Identify key challenges and considerations in combining dietary and supplement intake data. Explain statistical approaches to estimating total nutrient intakes. Describe assumptions and caveats of current techniques of estimating total nutrient intakes.
Functional status and nutrient intake among 52 congregate, 30 day care and 31 homebound Council on Aging (COA) participants were evaluated by data from three 24-hour dietary recalls, ADLs and IADLs along with demographic variables and analyzed by analysis of variance. Congregate subjects had fewer functional status limitations. The COA meals provided one-third of the RDA for most nutrients; however,
M. Sue Hoogenboom; Alice A. Spangler; Royda Crose
To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...
A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.
Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.
Objective To determine change in nutrient intakes, number of servings, and contributions of total fat from food groups in children who lowered their dietary fat intake.Design A research and demonstration study designed to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. There were four study groups: two intervention and two control groups. All children had hypercholesterolemia except for those in one control
JEANNIE McKENZIE; LORIBETH DIXON; HELEN SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT; DIANE MITCHELL; BARBARA SHANNON; ANDREW TERSHAKOVEC
Introduction In September 2009, middle and secondary schools in England were required to comply with food and nutrient-based standards for school food. We examined the impact of this policy change on children’s lunchtime and total dietary intake. Methods We undertook repeat cross-sectional surveys in six Northumberland middle schools in 1999–2000 and 2009–10. Dietary data were collected from 11–12 y olds (n?=?298 in 1999–2000; n?=?215 in 2009–10). Children completed two consecutive 3-day food diaries, each followed by an interview. Linear mixed effect models examined the effect of year, lunch type and level of socio-economic deprivation on children’s mean total dietary intake. Results We found both before and after the introduction of the food and nutrient-based standards children consuming a school lunch, had a lower per cent energy from saturated fat (?0.5%; p?=?0.02), and a lower intake of sodium (?143 mg; p?=?0.02), and calcium (?81 mg; p?=?0.001) in their total diet, compared with children consuming a home-packed lunch. We found no evidence that lunch type was associated with mean energy, or absolute amounts of NSP, vitamin C and iron intake. There was marginal evidence of an association between lunch type and per cent energy NMES (p?=?0.06). In 1999–2000, children consuming a school lunch had a higher per cent energy from fat in their total diet compared with children consuming a home-packed lunch (2.8%), whereas by 2009–10, they had slightly less (?0.2%) (year by lunch type interaction p<0.001; change in mean differences ?3%). Conclusions We found limited evidence of an impact of the school food and nutrient-based standards on total diet among 11–12 year olds. Such policies may need to be supported by additional measures, including guidance on individual food choice, and the development of wider supportive environments in school and beyond the school gates. PMID:25409298
Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.
The aim of this study was to monitor exposure to heavy metal contaminants from habitual diets and to estimate the health risk\\u000a for the consumer by comparing the analyzed content with the acceptable daily intake (ADI). This study is based on the household\\u000a consumption as assessed by the National Institute of Statistics (INE) and our department. The number of food
Olga Moreiras; Carmen Cuadrado
Prediction of microbial CP (MCP) synthesis in the rumen is an integral part of the MP system. For the NRC beef model, MCP is calculated as 0.13 multiplied by TDN intake (TDNI), with adjustment for physically effective NDF (peNDF) concentrations less than 20%. Despite its application for nearly 2 decades, MCP predictions using this approach have not been extensively evaluated. We assembled a database of 285 treatment means from 66 published papers using beef cattle and dairy or dairy × beef crossbred steers, fed diets with a wide range of TDN, CP, and ether extract (EE) concentrations, in which MCP synthesis was measured. Fat-free TDN (FFTDN) concentration was calculated by subtracting 2.25 × percent EE from the TDN concentration. Based on initial model selection procedures indicating that DMI and concentrations of TDN, FFTDN, and CP were significantly (P < 0.04) related to MCP synthesis, linear and quadratic effects of TDNI and FFTDN intake (FFTDNI) and CP intake (CPI) were considered as potential independent variables. Mixed model regression methods were used to fit 1-, 2-, and 3-independent-variable models based on either TDNI or FFTDNI (e.g., TDNI only, TDNI and CPI, and TDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of TDNI; or FFTDNI only, FFTDNI and CPI, and FFTDNI, CPI, and the quadratic effect of FFTDNI). True ruminal OM digested (TROMD; g/d) was highly related (r(2) = 0.84 using citation-adjusted data) to MCP synthesis. Similarly, both TDNI and FFTDNI were highly related to citation-adjusted TROMD (r(2) > 0.96) and MCP synthesis (r(2) > 0.89). Models with FFTDNI were slightly more precise with slightly smaller prediction errors than those with TDNI. Randomly dividing the citations into Development (60%) and Evaluation (40%) data sets indicated that models such as those derived from the overall database accounted for 46 to 56% of the variation in MCP synthesis, with neither mean nor linear bias (P ? 0.26). In contrast, calculating MCP as 0.13 × TDNI, with or without adjustment for peNDF concentration, resulted in overprediction of MCP (P < 0.001 for both mean and linear bias). Cross-validation using 5,000 randomly drawn training and testing data sets yielded results similar to the Development/Evaluation approach. Recommended equations are provided, but the errors of prediction associated with these empirical regression equations were on the order of 25 to 30% of the mean MCP. PMID:25253815
Galyean, M L; Tedeschi, L O
In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n?=?385 in 2003-4; n?=?632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet. PMID:24205190
Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is one of the strongest risk factors of adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) including those with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment. One important determinant of PEW in this patient population is an inadequate amount of protein and energy intake. Compounding the problem are the many qualitative nutritional deficiencies that arise because of the altered dietary habits of dialysis patients. Many of these alterations are iatrogenically induced, and albeit well intentioned, they could induce unintended harmful effects. In order to determine the best possible diet in ESRD patients, one must first understand the complex interplay between the quantity and quality of nutrient intake in these patients, and their impact on relevant clinical outcomes. We review available studies examining the association of nutritional intake with clinical outcomes in ESRD, stressing the complicated and often difficult-to-study interrelationship between quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrient intake in nutritional epidemiology. The currently recommended higher protein intake of 1.2 g/kg/day may be associated with a higher phosphorus and potassium burden and with worsening hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia, whereas dietary control of phosphorus and potassium by restricting protein intake may increase the risk of PEW. We assess the relevance of associative studies by examining the biologic plausibility of underlying mechanisms of action and emphasize areas in need of further research. PMID:20557492
Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Shinaberger, Christian S.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar
Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500
Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.
Objective To document nutrient and food group serving intakes from food sources among Latina subgroups living in the same geographical area. Design A cross-sectional study. Nutrient and food group serving intakes were assessed by means of a 24 h recall administered immediately after a prenatal survey. Setting Hartford, CT, USA. Subjects A total of 233 low-income pregnant Latinas. For analyses, Latinas were classified into two groups on the basis of self-reported ethnic identity: Puerto Ricans and non-Puerto Rican Latinas. Results Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely than non-Puerto Rican Latinas to be more acculturated and to consume foods (i.e. processed meat, cheese, soft drinks) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fat, SFA, MUFA, trans fatty acids) that have been implicated in the development of chronic diseases. By contrast, non-Puerto Rican Latinas were more likely to consume foods (i.e. fruits, dark green/yellow vegetables, tomatoes, non-starchy vegetables) and higher levels of nutrients (i.e. fibre, vegetable protein, folate, ?-carotene) that promote health when compared with Puerto Rican Latinas. Conclusions Findings suggest that acculturation may play a role in dietary intake. Clinicians and dietitians need to be aware of these differences to encourage healthy eating patterns among more acculturated pregnant Latina clients. PMID:21729472
Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide. PMID:17521123
Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C
Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237
Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.
This cross-sectional study examined the physical status, nutrient intake and dietary pattern of adolescent female factory workers in urban Bangladesh. A total of 1211 postmenarchial girls aged 14-19y from seventeen readymade garment industries spread over the Dhaka City participated in the study. Body weight, height and skin fold thickness were measured for all subjects. The nutrient intake was assessed by
Moududur Rahman Khan; Faruk Ahmed
Objective:To measure the types and quantities of energy-dense, nutrient-poor ‘extra’ foods consumed by Australian children and adolescents and their contribution to total energy and nutrient intakes.Design, setting and subjects:We used data from 3007 children, aged 2–18 years, who participated in the nationally representative 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Intake was determined by 24-h recall and ‘extra’ foods were defined using principles
A M Rangan; D Randall; D J Hector; T P Gill; K L Webb
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059
Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.
The main objective of this descriptive study was to determine the energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes as well as the dietary supplement use of female 2002 US national elite synchronized skaters. One hundred twenty-two female synchronized skaters (mean age = 15.7 ± 2.4 years) from the 2002 US national synchronized skating teams participated in the study. Nutrient intakes were determined
Paula J. Ziegler; Satya S. Jonnalagadda
OBJECTIVE: To report micronutrient intakes in Northern Ireland schoolchildren, and to establish the contribution of fortified breakfast cereal to overall nutrient intakes and achievement of current dietary recommendations. DESIGN: Analysis of dietary intakes and physical characteristics of participants in a randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years in Northern Ireland during the 1990/1 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dietary intakes, physical characteristics, and their association with consumption of fortified breakfast cereal. RESULTS: Mean micronutrient intakes were generally adequate with the exception of low intakes of folate (boys and girls) and iron (girls). Fortified breakfast cereals, consumed by a high proportion (94% boys; 83% girls) of the sample, were associated with higher daily intakes of most micronutrients and fibre and with a macronutrient profile consistent with current nutritional recommendations. Appreciable proportions of subjects who did not consume fortified breakfast cereals had daily intakes that fell below the lower reference nutrient intake for riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-12, and iron (girls). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of fortification in contributing to micronutrient intakes of schoolchildren, particularly where requirements are high, or for those on marginal diets of low nutritional quality. PMID:9014598
McNulty, H; Eaton-Evans, J; Cran, G; Woulahan, G; Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Fletcher, R; Strain, J J
Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549
Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L
To assess adequacy of nutrient intakes of Guatemalans from the study on Cross-Cultural Research on Nutrition of Older Subjects (CRONOS), we applied three sets of nutrients recommendations: the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), the Food and Agriculture Organization and Wor...
Medical nutrition therapy for the management of diabetes plays an important role in preventing diabetes complications and managing metabolic control. However, little is known about actual eating habits of individuals with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), especially in Japan. Therefore, we sought to (1) assess the dietary intake of individuals with T2DM, and (2) characterize their intake relative to national recommendations. This cross-sectional study involved 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) aged 40–79 years with T2DM recruited at a Kyoto hospital. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Under-consumption, adequacy, and over-consumption, of nutrients were compared to the age- and sex-based standards of the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes. Among the results, most notable are (1) the inadequacy of diets in men with respect to intake of vitamins and minerals, likely owing to low intake of vegetables and fruits; (2) excess contributions of fat intake to total energy in both sexes; and (3) excess consumption of sweets and beverages relative to the national average. The prevalence of diabetes complications may be increasing because of a major gap between the typical dietary intake of individuals with T2DM and dietary recommendation. PMID:23803740
Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hattori, Mikako; Wada, Sayori; Iwase, Hiroya; Kadono, Mayuko; Tatsumi, Hina; Kuwahata, Masashi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Kido, Yasuhiro
Receipt of food stamps is often observed to be positively correlated with intake of nutrients. However, this observed fact could be the result of self-selection into the food stamp program by those individuals who are more interested in maintaining good nutrition. The authors observe that, controlling for participation in the food stamp program, nutrition is negatively affected by food stamp
J. S. Butler; Jennie E. Raymond
The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on the value of the methods used to assess dietary patterns for measuring nutrient intake adequacy in the population. Systematic review on Pubmed database up to April 2008. The search included specific key words and MeSH terms. No language limit was set. Only studies that compared food patterns with nutrient intake adequacy or nutrient biomarkers were included in the analysis. The search resulted in 1504 articles. The inclusion and exclusion criteria limited the selection to thirty articles. Nineteen studies evaluated the usefulness of the dietary patterns, either a priori defined (thirteen studies), or defined by factor analysis (four studies) or by cluster analysis (two studies), but only nine of them tested their validity (four a priori defined and four a posteriori defined). Diet indices showed moderate to good validity results for measuring the adequacy of intakes for alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin B6, Ca, folic acid, Fe and Mg. The factor analysis approach showed moderate to good validity correlations with the adequacy of intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Vitamin B12 and vitamin E are the micronutrients with less probability of being adequately assessed with dietary patterns a priori or a posteriori defined. Diet indices are tools with fair to moderate validity to assess micronutrient intake adequacy. PMID:19594960
Román-Viñas, Blanca; Ribas Barba, Lourdes; Ngo, Joy; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Serra-Majem, Lluís
Background Because human diets are composed of a wide variety of nutrients that may work synergistically to prevent or promote disease, assessing dietary nutrient intake status may be informative. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary nutrient intake status of Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to evaluate its possible role in MetS. Methods This case–control study was conducted from March 2010 to January 2011. A total of 123 patients with MetS and 135 controls participated in this study at the Health Examination Center of Heping District in Tianjin, China. Dietary intake was estimated by 24-h dietary recalls. We used principal component factor analysis to derive nutrient groups from 17 major nutrients. We examined the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression models to test the relationship between tertiles of dietary nutrient pattern and MetS. Results There were 4 major dietary nutrient patterns in this study: “vitamin B group”, “protein and lipids”, “vitamin E and minerals”, and “antioxidant vitamins”. After adjustment for potential confounders, the highest tertile of the nutrient pattern factor score for the “vitamin B group” (odds ratio: 0.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.47) was negatively associated with MetS compared with the lowest tertiles. No relationships were found between other dietary nutrient patterns and MetS. Conclusions The “vitamin B group” pattern was inversely associated with MetS in Chinese adults. This finding supports the hypothesis that the “vitamin B group” pattern may have a potentially beneficial effect on the prevention of MetS. PMID:23898830
OBJECTIVES: This study examined US trends in nutrient intake, using almost identical methods and nutrient databases in two time periods. METHODS: An extensive dietary intake questionnaire was included in supplements to the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys. Dietary data from approximately 11,000 persons in each of those years were analyzed. RESULTS: The total and saturated fat intake and the percentage of energy from fat declined among Whites and Hispanics, but only minimal changes were seen in Black Americans. The changes in fat intake were attributable principally to behavioral changes in frequency and type of fat-containing foods consumed rather than to the increased availability of leaner cuts of meat. Dietary cholesterol showed one of the largest declines of the nutrients examined. Less desirable changes were also seen. Cereal fortification played an important role in the observed changes in several micronutrients. CONCLUSIONS: Educational campaigns on dietary fat and cholesterol have been moderately effective, but not in all racial/ethnic groups. Future campaigns should emphasize maintaining or increasing micronutrient intake. PMID:9184499
Norris, J; Harnack, L; Carmichael, S; Pouane, T; Wakimoto, P; Block, G
/Potassium Ratio . . 17 Measurement of Dietary Quality 18 Measures of Drug Use and Nutrient Intake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Measures of Alcohol Use, Energy Intake, and Biochemical Factors. . . . . 19 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) RESULTS Physical... Characteristics . Nutrient Intake and Diet Composition . . Recommended Dietary Allowances Calcium/Magnesium Ratio . Sodium/Potassium Ratio . Food and Food Group Data Quartile Analysis Dietary Quality . Drug Use and Nutrient Data Alcohol Intake...
Gorham, Michele Kathleen
This report presents national estimates of usual nutrient intake distributions from food for 24 nutrients and dietary components and compares those estimates to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine. Data are based on 8,940 individuals ages 1 year and older (excluding...
The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007-2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ? 4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs. PMID:24132571
Murphy, Mary M; Spungen, Judith H; Barraj, Leila M; Bailey, Regan L; Dwyer, Johanna T
Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (n = 4552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were associated independently with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): alpha-carotene (OR = 0.96), selenium (OR = 0.80), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.91), calcium (OR = 0.83) and hexadecanoic acid (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleep maintenance difficulties included: salt (OR = 1.19), butanoic acid (0.81), carbohydrate (OR = 0.71), dodecanoic acid (OR = 0.90), vitamin D (OR = 0.84), lycopene (OR = 0.98), hexanoic acid (OR = 1.25) and moisture (OR = 1.27). Nutrients that were associated independently with non-restorative sleep included butanoic acid (OR = 1.09), calcium (OR = 0.81), vitamin C (OR = 0.92), water (OR = 0.98), moisture (OR = 1.41) and cholesterol (OR = 1.10). Nutrients that were associated independently with sleepiness included: moisture (OR = 1.20), theobromine (OR = 1.04), potassium (OR = 0.70) and water (OR = 0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533
Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R; Knutson, Kristen L
Sleep symptoms are associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic disease. The potential role of diet has been largely unexplored. Data from the 2007–2008 NHANES were used (N=4,552) to determine which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms in a nationally-representative sample. Survey items assessed difficulty falling asleep, sleep maintenance difficulties, non-restorative sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Analyses were adjusted for energy intake, other dietary factors, exercise, BMI and sociodemographics. Population-weighted, logistic regression, with backwards-stepwise selection, examined which nutrients were associated with sleep symptoms. Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the difference in odds of sleep symptoms associated with a doubling in nutrient. Nutrients that were independently associated with difficulty falling asleep included (in order): Alpha-Carotene (OR=0.96), Selenium (OR=0.80), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.91), Calcium (OR=0.83), and Hexadecanoic Acid (OR=1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleep maintenance difficulties included: Salt (OR=1.19), Butanoic Acid (0,81), Carbohydrate (OR=0.71), Dodecanoic Acid (OR=0.90), Vitamin D (OR=0.84),, Lycopene (OR=0.98), Hexanoic Acid (OR= 1.25), and Moisture (OR=1.27). Nutrients that were independently associated with non-restorative sleep included Butanoic Acid (OR=1.09), Calcium (OR=0.81), Vitamin C (OR=0.92), Water (OR=0.98), Moisture (OR= 1.41), and Cholesterol (OR= 1.10). Nutrients that were independently associated with sleepiness included: Moisture (OR=1.20), Theobromine (OR=1.04), Potassium (OR= 0.70), Water (OR=0.97). These results suggest novel associations between sleep symptoms and diet/metabolism, potentially explaining associations between sleep and cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23992533
Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.
This study aimed to assess dietary intake and nutrient adequacy in pregnant women selected from an agricultural region of Morocco. On a sample of 172 pregnant women from rural and urban area, data on socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits by a quantified food frequency were collected using questionnaires. Mean daily intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated and compared to reference nutrient intakes (RNI). The results show that the mean daily intakes of energy (3110.9 kcal in urban; 2707.5 kcal in rural) and some nutrients were adequate. However, iron, folate, zinc and calcium intakes were inadequate for the majority of women and more markedly in rural area. Education level appeared to affect nutrient intakes while no differences were registered across pregnancy stages or according to household size. The study suggests that an education program should be conducted to improve dietary intakes in order to prevent risks for pregnancy outcome in this population. PMID:16849111
Belgnaoui, Salwa; Belahsen, Rekia
National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507
Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L
National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507
Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.
Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…
Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker
Adequate nutrition is critically important for the achievement of the adolescent athlete's optimal performance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of macro- and micro-nutrients in the adolescent Greek female volleyball players' diet. The subjects of the study consisted of 16 players who were members of the Junior National Team (NP) and 49 players who participated in the Junior National Championship (CP). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Protein intake (16.0 +/- 4.9% of total energy intake) was satisfactory, whereas fat consumption (37.5 +/- 11.1%) was above recommended values and at the expense of carbohydrate intake (45.9 +/- 12.5%). There were no significant differences between NP and CP concerning the intake of macronutrients, except for the fat intake (when this is expressed in grams per day and grams per kilogram of body weight and the saturated fat intake, which were both higher in NP compared to CP players (p < .05). The mean energy intake was 2,013 +/- 971 and 1,529 +/- 675 kcal for NP and CP, respectively (p < .05). NP, in particular, consumed fat and especially saturated fatin orderto meet their energy needs. As for micronutrients, the volleyball players fell short of meeting the RDA values for calcium, iron, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, and vitamins A, B, B, and B2. There was no difference between NP and CP in micronutrient intake. In conclusion, subjects in the current study lacked proper nutrition in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:11993624
Papadopoulou, Souzana K; Papadopoulou, Sophia D; Gallos, George K
Usual Intake of Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes Table A29. Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%
Usual Intake of Total vegetables including beans and peas Table A6. Total vegetables including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total protein foods excluding beans and peas Table A21. Total protein foods excluding beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total protein from beans and peas (legumes) Table A32. Total protein from beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total vegetables excluding beans and peas Table A7. Total vegetables excluding beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas Table A20. Total protein foods including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total red and orange vegetables Table A9. Total red and orange vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95%
Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Table A22. Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%
Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood Table A23. Total meat, poultry, and seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90%
Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...
Inconsistent research findings have led to continued debate over the potential associations between 100% juice consumption (JC), nutrient intake,and weight in children. The objective is to investigate the associations between JC, nutrient intake, and weight in children. Children 2 to 11 years of a...
The purpose of this article is to report on baseline intakes of 1874 third-grade children representing a subsample of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) cohort. Intakes were assessed using a single, food record-assisted, 24-hour recall. The sample is unique in that it is drawn from four states and includes students from various ethnic backgrounds. Nutrients of interest include total energy, sodium, dietary cholesterol, and percent of energy from total fat and saturated fat. At baseline, third-grade students were consuming above nationally recommended levels of energy from fat, saturated fat, and sodium. The CATCH findings show a mean energy intake of 2031 kcal with significant differences by sex. Significant differences by site were seen for percent of energy from total fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol. Children from Minnesota consumed the lowest proportion of energy from total fat and saturated fat while children from Texas had the highest proportion of energy from total fat and saturated fat. Intake of dietary cholesterol was lowest in Minnesota and highest in Louisiana. Nutrient differences by ethnic group were seen only for energy, with African Americans having the highest energy intake and Hispanics having the lowest energy intake. The number of meals consumed from school food service significantly influenced children's nutrient, intake; children consuming two meals from school food service had significantly greater intakes of energy, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol compared to students consuming one or no meals from school food-service. The results are compared to other national nutritional surveys of children. PMID:18160975
Lytle, Leslie A; Eszery, Mary Kay; Nicklas, Theresa; Montgomery, Deanna; Zive, Michelle; Evans, Marguerite; Snyder, Patricia; Nichaman, Milton; Kelder, Steven H; Reed, Debra; Busch, Ellen; Mitchell, Paul
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (p < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (p < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential.
Han, Youngshin; Lee, Youngmi; Park, Haeryun; Park, Sunyoung
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...
