenting sufficient information will assist valid interpretation and optimal use of the presented data. A checklist was developed to strengthen the reporting of food intake data in science communication. PMID:23800564
Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Macintyre, Una E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H
Concentrations of 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in total diet study samples of 14 food groups of animal origin from 11 locations in Taiwan, collected in 2003. Pork meat possessed the lowest background concentration level of 0.058pgWHO-TEQPCDD\\/Fs+dl-PCBs\\/g fresh weight. The dl-PCBs contribution were 31%, 59%, 36%, 46%, and 13% for meat and meat products,
Objective To investigate the relationship between antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, selenium) and DNA methylation-related nutrients (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and distal colorectal cancer risk in whites and African Americans and to examine intakes from food only versus total (food plus dietary supplements) intakes. Methods Data are from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II, a case–control study of 945 distal colorectal cancer (including sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectum) cases and 959 controls. In-person interviews captured usual dietary intake and various covariates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results High intakes of each antioxidant and DNA methylation-related nutrient were significantly associated with lower risk in whites. In African Americans, the highest category of selenium from food only had a marginally significant inverse association with distal colorectal cancer risk (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.29–1.02). Supplements did not provide additional risk reduction beyond intakes from food. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that antioxidant and DNA methylation-related nutrients may lower the risk of distal colorectal cancer in whites, and selenium may lower risk in African Americans. Optimal micronutrient intakes from food alone may be more beneficial than supplementation.
Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A.; Adair, Linda S.; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.
1. A total of 2208 broiler chicks were used in two growth experiments (8 treatments and 12 replicate pens in each experiment) to assess the effects of xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase in maize-based diets.2. A positive control diet was formulated containing adequate nutrient concentrations. A negative control diet was formulated to contain approximately 628?kJ\\/kg, 0·13%, 0·12% and 1 to
Objective To investigate the relationship between antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, selenium) and DNA methylation-related\\u000a nutrients (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and distal colorectal cancer risk in whites and African Americans and to examine intakes\\u000a from food only versus total (food plus dietary supplements) intakes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Data are from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II, a case–control study of
Christina Dawn Williams; Jessie A. Satia; Linda S. Adair; June Stevens; Joseph Galanko; Temitope O. Keku; Robert S. Sandler
Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary nutrientintake of pregnant women. The relationship between dietary intake and pregnancy outcome was also studied. Method: A total of 114 pregnant women were studied, using systematic random sampling. Results: The percentages of the mean nutrientintake below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for pregnant women were as the follows: 51.8%, 93.9%, 82.5% and 98.2% for energy, vitamin B1, calcium and iron, respectively. Moreover, 13.2% of the women experienced some form of pica. Using height and mid-arm circumferences, about 2.8% and 4.4% were seen to be undernourished respectively. Conclusion: Saudi pregnant women need guidance in selecting nutrient dense foods to reduce maternal and outcome health hazards.
Almurshed, Khalid S.; Bani, Ibrahim A.; Al-Kanhal, Mohammed A.; Al-Amri, Mohammed A.
Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrientintake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID:21983266
Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José
This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage production and total annual operating costs. The dairy production facility used was a confinement stall barn at the Agway Farm Research Center, Tully, New York. Provisions were made to handle the manure from the barn in three ways: (1) directly into a spreader for daily spreading, (2) by gravity into a liquid manure storage tank for spring application and immediate plow down, (3) hydraulic ram to a roof-covered above-ground manure storage for spring and fall spreading. Results of the study show that a manure storage system can reduce annual labor requirements by 65 percent and fuel requirement by 60 percent or more, compared to daily spreading.
Objective To determine how sodium, chloride, and potas- sium intakes of today's infants and toddlers compare with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of these nutrients established recently by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Study design Population estimates of usual intake distri- butions of sodium, chloride (assumed to be equamolar to sodium), and potassium of 4-
Toddlers WILLIAM C. HEIRD; PAULA ZIEGLER; KATHLEEN REIDY; RONETTE BRIEFEL
OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.
Woo, J.; Leung, S. S.; Ho, S. C.; Lam, T. H.; Janus, E. D.