Objective As women age total dietary intake falls which may increase the risk of dietary deficiencies in some individuals. The aims\\u000a of this study were to investigate the changes in nutrient and dietary intakes that occurred with aging in a seven-year longitudinal\\u000a study of elderly Australian women and to evaluate the adequacy of their dietary intakes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Longitudinal population based study on
K. Zhu; A. Devine; A. Suleska; C. Y. Tan; C. Z. J. Toh; D. Kerr; R. L. Prince
In order to study nutrient intake of amateur runners during a mountain marathon, compliance with recommendations, and association with performance, an intake of 42 participants in a Swiss mountain marathon was assessed by direct observation. Data on demographics, dietary preparation and race experience were obtained by questionnaires. Anthropometrical measures were performed before and after the race. Mean hourly intakes (SD)
Maaike Kruseman; Sophie Bucher; Mélanie Bovard; Bengt Kayser; Patrick A. Bovier
Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P < 0.01) in the median ADG categories of pigs at the end of the experiment. Energy intake increased with increasing WW (P < 0.001; NE intake = 1.40, 1.64, and 1.89 Mcal/d for pigs from the LWW, MWW, and HWW, respectively). However, the ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P < 0.001) energy intake, utilization, and efficiency for gain, energy retained as tissue, and retained GE. The calculated to actual ME intake ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues for more directed pig management strategies in the future to minimize variation within a group. PMID:24671585
Jones, C K; Patience, J F
Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%);
Gyorgy Bodoky; Michael M. Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; Alessandro Laviano
Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrient intakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrient intake data (n = 725 at 6–8 months, n = 535 at 15–18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrient intake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6–8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6–8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition. PMID:23016125
Smithers, Lisa G.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Brazionis, Laima; Emmett, Pauline; Northstone, Kate; Lynch, John W.
Fifteen male Murrah buffalo calves (15-18 months, 227.98?±?4.44 kg body weight) were distributed randomly in to three equal groups and fed solely on either berseem (G1), oats (G2), or chicory fodder (G3). A digestibility trial followed by methane measurement using SF6 tracer technique was conducted. No significant difference was observed in nutrient intake; however, crude protein (CP) intake was lower in G2 (0.35 kg) than G1 (0.7) and in G3 (0.71) and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC), and neutral detergent insoluble CP (NDICP) intake was significantly (p?0.05) higher in G3 (1.54 and 0.31 kg) followed by G2 (1.27 and 0.2 kg) and G1 (1.06 and 0.18 kg). The digestible dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and ether extract intake was similar in all the groups, whereas the digestible CP and NFC intake was lower in G2 compared to G1 and G3. Chicory- and berseem-fed groups emitted 12.2 and 5.2 % less methane than oats-fed group. However, no significant difference was observed in the absolute methane loss and methane loss as percentage of energy intake (p?>?0.05) among the groups. There was positive correlation between nutrient intake and total methane production. However, an inverse relationship was observed between total digestible carbohydrate intake and methane production (g/kg dry matter intake). The following regression equations were developed to estimate methane production: methane (g/kg BW) = 128.8553 + (167.7456 × dNDFI) + (216.32 × dCPI) - (40.3313 × dNFCI) and methane (g/d) = -1.7494 + (41.42 × NDFI) + (39.8686 × CPI) + (0.5197 × NFCI). PMID:23857630
Prusty, Sonali; Mohini, Madhu; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Kumar, Ajay; Datt, Chander
Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...
Background. In maintenance haemodialysis patients, daily food intake is changeable; however, its relation- ship with nutritional status is unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the isolated, long-term effect of daily nutrient intake on nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We performed a prospective 1-year con- trolled study in 27 chronic haemodialysis patients, without recognized risk factors for malnutrition. Each day
Vincenzo Bellizzi; Biagio R. Di Iorio; Vincenzo Terracciano; Roberto Minutolo; Carmela Iodice; Luca De Nicola; Giuseppe Conte
The sustainability of dietary plant and animal protein consumption is an important issue, but few data are available to ascertain the health-related impact of animal and plant protein intake. The objective was to study the relationships between animal and plant protein intake and diet quality, as reflected by an integrated index of nutrient adequacy. Using data on 1912 adults from the French Individual and National Consumption Survey 2 (2006-2007), we assessed diet quality by using the PANDiet, a unique score combining 35 probabilities of having an adequate nutrient intake, and used multiple regression analysis to study the relationship with intakes of plant, animal, and related food source proteins. After adjustments for intakes of energy, alcohol, and protein from other sources and sociodemographic factors, plant protein intake was positively associated with the PANDiet, irrespective of sex (? = 0.50, P < 0.0001). By contrast, total and animal protein intakes were differently associated with the PANDiet according to sex, with a positive association in women (? = 0.07 and ? = 0.08, respectively; P < 0.01) and an inverse association in men (? = -0.07 and ? = -0.05, respectively; P < 0.01). The relationships between the PANDiet and intakes of protein from animal food sources varied: for instance, associations were inverse for red meat and poultry in men but not in women, whereas irrespective of sex, they were positive for fish, milk, and yogurt and inverse for processed meat, cheese, and eggs. These findings show that plant protein is a robust marker of a healthy diet, whereas total animal protein includes different subtypes of animal protein that largely vary in their relationship with diet quality. These data could help refine protein recommendations from a qualitative and dietary standpoint. PMID:23864509
Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Huneau, Jean-François; Carpentier, Florence; Dubuisson, Carine; Mariotti, François
The present study provides the dietary intakes of macro elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) from the Italian total diet. The contribution of the most representative food groups of the total diet (cereals and cereal products, vegetables, fruit, milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish) to the daily intakes of these nutrients was also evaluated. The Italian total diet was formulated following the 'market-basket' approach. Cereals represented the primary sources of Cu (35 %), Fe (30 %) and Mg (27 %). About 89 % of the total daily intake of Fe was derived from plant foods. The vegetables food group was the main source of dietary K (27 %). Most of the Ca (59 %) and P (27 %) was derived from the milk-and-dairy food group. Of the dietary Zn, 41 % was provided by meat, which, together with the fish food group, was the primary source of Se (20 %). The adequacy of the Italian total diet with respect to nutritional elements was assessed by comparing the daily intakes with the average requirement values of the Italian recommended dietary allowances. The present findings indicated that the dietary patterns of the Italian total diet were generally consistent with current Italian dietary recommendations for both macro and trace elements. The major concern was for Ca, for which daily intake was 76 % of the average recommendation for the Italian population. It should not be ruled out that there could be a potential risk of inadequate Fe intake in some segments of the population. PMID:14641971
Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Aguzzi, Altero; Cappelloni, Marsilio; Di Lullo, Giuseppe; Lucarini, Massimo
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition of altered vaginal flora, is associated with various adverse reproductive health outcomes. We evaluated the association between diet and the presence of BV in a subset of 1521 women (86% African-American) from a larger study of vaginal flora. Participants completed the Block Food Questionnaire and clinical assessments and self-report measures of sexual and hygiene behavior. A total of 42% of the women were classified as having BV (Nugent score ?7). Severe BV (Nugent score ?9 and vaginal pH ?5) was present in 14.9% of the women. BV was associated [adjusted OR (AOR)] with increased dietary fat (1.5, 1.1–2.4) after adjusting for other energy nutrients and behavioral and demographic covariates. Severe BV was associated with total fat (2.3, 1.3–4.3), saturated fat (2.1, 1.2–3.9), and monounsaturated fat (2.2, 1.2–4.1). Energy intake was only marginally associated (P = 0.05) with BV (1.4, 1.0–1.8). There were significant inverse associations between severe BV and intakes of folate (0.4, 0.2–0.8), vitamin E (0.4, 0.2–0.8), and calcium (0.4, 0.3–0.7). We conclude that increased dietary fat intake is associated with increased risk of BV and severe BV, whereas increased intake of folate, vitamin A, and calcium may decrease the risk of severe BV. PMID:17709453
Neggers, Yasmin H.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Andrews, William W.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Yu, Kai-fun; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.
We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the intake of energy, macronutrients, fiber, sodium and iron and the anthropometric status of infants and toddlers living in North (Milano) and South Italy (Catania). Nutrient intake was evaluated using a 7-day weighed food record. Out of 400 planned children aged 6 to 36 months, 390 (98%) were recruited, 189 in Milano and 201 in Catania. The mean (standard deviation) age was 17 (9) months in Milano and 17 (10) months in Catania. Anthropometry, energy intake and macronutrient intake were similar in Milano and Catania. However, iron intake was 27% lower and fiber intake 16% higher in Milano than in Catania. Despite normal anthropometry and energy intake, in the pooled sample there was a high intake of proteins, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats and sodium, and a low intake of iron and fiber compared to Italian reference values. This is the first study to report the macro- and micro-nutrient intake of children aged <12 months using the 7-day weighed food record and one of the very few studies that have employed such reference method in children from the general population. PMID:25111122
Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cassatella, Cristina; Morelli, Ambra; Cucugliato, Maria Cristina; Catinello, Giuseppina; del Balzo, Valeria; Guidarelli, Lucia; Agostoni, Carlo; Mameli, Chiara; Troiano, Ersilia; Bedogni, Giorgio
Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients. PMID:18328409
Fernández-Estívariz, Concepción; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.
Estimating the risk associated with dietary intake of heavy metals by consumers is a vital and integral part of regulatory processes. The assessment of exposure to mercury shown in this paper has been performed by means of a study on the whole diet. Total mercury (Hg) levels were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 420 samples of regularly consumed food and drink. The total Hg concentrations measured in the different groups of food ranged from non-detectable to 119 microg kg(-1) w/w. The fish group had the highest concentrations of total Hg. All groups of food with regulated Hg content showed levels that were lower than the legally set values. The food consumption data used in the analysis were taken from the latest nutritional survey made in the Canary Islands, Spain. The estimated total Hg intake of local population (5.7 microg/person day(-1)) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) limit of 0.3 mg week(-1) of total mercury (43 microg/person day(-1)) fixed by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Fishery products contributed 96% of the total Hg intake. The mean Hg intake for each island in this archipelago, formed by seven, has also been calculated. Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and El Hierro are the islands with the highest level of Hg intake (7.0, 7,0 and 6.1 microg/person day(-1), respectively). La Palma Island, due to its low fish consumption, had the lowest level of Hg intake (4.5 microg/person day(-1)), followed by La Gomera (5.4 microg/person day(-1)), Tenerife (5.5 microg/person day(-1)) and Gran Canaria (5.6 microg/person day(-1)). A comparison has been made of the results obtained in this study with those found for other national and international communities. PMID:18629690
Rubio, C; Gutiérrez, A; Burgos, A; Hardisson, A
Assignment of nutrient values to food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) items does not usually account for participant characteristics (besides age or sex) that may influence eating patterns. For the Southern Community Cohort Study, the authors developed and assessed results from a nutrient database system incorporating sex-, race-, and census-region-specific food lists, using 24-hour recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, NHANES 1999–2000, NHANES 2001–2002, and NHANES 2003–2004) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals that permitted estimation of nutrients tailored to participants’ characteristics. For each of 15 nutrients, comparisons were made to a “standard” nutrient scoring system based on nationwide race-blind 24-hour recalls from these same sources. Using FFQ data from 67,926 Southern Community Cohort Study participants (47,038 African-American, 20,888 non-Hispanic white) aged 40–79 years who enrolled in the study during 2002–2008, the region- and race-informed system tended to produce increased estimated intake for most nutrients for black women, particularly for saturated fat (7.1%), monounsaturated fat (8.3%), and polyunsaturated fat (7.2%); smaller but significant changes (<5%) were also observed for nutrient intake for men and white women. These types of refinements in nutrient databases can be considered a means of enhancing the accuracy of dietary estimation using FFQs. PMID:19451177
Munro, Heather M.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Schlundt, David G.; Cohen, Sarah S.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.
Objective Case control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary intake of specific nutrients and risk of congenital, neonatal or early childhood disease require the ability to rank relative maternal dietary intake during pregnancy. Such studies are limited by the lack of validated instruments for assessing gestational dietary intake several years post-partum. This study aims to validate a semi-quantitative interview-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for retrospectively estimating nutrient intake at two critical time points during pregnancy. Methods The FFQ was administered to women (N=84), who 4 to 6 years earlier had participated in a prospective study to evaluate dietary intake during pregnancy. The FFQ queried participants about intake during the previous month (FFQ-month). This was then used as a reference point to estimate consumption by trimester (FFQ-pregnancy). The resulting data were compared to data collected during the original study from two 24-hour recalls (24hr-original) using Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon sign-rank-test. Results Total energy intake as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments did not differ and was only weakly correlated in the trimesters (1st & 3rd) as a whole (r = 0.18-32), though more strongly correlated when restricted to the first half of the 1st trimester (r=0.32) and later half of the 3rd trimester (r=0.87). After energy adjustment, correlation between the 24hR-original and FFQ-pregnancy in the 3rd trimester were r=0.25 (p<0.05) for dietary intake of vitamin A, and r=0.26 (p<0.05) for folate, and r= 0.23-0.77 (p<0.005) for folate, and vitamins A, B6 and B12 in the 1st and 3rd trimester after including vitamin supplement intake. Conclusions The FFQ-pregnancy provides a consistent estimate of maternal intake of key micronutrients during pregnancy and permits accurate ranking of intake 4-6 years post-partum. PMID:22116778
Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Orjuela, Manuela A.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado David; Neufeld, Lynnette M.
Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed
N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham
This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
Background and objective:To provide an overview of methods used to assess food and nutrient intake, nutritional knowledge and diet-related attitudes in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS), with selected results from the feasibility study.Material and Methods:To assess food intake in 13- to 16-year-old adolescents, a previously developed computer-assisted and self-administered 24-h recall was adapted
M Kersting; W Sichert-Hellert; C A Vereecken; J Diehl; L Béghin; S De Henauw; E Grammatikaki; Y Manios; M I Mesana; A Papadaki; K Phillipp; M Plada; E Poortvliet; S Sette
Substantial number of elderly people suffer from poor mastication, which is considered to have a detrimental effect on their dietary habits. However, the association between mastication and diet is far from conclusive. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the community dwelling elderly. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scirus databases to obtain information on the epidemiological studies in this research area. The included publications were analyzed for study design, main conclusions, and strength of evidence. A comprehensive quality assessment of all the included studies (28 cross-sectional and 7 intervention studies) was performed. In 22 of the 28 cross-sectional studies, elderly persons with better mastication and dentition reported significantly higher consumption of foods and intake of some nutrients than those with poorer oral health; however, the remaining studies showed no such differences. Five of the 7 intervention studies with an intervention involving the provision of new prostheses did not show significant improvement in food and/or nutrient intake. These discrepant findings suggest that masticatory ability explains only part of the variance in food and nutrient intake of the elderly. Two intervention studies with the combination of prosthetic treatment and dietary intervention produced changes in intake of foods such as fruits and vegetables. PMID:25179444
Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko
The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p < 0.05) in Group High RFI, whereas digestibility of all nutrients except crude protein and ether extract was significantly higher in Group Low RFI. Nitrogen balance was also significantly higher in Group Low RFI (20.2 g/d) than in Group High RFI (17.0 g/d). Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p < 0.05). Compared with Group High RFI, the CH4 emission of Group Low RFI was significantly lower (on the basis g/d and g/kg DMI by 11% and 19%, respectively). Furthermore, the CH4 emission [g/d] was significantly correlated with RFI (r = 0.77). Because higher feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions. PMID:25156936
Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M
Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods. PMID:22304829
Objective To investigate factors associated with maternal diet during pregnancy and rank these in order of influence using data from\\u000a a prospective cohort of 196 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 35 years of mostly European origin. Methods Anthropometric measurements were taken, questionnaires administered and 16 days of weighed diet intakes recorded, eight in\\u000a the fourth and eight in the seventh month
Patricia E. Watson; Barry W. McDonald
The influence of alternate bearing on nutrient utilization and total tree nutrient content was investigated in mature pistachio\\u000a (Pistacia vera L. cv Kerman trees). Removal of N, P and Zn in fruit and abscised leaves of cropping (‘on’) trees averaged 5, 6, and 2 times,\\u000a respectively, the removal in abscised leaflets of the non-fruiting, ‘off’ year trees. One hundred and
Patrick H. Brown; Steven A. Weinbaum; Geno A. Picchioni
Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24?h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables. PMID:24681104
Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia
Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…
Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda
Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...
Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…
Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling
The analytically-based Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database-Release One (DSID-1) was recently released to the scientific community and made publicly available through a web site hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Complete information on nutrient intake from both foods and dietary supplem...
Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...
The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in Korean male collegians as related to smoking situation. One hundred sixty one young adult males at the age of 20-26 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: non smoker (n=42), light smoker (n=34), moderate smoker
Yun-Jung Bae; Hye-Kyung Cho; Mi-Hyun Kim
It is well established that dietary restriction, which involves limiting nutrient intake below restriction does not affect all types of cancer similarly4 , raising questions about the generality of its mutations that activated the enzyme PI3K, a key component ofthe insulin signalling pathway
Objective: The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8?kg?m?2) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0?kg?m?2) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured. Results: While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004?kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P?0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2% P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9% P<0.001) and protein (18.6% vs 17.5%, P?0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9?g) were significantly lower (P<0.001). Dietary glycaemic load (GL) was also lower in T2DM (120.8 vs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls. Conclusion: Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain intake and the substitution of monounsaturated for saturated-fat sources, in energy balanced conditions. PMID:24492470
Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D
The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed >/= Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604
Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok; Driskell, Judy A
Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on the natural vegetation. This management strategy therefore appears to be a valuable alternative to intensive livestock feeding in zero-grazing systems and may contribute to sustainable livestock production in ecologically fragile, semi-arid mountain regions. PMID:22445414
Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E
Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors. PMID:20863408
The present study evaluated how applying different dietary methods affects risk assessment of inadequate intakes at the population level. A pooled analysis was conducted using data from two Spanish regional representative surveys both applying similar methodology with a total sample of 2615 individuals aged 12-80. Diet was assessed in the entire sample applying data from one 24 h recall (24HR), a mean of two non-consecutive 24HR, both crude and adjusted for intraindividual variability, and a FFQ. Intakes of vitamins A, C, E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, Fe, Mg, P and Zn were compared to the average nutrient requirement (ANR or estimated average requirement) in the entire sample and also excluding under-reporters applying the ANR cut-point method (and the probability approach for Fe). Higher percentages of intakes below the ANR were seen for 1-24HR and the mean of 2-24HR, except for nutrients with the highest rates of inadequacy (vitamins A, E, folate and Mg). For these micronutrients, higher percentages of inadequacy were obtained by adjusted 24HR data and the lowest with FFQ. For the remaining nutrients, adjusted data gave the lowest inadequacy percentages. The best concordance was seen between 2-24HR and 1-24HR as well as for adjusted 24HR, with the least observed between FFQ and the other methods. Exclusion of under-reporters considerably reduced inadequacy in both daily methods and FFQ. Crude daily data gave higher estimates of inadequate intakes than adjusted data or FFQ. Reproducibility of daily methods was also reasonably good. Results may differ depending on the micronutrient thus impeding reaching conclusions/recommendations common for all micronutrients. PMID:19594966
Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; García-Alvarez, Alicia
The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781
Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M
Poor dietary habits among drug addicts represent health hazards. However, very few studies have focused on dietary intake as an independent health risk factor in relation to this group. The objective of the present study was to examine the dietary habits of drug addicts living on the fringes of an affluent society. The study focused on food access, food preferences, intake of energy and nutrients, and related nutrient blood concentrations. The respondent group consisted of 123 male and seventy-two female drug addicts, who participated in a cross-sectional study that included a 24 h dietary recall, blood samples, anthropometrical measurements and a semi-structured interview concerning food access and preferences. Daily energy intake varied from 0 to 37 MJ. Food received from charitable sources and friends/family had a higher nutrient density than food bought by the respondents. Added sugar accounted for 30 % of the energy intake, which was mirrored in biomarkers. Sugar and sugar-sweetened food items were preferred by 61 % of the respondents. Of the respondents, 32 % had a TAG concentration above the reference values, while 35 % had a cholesterol concentration beneath the reference values. An elevated serum Cu concentration indicated inflammation among the respondents. Further research on problems related to the diets of drug addicts should focus on dietary habits and aim to uncover connections that may reinforce inebriation and addiction. PMID:20880416
Saeland, M; Haugen, M; Eriksen, F-L; Wandel, M; Smehaugen, A; Böhmer, T; Oshaug, A
Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B(2) (riboflavin), vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest that maternal intake of these nutrients during gestation may also have an impact on the risk of cancer in offspring later in life. Given the plasticity of DNA methylation in the developing embryo and the established role of one-carbon metabolism in supporting biological methylation reactions, it is plausible that alterations in maternal one-carbon nutrient availability might induce subtle epigenetic changes in the developing embryo and fetus that persist into later life, altering the risk of tumorigenesis throughout the lifespan. This review summarizes the current literature on maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and offspring cancer risk, with an emphasis on cancers of the colon and breast, and discusses specific epigenetic modifications that may play a role in their pathogenesis. PMID:21967157
Ciappio, Eric D; Mason, Joel B; Crott, Jimmy W
Several studies have reported that heavy metals have a relation with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. In this study, we investigated the association between heavy metal exposure status, as assessed by serum major heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) and bone mineral density (BMD) status among Korean adults. A total of 64 adults participated in this study and were assigned to one of three study groups based on the T-score of spine BMD: a normal group (n = 21, T-score > -1), osteopenia group (n = 29, -2.5 < T-score ? -1) and osteoporosis group (n = 14, T-score ? -2.5). We also assessed serum levels of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) and daily nutrient and food intakes for 3 days by using 24-hr recall method in the subjects. The mean age was significantly higher in the osteoporosis group compared with the osteopenia and normal groups (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in serum levels of Pb, Cd and Hg among the three groups after adjusting for age. Daily intakes of energy, nutrients were not significantly different among the three groups. The osteoporosis group consumed significantly higher fish and shellfish than the other groups (p < 0.05). In the correlation analysis controlling for age, sex, BMI, and BMD status, the serum Cd level was significantly negatively correlated with intake of cereals, milks and total food. In summary, we did not find a direct association between serum heavy metal levels and BMD status. However, negative relationships were found between serum heavy metal levels and intake of some foods. PMID:23431122
Kang, Myung-Hwa; Park, Seung-Mi; Oh, Doo-Nam; Choi, Mi-Kyeong
Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?0.001) due to energy provided by complementary foods (321 vs. 190 Kcal, p?0.001) and milk (363 vs. 301 Kcal, p?=?0.007). Non-breastfed infants had also higher intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789
THE INFLUENCE OF RANGE SITE ON DIET SELECTION, NUTRIENT INTERN, AND GRAZING BEHAVIOR OF CATTLE A Thesis KAREN LYNN HASTEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of EASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Hajor Subject: Range Science THE INFLUENCE OF RANGE SITE ON DIET SELECTION, NUTRIENT INTAKE, AND GRAZING BEHlLVIOR OF CATTLE A Thesis by KAREN hYNN HASTED Approved as to style and content by: er W. S ( ai f...
Mastel, Karen Lynn
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939
García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of urea-treated fibrous diets on the intake, nutrient digestibility, performance and haematological parameters of Yankasa rams. A total of 48 Yankasa rams (BW 10.00 ± 1.50 kg; 6-8 months old) were allocated into four treatment groups in a completely randomised design (12 rams per treatment). Animals were placed on complete rations of yam peels, maize bran and rice husk treated with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0% urea. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. Yankasa rams fed with urea-treated diets had higher feed intake (949.88 and 938.04 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively), daily weight gain (227.67 and 181.00 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively) and better feed conversion ratio (4.17 and 5.18 for U?? and U??, respectively). Rams on urea-treated diets had higher haemoglobin and red blood cell contents and higher weight gains, indicating that urea treatment enhanced nutrient supply and utilisation at the tissue level. It was concluded that urea treatment of fibrous farm by-products is a promising feeding strategy especially during the dry season when there is scarcity of high-quality forages. Addition of 1.5% urea to roughage diets and farm by-products to form a total mixed ration may preclude the search for supplements. PMID:23397549
Alabi, John Olushola; Arigbede, Moses; Ng'ambi, Jones; Norris, David; Shiawoya, Emma; Onyekachi, Sunday
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM); 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg). Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05). Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p<0.05). Buffalo fed with HCM had a lower roughage intake, nutrient intake, population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria and microbial nitrogen supply than the LCM fed group (p<0.05). However, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, population of protozoa and fungi, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by cottonseed meal levels (p>0.05). Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw. PMID:25049873
Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Polyorach, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Khejornsart, P.; Rowlinson, P.
SLATER, G. J., A. J. RICE, K. SHARPE, D. JENKINS, and A. G. HAHN. Influence of Nutrient Intake after Weigh-In on Lightweight Rowing Performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 184-191, 2007. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different nutritional recovery strategies between weigh-in and racing on 2000-m rowing ergometer
GARY J. SLATER; ANTHONY J. RICE; KEN SHARPE; DAVID JENKINS; ALLAN G. HAHN
Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532
Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla
Br J Nutr . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment-Up Studies ; Food Habits ; France ; Humans ; Logistic Models ; Marriage ; Vegetables ; Vitamin B Complex
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
The aim of the study was to investigate nutrient intake and their dietary sources in Taiwanese children ages 6-12 years by analyzing the 24-hour recall data of 2386 participants from a nationally representative sample. Results showed that children in Taiwan were slightly lower in mean proportion of energy intake from carbohydrates (53.5% of energy intake) and higher in those from
Shin-Jiuan Wu; Wen-Harn Pan; Nai-Hua Yeh; Hsing-Yi Chang
Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has recently been viewed as a sweetened beverage with little regard to its nutrient contribution to the diet. NHANES, 2003–2006, data were used to examine the association of 100% FJ consumption, with nutrient intake and diet quality in children ages 2–5 y (n equals 1,665...
Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:24951436
Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential association between dietary nutrients and alterations in DNA methylation in a set of five candidate genes, including CD14, Et-1, iNOS, HERV-w and TNF?, in a population of overweight/obese subjects. We evaluated possible associations between gene methylation and clinical blood parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride and homocysteine levels. We employed validated methods to assess anthropometric, clinical and dietary data, as well as pyrosequencing to evaluate DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in 165 overweight/obese subjects. There was no association between body mass index and DNA methylation of the five candidate genes in this group of subjects. Positive associations were observed between TNF? methylation and blood levels of LDL-C (? = 0.447, p = 0.002), TC/HDL-C (? = 0.467, p = 0.001) and LDL-C/HDL-C (? = 0.445, p = 0.002), as well as between HERV-w methylation and dietary intakes of ?-carotene (? = 0.088, p = 0.051) and carotenoids (? = 0.083, p = 0.029). TNF? methylation showed negative associations with dietary intakes of cholesterol (? = -0.278, p = 0.048), folic acid (? = -0.339, p = 0.012), ?-carotene (? = -0.332, p = 0.045), carotenoids (? = -0.331, p = 0.015) and retinol (? = -0.360, p = 0.008). These results suggest a complex relationship among nutrient intake, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. PMID:25340371
Bollati, Valentina; Favero, Chiara; Albetti, Benedetta; Tarantini, Letizia; Moroni, Alice; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; Conti, Diana Misaela; Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Vigna, Luisella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia
Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein. PMID:21992515
Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834
Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter
ABSTRACT The aim,of this investigation,was,to assess,the relationship between,smoking,status and,nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were,sought,through,a Medline search,using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine and smoking. Scanning relevant reference lists of articles and hand searching completed,the data collection. No attempt,was,made,to search,for unpublished,results. Paper selection,was
Jean Dallongeville; Nadine Mare caux; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Philippe Amouyel
This study was performed to identify dietary behavior such as snack consumption, night-eating and nutrients intake associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study was conducted on 219 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects and 44 GDM subjects by using a questionnaire including dietary behavior, food frequency and 3-day food record. The mean age, OGTT, and delivery weight of GDM subjects were statistically higher than those in NGT. A larger proportion of NGT subjects consumed black coffee (49.8%) while the majority of GDM subjects (61.4%) drank mixed coffee with sugar and cream. Dairy products were the most frequently consumed snack item in NGT subjects (40.7%), while fruits were most frequently consumed food item in GDM subjects (34.4%). Many of NGT subjects (49.8%) answered that they hardly took night-eating snacks whereas most of GDM subjects (61.4%) took night-eating snacks more than once a week. For change of taste preference, the proportion of NGT subjects who showed less preference for salty taste (33.3%) or greasy taste (16.9%) was higher than that of GDM subjects (11.4%). Nutrient intakes of energy, fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), carbohydrate, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin C, and vitamin E in GDM group were significantly higher than those in NGT group. Nutrient densities of SFA and vitamin C in GDM group were higher and nutrient density of calcium was lower than those in NGT group. Taken together, it is recommended to reduce night-eating snack and choose less salty and fatty foods, black-coffee rather than coffee with cream and sugar, and more dairy products to prevent GDM. PMID:23431085
Park, Hee-Jin; Lee, Jinju; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Yuri
Lactose intolerance is a complex condition that is complicated by cultural beliefs and perceptions about the consumption of dairy products. These attitudes about dairy may contribute to inadequate intake of key nutrients that may impact conditions that contribute to health disparities in African Americans. While a complex health problem, lactose intolerance is easy to treat. However, no treatment can improve the body's ability to produce lactase. Yet, symptoms can be controlled through dietary strategies. This position paper emphasizes the importance of using patient and provider-level strategies in order to reduce the risks to the health of African Americans that may accrue as a result of dairy nutrient deficiency. Evaluation and assessment of interventions tested is critical so that evidence-based approaches to addressing dairy nutrient deficiency and lactose Intolerance can be created. Lastly, it is essential for physicians to communicate key messages to their patients. Since dairy nutrients address important health concerns, the amelioration of lactose intolerance is an investment in health. Lactose intolerance is common, is easy to treat, and can be managed. It is possible to consume dairy even in the face of a history of maldigestion or lactose intolerant issues. Gradually increasing lactose in the diet--drinking small milk portions with food, eating yogurt, and consuming cheese--are effective strategies for managing lactose intolerance and meeting optimal dairy needs. PMID:19899495
1 Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional1 decline: a 13, as well as higher intakes of dairy dessert and ice-cream. IADL impairment was45 associated with lower
The influence of the ingestion of particular beverages and foods on the overall nutrient intakes and meal patterns of humans was investigated by paying 323 adults to maintain 7-day diaries of everything they ingested, time of ingestion, and subjective and social conditions. Ingestion of noncaloric beverages, diet sodas, and coffee or tea, were associated with low overall intakes but were not found to influence the amount eaten over the course of the day or in individual meals. Fifteen different caloric containing drink or food types were found, in general, to add to the total calories ingested in meals or over the day without displacing calories ingested in other forms. The results indicate that individual foods or beverages are ingested independent of other constituents and that intake within meals or over the entire day is elastic and readily influenced by nonregulatory factors. PMID:8346296
De Castro, J M
Background During nutritional stress, reduced intake may reduce the efficacy of anabolic implants. This study was conducted to evaluate basic cellular responses to a growth promotant implant at two intake levels. Methods Sixteen crossbred steers (293?±?19.3 kg) were used to evaluate the impact of anabolic implants in either an adequate or a restricted nutritional state. Steers were trained to individual Calan gates, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of: presence or absence of an anabolic growth implant (Revalor-XS, 200 mg TBA and 40 mg estradiol; IMPLANT or CONTROL) and a moderate energy, pelleted, starting cattle diet fed at either 2.0?×?or 1.0?×?maintenance energy (NEM) requirements (HIGH or LOW). Serum (d 0, 14, and 28) was used for application to bovine muscle satellite cells. After treatment with the serum (20% of total media) from the trial cattle, the satellite cells were incubated for 72 h. Protein abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC), phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (phospho-ERK), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR) were analyzed to determine the effects of implant, intake, and their interaction (applied via the serum). Results Intake had no effect on MHC (P =?0.85) but IMPLANT increased (P 0.01) MHC abundance vs. CONTROL. Implant status, intake status, and the interaction had no effect on the abundance of phospho-ERK (P???0.23). Implanting increased phospho-mTOR (P 0.01) but there was no effect (P???0.51) of intake or intake?×?implant. Conclusions The nearly complete lack of interaction between implant and nutritional status indicates that the signaling molecules measured herein respond to implants and nutritional status independently. Furthermore, results suggest that the muscle hypertrophic effects of anabolic implants may not be mediated by circulating IGF-1. PMID:24245980
This study was conducted to identify dietary factors that may affect the occurrence of gastric cancer in Koreans. Preoperative daily nutrition intake and diet quality of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were evaluated. Collected data were comparatively analyzed by gender. The results were then used to prepare basic materials to aid in the creation of a desirable postoperative nutrition management program. The subjects of this study were 812 patients (562 men and 250 women) who were diagnosed with gastric cancer and admitted for surgery at Soonchunhyang University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2010. Nutrition intake and diet quality were evaluated by the 24-hr recall method, the nutrient adequacy ratio, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), nutrient density (ND), index of nutritional quality (INQ), dietary variety score (DVS), and dietary diversity score (DDS). The rate of skipping meals and eating fast, alcohol consumption, and smoking were significantly higher in males than those in females. The levels of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), niacin, and cholesterol consumption were significantly higher in males than those in females. Intake of fiber, zinc, vitamin A, retinol, carotene, folic acid were significantly higher in females than those in males. MAR in males was significantly higher (0.83) than that in females (0.79). INQ values were higher in females for zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), and folic acid than those in males. The average DVS was 17.63 for females and 13.19 for males. The average DDS was 3.68 and the male's average score was 3.44, whereas the female's average score was 3.92. In conclusion, males had more dietary habit problems and poor nutritional balance than those of females. Our findings suggest that proper nutritional management and adequate dietary education for the primary prevention of gastric cancer should be emphasized in men. PMID:22808345
Lim, Heesook; Cho, Gyuseok; Kim, Soonkyung
Objective: To assess socio-economic differences in nutrient intake, giving particular consideration to the influence of reporting bias.Design: Cross-sectional study. Three methods of data analysis (inclusion of all subjects, exclusion of low energy reporters, and regression-based energy adjustment) were evaluated against biomarkers of fatty acid and antioxidant intakes.Setting: London-based Civil Servants.Subjects: Age and employment grade stratified random sub-sample of 459 men
DD Stallone; EJ Brunner; SA Bingham; MG Marmot
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between parental smoking habits and the nutrient intake and food choice of teenagers aged 16-17 years, allowing for differences in teenage smoking and the social class and regional distribution of the participants. DESIGN: Data were collected from the 1970 longitudinal birth cohort, cross-sectionally at 16-17 years. The smoking habits of teenagers were evaluated from a questionnaire completed by the subjects themselves, and the smoking habits of parents by interview. The nutrient and food intakes of teenagers were quantitatively assessed using a four day unweighed dietary diary. SETTING: The participants were distributed throughout Britain. PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 1222 males and 1735 females was isolated from respondents to the 1970 birth cohort 16-17 year data collection sweep undertaken in 1986-87. MAIN RESULTS: Parental smoking habits were associated with different dietary patterns among teenagers regardless of whether the teenagers themselves smoked. Dietary differences noted were similar to those observed previously among smokers, with lower intakes of fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, folates, and magnesium in particular reported among both males and females in households where parents were smokers. These lower intakes were associated with lower intakes of fruit juices, wholemeal bread, and some vegetables. CONCLUSION: Teenagers who lived with parents who smoked had different nutrient and food intakes to those with non-smoking parents, and teenagers exposed to parental smoking appeared to have similar dietary patterns to teenagers who themselves smoked. PMID:8935463
Crawley, H F; While, D
The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake. By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative sample of 15,838 persons aged 4 years and older were analyzed. The relation between sucrose and nutrients intake was investigated by variance and regression analyses. Low, moderate, and high sucrose intake categories were defined by means of sucrose density quartiles and comparisons were made for the percentages of persons meeting the German nutrient intake recommendations. Mean daily sucrose intake ranges between 43.2 g/d (f, 51-64 years) and 82.3 g/d (m, 13-14 years). The mean contribution of sucrose to total energy intake is highest with 14% in young age (4-6 years) and decreases to 9% and 7% in 51-64 year old women and men, respectively. The food groups "table sugar", "confectionery and ice cream", "biscuits, cake and pastries", "preserves", "dairy products", and "non-alcoholic beverages" are the main sucrose sources with varying importance in different age groups. The average amount of naturally occurring sucrose in the Germans' diet is estimated to 15-25% of total sucrose intake. Sucrose contributes 80-90% to total disaccharides intake in Germany. With each gram of sucrose the intake of energy rises on the average by 12.5 kcal (52.4 kJ), of protein by 0.3 g (9% of the energy increase), of fat by 0.5 g (34%), and of carbohydrates by 1.8 g (57%). Consequently, the higher the sucrose content of a diet, the lower is the contribution of fat to total energy intake. In contrast, the energy-adjusted effect of sucrose was found to be negative for energy-providing nutrients (except mono- and disaccharides) as well as for all the selected micronutrients, except calcium, vitamin E, vitamin C, and dietary fiber. Accordingly, the comparison between moderate and high sucrose consumers revealed a lower percentage of persons meeting nutrient intake recommendations in the high sucrose category under the condition of a comparable energy intake. This unfavorable effect of high sucrose intake is most prominent in 4-6 year old boys and girls as the groups with the highest sucrose intake. Since from the present data no exact figure for a sucrose or sugars intake recommendation can be deduced, it is suggested to keep on the WHO recommendation for a moderate sugar intake of 10% of energy intake. PMID:9894678
Linseisen, J; Gedrich, K; Karg, G; Wolfram, G
It is of interest to estimate the distribution of usual nutrient intake for a population from repeat 24-h dietary recall assessments. A mixed effects model and quantile estimation procedure, developed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), may be used for this purpose. The model incorporates a Box–Cox parameter and covariates to estimate usual daily intake of nutrients; model parameters are estimated via quasi-Newton optimization of a likelihood approximated by the adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The parameter estimates are used in a Monte Carlo approach to generate empirical quantiles; standard errors are estimated by bootstrap. The NCI method is illustrated and compared with current estimation methods, including the individual mean and the semi-parametric method developed at the Iowa State University (ISU), using data from a random sample and computer simulations. Both the NCI and ISU methods for nutrients are superior to the distribution of individual means. For simple (no covariate) models, quantile estimates are similar between the NCI and ISU methods. The bootstrap approach used by the NCI method to estimate standard errors of quantiles appears preferable to Taylor linearization. One major advantage of the NCI method is its ability to provide estimates for subpopulations through the incorporation of covariates into the model. The NCI method may be used for estimating the distribution of usual nutrient intake for populations and subpopulations as part of a unified framework of estimation of usual intake of dietary constituents. PMID:20862656
Tooze, Janet A.; Kipnis, Victor; Buckman, Dennis W.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Freedman, Laurence S.; Guenther, Patricia M.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Subar, Amy F.; Dodd, Kevin W.
We examined the contribution of RTEC to the nutrient intake status of African Americans (AA) children and adolescents. We analyzed the 24-h dietary recall data from 2371 participants aged 1-18 y from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In all age groups, compared to brea...
likelihood of meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for these nutrients. Only children who were non- consumers of sugar-sweetened beverages had a mean calcium intake that met the adequate intakes (AI). Con- sumption of sweetened dairy products and presweetened cereals was positively associated with the number of dairy servings consumed per day for both age groups. Conclusions: On average, consumption
CAROL D. FRARY; RACHEL K. JOHNSON; MIN QI WANG
Rapid changes in Thailand's nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485?kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females' median energy intake was 1,428?kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand's rapidly growing sedentary workforce. PMID:25525512
Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Kitvorapat, Wanicha
This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention. PMID:22436162
Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid. PMID:25049836
Awawdeh, M. S.; Obeidat, B. S.
The objectives of this study were to determine the dietary habits, energy balance, and macro- and micronutrient dietary adequacy of triathletes, and to provide an athletes' food pyramid. Thirty-eight Brazilian triathletes, had anthropometric measurements taken. Mean (+/- standard deviation) body weight, height, and percentage body fat were 71.2 kg (+/- 9.4), 176.7 cm (+/- 5.5), and 12.3 % +/- ( 3.6) for men and 55.8 kg (+/- 5.2), 161.6 cm (+/- 4.5), and 24.3 % (+/- 4.2) for women, respectively. A 24-h recall and a food-frequency questionnaire showed that mean total intakes of energy (MJ), carbohydrate, protein, and fat (g x kg(-1) x d(- 1)) were, respectively, 15.4, 7.3, 2.0, and 1.6 for men and 9.9, 5.9, 1.6, and 1.3 for women. The number of meals and intake of some food groups were insufficient, resulting in inadequate intake of carbohydrate and some micronutrients. Based on this study, athletes need help to achieve their sports-related nutrition goals, especially during intense training. PMID:15657473
Nogueira, Júlia A D; Da Costa, Teresa H M
This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron. PMID:23766881
Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding Atriplex halimus (AH) silage treated with two developed enzyme cocktails to sheep on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation. The AH silage was treated without or with 2?L of ZAD1(®) or ZAD2(®) /1000?kg with 5% molasses and ensiled for 30 days. Barley grain (300?g/head/day) was fed as an energy supplement once daily at 10.00 hours and AH silage with or without enzyme treatment was offered ad libitum to animals twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours. Sheep were fed on four experimental forage diets comprised of AH silage and barley (D1), AH silage treated with ZAD1(®) and barley (D2), AH silage treated with ZAD2(®) and barley (D3) and AH silage treated with a combination of ZAD1(®) and ZAD2(®) (1:1) and barley (D4). Ensiling AH with enzymes reduced its contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. The dry matter intake of AH of D2, D3 and D4 decreased (P?0.001) as compared to D1. However, enzyme-treated diets had greater total digestible nutrients intake (P?0.001) as compared to D1. The nutrients digestibility for D2, D3 and D4 were higher than those for D1 (P?0.001), and were higher for D3 as compared to both D2 and D4. Sheep fed on D3 had highest (P?0.001) ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration, ammonia nitrogen concentration and microbial protein yield. It could be concluded that AH silage treated with ZAD1(®) or ZAD2(®) improved digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep. PMID:25228428
Alsersy, Haidy; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Borhami, Borhami E; Olivares, Jaime; Gado, Hany M; Mariezcurrena, Maria D; Yacuot, Mohamed H; Kholif, Ahmed E; El-Adawy, Mounir; Hernandez, Saul R
Collection of dietary intake information requires time-consuming and expensive methods, making it inaccessible to many resource-poor countries. Quantifying the association between simple measures of usual dietary diversity and usual nutrient intake/adequacy would allow inferences to be made about the adequacy of micronutrient intake at the population level for a fraction of the cost. In this study, we used secondary data from a dietary intake study carried out in Bangladesh to assess the association between 3 food group diversity indicators (FGI) and calcium intake; and the association between these same 3 FGI and a composite measure of nutrient adequacy, mean probability of adequacy (MPA). By implementing Fuller's error-in-the-equation measurement error model (EEM) and simple linear regression (SLR) models, we assessed these associations while accounting for the error in the observed quantities. Significant associations were detected between usual FGI and usual calcium intakes, when the more complex EEM was used. The SLR model detected significant associations between FGI and MPA as well as for variations of these measures, including the best linear unbiased predictor. Through simulation, we support the use of the EEM. In contrast to the EEM, the SLR model does not account for the possible correlation between the measurement errors in the response and predictor. The EEM performs best when the model variables are not complex functions of other variables observed with error (e.g. MPA). When observation days are limited and poor estimates of the within-person variances are obtained, the SLR model tends to be more appropriate. PMID:20881083
Joseph, Maria L; Carriquiry, Alicia
Objective: To compare nutrient intake and indicators of nutritional status of western Kenyan pupil participants and nonparticipants of a parent-supported school lunch program. Design: Pupils and their caregivers were interviewed to assess their 24-hour dietary intake and the socioeconomic status of the family. Pupils' weights and heights were…
Walingo, Mary K.; Musamali, Betty
OBJECTIVE:Recent reports suggest that dietary energy density may play a role in regulation of food intake. However, little is known about the energy density of diets consumed by free-living populations; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine demographic, health, and nutritional correlates of energy density of self-reported diets.RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES:Using data from the NHANES III (n=13 400),
A K Kant; B I Graubard
Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207
Tennant, David R.
Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake. PMID:21093857
Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo
Objectives Epidemiological findings regarding the association between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded varying results. Our objective is to examine the possible associations between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk. Methods Databases searched include the EMBASE and PUBMED, from inception to February 2014, with no limits on study language. We also reviewed the reference lists of identified studies. Stratified analyses were performed. A random-effect model was used to summarize the estimates of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Overall,17 case-control and four cohort studies were included. The overall OR of bladder cancer for the highest versus the lowest fluid intake was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.88-1.27). In the subgroup analyses, the overall ORs for coffee, green, and black tea intake were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. A significantly decreased risk was observed in Asian people (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.72). Among smokers, a suggestive inverse association was observed between total fluid intake and overall bladder cancer risk (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.62-1.02). Conclusions Although this meta-analysis suggested that greater consumption of fluid may have a protective effect on bladder cancer in Asian people, there was no convincing evidence on this association because of the limitations of the individual trials. PMID:25033957
Undernutrition among children under five year is a significant public health problem in India. The present study was carried out to assess trends in nutritional status, nutrient and food intake among children under five year over two time periods. It was a community-based cross-sectional study, carried out in tribal areas of India. A total of 14,587 children, 0-5 years old were covered for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting and wasting. A 24 hour diet survey was carried out in a sub-sample of households surveyed. Wealth index was constructed using principle component analysis. The prevalence of underweight and stunting had declined significantly over the periods (49% vs 57%, 51% vs 58%, respectively), while the prevalence of wasting remained similar (22% vs 23%). There was marginal decrease in the intake of foods and nutrients over the periods, and was below recommended levels. Stepwise regression showed that the risk of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.01) higher among children of illiterate mothers and children from lowest and middle households wealth index. Morbidities during preceding fortnight had 1.3 times higher risk of underweight and wasting. In conclusion, undernutrition is a significant health problem among tribal children and is associated with literacy status of mothers, household wealth index and morbidities. Therefore implementation of appropriate nutritional intervention strategies and improvement in households food security through public distribution systems, food intakes, socioeconomic condition, literacy of parents and personal hygiene may help in improving the nutritional status of tribal children. PMID:23017315
Meshram, Indrapal Ishwarji; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Mallikharjuna Rao, Kodavanti; Laxmaiah, Avula; Brahmam, Ginnela Nag Veera
Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ? .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (? 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy-restricted diet for weight loss. PMID:17592648
Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris
Objectives Physicians are often reluctant to advise older obese patients to lose weight for fear of compromised nutrition and excessive\\u000a loss of muscle mass and strength, all of which may lead to a loss of independence and accelerate disability. Therefore, the\\u000a purpose of this study was to examine nutrient intake in older obese adults undergoing a weight loss intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting The study
Gary D. Miller; Winston-Salem NC
Increasing early (<3 mo) nutrient feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage, and total milk fat and protein yields were greater for animals reared on MP and MPA compared with M. Body weight, hip height and width at parturition, milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, or days in milk did not differ among treatments. Increasing nutrient intake, during the milk feeding period, improved the BW gain of calves and milk production of dairy heifers during first lactation. PMID:23958020
Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W
The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728
Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.