Polymorphism at the ?S1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high ?S1-casein (?S1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low ?S1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for ?S2-CN, ?-CN, and ?-CN but a different genotype for ?S1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF goats. Significant diet × genotype interactions indicated how AA goats, compared with AF goats, showed higher DM digestibility and milk yield when fed the SFB diet, which had more energy. A reduction in free triiodothyronine hormone occurred in AF goats fed the MHB diet, whereas no differences were observed in AA goats. These results demonstrate how goats with a higher capacity for ?S1-CN synthesis exhibit more efficient energy and protein utilization, evident at the digestive level, and better productive responses to high-nutrition diets. PMID:23403186
Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M
BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrientintake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrientintakes with the recommendations for
Dieu TT Huynh; Michael J Dibley; David W Sibbritt; Hanh TM Tran
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC47) on finishing performance, digestibility, some blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of male lambs fed a diet based on dried Molasses Sugar Beet-Pulp (MSBP). Eighteen Sanjabi male lambs (20.95 +/- 2.7 kg initial body weight and 3 month of age) were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments (with or without yeast). Digestibility and nitrogen balance experiment was carried out using six mature rams on finishing diet with and without yeast. Serum metabolites were determined in samples taken from lambs at the end of finishing period. Dry matter digestibility of finishing diet was significantly increased by yeast addition. However, yeast did not have any significant effect on apparent digestibility of OM, NDF, CP and energy. Nitrogen retention was also not affected by yeast addition. Yeast resulted in a significant increase in the average daily gain, dry matter and organic matter intake. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by addition of yeast. The concentration of the serum metabolites including glucose, urea, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and cratinine were not affected significantly by yeast supplementation, but triglyceride concentrations increased significantly when yeast was fed. Addition of yeast to the diet did not have any significant effect on the carcass characteristics. Results of this study suggest that feeding saccharomyces cerevisiae with a diet based on MSBP can improve the performance of fattening lambs without any change in carcass characteristics or cuts. PMID:19093506
Laying performance, egg quality and carcase traits were recorded in broiler breeders (29-48 weeks of age) fed diets in which pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica) or broken rice fully replaced yellow maize (50% of the diet) from the reference diet. Constant ratios of metabolizable energy to other nutrients were maintained in all the diets. Each diet provided 1.38 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/bird per day to 8 replicate groups of 10 layers each, maintained in deep litter pens. The hen-day egg production and the ME required to produce 12 eggs in birds fed pearl millet or broken rice were similar (p > 0.05) to those fed on the maize diet, while birds fed foxtail millet or finger millet required more energy to produce the same number of eggs. The egg production and the efficiency of energy utilization were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the birds fed these two cereals. Egg quality was not affected by replacing maize with the different cereals. However, the yolk colour index was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the cereal-fed groups in comparison to the maize-fed birds. The gizzard and giblet weights were heavier (p < 0.05) in the birds fed foxtail millet or finger millet than in those fed broken rice. Deposition of abdominal fat and the liver fat content were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the birds fed pearl millet than in the other groups. Depending on the local prices, the cost of feeding may be reduced considerably by using any of the cereals tested as the principal energy source in place of maize in broiler breeder diets. PMID:11059041
Objectives: The energy density (ED) of the diet is considered an important determinant of total energy intake and thus energy balance and weight change. We aimed to compare relationships between ED and macronutrient content in individual food and beverage items as well as population diet in a typical Western country.Design: Nutrient data for 3673 food items and 247 beverage items
T C Crowe; HA La Fontaine; C J Gibbons; D Cameron-Smith; B A Swinburn
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays critical roles in regulating food intake and energy balance. Recent genome wide scans found common variants near MC4R were related to obesity and insulin resistance. We examined the associations of the reported variants rs17782313 (T>C) and rs17700633 (G>A) with dietary intakes, weight change and diabetes risk in 5724 women (1533 with type 2 diabetes) from a
This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservat...