Background Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96) higher per 1 kg/m3 increase in ponderal index (PI) at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56) higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E%) lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03) and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15), 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09), and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. Conclusions Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size. PMID:23049962
Perälä, Mia-Maria; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan G.
Background: Dietary habits have been related to the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but information on a wide range of macro- and micronutrients is still lacking, particularly for low-incidence countries. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based case–control study in Italy on 198, histologically confirmed, NPC cases of Caucasian ethnicity of 18–76 years of age. Controls were 594 Caucasian cancer-free patients admitted to general hospitals for acute conditions. Nutrients intake was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through logistic regression. Results: Dietary intake of carotenoids were inversely related to NPC risk, notably carotene (OR for highest vs lowest quartile=0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.79), ?-carotene (OR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.33–0.97), and ?-carotene (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.24–0.75). Increased NPC risk was observed for elevate cholesterol intake (OR=1.85; 95% CI: 1.12–3.05). Conclusion: Study findings suggest a protective effect of carotenoids against NPC in a low-risk population, adding further support to a possible beneficial role of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables in cancers of the head and neck. PMID:22968647
Polesel, J; Negri, E; Serraino, D; Parpinel, M; Barzan, L; Libra, M; Bosetti, C; Garavello, W; Montella, M; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Talamini, R
Objective: This study examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and attempting to lose weight for reporting of: (1) macro- and micronutrient intake; (2) intake of low-nutrient-density foods; and (3) serum biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular disease risk.Methods: Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data were from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994), n=13 095. Multiple regression
A K Kant
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, specific CAM therapies used within this population have not been thoroughly described, particularly the use of supplements, herbal remedies, and dietary modifications. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CAM used by adults with MS in the United States. Participants included adults who were diagnosed with MS at least 1 year prior to study enrollment. CAM use was measured using the CAM Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey, and nutrient intake was assessed using an Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall. This study found that a majority (77 %, n = 27) of the sample used CAM within the past 12 months, the most prevalent type being vitamins/minerals (88.9 %, n = 24), nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products (NP) (44.4 %, n = 12), relaxation techniques (33.3 %, n = 9), and special diets (29.6 %, n = 8). Regarding diet, median percent calories from fat (37 %) and saturated fat (12 %) were higher than current recommendations, while dietary fiber intake met only 87 % of the adequate intake. Participants following the Paleo (7.4 %, n = 2) diet did not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins D and E, while those on the Swank diet (7.4 %, n = 2) were below the EAR for vitamins C, A, E, and folate. The results support previous findings that CAM therapies are commonly used by individuals with MS. Inadequate intakes of certain vitamins and minerals by those following the Swank and Paleo diet suggest these diets may be too restrictive, thus further research is warranted. PMID:24981322
Masullo, Laura; Papas, Mia A; Cotugna, Nancy; Baker, Sandra; Mahoney, Lauren; Trabulsi, Jillian
Intra-uterine growth-retarded (IUGR) neonates have shown an impairment of postnatal intestinal development and function. We hypothesised that the immune function of IUGR neonates might be affected by increased nutrient intake (NI) during the suckling period. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high NI (HNI) on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and immunological response of IUGR and normal-birth weight (NBW) piglets. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and NBW piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to two different nutrient-level formula milk groups. After 21 d of rearing, growth performance, the composition of peripheral leucocytes, serum cytokines and intestinal innate immune-related genes involved in the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4–myeloid differentiation factor 88–NF-?B pathway were determined. The results indicated that IUGR decreased the average daily DM intake (ADMI) and the average daily growth (ADG). However, the ADMI and ADG were increased by HNI, irrespective of body weight. Likewise, serum cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) and ileal gene expressions (TLR-4, TLR-9, TRAF-6 and IL-1?) were lower in IUGR piglets, whereas HNI significantly increased blood lymphocyte percentage and serum IL-10 concentrations, but decreased neutrophil percentage, serum IL-1? concentrations and ileal gene expressions (NF-kB and IL-1?). Furthermore, IUGR piglets with HNI exhibited lower serum concentrations of TNF-? and IL-1? than NBW piglets, and these alterations in the immune traits of IUGR piglets receiving HNI were accompanied by decreasing ileal gene expressions of TLR-4, TLR-9, NF-?B and IL-1? that are related to innate immunity. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that increased NI during the suckling period impaired the immune function of neonatal piglets with IUGR. PMID:23596997
Han, Fei; Hu, Liang; Xuan, Yue; Ding, Xuemei; Luo, Yuheng; Bai, Shiping; He, Shuying; Zhang, Keying; Che, Lianqiang
Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890
Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the effects of social factors (education, income, marital status, partners' employment status, housing tenure, social class), smoking, and maternal height on the dietary intake of pregnant women. DESIGN--The study was a prospective investigation on a two phase sample. SETTING--The study involved women attending the antenatal clinic at a district general hospital. PATIENTS--A group of
F M Haste; O G Brooke; H R Anderson; J M Bland; J L Peacock
Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.
Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.
It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period. PMID:22355034
Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.
The specific genes regulating the quantitative variation in macronutrient preference and food intake are virtually unknown. We fine mapped a previously identified mouse chromosome 17 region harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) with large effects on preferential macronutrient intake-carbohydrate (Mnic1), total kilcalories (Kcal2), and total food volume (Tfv1) using interval-specific strains. These loci were isolated in the [C57BL/6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1-(D17Mit19-D17Mit50); B6.CAST-17.1] strain, possessing a ?40.1 Mb region of CAST DNA on the B6 genome. In a macronutrient selection paradigm, the B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice eat 30% more calories from the carbohydrate-rich diet, ?10% more total calories, and ?9% more total food volume per body weight. In the current study, a cross between carbohydrate-preferring B6.CAST-17.1 and fat-preferring, inbred B6 mice was used to generate a subcongenic-derived F2 mapping population; genotypes were determined using a high-density, custom SNP panel. Genetic linkage analysis substantially reduced the 95% confidence interval for Mnic1 (encompassing Kcal2 and Tfv1) from 40.1 to 29.5 Mb and more precisely established its boundaries. Notably, no genetic linkage for self-selected fat intake was detected, underscoring the carbohydrate-specific effect of this locus. A second key finding was the separation of two energy balance QTLs: Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 for food intake and a newly discovered locus regulating short term body weight gain. The Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 QTL was further de-limited to 19.0 Mb, based on the absence of nutrient intake phenotypes in subcongenic HQ17IIa mice. Analyses of available sequence data and gene ontologies, along with comprehensive expression profiling in the hypothalamus of non-recombinant, cast/cast and b6/b6 F2 controls, focused our attention on candidates within the QTL interval. Zfp811, Zfp870, and Btnl6 showed differential expression and also contain stop codons, but have no known biology related to food intake regulation. The genes Decr2, Ppard and Agapt1 are more appealing candidates because of their involvement in lipid metabolism and down-regulation in carbohydrate-preferring animals. PMID:25330228
Gularte-Mérida, Rodrigo; DiCarlo, Lisa M.; Robertson, Ginger; Simon, Jacob; Johnson, William D.; Kappen, Claudia; Medrano, Juan F.; Richards, Brenda K.
The omega-3 fatty acids found mostly in seafood are essential nutrients that may help prevent or control a number of diseases; however, the evidence for this is not conclusive. The positive effects may be because of other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, we investigated the association between fish intake and other nutrition indicators and lifestyle and demographic factors among children. The study employed grade-4 student data of the 2000-2004 Hawaii Nutrition Education Needs Assessment Survey. In a sample 666 children (mean age = 9.57 ± 0.06 years, 55.6% female, 62.4% Asian/Pacific Islander), analysis indicated that fish consumption is positively associated with healthy lifestyle indicators, such as physical activity and a healthy body mass index. Fish consumption is also positively associated with protein and kilocalories intake but not with fruits and vegetables consumption. Findings suggest that the positive health behaviors linked to fish consumption may lie more in physical activity than in diet behaviors. Given that fish consumption is important for children, interventions promoting fish consumption in a balanced diet with fruit and vegetable, as well as other positive lifestyle behaviors are warranted. PMID:23666831
Chung, Hai V; Iversen, Cara S; Lai, Morris; Saka, Susan; Mahabub-ul Anwar, Md; Nigg, Claudio R
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Saanen goat kids with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in diet, on intake, performance, digestibility of nutrients, and blood parameters. Twenty-eight uncastrated male goat kids, with round average age to 112.86?±?4.81 days and an average body weight (BW) of 19.54?±?2.76 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design distributed into four groups with seven animals per group: one control group fed a diet containing 2.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg dry matter (DM) and three groups fed a diet containing 2.6, 2.7, or 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with CSFA added to increase the energy levels. The animals were fed the diets until they reached an average BW of 28 kg. There was hardly any apparent effect of dietary CSFA on intake of DM and organic matter (OM). The digestibility of DM and OM showed an improvement with 2.64 and 2.65 Mcal ME/kg DM in the diet. The diets containing CSFA improved average daily gain and reduced the time on the feedlot to 30 days fed diet with 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM. However, lipid supplementation increased serum cholesterol levels. Thus, CSFA can be used to increase the energy density of the diet in finisher Saanen goat kids and improve performance by reducing days on feedlot. PMID:25367279
Possamai, Ana Paula Silva; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, Ludmila Couto; de Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca; Martins, Elias Nunes
Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and ...
HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participati...
Influence of +110, +220 and +330 mEq\\/kg of dry matter (DM) dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) on growth performance of growing male buffalo calves was examined in a randomized complete block design. Three DCAD diets were randomly allotted to three groups, ten calves in each group. A linear increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increased DCAD level. However, digestibilities of
M. Aasif Shahzad; M. Sarwar
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229
Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull. PMID:25049819
Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.
The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195
Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco
Objective:To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35–74 years, were administered a standardized, 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total carbohydrate, sugars, starch and fibre
A E Cust; M R Skilton; M M E van Bakel; J Halkjær; A Olsen; C Agnoli; T Psaltopoulou; E Buurma; E Sonestedt; M D Chirlaque; S Rinaldi; A Tjønneland; M K Jensen; F Clavel-Chapelon; M C Boutron-Ruault; R Kaaks; U Nöthlings; Y Chloptsios; D Zylis; A Mattiello; S Caini; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; G Skeie; C L Parr; E Molina-Montes; J Manjer; I Johansson; A McTaggart; T J Key; S Bingham; E Riboli; N Slimani
It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901
Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia
Background Increasing evidence from epidemiologic studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a role in adult glioma. In addition to dietary antioxidants, antioxidant and weak estrogenic properties of dietary phytoestrogens may attenuate oxidative stress. Our hypothesis is that long-term consumption of dietary antioxidants and phytoestrogens such as genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, formononetin, matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, may reduce the risk of adult glioma. Methods Using unconditional logistic regression models, we compared quartiles of consumption for several specific antioxidants and phytoestrogens among 802 adult glioma cases and 846 controls from two study series from the San Francisco Bay Area Adult Glioma Study, 1991 – 2000, controlling for vitamin supplement usage, age, socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity and total daily calories. For cases, dietary information was either self-reported or reported by a proxy. For controls, dietary information was self-reported. Gender- and series- specific quartiles of average daily nutrient intake, estimated from food-frequency questionnaires, were computed from controls. Results Significant p-values (trend test) were evaluated using significance levels of either 0.05 or 0.003 (the Bonferroni corrected significance level equivalent to 0.05 adjusting for 16 comparisons). For all cases compared to controls, statistically significant inverse associations were observed for antioxidant index (p < 0.003), carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene combined, p < 0.05), daidzein (p = 0.003), matairesinol (p < 0.05), secoisolariciresinol (p < 0.003), and coumestrol (p < 0.003). For self-reported cases compared to controls, statistically significant inverse associations were observed for antioxidant index (p < 0.05) and daidzein (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our results support inverse associations of glioma with higher dietary antioxidant index and with higher intake of certain phytoestrogens, especially daidzein. PMID:16749939
Tedeschi-Blok, Nicole; Lee, Marion; Sison, Jennette D; Miike, Rei; Wrensch, Margaret
Objectives: To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Community.Subjects: 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study.Methods: The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected
N Matsuda-Inoguchi; S Shimbo; Z-W Zhang; S Srianujata; O Banjong; C Chitchumroonchokchai; T Watanabe; H Nakatsuka; K Higashikawa; M Ikeda
Objectives: Although most controlled feeding trials have failed to show an adverse effect of fructose on blood pressure, concerns continue to be raised regarding the role of fructose in hypertension. To quantify the association between fructose-containing sugar (high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and fructose) intake and incident hypertension, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was undertaken. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through February 5, 2014) were searched for relevant studies. Two independent reviewers reviewed and extracted relevant data. Risk estimates were aggregated comparing the lowest (reference) quintile with highest quintile of intake using inverse variance random effect models and expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q statistic) and quantified (I 2 statistic). The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale assessed study quality. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01608620. Results: Eligibility criteria were met by 3 prospective cohorts (n = 37,375 men and 185,855 women) with 58,162 cases of hypertension observed over 2,502,357 person-years of follow-up. Median fructose intake was 5.7–6.0% total energy in the lowest quintile and 13.9–14.3% total energy in the highest quintile. Fructose intake was not associated with incident hypertension (RR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.99–1.04), with no evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 = 0%, p = 0.59). Spline curve modeling showed a U-shaped relationship with a negative association at intakes ?50th percentile (?10% total energy) and a positive association at higher intakes. Conclusions: Total fructose intake was not associated with an increased risk of hypertension in 3 large prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. PMID:25144126
Jayalath, Viranda H.; Sievenpiper, John L.; de Souza, Russell J.; Ha, Vanessa; Mirrahimi, Arash; Santaren, Ingrid D.; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Wolever, Thomas M. S.; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W. C.; Jenkins, David J. A.
Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.
Background Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by impaired postnatal mineralisation of the rapidly growing infant skeleton. Objective To longitudinally evaluate postnatal changes in tibial speed of sound (tSOS; which reflects cortical thickness and bone mineral density) and lower limb length (LLL; a measure of tibial growth) in very low birthweight preterm infants receiving contemporary neonatal care. Methods tSOS and LLL were measured using a quantitative ultrasound device and an electronic neonatal knemometer, respectively, in the same limb, weekly, for a median period of four weeks (3–16 weeks) in 84 preterm infants (median gestation 26.8 weeks (range 23–35.2?weeks) and median birth weight 869.5?g (range 418–1481?g)). Results Initial tSOS and LLL were correlated with gestation (r?=?0.42, p<0.001; r?=?0.76, p<0.001, respectively) and birth weight (r?=?0.23, p?=?0.038; r?=?0.93, p<0.001, respectively). Postnatally, tSOS decreased (r?=??0.15, p?=?0.011) whereas LLL increased (r?=?0.96, p<0.001) with age. The rate of postnatal change in LLL, but not in tSOS, was positively influenced by intake of calcium (p?=?0.03), phosphorus (p?=?0.01) and vitamin D (p?=?0.03). Conclusions The postnatal decline in tSOS, which is probably due to cortical thinning secondary to endocortical bone loss, and increase in LLL provide new insight into the development of long bones in preterm infants. PMID:17369280
Mercy, J; Dillon, B; Morris, J; Emmerson, A J; Mughal, M Z
Contribution of cod liver oil related nutrients –vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid- to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort
40 stronger and provide better insight in the diet-biomarker-disease association. And thirdly, 41 associations of nutrient exposure and biomarkers are not linear, e.g. vitamin E (Lebold et al., 2012; 42 White et al., 2001). The association... of cigarette 69 smoking and quantification of nutrient intake (Block et al., 1994): one would not calculate the 70 average amount of cigarettes smoked for the population as a whole, but only for smokers. Hence, 71 rather than comparing all SU vs. NSU, we...
Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee
Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...
of 137 g ; with unripe banana these data were 86 g of crude protein after an intake of 104 g and with silaged banana, 83 g following an intake of 77 g of total crude protein. With banana, the fermentations/1 with barley, us and 111 m eq/1 with unripe or silaged banana) ; the amounts of total volatile
Snacking may play a role in weight control. The associations of timing and frequency of snacking with observed weight change and nutrient intake were assessed in an ancillary study to a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Seattle, WA. Overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women (n=123) enrolled in the two dietary weight-loss arms from 2007 to 2008 with complete data at 12 months were
Angela Kong; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Catherine M. Alfano; Karen E. Foster-Schubert; Marian L. Neuhouser; Donna B. Johnson; Catherine Duggan; Ching-Yun Wang; Liren Xiao; Carolyn E. Bain; Anne McTiernan
Objectives: To determine the patterns and possible explanations for gender differences in food choices, nutrient intakes and status indices, especially for micronutrients, in a representative sample of older people living in Britain, who participated in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and over during 1994–95.Design: The Survey procedures included a health-and-lifestyle interview, a four-day weighed
CJ Bates; A Prentice; S Finch
Food samples were purchased in Nagoya based on daily intake in the Tokai region, and prepared as total diet samples according to the market basket method. The contents of radioactive cesium (Cs) were determined by using a ?-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector, and a committed effective dose was estimated. Radioactive Cs was not detected in samples collected in 2006 before the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radioactive Cs was detected in samples prepared in August, 2011, five months after the accident. The sources were sugar and confectioneries (3rd food group), other vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms (8th food group) and fishes, shellfishes and processed seafoods (10th food group). Only Cs-137 was detected in samples prepared in August, 2012, one year and five months after the accident. The sources were the 8th and the 10th food groups. The estimated committed effective dose for radioactive Cs was 0.0015 mSv in 2011 and 0.00016 mSv in 2012. PMID:23676694
Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Haruyasu; Kato, Yukari; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya
Ron Phibun District, approximately 800 km south of Bangkok, is the site of tin mines operated almost 100 years ago. As a result of mining activities, arsenic contaminated the soil and groundwater of the district. The specific aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 20 adults (10 males and 10 females) residing in Ron Phibun District by a duplicate food approach for 7-consecutive days. The weekly intake rates of inorganic arsenic ranged from 5.54 to 13.3 microg/kg BW for males and 6.11-12.1 microg/kg BW for females. PMID:20039017
Ruangwises, Suthep; Saipan, Piyawat
Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. PMID:25465561
Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the macronutrient composition of intake and waist circumference. METHODS: Regression analysis evaluated the relationship between composition and waist circumference. SAMPLE: This study used data from the third National ...
The cross-sectional 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey collected detailed dietary information from a representative sample of more than 4400 children by 24-h dietary recall. Dairy food intake by Australian children is substantially lower than recommendations, and decreases as a percentage of energy intake as children grow older. Children aged 2 to 16 years are, on average, 2.3 times more likely to have a dairy food at the first daily occasion of eating, than at the second occasion. For children who consumed any dairy food at the first occasion of eating, the total daily intake of dairy foods was 129% (95% CI 120%–138%) greater than for children who did not consume a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. Their dairy food intake for the rest of the day following the first occasion of eating was also greater by 29% (95% CI 21%–37%). Younger age group, male sex, location of eating being at home or in a residence and starting the first occasion of eating from 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. are all jointly associated with having a dairy food at the first occasion of eating. A simple strategy to increase Australian children’s intake from the dairy and alternatives food group may be to make sure that the first occasion of eating each day includes a dairy food or a nutritional equivalent. PMID:25251295
Riley, Malcolm D.; Baird, Danielle L.; Hendrie, Gilly A.
Clinical experience supports a critical role for nutrition in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three-day dietary intake records were analyzed for 156 visits in 47 SMA type I patients, 25 males and 22 females, ages 1month to 13years (median 9.8months) and compared to dietary reference intakes for gender and age along with anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) data. Using standardized growth curves, twelve patients met criteria for failure to thrive (FTT) with weight for age <3rd percentile; eight met criteria based on weight for height. Percentage of body fat mass was not correlated with weight for height and weight for age across percentile categories. DEXA analysis further demonstrated that SMA type I children have higher fat mass and lower fat free mass than healthy peers (p<0.001). DEXA and dietary analysis indicates a strong correlation with magnesium intake and bone mineral density (r=0.65, p<0.001). Average caloric intake for 1-3years old was 68.8±15.8kcal/kg - 67% of peers' recommended intake. Children with SMA type I may have lower caloric requirements than healthy age-matched peers, increasing risk for over and undernourished states and deficiencies of critical nutrients. Standardized growth charts may overestimate FTT status in SMA type I. PMID:22832342
Poruk, Katherine E; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Smart, Abby L; Chisum, Benjamin S; Lasalle, Bernie A; Chan, Gary M; Gill, Gurmail; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J
Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (<50% of energy). Protein was generally above recommendations and ranged from 8.0 to 47.2g per serving. The inter-package variation was high, reaching 19.04 ± 2.90 g/package for fat. After proposing understandable guidelines to improve nutritional quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling. PMID:25442542
Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz
The role of oxidative stress in skeletal health is unclear. The present study investigated whether a high dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, animal-derived vitamin A, retinol equivalents, Zn and Se) is associated with a reduced risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. This 1:1 matched case-control study involved 726 elderly Chinese with hip fracture and 726 control subjects, recruited between June 2009 and May 2013. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to determine habitual dietary intakes of the above-mentioned seven nutrients based on a seventy-nine-item FFQ and information on various covariates, and an antioxidant score was calculated. After adjustment for potential covariates, dose-dependent inverse associations were observed between the dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, ?-carotene, and Se and antioxidant score and the risk of hip fracture (P for trend ? 0·005). The OR of hip fracture for the highest (v. lowest) quartile of intake were 0·39 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·56) for vitamin C, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 0·33) for vitamin E, 0·51 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·73) for ?-carotene, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·70) for Se and 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·36) for the antioxidant score. A moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents in quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) was found to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (OR range: 0·51-0·63, P< 0·05). No significant association was observed between dietary Zn or animal-derived vitamin A intake and hip fracture risk (P for trend >0·20). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, and Se and a moderate-to-high dietary intake of retinol equivalents are associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in elderly Chinese. PMID:25287150
Sun, Li-li; Li, Bao-lin; Xie, Hai-li; Fan, Fan; Yu, Wei-zhong; Wu, Bao-hua; Xue, Wen-qiong; Chen, Yu-ming
Background Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789), 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001) and magnesium (P<0.05) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05). Potassium and ?-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001). Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]). Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.05), However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality. Grapefruit may provide a healthful option for adults striving to meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25006335
Murphy, Mary M.; Barraj, Leila M.; Rampersaud, Gail C.