The objective of this research was to determine whether fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and (or) Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC) affected concentrations of gut microbial populations, fermentative end products and nutrient digestibilities in healthy adult dogs. Two experiments were performed using 40 adult dogs (20 dogs/experiment). Dogs in each experiment were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments. Twice daily, treatments were given orally via gelatin capsules: 1) 2 g sucrose + 80 mg cellulose; 2) 2 g FOS + 80 mg cellulose; 3) 2 g sucrose + 1 x 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) LAC; or 4) 2 g FOS + 1 x 10(9) cfu LAC. Data were analyzed by the General Linear Models procedure of SAS. In Experiment 1, FOS resulted in lower (P = 0.08) Clostridium perfringens and greater fecal butyrate (P = 0.06) and lactate (P < 0.05) concentrations. In Experiment 2, FOS supplementation increased (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria, increased lactobacilli (P = 0.08), increased fecal lactate (P = 0.06) and butyrate (P < 0.05), and decreased (P < 0.05) fecal ammonia, isobutyrate, isovalerate and total branched-chain fatty acid concentrations. Dogs fed LAC had the highest fecal concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol in Experiment 1 and dimethyl sulfide in Experiment 2, whereas dogs fed FOS had the lowest concentrations of these compounds. Overall, FOS appeared to enhance indices of gut health by positively altering gut microbial ecology and fecal protein catabolites, whereas LAC was more effective when fed in combination with FOS rather than fed alone. PMID:12468613
Swanson, Kelly S; Grieshop, Christine M; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Bauer, Laura L; Chow, JoMay; Wolf, Bryan W; Garleb, Keith A; Fahey, George C
Objective To describe the dietary intake of American and Western Samoans, with emphasis on nutrients conventionally related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Design Cross-sectional dietary survey. Intake estimates were based on 24-hour recall interviews.Subject Community-based samples of 946 men and women (455 American Samoans, 491 Western Samoans) aged 25 to 55 years.Statistical analyses Tests of differences in means (t tests)
DANIEL J GALANIS; STEPHEN T McGARVEY; CHRISTINE QUESTED; BRENDA SIO; SALEI' AAFELE-FA'AMULI
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, particularly, if present during early gestation. Iron supplements are widely recommended during pregnancy, but evidence of their benefit in relation to infant outcomes is not established. This study was performed in the UK, where iron supplements are not routinely recommended during pregnancy, to investigate the association between iron intake in pregnancy and size at birth. METHODS From a prospective cohort of 1274 pregnant women aged 18-45 years, dietary intake was reported in a 24-h recall administered by a research midwife at 12-week gestation. Dietary supplement intake was ascertained using dietary recall and three questionnaires in the first, second and third trimesters. RESULTS Of the cohort of pregnant women, 80% reported dietary iron intake below the UK Reference NutrientIntake of 14.8 mg/day. Those reported taking iron-containing supplements in the first, second and third trimesters were 24, 15 and 8%, respectively. Women with dietary iron intake >14.8 mg/day were more likely to be older, have a higher socioeconomic profile and take supplements during the first trimester. Vegetarians were less likely to have low dietary iron intake [odds ratio = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8] and more likely to take supplements during the first and second trimesters. Total iron intake, but not iron intake from food only, was associated with birthweight centile (adjusted change = 2.5 centiles/10 mg increase in iron, 95% CI: 0.4, 4.6). This association was stronger in the high vitamin C intake group, but effect modification was not significant. CONCLUSION There was a positive relationship between total iron intake, from food and supplements, in early pregnancy and birthweight. Iron intake, both from diet and supplements, during the first trimester of pregnancy was higher in vegetarians and women with a better socioeconomic profile. PMID:21303776
Alwan, Nisreen A; Greenwood, Darren C; Simpson, Nigel A B; McArdle, Harry J; Godfrey, Keith M; Cade, Janet E
Background Diet is regarded as one of the most important environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A recent report comprehensively concluded that total energy intake does not have a simple relationship with CRC risk, and that the data were inconsistent for carbohydrate, cholesterol and protein. The objective of this study was to identify the associations of CRC risk with dietary intakes of total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and alcohol using data from a large case-control study conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Ontario (ON), Canada. Methods Incident colorectal cancer cases (n = 1760) were identified from population-based cancer registries in the provinces of ON (1997-2000) and NL (1999-2003). Controls (n = 2481) were a random sample of residents in each province, aged 20-74 years. Family history questionnaire (FHQ), personal history questionnaire (PHQ), and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to collect study data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of intakes of total energy, macronutrients and alcohol with CRC risk. Results Total energy intake was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21-2.01, p-trend = 0.02, 5th versus 1st quintile), whereas inverse associations emerged for intakes of protein (OR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.69-1.00, p-trend = 0.06, 5th versus 1st quintile), carbohydrate (OR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.63-1.00, p-trend = 0.05, 5th versus 1st quintile) and total dietary fiber (OR: 0.84, 95% CI:0.67-0.99, p-trend = 0.04, 5th versus 1st quintile). Total fat, alcohol, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol were not associated with CRC risk. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that high energy intake may increase risk of incident CRC, whereas diets high in protein, fiber, and carbohydrate may reduce the risk of the disease.