Purpose The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption
Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan
Instantaneous intake total pressure distortion parameters are generally used to assess aerodynamic intake-engine compatibility. Different distortion parameters are applied by the various engine manufacturers. Distortion boundaries are specified which are not to be exceeded in the intake during the whole flight regime. The quantification of those parameters is generally made in intake wind-tunnel model tests. In these tests the instantaneous total pressure is measured in the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP) (a short distance upstream of the engine compressor face) by high-response pressure transducers, typically installed on an eight-arm rake with five probes on each arm. In the past, after having undergone the relevant signal conditioning process, the signals from the transducers were combined to the above-mentioned distortion parameters by the use of an analog computer. Later on, this was supplemented by limited digital analysis of the high-frequency signals. Because of the large amount of data, the digital analysis was only applied over a predetermined short time period. The evolution of high-performance digital data storage facilities combined with highspeed analog-digital conversion now allows a major step forward to longtime digital recording and analysis during intake distortion tests. The novel system that has been installed at MBB and successfully applied during various intake wing-tunnel test campaigns is described. Dynamic signals from up to 144 high-response differential transducers can be recorded. Individual control lines are used for sensing, power supply, and in-situ calibration. A specially configured computer system is used to control the signal frequency band, the number of signal channels, the control lines, and the sample rate. The computer is also used to control the storage of the digitized data on an advanced high density tape recording system that allows continuous recording of up to 1 hour on a cassette tape. The data rate for tape storage is as high as 107 Mbits/s. Parallel to this storage process it is possible to calculate, in an on-line real-time mode, the desired instantaneous distortion parameters using an analog computer. For recording times of up to 5 seconds for each data point, digital on-line analysis is also possible. The data can be displayed on a screen and are also plotted during the test, thus allowing the test engineer to react quickly and alter or adapt the test program.
Lotter, K. W.; Scherbaum, R.-D.
Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N?=?3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly. PMID:25284450
Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C
Consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with a reduced risk of stroke, but it is unclear whether their protective effects are due to antioxidant vitamins or folate and metabolically related B vitamins. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that intake of fruits and vegetables, which are major sources of antioxidant and vitamin B complex vitamins, reduces the risk of stroke. Cases consisted of patients diagnosed with first event of stroke (n = 69). Controls (n = 69) were age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched to cases. Multivariable-adjusted regression analysis showed that subjects who ate four to six servings of vegetable per day had a 32% reduction in the risk of stroke, and those with more than six servings per day had a reduction of 69% after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and family history of stroke. Intakes of total fat, plant fat, calcium, potassium, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), niacin, and folate were significantly and negatively associated with the risk of stroke. Although the trend was not significant, stroke risk was reduced in the second quartile (1.21-2.66 servings per week) of fish intake. However, intake of fruits (average daily intake of 1.0 serving) and antioxidant vitamins such as carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E was not associated with the risk of stroke. In conclusion, our observational study suggests that intake of fat and vegetables, rich sources of vitamin B complex, calcium, and potassium may protect against stroke. PMID:20827346
Summary The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements\\u000a taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis\\u000a (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed\\u000a on the application of reliable methodologies
R. M. Parr; N. K. Aras; G. V. Iyengar
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate possible urban–rural differences in food intakes in Jilin province and in continental China as a whole, and to examine possible implications for nutritional status of urban and rural populations.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Communities.Subjects: In total, 499 adult women in six urban sites and four rural sites, 10 sites in total, including two
JB Qu; ZW Zhang; S Shimbo; ZM Liu; XC Cai; LQ Wang; T Watanabe; H Nakatsuka; N Matsuda-Inoguchi; K Higashikawa; M Ikeda
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse association between dairy product consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults, but this relation is relatively unexplored in adolescents. We hypothesized that a higher dairy product intake is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factor clustering in adolescents. To test this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 494 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Azorean Archipelago, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, body fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness. We also calculated homeostatic model assessment and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. For each one of these variables, a z score was computed using age and sex. A cardiometabolic risk score (CMRS) was constructed by summing up the z scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered to exist when an individual had at least 1 SD from this score. Diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and the intake of total dairy (included milk, yogurt, and cheese), milk, yogurt, and cheese was categorized as low (equal to or below the median of the total sample) or "appropriate" (above the median of the total sample).The association between dairy product intake and CMRS was evaluated using separate logistic regression, and the results were adjusted for confounders. Adolescents with high milk intake had lower CMRS, compared with those with low intake (10.6% vs 18.1%, P = .018). Adolescents with appropriate milk intake were less likely to have high CMRS than those with low milk intake (odds ratio, 0.531; 95% confidence interval, 0.302-0.931). No association was found between CMRS and total dairy, yogurt, and cheese intake. Only milk intake seems to be inversely related to CMRS in adolescents. PMID:24418246
Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Pedro; Moreira, Carla; Mota, Jorge; Moreira-Silva, Isabel; Santos, Paula-Clara; Santos, Rute
A perennial schrub, stevia, and its extracts are used as a natural sweetener and have been shown to possess antimicrobial properties. Stevia contains high levels of sweetening glycosides including stevioside which is thought to possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Little is known about the nutritional value of the schrub in livestock. This study determined the potential use of the shrub as a prebiotic animal feed supplement in light of the recent ban on the use of antibiotics in animal feed and the role of its constituent stevioside in the effects of the shrub. Male Cobb broiler chicks were fed a basal broiler diet without antibiotic but with performance enhancing enzyme mix (positive control), a basal diet without antibiotic and enzymes (negative control), or diets in which 2% of the negative control diet was replaced with either dried ground stevia leaves or 130 ppm pure stevioside during 2 week starter and 2 week grower periods. Body weight gains, feed conversion, abdominal fat deposition, plasma hormone and metabolites and caecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the broilers at 2 and 4 weeks of age. There was no significant effect of the treatments on feed intake during the starter period but birds fed diet supplemented with stevia leaves and stevioside consumed more feed (p < 0.05) than those fed the positive control diet during the grower period. Weight gain by birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was higher (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets only during the starter period. Feed/gain ratio of birds fed the positive control and stevioside diets was superior (p < 0.05) to others. There was no effect of the treatments on nutrient retention and water content of the excreta. Dietary stevia leave and stevioside decreased total concentration of SCFA and changed their profile in the ceca. There was no effect of the treatments on pancreas weight. Dietary stevia reduced blood levels of glucose, triglycerides and triiodothyronine (T(3)) but had no effect on non-esterified fatty acids. In contrast, stevioside only decreased T(3). Both the stevia leaves and stevioside diets significantly increased abdominal fat content. It is concluded that dietary enzyme growth promoters are beneficial to the broilers only during the starter stage and that inclusion of stevia leaves or stevioside has no beneficial effect on the performance of broilers. PMID:19012609
Atteh, J O; Onagbesan, O M; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Geuns, J M C; Buyse, J
The objective was to investigate the impact of nutrient intake during the early growth period on the expression of glucose metabolism-related genes in skeletal muscle of cross-bred cattle. From 1.5 to 5 months of age, group H (n=7) animals were intensively fed a high-protein and low-fat milk replacer [crude protein (CP) 28%; ether extracts (EE) 18%; max: 2.0 kg, 12 l/day], and group R (n=7) animals were fed a restricted amount of normal milk replacer (CP 25%; EE 23%; max 0.5 kg, 4 l/day). From 6 to 10 months of age, group H cattle were fed a high-nutrition total mixed ration mainly prepared from grain feed, and group R cattle were fed only roughage. Blood samples were taken from each animal at three biopsy times (1.5, 5 and 10 months of age), and the blood plasma concentration of glucose and insulin was analysed. In glucose concentration, there were no significant differences; however, the concentrations of insulin were higher in group H than in group R at 5 and 10 months of age. Muscle samples were taken by biopsy from longissimus thoracis muscle (LT) at 1.5, 5 and 10 months of age. We analysed mRNA expression levels using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4), insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), hexokinase 1 (HK1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?). Although no differences were detected at 1.5 and 5 months of age, at 10 months of age, GLUT1, HK1 and TNF? mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in group H than in group R. These results suggested Glut1 that affects insulin-independently mediated glucose uptake was more responsive to improved nutrition during early growth stage than GLUT4 that insulin-dependently mediated glucose uptake in LT of cattle. PMID:22698257
Ebara, F; Inada, S; Morikawa, M; Asaoka, S-H; Isozaki, Y; Saito, A; Etoh, T; Shiotsuka, Y; Roh, S G; Wegner, J; Gotoh, T
The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...
Inconsistent associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and body fatness may be partly due to differences in the underlying dietary patterns or energy under-reporting. In the present study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity, accounting for energy under-reporting. The subjects were 1487 British adults aged 19-64 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. Breads and potatoes were the positive predictive foods for dietary GI, while fruit, other cereals and dairy products were the negative predictors. These foods were similarly identified in the analysis of only acceptable reporters (AR; ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement within 0·665-1·335) and under-reporters (UR; ratio < 0·665). Dietary GL was closely correlated with carbohydrate intake. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary GI was independently associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m²) and central obesity (waist circumference ? 102 cm in men and ? 88 cm in women). Dietary GL was also associated with general (only women) and central obesity. Similarly, in the analysis of AR, the GI showed positive associations with general and central obesity, and, only in women, the GL showed positive associations with general and central obesity. Conversely, in the analysis of UR, the associations were generally weaker and many of them failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, we found independent positive associations of dietary GI and GL with general and central obesity in British adults. PMID:23656860
Murakami, Kentaro; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Livingstone, M Barbara E
The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients. PMID:24911958
Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J.; Wilder, Shawn M.
Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…
Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd
Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207?±?9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22 %). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20 % less and 20 % more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P?0.05) in HPG than in SPG or LPG. Digestibility of CP, cellulose, and hemicellulose was higher (P?0.05) in HPG versus LPG. Fecal N excretion was similar, while urinary N excretion was highest (P?0.05) in HPG (74.83 g/day) compared with SPG (50.03 g/day) and LPG (47.88 g/day), which resulted in lower N retention in HPG than in the other dietary groups. Level of dietary N had no effect on blood metabolites viz. glucose, urea, and N. Digestible energy (DE) and ME contents of diets were identical, while DCP contents were higher (P?0.05) in HPG than in LPG. Feed and nutrient (CP and ME) conversion efficiency to produce a unit kilogram weight gain was identical among the dietary groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on the heifer's weight and age at puberty. The mean growth rate of heifers at 240 days was higher (P?>?0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results revealed that 20 % higher or less protein than the ICAR requirement had no significant (P?>?0.05) on feed intake, nutrient conversion efficiency for weight gain, heifer growth, and puberty; however, 20 % more protein increased urinary N loss. PMID:25407740
Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand
Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient diges- tion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 ± 12 days in milk, mean ± SD) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear
K. J. Harvatine; M. S. Allen
FÃ©art et al. 1 TITLE PAGE Title Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and energy, macro- and micro) 5 57 57 14 86 E-mail: Catherine.Feart@isped.u-bordeaux2.fr Short running head Mediterranean Diet The Mediterranean-type diet combines several foods and nutrients already individually proposed as potential
Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...
: For developing the instrument, 73,034 women aged 41-72 years. For testing, 103 women aged 55-80 years in 2005 and alcohol. For most nutrients, at least 70% of subjects fell into the same or an adjacent quintile when, but they require time for completion and are often difficult to interpret. Other instruments are more simple
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Nine crossbred beef steers (344 +/- 26 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency and feed intake fluctuation on total tract digestion, digesta kinetics, and ruminal fermentation profiles in limit-fed steers. In Period 1, steers were allotted randomly to one of four dietary treatments: 1) feed offered once daily at 0800; 2) feed offered once daily at 0800 with a 10% fluctuation in day-to-day feed intake; 3) feed offered twice daily at 0800 and 1700; and 4) feed offered twice daily at 0800 and 1700 with a 10% fluctuation in a day-to-day feed intake. In Period 2, steers were reallocated across treatments. The 90% concentrate diet was fed at 90% of the ad-libitum consumption by each steer. Chromium-EDTA and Yb-labeled steam-flaked corn were intraruminally infused at 0800 on d 1 and 3 and Co-EDTA and Er-labeled steam-flaked corn were infused on d 2 and 4 of the 4-d collection period. Ruminal samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 h after the 0800 feeding, and total feces were collected for 4 d. Total tract digestibilities of OM, N, and starch were lowest (fluctuation x frequency, P < .05) when feed was offered twice daily with a 10% fluctuation in intake. Ruminal fluid volume and passage rate were not affected (P > .10) by feeding frequency or intake fluctuation. A frequency x fluctuation x sampling time interaction occurred (P < .01) for ruminal pH. Steers fed a constant amount of feed once daily had higher (P < .05) ruminal pH at 0, 3, 18, and 24 h than steers fed once daily with a 10% fluctuation in feed intake. Total VFA concentration was greater (P < .01) at 9 h after the 0800 feeding when feed was offered once vs twice daily. Feeding twice daily increased (P < .05) the molar proportion of acetate and decreased (P < .05) the molar proportion of propionate. Increasing feeding frequency resulted in a more stable ruminal environment; however, the increased acetate:propionate ratio with twice-daily feeding might result in lower efficiency of energy utilization by limit-fed steers. PMID:10947111
Soto-Navarro, S A; Krehbiel, C R; Duff, G C; Galyean, M L; Brown, M S; Steiner, R L
A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes
Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?0.01-P?=?0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P?=?0.01-P?=?0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P?0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P?=?0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P?0.01). Conclusions Daily consumption of a peanut enriched (46 g/d) ADA meal plan over 24 weeks improves the nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471
The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687
Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687
Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
The nutritional implications of consuming reduced fat or reduced energy foods (RED) were examined in 50 women who were participating in a larger study of iron status while enrolled in the U.S. Army Medical Department Officer Basic Course. The subjects recorded their food intake for a 7-day period. Reduced fat or reduced energy foods were identified as foods labeled “reduced-calorie,
J. E. Arsenault; A. D. Cline
A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053
Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S
The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of metals in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage induced by accumulation of heavy metals, were investigated in bean seedlings treated with two selected metal concentrations for 7 days. Metal content is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay is used and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied for investigation of DNA damages. The increasing metal concentration in the treatment medium changed synchronously metal content in samples, and decreased total antioxidant activity in all samples with exception only for samples treated with Ni and Cd. The obtained "DNA fingerprints" demonstrated that the increasing metal concentrations induced changes in RAPD profiles (disappearance and/or appearance of bands in comparison with untreated control samples). The highest number of missing bands was observed in samples treated with zinc (total 4 bands) and nickel (total 4 bands) at both concentrations. These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance is involved in changes of antioxidant levels and DNA damages of the seedlings, which may help to understand the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants. PMID:24431518
Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Ba?eva, Katerina; Stafilov, Traj?e
Vitamin D has been identified as a nutrient of top public health concern because of its role in bone health and its link to other diseases and conditions. However, there are many knowledge gaps in the study of vitamin D, including lack of updated analytical data and accurate intake estimates from na...
The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006
National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...
This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…
Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook
Summary The present investigation reevaluated the German National Food Consumption Survey in order to obtain data on sucrose intake\\u000a and food sources of sucrose intake in Germany. Moreover, it focused on the effect of sucrose intake on nutrient intake.\\u000a \\u000a By means of the food composition data base Bundeslebensmittelschlüssel, version II.2, 7-days dietary records of a representative\\u000a sample of 15838 persons
J. Linseisen; K. Gedrich; G. Karg; G. Wolfram
Ghrelin is a gut peptide that when acylated is thought to stimulate appetite. Circulating ghrelin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of DMI in cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating ghrelin concentrations with DMI and other production traits. Steers and heifers were fed a finishing diet, and individual intake was recorded for 84 d. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture following the DMI and ADG measurement period. Plasma active ghrelin and total ghrelin were quantified using commercial RIA. Active ghrelin was not correlated to DMI (P=0.36), but when DMI was modeled using a multivariate analysis including plasma metabolites and sex, active ghrelin was shown to be positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 6.2% of the variation accounted for by the regression model (R2=0.33). Total ghrelin was negatively correlated to DMI (P<0.01), but was not significant in a multivariate regression analysis (P=0.13). The ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.2% of the variation in the model (R2=0.35). Active ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.05), while total ghrelin was negatively associated with ADG (P<0.01), and the ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.01). Active ghrelin was not associated with G:F (P=0.88), but total ghrelin concentrations were negatively associated with G:F (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.24% of the variation (R2=0.25). Heifers consumed less feed than steers (P<0.01), tended to have greater active ghrelin concentrations (P=0.06), and had greater total ghrelin concentrations than steers (P=0.04). Total ghrelin concentrations were not different between sire breeds (P=0.80), but active ghrelin concentrations and the ratio of active:total ghrelin differed between breeds (P<0.01), indicating that genetics have an effect on the amount and form of circulating ghrelin. Total ghrelin concentrations tended (P=0.08) to be correlated with HCW, but no other carcass characteristics were correlated with active or total ghrelin concentrations (P>0.10). Results indicated that ghrelin concentrations are associated with DMI in beef cattle and that there is genetic variation that leads to differences in the amount and form of circulating ghrelin which could contribute to variation observed in DMI of beef cattle. PMID:25414111
Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Lents, C A; Freetly, H C
Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.
Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.
This study aimed to characterise the nutritional intake according the use of nutritional supplements (NS) by elite adult Portuguese athletes. Two hundred and two adult (23±4 years) athletes (78% males), representatives of Portugal in 13 sports, voluntarily filled a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire about the use of NS. The total nutritional daily intake did not consider the nutrients
M Sousa; M J Fernandes; P Moreira; V H Teixeira
The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.
Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf
Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs(III)), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs(V), was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM2.5. Reduction of iAs(V) to iAs(III) occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. PMID:24534614
Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung
Two hundred twenty-four steers (initial BW = 363 ± 1.57 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the interactive effects of concentration of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and bulk density (BD) of steam-flaked corn (SFC) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent total tract digestibility. Diets consisted of 0, 15, or 30% WCGF (DM basis) with a BD of SFC at 283 or 360 g/L. The additional treatment consisted of 15% WCGF, SFC at 283 g/L, and a 6% inclusion of alfalfa hay vs. 9% for all other treatments. Steers were fed once daily for an average of 163 d. During a 5-d digestion period, DMI was measured, and fecal samples were collected for measurement of nutrient digestibility using dietary acid insoluble ash as a marker. There were few WCGF × BD interactions for feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility. Similarly, contrasts between the treatment containing 15% WCGF/360 g/L SFC and 15% WCGF/360 g/L with 6% hay yielded few differences for performance and carcass data. Final BW responded quadratically (P ? 0.02) to WCGF inclusion and showed increased (P ? 0.007) BW for greater BD. As WCGF inclusion increased, G:F and calculated NE values (P ? 0.03) decreased quadratically. Steers consuming 360 g/L SFC had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than those fed 283 g/L SFC. Marbling score, HCW, 12th-rib fat thickness, and calculated yield grade increased quadratically (P ? 0.04) with increased inclusion of WCGF. Percentage of cattle grading premium Choice or greater responded quadratically (P = 0.04) to WCGF concentration. Increasing BD increased (P ? 0.01) HCW, dressing percent, marbling score, and 12th-rib fat thickness and decreased calculated yield grade and percentage of cattle grading Select; however, lower BD tended (P = 0.09) to increase LM area. Intake of DM, OM, CP, and NDF and fecal output during the digestibility period increased linearly (P ? 0.01) with increasing WCGF, and greater BD increased (P ? 0.04) intake of DM, OM, starch, and CP. Starch digestibility decreased quadratically (P = 0.008) as WCGF increased; however, digestibility of CP and NDF increased (P ? 0.02) linearly as WCGF increased. The 283 g/L BD increased (P ? 0.02) starch and CP digestibility compared with 360 g/L. These data suggest that increasing WCGF in feedlot diets with a greater BD of SFC can increase performance and carcass characteristic, but it might not be ideal for starch digestibility. PMID:24492582
Domby, E M; Anele, U Y; Gautam, K K; Hergenreder, J E; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Galyean, M L
Dan Chang district, approximately 100 km west of Bangkok, was a site of tin mines operated almost 40 years ago. Mining operations caused arsenic contamination in soil, surface water, and groundwater within the district. The specific aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 60 adults (30 males and 30 females) residing in Dan Chang district, using a duplicate food approach. The daily intake rates of inorganic arsenic ranged from 0.496 to 1.817 ?g/kg BW for males and 0.342 to 1.778 ?g/kg BW for females. PMID:21253702
Ruangwises, Suthep; Ruangwises, Nongluck; Saipan, Piyawat
Describes a 15-year study of cardiovascular disease-related nutrients in a school lunch program. According to the findings, although school lunches contributed less than one-third of total daily nutrients, intakes of diet components related to cardiovascular disease risk were excessive. (SM)
Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others
The apparent total tract and ileal digestibility assays to measure AA absorption in commercial canine diets were compared in the present study. Five ileal cannulated dogs were fed 5 commercial dry canine foods selected to contain 19 to 30% CP in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Ileal and total tract digestibility (apparent and standardized) of DM, OM, CP, crude fat (CF), carbohydrate, and AA (including reactive Lys) were calculated using Cr2O3 as an indigestible marker. Greater apparent total tract digestibility values were found for DM, OM, and CP (P ? 0.034) compared with ileal digestibility values; however, CF (P = 0.058) had a greater ileal apparent digestibility. Apparent and standardized CP digestibility values were, respectively, 5.7 and 7.4 percentage units greater when measured over the total digestive tract compared with measurement at the ileum (P = 0.034 and 0.011, respectively). Ileal apparent digestibility for N of AA (P = 0.009) and most AA (P < 0.05), except for Met, Ile, Lys, Phe, and Ala, was decreased if measured at the ileum. However, correction for endogenous losses showed only Met digestibility did not differ between measurement sites. Differences between sites in excess of 15 percentage units were recorded for AA. Apparent and standardized ileal reactive Lys digestibility was 3.1 to 15.3 percentage units greater than corresponding total tract digestibility values. For several indispensable AA, the bioavailability estimates currently used by the 2006 NRC and the 2011 Association of American Feed Control Officials to derive allowance estimates for canine adult maintenance were greater than the digestibility values of these AA in the commercial dog foods evaluated. Although the canine large intestine is relatively short, the total tract digestibility assay in dogs can overestimate the digestibility of dietary AA and CP and may not be an accurate method for the measurement of absorption. In this study, bioavailability estimates of AA appeared to be less than those used to derive allowance estimates for commercial dog foods. Further work is required if current recommendations warrant adjustment. PMID:23881684
Hendriks, W H; Thomas, D G; Bosch, G; Fahey, G C
The molecular mechanisms by which level of nutrient intake enhances skeletal muscle growth in young ruminants are not fully understood. We examined mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene network expression in semitendinosus muscle tissue of young male Holstein calves fed a conventional milk replacer plus conventional starter (CON) or an enhanced milk replacer plus high-protein starter (ENH) for 5 wk followed by a conventional starter or a high-protein starter until 10 wk of age. Feeding ENH led to greater concentration of plasma IGF-1 and leptin and greater carcass protein and fat mass throughout the study. Despite the greater plasma IGF-1 and protein mass at wk 5, calves fed ENH had lower expression of IGF1R, INSR, and RPS6KB1 but greater expression of IRS1 and PDPK1 in muscle tissue. Except for IGF1R expression, which did not differ at wk 10, these differences persisted at wk 10, suggesting a long-term effect of greater nutrient intake on physiological and molecular mechanisms. Components of mTOR complex (mTORC)1 and mTORC2 (RICTOR and RPTOR) and FOXO1 expression decreased by wk 10 regardless of diet. Overall, the present data revealed that greater nutrient intake throughout the milk-fed and early postweaning phase alters body mass composition partly by altering hormonal and molecular profiles of genes associated with glucose and amino acid signaling. Those networks may play a crucial role in coordinating neonatal muscle growth and metabolism in response to level of nutrient intake. PMID:24210480
Wang, P; Drackley, J K; Stamey-Lanier, J A; Keisler, D; Loor, J J
Tall fescue hay (H) supplemented with corn and urea (HU) or corn gluten meal (HCGM) and ammoniated tall fescue hay supplemented with corn (AH) or corn gluten meal (AHCGM) were fed to steers in two 4 X 4 Latin-square trials. Diets were fed to four Angus-Hereford steers (550 kg) at equal intakes in trial 1 and to four Hereford steers (350 kg) at ad libitum intakes in trial 2. Ammoniation reduced cell wall concentrations of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid by 48 and 67%, respectively. Concentrations of other phenolics were also reduced. Apparent total tract digestibilities of vanillin, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were lower (P less than .05, .001 and .01, respectively) when nontreated hay was fed in trial 1, but were not different between hay types in trial 2. In trial 1, greater negative intestinal digestibilities of p-coumaric acid (P less than .001) and vanillin (P less than .05) occurred for steers fed HU and HCGM vs AH and AHCGM diets. Digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were greater (P less than .001) for steers fed ammoniated hay diets in both trials and greater (P less than .05) for HCGM vs HU in trial 1. More than 96% of the NDF and ADF digested by steers in trial 1 was digested in the stomach. Intakes of digestible NDF and ADF, but not indigestible NDF or ADF, were higher (P less than .001) for steers fed AH and AHCGM in trial 2. In situ dry matter disappearance rate of ammoniated hay was greater (P less than .05) than that of nontreated hay, but rate of cotton thread disappearance from bags suspended in the rumen of steers fed the various diets was similar among treatments. In both trials, feeding ammoniated hay resulted in higher (P less than .05) ruminal concentrations of acetate and higher (P less than 0.05) acetate:propionate ratios. Ruminal liquid dilution rates were lower (P less than .05) for steers fed AH and AHCGM in trial 1, but were not different in trial 2. Ruminal dry matter concentration and solids dilution rate were not affected by diet in either trial. The results are interpreted to indicate that increased intake of ammoniated hay is a result of increased rate and extent of fiber digestion. PMID:3571007
Chestnut, A B; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C
The aim of the present trials was to determine the effect of an experimental Brown-midrib (Bm) corn hybrid in relation to a commercial corn hybrid (Con) on digestibility in wethers and on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Digestibility of crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) were higher for Bm (CF Con: 57.8%; Bm: 67.2%; NDFom Con: 56.8%; Bm: 64.8%; ADFom Con: 52.0%; Bm: 63.9%), but concentration of net energy for lactation did not differ (Con: 6.4 MJ/kg DM; Bm: 6.3 MJ/kg DM). A total of 64 lactating German Holstein cows were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments Con or Bm according to milk yield, lactation number, days in milk and live weight. In Trial 1, cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 50% corn silage (Con or Bm) and 50% concentrate on dry matter (DM) basis. In Trial 2, the same animals were fed the respective silage for ad libitum intake and 5.3 kg of concentrate DM per animal per day. In Trial 1, DMI and milk-fat content were decreased significantly for the Bm-treatment (DMI Con: 22.5 kg/day; Bm: 21.5 kg/day; milk fat Con: 3.8%; Bm: 3.3%). In Trial 2, milk yield and fat-corrected milk (FCM) were increased significantly, whereas milk-fat% was decreased significantly (milk yield Con: 25.8 kg/day; Bm: 29.4 kg/day; FCM Con: 27.2 kg/day; Bm: 29.6 kg/day; fat Con: 4.4%; Bm: 4.0%). Diets did not influence ruminal pH or temperature. Diets, furthermore, did not influence rumination in either trial. Additional research on digestibility and rumen fermentation should, however, be carried out using dairy cows at respective intake levels as trials with wethers cannot be transferred to high-yielding ad libitum fed cows. PMID:23679922
Gorniak, T; Meyer, U; Hackelsperger, F; Dänicke, S
A survey of the presence of total and hexavalent chromium in lager beers was conducted to understand the variability between different styles of lager beer packaged in glass or cans and to estimate daily intake of total Cr and hexavalent chromium from beer. Graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy using validated methodologies was applied. Selective extraction of hexavalent chromium was performed using a Chromabond NH2/500 mg column and elution with nitric acid. The detection limits were 0.26 and 0.68 ?g L(-1) for total Cr and Cr(VI), respectively. The mean content of total Cr ranged between 1.13 ?g L(-1) in canned pale lager and 4.32 ?g L(-1) in low-alcohol beers, whereas the mean content of Cr(VI) was <2.51 ?g L(-1). Considering an intake of 500 mL of beer, beer consumption can contribute approximately 2.28-8.64 and 1.6-6.17% of the recommended daily intake of chromium for women and men, respectively. PMID:25175906
Vieira, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Kozior, Marta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Bastos, M Lourdes
Decreasing fat intake in subjects at risk of cardiovascular diseases and particularly diabetics is a major issue. To investigate whether low-fat (41%) butter (LFB) is of any benefit compared to regular butter (RB), 97 hospitalized diabetics (41 insulin-dependent) were studied on four consecutive days. Breakfast (bread, butter and drink) was served at 0830 hrs, on successive mornings. LFB and RB were presented ad libitum, on alternate days. Satiety was assessed at 10 and 12 h, using line rating scales. At 1230 hrs lunch was served, with large servings corresponding to 130% of the recommended lunch intake, so that carry-over effects from the breakfast manipulation could be measured. At breakfast, LFB was consumed in higher amounts, 27 vs. 21 g, F(1,96) = 33.24, p < 0.0001, than RB; however, the energy intake was significantly lower (by about -38%) on LFB days, F(1,96) = 158.3, p = 0.0001. Hunger at 10 h but not at 12 h was affected by breakfast conditions. Lunch intake was comparable following LFB and RB breakfasts. In conclusion, LFB utilization under acute conditions seems to benefit diabetics by reducing caloric and fat intake. PMID:8561484
Slama, G; Rossi, F; Bellisle, F; Casassus, P; Fiquet, P; Chappuis, A S; Desplanque, N; Laffitte, A
Perchlorate is used in fireworks and China is the largest fireworks producer and consumer in the world. Information regarding human exposure to perchlorate is scarce in China, and exposure via indoor dust ingestion (EDIindoor dust) has rarely been evaluated. In this study, perchlorate was found in indoor dust (detection rate: 100%, median: 47.4 ?g/g), human urine (99%, 26.2 ng/mL), drinking water (100%, 3.99 ng/mL), and dairy milk (100%, 12.3 ng/mL) collected from cities that have fireworks manufacturing areas (Yueyang and Nanchang) and in cities that do not have fireworks manufacturing industries (Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Yuxi and Guilin) in China. In comparison with perchlorate levels reported for other countries, perchlorate levels in urine samples from fireworks sites and nonfireworks sites in China were higher. Median indoor dust perchlorate concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001) with outdoor dust perchlorate levels reported previously. The total daily intake (EDItoal) of perchlorate, estimated based on urinary levels, ranged from 0.090 to 27.72 ?g/kg body weight (bw)/day for all studied participants; the percentage of donors who had EDItotal exceeding the reference dose (RfD) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was 79%, 48%, and 25% for toddlers (median: 1.829 ?g/kg bw/day), adults (0.669 ?g/kg bw/day), and children (median: 0.373 ?g/kg bw/day), respectively. Toddlers (0.258 ?g/kg bw/day) had the highest median EDIindoor dust, which was 2 to 5 times greater than the EDIindoor dust calculated for other age groups (the range of median values: 0.044 to 0.127 ?g/kg bw/day). Contribution of indoor dust to EDItotal was 26%, 28%, and 7% for toddlers, children, and adults, respectively. Indoor dust contributed higher percentage to EDItotal than that by dairy milk (0.5-5%). PMID:25587720
Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiaojia; Wang, Dou; Li, Rudan; Ma, Yufang; Mo, Weiwen; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Decreasing fat intake in subjects at risk of cardiovascular diseases and particularly diabetics is a major issue. To investigate whether low-fat (41%) butter (LFB) is of any benefit compared to regular butter (RB), 97 hospitalized diabetics (41 insulin-dependent) were studied on four consecutive days. Breakfast (bread, butter and drink) was served at 0830 hrs, on successive mornings. LFB and RB
G. SLAMA; F. ROSSI; F. BELLISLE; P. CASASSUS; P. FIQUET; A. S. CHAPPUIS; N. DESPLANQUE; A. LAFFITTE
Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely. PMID:23639024
Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I
Background Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. Objective The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Methods Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts) for food group intake. The mean cross-classification into “exact agreement plus adjacent” was 80% and 78% for nutrient and food group intake, respectively. There were no significant differences between energy intakes estimated using the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for both energy and energy-controlled nutrient intakes. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the online Food4Me FFQ is reproducible for assessing nutrient and food group intake and has moderate agreement with the 4-day WFR for assessing energy and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. The Food4Me FFQ is a suitable online tool for assessing dietary intake in healthy adults. PMID:25113936
Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J
The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R2 = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R2 = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R2 = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients. PMID:21556230
Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran
In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2) of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (y-axes) and observed IVTDMD (x-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats. PMID:23762592
In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of ? 25% of energy from added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars.
Bernadette P. Marriott; Lauren Olsho; Louise Hadden; Patty Connor
Background Low intakes of dietary antioxidants may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy. Objective We investigated the association of maternal total intakes (foods + supplements) of 10 antioxidant nutrients during pregnancy with wheezing and eczema in 2-y-old children. Design Subjects were 1290 mother-child pairs in an ongoing cohort study. Maternal dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered in the first and second trimesters. Antioxidant nutrient intakes were calculated, and the mean for each nutrient was considered to be the exposure during pregnancy. The outcomes of interest were any wheezing by the child during either the first or second year of life, recurrent wheezing in both years, and eczema in either the first or second year. Results No association was observed between maternal total intake of any antioxidant nutrient and eczema. In multivariate logistic regression models, the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of maternal total intakes of vitamin E [odds ratio (OR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.03] and zinc (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.88) was inversely associated with any wheezing at 2 y of age (P for trend = 0.06 and 0.01 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Similar results were obtained for recurrent wheezing at 2 y of age with vitamin E (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.90) and zinc (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.87) (P for trend = 0.05 and 0.06 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that higher maternal total intakes of antioxidants during pregnancy may decrease the risks for wheezing illnesses in early childhood. PMID:17023719
Litonjua, Augusto A; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Ly, Ngoc P; Tantisira, Kelan G; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Camargo, Carlos A; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R
The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through water. It is necessary to determine the contribution of water used for drinking and food processing and other diet sources on daily fluoride intake for finding the ways to reduce the excess fluoride intake than the minimum safe level intake of 0.05 mg/kg/day. The main objectives of this study are to determine the quantitative impact of water through drinking and cooking of food and beverages on total fluoride intake as well as to estimate the contribution of commonly consumed diet sources on total fluoride intake. Contribution of water on daily fluoride intake and estimation of total fluoride intake through the diet sources were accomplished through analysis of fluoride in drinking water, solid and liquid food items, Infant formulae, tea and coffee infusions using fluoride ion selective electrode. Determination of incidence of fluorosis in different fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India is achieved through clinical survey. The percentage of daily fluoride intake through water is significantly higher for infants than children, adults and old age groups of people. The percentile scores of fluoride intake through water from drinking and cooking increases with increase of water fluoride level. The rate of prevalence of fluorosis is higher in adolescent girls and females than adolescent boys and males residing in high fluoride endemic areas. More than 60% of the total fluoride intake per day derived from water used for drinking and food processing. Hence the people residing in the fluoride endemic areas in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, South India are advised to take serious concern about the fluoride level of water used for drinking and cooking to avoid further fluorosis risks. PMID:20728198
Viswanathan, Gopalan; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S
The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the variation of nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites and oxidative stress parameters triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and 2) evaluate the ability of pelleted beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground corn to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets during four successive17-day periods: 1) total mixed ration (TMR) containing 0% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W0); 2) TMR containing 10% FGW (W10); 3) TMR containing 20% FGW (W20); and 4) TMR containing 10% BP as a replacement for 10% ground corn (BP10). The SARA induction protocol reduced the mean ruminal pH from 6.37 to 5.94, and the minimum ruminal pH decreased from 5.99 to 5.41 from baseline to challenge period. Mean ruminal pH increased from 5.94 to 6.05, and minimum daily ruminal pH increased from 5.41 to 5.63, when BP was substituted for corn. The apparent digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the dietary treatments, except that the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) was reduced in cows fed the W20 diet compared with cows fed the W0 and W10 diets, and cows fed the BP10 diet had higher NDF and ADF digestibility than the cows fed the W20 diet. Cows fed the W20 diet had a lower plasma concentration of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, triglyceride, and total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and a higher plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, malonaldehyde (MDA), super oxygen dehydrogenises (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) than cows fed the W0 diet. Substitution of BP for corn increased concentrations of plasma BHBA and TAC, but decreased concentrations of plasma MDA. Our results indicate that reduction of fibre digestion; the concomitant increase of plasma glucose and insulin; the decrease of plasma BHBA, NEFA, cholesterol, and triglyceride; and changes of plasma oxidative stress parameters are highly related to SARA induced by W20 diets. These variables may be alternative candidates for SARA diagnosis. We also suggest that the substitution of BP for corn could reduce the risk of SARA, increase fibre digestion, and improve the antioxidant status in dairy cows. PMID:23947764
Guo, Yongqing; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zou, Yang; Yang, Zhanshan; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun
The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the variation of nutrient digestion, plasma metabolites and oxidative stress parameters triggered by induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA); and 2) evaluate the ability of pelleted beet pulp (BP) as a replacement for ground corn to alleviate SARA. Eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed four diets during four successive17-day periods: 1) total mixed ration (TMR) containing 0% finely ground wheat (FGW) (W0); 2) TMR containing 10% FGW (W10); 3) TMR containing 20% FGW (W20); and 4) TMR containing 10% BP as a replacement for 10% ground corn (BP10). The SARA induction protocol reduced the mean ruminal pH from 6.37 to 5.94, and the minimum ruminal pH decreased from 5.99 to 5.41 from baseline to challenge period. Mean ruminal pH increased from 5.94 to 6.05, and minimum daily ruminal pH increased from 5.41 to 5.63, when BP was substituted for corn. The apparent digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the dietary treatments, except that the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) was reduced in cows fed the W20 diet compared with cows fed the W0 and W10 diets, and cows fed the BP10 diet had higher NDF and ADF digestibility than the cows fed the W20 diet. Cows fed the W20 diet had a lower plasma concentration of ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol, triglyceride, and total antioxidative capacity (TAC), and a higher plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, malonaldehyde (MDA), super oxygen dehydrogenises (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) than cows fed the W0 diet. Substitution of BP for corn increased concentrations of plasma BHBA and TAC, but decreased concentrations of plasma MDA. Our results indicate that reduction of fibre digestion; the concomitant increase of plasma glucose and insulin; the decrease of plasma BHBA, NEFA, cholesterol, and triglyceride; and changes of plasma oxidative stress parameters are highly related to SARA induced by W20 diets. These variables may be alternative candidates for SARA diagnosis. We also suggest that the substitution of BP for corn could reduce the risk of SARA, increase fibre digestion, and improve the antioxidant status in dairy cows. PMID:23947764
This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9-13, 14-18, and 19-20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine's recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the "meat" group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. PMID:23201841
Moore, Lynn L; Singer, Martha R; Qureshi, M Mustafa; Bradlee, M Loring; Daniels, Stephen R
The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine
Background Adequate folate status in pregnancy is important for satisfactory pregnancy outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the Study The objective of the present study was to evaluate folate status in healthy pregnant women by assessing dietary folate intakes\\u000a and measuring changes in folate-related biomarkers including plasma tHcy, serum vitamin B12 (B12), and serum and RBC folate concentrations in each trimester and to examine their
Hidemi Takimoto; Natsuko Mito; Keizo Umegaki; Asako Ishiwaki; Kaoru Kusama; Shiro Abe; Machi Yamawaki; Hideoki Fukuoka; Chitaru Ohta; Nobuo Yoshiike
We investigated the independent associations of total and beverage-specific ethanol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in middle-aged Japanese males, because of the scarcity of epidemiologic data in Japan. The subjects were 2227 male self-defense officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka, Kumamoto, and Sapporo Hospitals. Data on alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, and past medical history were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Height, weight, and waist and hip girth measurements were obtained at the examination. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed. Alcohol intake was positively and strongly associated with WHR (p = 0.0001), but not associated with BMI after adjustment for lifestyle variables, including either BMI or WHR. Subjects who consumed 15 ml per day or more of shochu ethanol showed a larger WHR than never drinkers, and a dose-response relationship was found. Dose-response relationships to other beverages were not found. Dose-response relationships to other beverages were not found. These findings suggest that alcohol intake is strongly and independently associated with WHR, but not with BMI. Abdominal obesity was positively associated with shochu ethanol, but not with other types of alcohol. PMID:9476818
Sakurai, Y; Umeda, T; Shinchi, K; Honjo, S; Wakabayashi, K; Todoroki, I; Nishikawa, H; Ogawa, S; Katsurada, M
Objective: To estimate the minimum number of days of recorded dietary intake needed to place infants and young children into thirds of a population distribution with an acceptable degree of accuracy.Design: Dietary intake data collected from 5-day weighed food records for 72 infants and young children up to 2 y of age, collected during a cross-sectional study, were analysed to
J A Lanigan; J C K Wells; M S Lawson; T J Cole; A Lucas
Chromium is an essential nutrient required for sugar and fat metabolism. Normal dietary intake of Cr for humans is suboptimal. The estimated safe and adequate daily dietary intake for Cr is 50 to 200 ?g. However, most diets contain less than 60% of the minimum suggested intake of 50 ?g. Insufficient dietary intake of Cr leads to signs and symptoms
Richard A Anderson
Magnesium plays significant roles in promoting strength. Surveys of athletes reveal that intake of magnesium is often below recommended levels. We aimed to understand the impact of magnesium intake on strength in elite male basketball, handball, and volleyball players. Energy and nutrient intake were assessed from seven-day diet record. Strength tests included maximal isometric trunk flexion, extension, and rotation, handgrip, squat and countermovement Abalakov jump, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion peak torques. Linear regression models were performed with significance at p<0.1. Mean magnesium intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily allowance. Regression analysis indicated that magnesium was directly associated with maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and handgrip, with jumping performance tests, and with all isokinetic strength variables, independent of total energy intake. The observed associations between magnesium intake and muscle strength performance may result from the important role of magnesium in energetic metabolism, transmembrane transport and muscle contraction and relaxation. PMID:21983266
Santos, Diana Aguiar; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Silva, Analiza Mónica; Rocha, Paulo Manuel; Minderico, Cláudia Sofia; Bettencourt Sardinha, Luís; Laires, Maria José
Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25241653
Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylat...
To assess the impact of milk and sweetened beverage (SwB) intake on diet and weight in Head Start mothers, three 24-hour dietary recalls were collected on 609 Black (43%), Hispanic (33%), or White (24%) women in AL and TX. Women were divided into four beverage consumption groups: low milk/high SwB, ...
Shift work is associated with nutritional and health problems. In the present study, the food intake of garbage collectors of the city of Florianopolis (Brazil) was investigated using a dietary survey method based on meal recording during 24 h and adapted for the Brazilian food context. Three different shifts (morning, afternoon, and night) were compared (n=22 per shift). Age, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were similar for all groups. Daily energy expenditure was high in all three shifts, especially in morning shift workers. No difference in daily energy intake was found, in spite of differences in food choices and circadian ingestion rhythms. Energy intake was high and close to levels previously reported in athletes. Several factors not associated with shifts had significant impact on ingestion: hour of the day, time since the last meal, age, and BMI. Ingested foods were analyzed in groups based on nutrient content. Shifts significantly influenced intake of starches, alcoholic drinks, and sweets. In different periods of the day, food and nutrient intake were considerably affected by shifts. The analysis of circadian distribution of food choices and nutrient intake is important in shift workers, because total daily intake may not reveal shift-associated differences. PMID:12781167
de Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg; Kupek, Emil; Nahas, Markus Vinícius; Bellisle, France
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of out-of-hand nut (OOHN) consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Data from 24-hour recalls from individuals aged 2+ years (n = 24,385) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The population was divided into children aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, and adults 19+ years, and each group was dichotomized into OOHN consumers and nonconsumers. Out-of-hand nut consumers were defined as those individuals consuming ¼ oz of nuts or more per d. Means, standard errors, and covariate-adjusted analyses of variance were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Significance was set at P < .05. The percent of OOHN consumers increased with age: 2.1% ± 0.3%, 2.6% ± 0.3%, 6.5% ± 0.5%, and 9.6% ± 0.5% those aged 2 to 11, 12 to 18, 19 to 50, and 51+ years, respectively. The 2 latter groups were combined into a single group of consumers aged 19+ years for subsequent analyses. Consumers of OOHN from all age groups had higher intakes of energy, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, copper, and magnesium and lower intakes of carbohydrates, cholesterol, and sodium than did nonconsumers. Diet quality was higher in OOHN consumers of all age groups. In children aged 2 to 11 years, consumers had a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. In those aged 12 to 18 years, weight and percent overweight were lower in consumers. Adult consumers had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, red blood cell folate, and serum folate levels and lower insulin, glycohemoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels than did nonconsumers. Adult consumers also had a 19% decreased risk of hypertension and a 21% decreased risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Data suggested that OOHN consumption was associated with improved nutrient intake, diet quality, and, in adults, a lower prevalence of 2 risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Consumption of OOHN, as part of a healthy diet, should be encouraged by health professionals. PMID:22464805
O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L
Course Cum. Total Fall 2012 EDUC 636-3 (Language and Learning Disabilities) 3 Winter 2013 EDUC 633 & Methodology) 9 Fall 2013 EDUC 640-3 (Special Topics: ASD) 12 Winter 2014 EDUC 602-4 (Quantitative Research 637-3 (Interventions for Literacy Disorders) 3 Summer 2013 EDUC 636-3 (Language and Learning
Northern British Columbia, University of
Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as ?-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. PMID:20853414
Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H
We conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of research regarding feeding problems and nutrient status among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The systematic search yielded 17 prospective studies involving a comparison group. Using rigorous meta-analysis techniques, we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) with…
Sharp, William G.; Berry, Rashelle C.; McCracken, Courtney; Nuhu, Nadrat N.; Marvel, Elizabeth; Saulnier, Celine A.; Klin, Ami; Jones, Warren; Jaquess, David L.
Prospective studies examining the association between coffee and tea consumption and gastric cancer risk have shown inconsistent results. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea consumption and the risk of gastric cancer by anatomical site and histological type in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Coffee and tea consumption were assessed by dietary questionnaires at baseline. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression models. During 11.6 years of follow up, 683 gastric adenocarcinoma cases were identified among 477,312 participants. We found no significant association between overall gastric cancer risk and consumption of total coffee (HR 1.09, 95%-confidence intervals [CI]: 0.84-1.43; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), caffeinated coffee (HR 1.14, 95%-CI: 0.82-1.59; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1), decaffeinated coffee (HR 1.07, 95%-CI: 0.75-1.53; tertile 3 vs. non/tertile 1) and tea (HR 0.81, 95%-CI: 0.59-1.09; quartile 4 vs. non/quartile 1). When stratified by anatomical site, we observed a significant positive association between gastric cardia cancer risk and total coffee consumption per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.06, 95%-CI: 1.03-1.11). Similarly, a significant positive association was observed between gastric cardia cancer risk and caffeinated coffee consumption (HR 1.98, 95%-CI: 1.16-3.36, p-trend=0.06; quartile 3 vs. non/quartile 1) and per increment of 100 mL/day (HR 1.09, 95%-CI: 1.04-1.14). In conclusion, consumption of total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea is not associated with overall gastric cancer risk. However, total and caffeinated coffee consumption may be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. Further prospective studies are needed to rule out chance or confounding. PMID:25236393
Sanikini, Harinakshi; Dik, Vincent K; Siersema, Peter D; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Peeters, Petra H M; González, Carlos A; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Huerta, José María; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallstrom, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Johansson, Ingegerd; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Huybrechts, Inge; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As
Food consumption patterns, using the 24?hour dietary recall and frequency methods, as well as food beliefs, were studied in rural areas of Sirjan, Iran, the households being chosen by cluster?sampling. Foods were mainly of a plant origin, wheat, in the form of bread, being the main staple. Energy and protein intakes were only 75% of the 1985 WHO\\/FAO\\/UNU recommendations in
A. Djazayery; F. Siassi; N. Kholdi
Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B2, B6, B12, and methionine with promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-?2 genes in archived tumor tissues from incident, primary breast cancer cases in a
Meng-Hua Tao; Joel B. Mason; Catalin Marian; Susan E. McCann; Mary E. Platek; Amy Millen; Christine Ambrosone; Stephen B. Edge; Shiva S. Krishnan; Maurizio Trevisan; Peter G. Shields; Jo L. Freudenheim
Several external markers can be used for estimating total faecal output in view of assessing ruminant intake at pasture. Among them, ytterbium (Yb) has been used for many years in various conditions. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a promising external marker because it can be rapidly determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The study consisted of 24 adult lactating dairy ewes over three periods (P1, P2 and P3), fed with three different diets: P1, total mixed ration (TMR); P2, Italian ryegrass (IRG); and P3, pasture. After an adaptation period, the ewes were administered a daily dose of ytterbium oxide (0.35 g/day) and PEG (20 g/day) for 2 weeks. During the last week, the daily organic matter intake (OMIOBS) was measured. Faecal samples were collected at milking time (0800 and 1600 h) to determine marker content, using only samples collected in the morning (PEGm) or by averaging samples (Yb, PEGma). Faecal marker content made it possible to assess total faecal output, either using the two recovery rates for PEG (0.98 or 0.87) or not. The OMIOBS was assessed on the basis of total faeces estimated with Yb (OMIYb) or PEG (OMIPEG), and the digestibility was calculated on the basis of feed analysis. With total TMR (P1), the OMIPEG, corrected with recovery rate (OMIPEGm98) or not corrected (OMIPEGm) was 2.40 kg/day and 2.50 kg/day, respectively, and was not different (P>0.05) from OMIOBS (2.51 kg/day), whereas OMIYb was lower (2.14 kg/day) (P<0.001). With IRG (P2), OMIPEGm98 (1.67 kg/day), OMIPEGm87 (1.51 kg/day) and OMIYb (1.59 kg/day) were not different (P>0.05) from OMIOBS (1.57 kg/day). With pasture (P3), the OMIPEGm (1.54 kg/day) and OMIPEGm98 (1.48 kg/day) were not different (P>0.05) from the OMI assessed from the biomass measurement (1.52 kg/day). The OMIYb (1.36 kg/day) was lower (P<0.05) but not different from OMIPEGm98 and OMIPEGm87. Spearman's rank correlation between OMIOBS and other OMIs (predicted with Yb or PEG P1 and P2) showed that it is possible to rank animals using PEG when there is a sufficiently wide range of OMIOBS (1.65 to 2.8 kg/day in P1) but not within a narrower range (1.47 to 1.72 kg/day in P2). In conclusion, the present study confirms that PEG is a valuable external faecal marker, easy to prepare (solution), administer and determine (NIRS). It can be used to assess intake with numerous animals at pasture, but only for groups, and not to quantitatively estimate individual OMI. PMID:24923355
Hassoun, P; Bastianelli, D; Autran, P; Bocquier, F
Biotin is a widely distributed water soluble vitamin. Adequate intake of biotin was set at 50 µg/d in Japan 2010. Recently, the importance of the application of probabilistic techniques to estimate the share of the population at risk of deficient and excessive nutrient intake has been increasingly emphasized for assessing nutrient adequacy. Monte Carlo simulation, a computer-based method of analysis that uses statistical sampling techniques yielding a probabilistic approximation to the solution of a mathematical model, has been used to estimate the probabilistic distribution of the dietary intake of food chemicals. For this study, we used two preliminary models to estimate the dietary biotin intake with food consumption data based on the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan. One is evaluated by biotin concentration data from the total diet study; the other is a dataset of biotin concentration in individual foods. After removing outliers from the individual foods dataset, probability density distributions from two models showed analogous mean, median, 5th percentile, and 95th percentile values. The daily biotin intakes from these probabilistic methods showed that more than 80% of the Japanese population had higher than the adequate intake of biotin. However, the contribution of each food group to the total daily biotin intake was somewhat different. Improvement of these methods necessitates the collection of more actual data associated with sample compositional variability and evaluation of uncertainty associated with the food group classification of biotin. PMID:21422716
Murakami, Taro; Takakura, Kouichi; Yamano, Tetsuo
Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above
Recommended Amounts of Total grains Table B8. Total grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above
Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI. PMID:24458212
Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J
This study surveyed the dietary intakes of residents from 27 nursing homes representing 25% of the total homes in 11 counties of Illinois. The energy and nutrient contents of foods listed on the daily menu and the menu for the main meal; foods served at the main meal; and foods eaten at the main meal were calculated and compared with
Jeannette M Endres; Leola Theobald; Cheryl R Galligos; Marjorie Sawicki
Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a key regulatory protein in folate metabolism, methionine availability, and transmethylation reactions. Perturbations in GNMT may lead to aberrations in homocysteine metabolism, a marker of numerous pathologies. The primary objective of this study was to examine the influence of the GNMT 1289 C-->T alone, and in combination with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C-->T variant, on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in healthy young women (n = 114). Plasma total homocysteine was measured at baseline (wk 0) and after 2 wk of controlled folate restriction (135 microg/d as dietary folate equivalents). Plasma homocysteine concentrations did not differ among the GNMT C1289T genotypes at baseline. However, after folate restriction, women with the GNMT 1289 TT genotype (n = 16) had higher (P = 0.019) homocysteine concentrations than women with the CT (n = 51) or CC (n = 47) genotype. The influence of the GNMT 1289 C-->T variant on homocysteine was dependent on the MTHFR C677T genotype. In subjects with the MTHFR 677 CC genotype, homocysteine was greater (P < or = 0.05) for GNMT 1289 TT subjects relative to 1289 CT or CC subjects. However, in subjects with the MTHFR 677 TT genotype, plasma homocysteine concentrations did not differ among the GNMT C1289T genotypes. Overall, these data suggest that the GNMT 1289 C-->T polymorphism influences plasma homocysteine and is responsive to folate intake. PMID:16317120
Beagle, Brandon; Yang, Tai Li; Hung, Jean; Cogger, Edward A; Moriarty, David J; Caudill, Marie A
This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227
Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios
Two trials were conducted to evaluate intake restriction, energy, and protein source on the performance and carcass merit of heifers limit-fed corn gluten feed. Trial 1 crossbred heifers (n = 140) were allotted to ad libitum wet corn gluten feed (WCGF)-hay, ad libitum WCGF-corn, WCGF-corn continuously limit-fed to achieve a gain of 1.1 kg/d or WCGF-corn fed in the following sequence: 70% of ad libitum for 20 d, ad libitum for 20 d, and 2 d common intake during the 84-d growing period. One-half of these restricted-refed heifers received a rumen-undegraded protein supplement, and the other half received a rumen degraded protein supplement. Heifers were fed a common finishing diet ad libitum subsequent to the growing period. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay and WCGF-corn were slaughtered at a common compositional fat end point. Heifers limit-fed WCGF-corn were slaughtered at the same time as heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-corn, regardless of subcutaneous fat cover. Limit-feeding WCGF-corn diets to growing heifers reduced ADG (P < or = 0.01) but did not compromise feed efficiency. Method of intake restriction, continuous or ad libitum-interrupted, and supplemental protein source did not affect combined growing-finishing performance. However, when fed for a common length of time, the average of the limit-fed heifers had lighter carcass weights (P < or = 0.01) and lower (P = 0.04) marbling scores. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay gained slower (P < or = 0.01) and less efficiently (P < or = 0.01) than heifers offered WCGF-corn. Trial 2 crossbred heifers (n = 222) were allotted to dry corn gluten feed (DCGF)-corn ad libitum or restricted to 80% of ad libitum for 42, 84, or 126 d; or ad libitum corn silage or DCGF-corn silage at 80% of ad libitum for 84 d. Feed efficiency (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.08) tended to behave quadratically, being poorer for heifers limit-fed for 126 d during the growing period. Heifers limit-fed DCGF-corn gained more efficiently (P = 0.05) than heifers grown on ad libitum corn silage. Limit-feeding CGF-corn to growing beef heifers can be used to achieve moderate rates of gain without compromising feed efficiency. However, limit-feeding during the growing period may result in lighter weight carcasses with lower quality grades if not fed to the same fat end point as heifers grown with free access to concentrate. PMID:11424699
Wertz, A E; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Nash, T G
Four wethers were used in a 4?×?4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P?0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P?=?0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. PMID:25354430
Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that trans fat intake increases the risk of some chronic diseases. We hypothesize that trans fat intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by changing the lipid profile in plasma, the secretion of adipokines in adipose tissue, and the insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, the major objective of present study was to
Zhiliang Huang; Baowu Wang; Ralphenia D. Pace; Seokjoo Yoon
Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documentation at the food and nutrient levels to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations. The International Agency for
U. R. Charrondiere; J. Vignat; A. Møller; J. Ireland; W. Becker; S. Church; A. Farran; J. Holden; C. Klemm; A. Linardou; D. Mueller; S. Salvini; L. Serra-Majem; G. Skeie; W. van Staveren; I. Unwin; S. Westenbrink; N. Slimani; E. Ribol
Objectives: The energy density (ED) of the diet is considered an important determinant of total energy intake and thus energy balance and weight change. We aimed to compare relationships between ED and macronutrient content in individual food and beverage items as well as population diet in a typical Western country.Design: Nutrient data for 3673 food items and 247 beverage items
T C Crowe; HA La Fontaine; C J Gibbons; D Cameron-Smith; B A Swinburn
Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N?=?477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N?=?34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and perspectives of using nutrient patterns in future studies particularly at international level. PMID:24901309
Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia
The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70-80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day) for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg) compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg). The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed. PMID:22254072
Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L
Background: Epidemiologic data suggest that persons with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are at a lower risk of several chronic diseases and mortality than are persons with diets poor in fruit and vegetables. Often, this effect is attributed to antioxidant micronutri- ents found in plant foods. Objective: We aimed to assess the relation of mortality to the con- sumptionoffruit,vegetables,andotherplantfoodsandtothedietary
Antonio Agudo; Laia Cabrera; Pilar Amiano; Eva Ardanaz; Aurelio Barricarte; Toni Berenguer; María D Chirlaque; Miren Dorronsoro; Paula Jakszyn; Nerea Larranaga; Carmen Martínez; Carmen Navarro; Jose R Quiros; María J Sanchez; María J Tormo; Carlos A Gonzalez
Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001) from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3. PMID:23645026
Völgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N.; Hare, Marion E.; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A.
Background There is little information in the literature on methods of food composition database development to calculate nutrient intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data. The aim of this study is to describe the development of an FFQ and a food composition table to calculate nutrient intake in a Black Zimbabwean population. Methods Trained interviewers collected 24-hour dietary recalls (24 hr DR) from high and low income families in urban and rural Zimbabwe. Based on these data and input from local experts we developed an FFQ, containing a list of frequently consumed foods, standard portion sizes, and categories of consumption frequency. We created a food composition table of the foods found in the FFQ so that we could compute nutrient intake. We used the USDA nutrient database as the main resource because it is relatively complete, updated, and easily accessible. To choose the food item in the USDA nutrient database that most closely matched the nutrient content of the local food we referred to a local food composition table. Results Almost all the participants ate sadza (maize porridge) at least 5 times a week, and about half had matemba (fish) and caterpillar more than once a month. Nutrient estimates obtained from the FFQ data by using the USDA and Zimbabwean food composition tables were similar for total energy intake intra class correlation (ICC) = 0.99, and carbohydrate (ICC = 0.99), but different for vitamin A (ICC = 0.53), and total folate (ICC = 0.68). Conclusion We have described a standardized process of FFQ and food composition database development for a Black Zimbabwean population. PMID:16351722
Merchant, Anwar T; Dehghan, Mahshid; Chifamba, Jephat; Terera, Getrude; Yusuf, Salim
Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. PMID:24433390
Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136
Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.
An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber digestibility (HFDCS and LFDCS), no differences were observed between methods. These values suggest that our in vitro TTNDFD model could be used to predicted rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for dairy cattle. PMID:25465567
Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K
This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525
Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234
Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468
Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time. The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary), and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC) folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism. Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys. PMID:22489219
Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Johnson, Clifford L.; Coates, Paul M.
Automated methods for collecting and processing food intake data have been developed by the Food Surveys Research Group at USDA to increase the quality and efficiency of food intake surveys and other dietary research studies. These automated methods are part of a Dietary Intake Data System, which consists of three computer systems and an extensive food and nutrient database. Computer
Nancy Raper; Betty Perloff; Linda Ingwersen; Lois Steinfeldt; Jaswinder Anand
The current Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) use different Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for zinc for adolescent boys and girls compared to the previous recommendations. The adequacy of zinc intakes of 2-16 years old children (n = 4834) was examined in the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Zinc intakes were estimated from two 24-h recalls and compared with age- and gender-specific NRV. Food sources of zinc were assessed and compared with those of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. The mean (SD) zinc intake was 10.2 (3.0) mg/day for all children. Nearly all children met the EAR for zinc except for 14-16 years old boys (29% did not meet EAR). Children (2-3 years) were at highest risk of excessive zinc intakes with 79% exceeding the Upper Level of Intake. Meat and poultry; milk products; and cereals and cereal products contributed 68% of total zinc intake. The contribution of cereals to total zinc intake has increased significantly since 1995, due to the greater market-availability of zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. We conclude that sub-groups of Australian children are at-risk of inadequate (boys 14-16 years) or excessive (children 2-3 years) zinc intakes, and monitoring of zinc status is required. PMID:22852053
Rangan, Anna M; Samman, Samir
The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health. PMID:24898231
Mangels, Ann Reed
Choline and betaine are important nutrients for human health, but reference food composition databases for these nutrients became available only recently. We tested the feasibility of using these databases to estimate dietary choline and betaine intakes among ethnically diverse adults who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Of the food items (n = 965) used to quantify intakes for the MEC FFQ, 189 items were exactly matched with items in the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods for total choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine, and 547 items were matched to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference for total choline (n = 547) and 148 for betaine. When a match was not found, choline and betaine values were imputed based on the same food with a different form (124 food items for choline, 300 for choline compounds, 236 for betaine), a similar food (n = 98, 284, and 227, respectively) or the closest item in the same food category (n = 6, 191, and 157, respectively), or the values were assumed to be zero (n = 1, 1, and 8, respectively). The resulting mean intake estimates for choline and betaine among 188,147 MEC participants (aged 45–75) varied by sex (372 and 154 mg/d in men, 304 and 128 mg/d in women, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.0001) and by race/ethnicity among Caucasians, African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians (P-heterogeneity < 0.0001), largely due to the variation in energy intake. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing choline and betaine intake and characterize the variation in intake that exists in a multiethnic population. PMID:23616508
Yonemori, Kim M.; Lim, Unhee; Koga, Karin R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Au, Donna; Boushey, Carol J.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.
Background Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of pathology specimens. A modified food-frequency questionnaire interview was completed by each glioma patient or a designated proxy. Intake of each food item was converted to grams consumed/day. From this nutrient database, 16 antioxidants, calcium, a total antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were available for survival analysis. Cox regression estimated mortality hazard ratios associated with each nutrient and the antioxidant index adjusting for potential confounders. Nutrient values were categorized into tertiles. Models were stratified by histology (Grades II, III, and IV) and conducted for all (including proxy) subjects and for a subset of self-reported subjects. Results Geometric mean values for 11 fat-soluble and 6 water-soluble individual antioxidants, antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were virtually the same when comparing all cases (n = 748) to self-reported cases only (n = 450). For patients diagnosed with Grade II and Grade III histology, moderate (915.8-2118.3 mcg) intake of fat-soluble lycopene was associated with poorer survival when compared to low intake (0.0-914.8 mcg), for self-reported cases only. High intake of vitamin E and moderate/high intake of secoisolariciresinol among Grade III patients indicated greater survival for all cases. In Grade IV patients, moderate/high intake of cryptoxanthin and high intake of secoisolariciresinol were associated with poorer survival among all cases. Among Grade II patients, moderate intake of water-soluble folate was associated with greater survival for all cases; high intake of vitamin C and genistein and the highest level of the antioxidant index were associated with poorer survival for all cases. Conclusions The associations observed in our study suggest that the influence of some antioxidants on survival following a diagnosis of malignant glioma are inconsistent and vary by histology group. Further research in a large sample of glioma patients is needed to confirm/refute our results. PMID:20482871
Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B?, B?, B?, B??, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country. PMID:23312136
Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M
The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that erythrocytes that are low in n-3 fatty acids and high in trans-fatty acids and nutrient intakes are associated with the risk of atherosclerosis. Fifty patients with acute nonfatal myocardial infarction were recruited to measure their dietary intake, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, intima medial thickness (IMT), and the Gensini score, which are markers of atherosclerosis. Trans-oleic acid of erythrocytes was positively (P = .05) correlated with the carotid IMT. After adjusting for age, sex, and energy intake, the IMT was negatively associated with the intake of protein, fat, phosphate, zinc, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), niacin, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, total fatty acids, total n-3 fatty acids, and total n-6 fatty acids. The Gensini score was also negatively associated with the intake of protein, fat, phosphate, sodium, zinc, vitamin E, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), niacin, linolenic acid, total fatty acids, and total n-3 fatty acids. In conclusion, lower levels of trans-oleic acid (elaidic acid) in erythrocytes and higher intakes of vitamins, minerals, and n-3 fatty acids were associated with the decreased risk of atherosclerosis. However, these findings need further investigation in randomized controlled clinical trials before public health recommendations for atherosclerosis prevention can be made. PMID:19628105
Park, Yongsoon; Lim, Jeehyun; Kwon, Yongju; Lee, Jaeung
Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US adults is needed to help with public health efforts to implement feasible and appropriate dietary recommendations. To determine the food sources of energy and 26 nutrients consumed by US adults the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample of adults 19+ years of age (y) (n = 9490) were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed for NHANES 2003–2006 using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. The highest ranked sources of energy and nutrients among adults more than 19 years old were: energy—yeast bread/rolls (7.2%) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7.2%); protein—poultry (14.4%) and beef (14.0%); total fat—other fats and oils (9.8%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.5%) and beef (9.1%); carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (11.4%) and yeast breads/rolls (10.9%); dietary fiber—yeast breads/rolls (10.9%) and fruit (10.2%); calcium—milk (22.5%) and cheese (21.6%); vitamin D—milk (45.1%) and fish/shellfish (14.4%); and potassium—milk (9.6%) and coffee/tea/other non-alcoholic beverages (8.4%). Knowledge of primary food sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce excess energy consumed by US adults and increase the nutrient adequacy of their diets. PMID:23363999
O’Neil, Carol E.; Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.
This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage producti...
The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.
Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults. PMID:22918177
Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S
Background Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the “Food4Me” study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. Methods The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the food group level was highest for “other fruits” (eg, apples, pears, oranges) and lowest for “cakes, pastries, and buns”. For food groups, correlations ranged between .41 and .90. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the online Food4Me FFQ has good agreement with the validated printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ for assessing both nutrient and food group intakes, rendering it a useful tool for ranking individuals based on nutrient and food group intakes. PMID:24911957
Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O’Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099
The objective of this project was to collect and evaluate data on nutrient intake and status across Europe and to ascertain whether any trends could be identified. Surveys of dietary intake and status were collected from across Europe by literature search and personal contact with country experts. Surveys that satisfied a defined set of criteria -- published, based on individual intakes, post-1987, adequate information provided to enable its quality to be assessed, small age bands, data for sexes separated above 12 years, sample size over 25 and subjects representative of the population -- were selected for further analysis. In a small number of cases, where no other data for a country were available or where status data were given, exceptions were made. Seventy-nine surveys from 23 countries were included, and from them data on energy, protein, fats, carbohydrates, alcohol, vitamins, minerals and trace elements were collected and tabulated. Data on energy, protein, total fat and carbohydrate were given in a large number of surveys, but information was very limited for some micronutrients. No surveys gave information on fluid intake and insufficient gave data on food patterns to be of value to this project. A variety of collection methods were used, there was no consistency in the ages of children surveyed or the age cut-off points, but most surveys gave data for males and females separately at all ages. Just under half of the surveys were nationally representative and most of the remainder were regional. Only a small number of local surveys could be included. Apart from anthropometric measurements, status data were collected in only seven countries. Males had higher energy intakes than females, energy intake increased with age but levelled off in adolescent girls. Intakes of other nutrients generally related to energy intakes. Some north-south geographical trends were noted in fat and carbohydrate intakes, but these were not apparent for other nutrients. Some other trends between countries were noted, but there were also wide variations within countries. A number of validation studies have shown that misreporting is a major problem in dietary surveys of children and adolescents and so all the dietary data collected for this project should be interpreted and evaluated with caution. In addition, dietary studies rely on food composition tables for the conversion of food intake data to estimated nutrient intakes and each country uses a different set of food composition data which differ in definitions, analytical methods, units and modes of expression. This can make comparisons between countries difficult and inaccurate. Methods of measuring food intake are not standardised across Europe and intake data are generally poor, so there are uncertainties over the true nutrient intakes of children and adolescents across Europe. There are insufficient data on status to be able to be able to draw any conclusions about the nutritional quality of the diets of European children and adolescents. PMID:15522158
Lambert, Janet; Agostoni, Carlo; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Hulshof, Karin; Krause, Edburga; Livingstone, Barbara; Socha, Piotr; Pannemans, Daphne; Samartín, Sonia
Nutrient budgeting strategies focus primarily on recycling manure to land as fertilizer for crop production. Critical elements for determining environmental balance and accountability require knowledge of nutrients excreted, potential nutrient removal by plants, acceptable losses of nutrients within the manure management and crop production systems, and alternatives that permit export of nutrients off-farm, if necessary. Nutrient excretions are closely related to nutrient intake and can be predicted by subtracting predicted nutrients in food animal products exported from the farm from total nutrients consumed. Intensifying crop production with double- or triple-cropping often is necessary for high-density food animal production units to use manure without being forced to export manure or fertilizer coproducts to other farms. Most manures are P-rich relative to N largely because of 1) relatively large losses of volatilized NH3, most of it converted from urea in urine, 2) denitrification losses in soil under wet, anaerobic conditions, and 3) ability of many crops to luxury-consume much more N than P. Most soils bind P effectively and P usually is permitted to accumulate, allowing for budgets to be based on N. However, P budgeting may be required in regions where surface runoff of P contributes to algae growth and eutrophication of surface waters or where soil P increases to levels of concern. Research is needed to determine whether dietary P allowances can be lowered without detriment to animal production or health in order to lower P intake and improve N:P ratios in manure relative to fertilization needs. PMID:8994923
Van Horn, H H; Newton, G L; Kunkle, W E
As part of the USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP), new analytical data were determined for the 20 most frequently consumed raw fish identified for FDA’s voluntary nutrition labeling. Samples of 21 fish species were purchased from 12 supermarkets nationwide according to a sta...