Objective Dairy products contain vitamin D and other nutrients that may be beneficial for lung function, but are also high in fats that may have mixed effects on lung function. However, the overall associations of dairy intake with lung density and lung function have not been studied. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relations between dairy intake and CT lung density and lung function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Total, low-fat and high-fat dairy intakes were quantified from food frequency questionnaire responses of men and women, aged 45–84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The MESA-Lung Study assessed CT lung density from cardiac CT imaging and prebronchodilator spirometry among 3,965 MESA participants. Results Total dairy intake was inversely associated with apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and positively associated with FVC (the multivariate-adjusted mean difference between the highest and the lowest quintile of total dairy intake was ?0.92 (p for trend=0.04) for apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and 72.0 mL (p=0.01) for FVC). Greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with higher alpha (higher alpha values indicate less emphysema) and lower apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (corresponding differences in alpha and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema were 0.04 (p=0.02) and ?0.98 (p=0.01) for low-fat dairy intake, respectively). High-fat dairy intake was not associated with lung density measures. Greater low- or high-fat dairy intake was not associated with higher FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC. Conclusions Higher low-fat dairy intake but not high-fat dairy intake was associated with moderately improved CT lung density.
Jiang, Rui; Jacobs, David R.; He, Ka; Hoffman, Eric; Hankinson, John; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Barr, R. Graham
We evaluated the differences in composition of Iuka gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) hay harvested at 0530 (AM harvest) or 1730 (PM harvest), and measured how protein supplementation and time of harvest interact to affect the voluntary intake, digestibility, and N balance of goats. Boer X Spani...
Broiler chickens were fed diets based on either outer or inner endosperm from rye. These diets were fed with or without a fiber degrading enzyme to study the effects of the dietary fiber fraction on production results, body composition, serum lipid con centrations and apparent Â¡leal digestibility of nutrients. Elimination of the dietary fiber effect by the enzyme generally improved
This research assessed the relative validity and reproducibility of the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (DQESV2) over one month in young adults, given the lack of concise and convenient instruments for assessing recent dietary intake in this population. Participants were recruited from a large Australian university (N?=?102; 35% male; age 18-34 years; body mass index 16-37 kg/m(2)). Five one-day weighed food records (WFR) were administered over one month followed by the DQESV2. Estimates for nutrients (energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, dietary fibre, and alcohol) and fruit and vegetable servings were compared between methods using correlation coefficients, 95% limits of agreement, and quintile classifications. One week later, a second DQESV2 was completed by n?=?77 of the participants to assess reproducibility using intra-class correlations (ICC) and weighted kappa. Comparing methods, all nutrients and fruit and vegetable servings showed significant positive correlations (P<0.05) except protein intake in males; over 60% of participants were within one quintile classification except total fat and dietary fibre intakes in males (55% and 56%, respectively); and differences in nutrient and food intakes between methods were all within +/-20% of the mean WFR values except alcohol intake in females. Between first and second administrations of the DQESV2 all ICC coefficients were positive (P<0.01) and weighted kappa coefficients ranged from 0.54 for fruit servings (including fruit juice) in males to 0.91 f