This chapter describes how the additional nutrient requirements of the mother and her fetus during pregnancy are met by a combination of physiological events that affect maternal nutrient utilization and fetal nutrient transfer, and increased dietary intakes. The physiological changes complicate the...
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in
X.-L. Cao; C. Perez-Locas; G. Dufresne; G. Clement; S. Popovic; F. Beraldin; R. W. Dabeka; M. Feeley
Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was <50% for iron, calcium, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. For women, mean or median adequacy was <50% for all nutrients except vitamin B-6 and niacin and was <1% for calcium, vitamin A, riboflavin, folate, and vitamin B-12. The mean PA (MPA) was correlated with energy intake and dietary diversity, and multivariate models including these variables explained 71-76% of the variance in MPA. The degree of micronutrient inadequacy among young children and women in rural Bangladesh is alarming and is primarily explained by diets low in energy and little diversity of foods. PMID:23256144
Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H
To date, Web-based 24-hour recalls have not been validated using objective biomarkers. From 2006 to 2009, the validity of 6 Web-based DietDay 24-hour recalls was tested among 115 black and 118 white healthy adults from Los Angeles, California, by using the doubly labeled water method, and the results were compared with the results of the Diet History Questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire developed by the National Cancer Institute. The authors performed repeated measurements in a subset of 53 subjects approximately 6 months later to estimate the stability of the doubly labeled water measurement. The attenuation factors for the DietDay recall were 0.30 for blacks and 0.26 for whites. For the Diet History Questionnaire, the attenuation factors were 0.15 and 0.17 for blacks and whites, respectively. Adjusted correlations between true energy intake and the recalls were 0.50 and 0.47 for blacks and whites, respectively, for the DietDay recall. For the Diet History Questionnaire, they were 0.34 and 0.36 for blacks and whites, respectively. The rate of underreporting of more than 30% of calories was lower with the recalls than with the questionnaire (25% and 41% vs. 34% and 52% for blacks and whites, respectively). These findings suggest that Web-based DietDay dietary recalls offer an inexpensive and widely accessible dietary assessment alternative, the validity of which is equally strong among black and white adults. The validity of the Web-administered recall was superior to that of the paper food frequency questionnaire. PMID:22021561
Arab, Lenore; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Ang, Alfonso; Jardack, Patricia
Background: Diet may have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. In previous studies, the associations between increased intakes of carbohydrates, sugar, starch, and inflammatory bowel disease are inconsistent. However, few prospective studies have investigated the associations between these macronutrients and incident Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: A total of 401,326 men and women were recruited between 1991 and 1998. At recruitment, dietary intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, and starch were measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. The cohort was monitored identifying participants who developed incident CD or UC. Cases were matched with 4 controls, and odds ratios were calculated for quintiles of total carbohydrate, sugar, and starch intakes adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, and smoking. Results: One hundred ten participants developed CD, and 244 participants developed UC during follow-up. The adjusted odds ratio for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total carbohydrate intake for CD was 0.87, 95% CI = 0.24 to 3.12 and for UC 1.46, 95% CI = 0.62 to 3.46, with no significant trends across quintiles for either (CD, Ptrend = 0.70; UC, Ptrend = 0.41). Similarly, no associations were observed with intakes of total sugar (CD, Ptrend = 0.50; UC, Ptrend = 0.71) or starch (CD, Ptrend = 0.69; UC, Ptrend = 0.17). Conclusions: The lack of associations with these nutrients is in agreement with many case–control studies that have not identified associations with CD or UC. As there is biological plausibility for how specific carbohydrates could have an etiological role in inflammatory bowel disease, future epidemiological work should assess individual carbohydrates, although there does not seem to be a macronutrient effect. PMID:25265262
Luben, Robert; van Schaik, Fiona; Oldenburg, Bas; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Hallmans, Göran; Karling, Pontus; Lindgren, Stefan; Grip, Olof; Key, Timothy; Crowe, Francesca L.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Racine, Antoine; Carbonnel, Franck; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Kaaks, Rudolf; Tumino, Rosario; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Hart, Andrew R.
RESEARCH Open Access Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Overweight and obese patients may develop paradoxical nutritional deficiency from eating high-energy foods with a poor nutrient content. In such patients, this condition is probably under-recognised, and thus untreated. • The nutrient density of foods has recently been defined by a score — the naturally nutrient-rich (NNR) score — which assesses the contribution a food makes to the nutrient intake
Tania P Markovic; Sharon J Natoli
Lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) were related to macular health. With respect to increasing life expectancy, age-related macular disease (AMD) has become a concern on public health. The objective was to investigate dietary L/Z intake and its related food preference in populations living in different areas. A three-day dietary record and a supplement…
Wang, Li Hui; Tam, Chick F.; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.
There is considerable disagreement regarding what constitutes a healthy diet. Ever since the influential work of Cannon and Richter, it was debated whether the ‘wisdom of the body’ will automatically direct us to the foods we need for healthy lives or whether we must carefully learn to eat the right foods, particularly in an environment of plenty. Although it is clear that strong mechanisms have evolved to prevent consumption of foods that have previously made us sick, it is less clear whether reciprocal mechanisms exist that reinforce the consumption of healthy diets. Here, we review recent progress in providing behavioural evidence for the regulation of intake and selection of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. We examine new developments in sensory physiology enabling recognition of macronutrients both pre- and post-ingestively. Finally, we propose a general model for central neural processing of nutrient-specific appetites. We suggest that the same basic neural circuitry responsible for the homoeostatic regulation of total energy intake is also used to control consumption of specific macro- and micronutrients. Similar to salt appetite, specific appetites for other micro- and macronutrients may be encoded by unique molecular changes in the hypothalamus. Gratification of such specific appetites is then accomplished by engaging the brain motivational system to assign the highest reward prediction to exteroceptive cues previously associated with consuming the missing ingredient. A better understanding of these nutrient-specific neural processes could help design drugs and behavioural strategies that promote healthier eating. PMID:22617310
Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Münzberg, Heike; Richards, Brenda K.; Morrison, Christopher D.
The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ?2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903
Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6?×?6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased. PMID:23587355
This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg?1). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted
Herminia Alejandra Hernández-Ortega; Alejandro Alarcón; Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato; Hilda Araceli Zavaleta-Mancera; Humberto Antonio López-Delgado; Ma. Remedios Mendoza-López
Background One-carbon metabolism appears to play an important role in DNA methylation reaction. Evidence suggests that a low intake of B vitamins or high alcohol consumption increases colorectal cancer risk. How one-carbon nutrients affect the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) or BRAF mutation status in colon cancer remains uncertain. Methods Utilizing incident colon cancers in a large prospective cohort of women (the Nurses' Health Study), we determined BRAF status (N?=?386) and CIMP status (N?=?375) by 8 CIMP-specific markers [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1], and 8 other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT-1, MINT-31, p14, and WRN). We examined the relationship between intake of one-carbon nutrients and alcohol and colon cancer risk, by BRAF mutation or CIMP status. Results Higher folate intake was associated with a trend towards low risk of CIMP-low/0 tumors [total folate intake ?400 µg/day vs. <200 µg/day; the multivariate relative risk?=?0.73; 95% CI?=?0.53–1.02], whereas total folate intake had no influence on CIMP-high tumor risks (Pheterogeneity?=?0.73). Neither vitamin B6, methionine or alcohol intake appeared to differentially influence risks for CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 tumors. Using the 16-marker CIMP panel did not substantially alter our results. B vitamins, methionine or alcohol intake did not affect colon cancer risk differentially by BRAF status. Conclusions This molecular pathological epidemiology study suggests that low level intake of folate may be associated with an increased risk of CIMP-low/0 colon tumors, but not that of CIMP-high tumors. However, the difference between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/0 cancer risks was not statistically significant, and additional studies are necessary to confirm these observations. PMID:21738611
Schernhammer, Eva S.; Giovannucci, Edward; Baba, Yoshifumi; Fuchs, Charles S.; Ogino, Shuji
In Australia, 60% of children (9-16 years) are not meeting the estimated average requirement (EAR) for calcium, and milk is an important dietary source of calcium. We hypothesized that milk drinking (plain or flavored) would be associated with higher milk and nutrient intake among Australian children. Nutrient intakes reported via 24-hour recalls and anthropometric measurements collected from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. Children and adolescents (cross sectional, n = 4487, 2-16 years) were classified into 4 categories according to milk intake: (i) exclusively plain milk drinkers, (ii) flavored (flavored and plain) milk drinkers, (iii) nondrinkers of milk (no plain or flavored milk as beverage), and (iv) nonconsumers of milk (total milk intake is 0 g). Total daily milk, energy and nutrient intake, body mass index, and waist circumference were compared between categories of milk drinking by analysis of variance models. Results of this study show that milk drinkers (plain or flavored) had a significantly higher total milk intake than did nondrinkers of milk. Milk drinking was associated with higher intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and iodine in comparison with nondrinkers of milk and nonconsumers of milk (P < .05). Milk drinkers (exclusively plain or flavored) were more likely to meet the EAR for calcium than nondrinkers and nonconsumers of milk, whereas flavored milk drinkers were more likely to meet the EAR for calcium than exclusively plain milk drinkers. In particular, among children aged 9 to 16 years, flavored milk drinkers were 1.7 times more likely to meet the EAR for calcium than plain milk drinkers (P < .001). Although flavored milk drinkers had higher total sugar and energy intakes than did exclusively plain milk drinkers and nonconsumers of milk (P < .05), no between-group differences were observed in body mass index, waist circumference, or physical activity level. In conclusion, drinking milk was associated with higher total milk and micronutrient intake, and drinking both plain and flavored milk may help children meet their calcium requirements without negatively impacting body weight measures. PMID:23399659
Fayet, Flavia; Ridges, Leisa A; Wright, Jutta K; Petocz, Peter
With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared to currently accepted criteria for healthy foods. The majority of fast food products did not meet criteria for healthy options. Breakfast items had the highest mean sugar content (7.8 g/100 g) and saturated fat (5.5 g/100 g), and chicken items the highest total fat (13.2 g/100 g) and sodium (586 mg/100 g). There was marked variation in nutrient levels between similar products. There was a 10-fold variation in the total fat, saturated fat and sugar content of sandwiches, an 8-fold variation in saturated fat in burgers and >20-fold variation in the sugar and total fat content of salads. Differences were even greater per serve. The considerable variation in the nutrient content of comparable products suggests significant potential for reformulation. Even small improvements in composition could produce important health gains if implemented across all product categories by all companies in unison. PMID:20816711
Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqui; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce
Fruit and vegetable intake may protect against pancreatic cancer, since fruits and vegetables are rich in potentially cancer-preventive nutrients. Most case-control studies have found inverse associations between fruit and vegetable intake and pancreatic cancer risk, although bias due to reporting error cannot be ruled out. In most prospective studies, inverse associations have been weaker and imprecise because of small numbers of cases. The authors examined fruit and vegetable intake in relation to pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 14 prospective studies from North America, Europe, and Australia (study periods between 1980 and 2005). Relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for the 14 studies using the Cox proportional hazards model and were then pooled using a random-effects model. Of 862,584 men and women followed for 7?20 years, 2,212 developed pancreatic cancer. The pooled multivariate relative risks of pancreatic cancer per 100-g/day increase in intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) for total fruits, and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.06) for total vegetables. Associations were similar for men and women separately and across studies. These results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake during adulthood is not associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:22875754
Koushik, Anita; Spiegelman, Donna; Albanes, Demetrius; Anderson, Kristin E.; Bernstein, Leslie; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Bergkvist, Leif; English, Dallas R.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Millen, Amy E.; Miller, Anthony B.; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas E.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Shikany, James M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Willett, Walter C.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.
Recommended Amounts of Total starchy vegetables Table B6. Total starchy vegetables: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation
To test the hypothesis that white potatoes (WP), oven-baked fries (OBF), and french fries (FF) contribute important nutrients within energy needs to children's and adolescents' diets, secondary analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was conducted. Potato content of survey foods was determined using US Department of Agriculture recipe databases (Standard Reference (SR)-Link files). Nutrient content of potatoes was determined by linking SR codes to US Department of Agriculture food composition data. Daily nutrient intakes from potatoes were determined by applying the composition database to respondent's recall data. Sample-weighted data were analyzed; t tests assessed differences between age and sex groups. Results indicated that approximately 35% of children and adolescents consumed WP + FF + OBF; 18% consumed FF. Intakes were lower in children compared with adolescents (P < .01). Among adolescents, more boys than girls consumed FF (P < .05); boys ate larger amounts of WP + FF + OBF (134 g/d) and FF (100 g/d) (P < .01). Both WP + FF + OBF and FF provided 9% to 12% of total daily energy (but was within energy requirements in the highest consumers); 8% to 15% of daily fat (>75% monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids); ? 10% dietary fiber, vitamin B(6), and potassium; 5% or greater thiamin, niacin, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper; and less than 5% sodium intake, for all sex -age groups. The combination WP + FF + OBF provided 5% or greater vitamin C for all sex-age groups and 5% or greater vitamin E and iron for most groups; FF provided 5% or greater vitamin E intakes for all. These cross-sectional data show that WP, including FF, provided shortfall nutrients within energy requirements to children and adolescents and, when consumed in moderate amounts, can be part of healthful diets. PMID:21530800
Freedman, Marjorie R; Keast, Debra R
The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption. PMID:21569807
Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H
Background:Choline and betaine, similar to folate, are nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and hypothesised to reduce breast cancer risk. No prospective study among post-menopausal women has examined choline and betaine intakes in relation to breast cancer risk.Methods:We examined the intake of choline and betaine and breast cancer risk among 74 584 post-menopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Nutrient intake
E Cho; M D Holmes; S E Hankinson; W C Willett
Background: The metabolic syndrome is a complex metabolic disturbance due to an interaction between genetic factors, poor dietary habits and physical inactivity. Aims: To investigate the role of dietary intake on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a population of elderly, socially active women in Brazil. Patients and Methods: A total of 284 women with mean age 69.3 ± 6.3 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional retrospective study. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. The dietary intake was evaluated through a questionnaire for 24-hour dietary recall. The groups with or without the metabolic syndrome were compared for dietary intake and risk factors for metabolic syndrome by the multiple regression model adjusted for age, smoking, physical activity, educational level, total energy intake and fiber contents of the diet. The odds ratio for the presence of the metabolic syndrome was calculated for each nutrient by quartile for total energy intake adjusted by the residue method. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 32% in the sample. There was not found any association between dietary intake, including all macronutrients and several micronutrients, and the presence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: No associations were observed between nutritional factors and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in elderly women, a result possibly due to the fact that these factors have an influence in earlier phases of life, or to a recent modification of dietary habits, which however was not able to prevent the establishment of the syndrome. PMID:22624137
Bruscato, Neide Maria; Vieira, José Luiz da Costa; do Nascimento, Nair Mônica Ribascik; Canto, Margô Etiene Pazatto; Stobbe, Júlio César; Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; Wagner, Mário Benardo; Dalacorte, Roberta Rigo
Background Obesity is increasing in Bahrain and there is lack of information on the energy and macronutrient intake of children. The objective of this research was to study the energy and macronutrient intake as well as food frequency pattern of Bahraini school children. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted on Bahraini school boys and girls aged 6-18 years from all the 11 populated regions of the country. Data on food intake consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall and was obtained by interviewing a sub-sample of the study population. Information was also obtained through a self-administered questionnaire for the entire sample on the weekly frequency of food items that were grouped into 7 categories based on similarity of nutrient profiles. Dietary analysis was performed using the Nutritionist 5 (First Data Bank Version 1.6 1998). Results While the average energy intake of students was close to the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK Reference standards, protein intake substantially exceeded the Reference Nutrient Intake values as did daily sugar consumption. Dietary fiber fell short of the Dietary Recommended Values (UK) and 36%-50% students exceeded the Energy % limits for total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. The Polyunsaturated: Saturated fat ratio remained at an unacceptable level of 0.6 for girls and boys. While sweets, snacks and regular soda drinks were popular, milk, fruits and vegetables were not commonly consumed. Conclusions High sugar consumption, low intake of dietary fiber and high energy % of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol by many Bahraini children, is likely to increase their risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases in later life. Nutrition education programs in schools should emphasize the importance of healthy balanced diets for growth and health maintenance of children as well as dietary prevention of diseases. PMID:21645325
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 1985–2011 and for 32 stations in the years 2002–2011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 2006–2011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as “improving water-quality trend and a low yield” than “degrading water-quality trend and a high yield” for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.
Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.
Predicting the presence of enteric viruses in surface waters is a complex modeling problem. Multiple water quality parameters that indicate the presence of human fecal material, the load of fecal material, and the amount of time fecal material has been in the environment are needed. This paper presents the results of a multiyear study of raw-water quality at the inlet of a potable-water plant that related 17 physical, chemical, and biological indices to the presence of enteric viruses as indicated by cytopathic changes in cell cultures. It was found that several simple, multivariate logistic regression models that could reliably identify observations of the presence or absence of total culturable virus could be fitted. The best models developed combined a fecal age indicator (the atypical coliform [AC]/total coliform [TC] ratio), the detectable presence of a human-associated sterol (epicoprostanol) to indicate the fecal source, and one of several fecal load indicators (the levels of Giardia species cysts, coliform bacteria, and coprostanol). The best fit to the data was found when the AC/TC ratio, the presence of epicoprostanol, and the density of fecal coliform bacteria were input into a simple, multivariate logistic regression equation, resulting in 84.5% and 78.6% accuracies for the identification of the presence and absence of total culturable virus, respectively. The AC/TC ratio was the most influential input variable in all of the models generated, but producing the best prediction required additional input related to the fecal source and the fecal load. The potential for replacing microbial indicators of fecal load with levels of coprostanol was proposed and evaluated by multivariate logistic regression modeling for the presence and absence of virus. PMID:17468270
Black, L. E.; Brion, G. M.; Freitas, S. J.
A basic premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that food guidance should recommend diets that will provide all the nutrients needed for growth and health. Based on dietary intake data or evidence of public health problems, intake levels of the following nutrients may be of concern for: Adults: calci...
1. Waterbirds are considered to import large quantities of nutrients to freshwater bodies but quantification of these loadings remains problematic. We developed two general models to calculate such allochthonous nutrient inputs considering food intake, foraging behaviour and digestive performance of waterbirds feeding in terrestrial habitats: an intake model (IM), mainly based on an allometric relationship for energy requirements and a
S. M. Hahn; S. Bauer; M. R. J. Klaassen
Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients’ nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g), vitamin C (mg), iron (mg), and vitamin D (?g) intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care. PMID:24599042
Hemiö, Katri; Pölönen, Auli; Ahonen, Kirsti; Kosola, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lindström, Jaana
Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients' nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g), vitamin C (mg), iron (mg), and vitamin D (?g) intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care. PMID:24599042
Hemiö, Katri; Pölönen, Auli; Ahonen, Kirsti; Kosola, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lindström, Jaana
This patent describes an air intake device for an internal combustion engine comprising: a cylinder head having an intake port; an intake manifold having an intake passage; and a spacer formed with an intake bore and interposed between the cylinder head and the intake manifold in such a manner that the intake port and the intake passage are communicated with
Y. Yamamoto; H. Yuzawa; T. N. Nishihara
Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient and energy retention in young racing. No difference in body weight was observed between groups. Despite feed restriction, intake was higher for enzyme-sup- plemented diet. When related to feed intake, excreta were lower by 11% for enzyme-supplemented diet. Enzyme
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Objectives Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium may be related to risk of breast cancer, possibly by affecting mammographic density. However, the few studies that have evaluated the association between these nutrients and mammographic density in postmenopausal women have had inconsistent results. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 808 participants of the Mammogram Density Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative. Mammographic percent density was measured using baseline mammograms taken prior to randomization of participants in the intervention trials. Vitamin D and calcium intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire and an inventory of current supplement use both completed at baseline. Results After adjustment for age, body mass index, regional solar irradiance and other factors, we did not find a relationship between vitamin D or calcium intake and mammographic density. Mean mammographic percent density in women reporting total vitamin D intakes of <100, 100-199, 200-399, 400-599, ?600 IU/day were 5.8%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 3.8%, and 5.1%, respectively (P-trend = 0.67). Results in women reporting total calcium intake of <500, 500-749, 750-999, 1000-1199, and ?1200 mg/day were 7.3%, 4.9%, 7.3%, 6.9%, and 7.l%, respectively (P-trend = 0.51). We did not observe effect modification by overall level of mammographic density or solar irradiance, but supplemental vitamin D use was associated with lower density in younger women (P-interaction=0.009). Conclusions These findings do not support a relationship between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and mammographic density in postmenopausal women. Additional studies should explore these associations in women of different ages and in relation to serum vitamin D levels. PMID:20613676
Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Pisano, Etta D.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sarto, Gloria; McTiernan, Anne
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019
Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.
This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) page discusses nutrient levels and loads that need to be achieved to preserve ecosystems in southern Florida. Regional issues include phosphorus concentrations and water quality. This study looks at phosphorus sources, controls for nutrient runoff, Best Management Practices for different areas (urban and rural), models of long-term transport and effects, use of natural solutions and chemical treatment solutions, and determining the effects of increased phosphorus loading on these ecosystems. There are links provided for additional information.
Objectives: To identify food sources of fat, to compare food and nutrient intakes at different levels of relative fat intake, and to examine the contribution of different food groups to the variation in relative fat intake. Relative fat intake was expressed as energy contributed by fat in percentage of non-alcohol energy. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the MalmoDiet
Irene Mattisson; Elisabet Wirfält; Carin Andrén; Bo Gullberg; Göran Berglund
New data on nutrient composition of ground pork products available in the US retail market were needed to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) and to support nutritional intake studies of the population. A collaborative study was conducted to determine the mathemati...
This paper discusses the desirability of expressing the nutrient require ments of man and animals relative to their associated energy intake, and proposes a format for expressing a dietary standard for humans. Caloric needs are known to vary with size, activity, and productive performance. There is agreement that most of the nutrients quantitatively considered in diet or ration formulation should
E. W. CRAMPTON
Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming?three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized. PMID:24239513
Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R
We evaluated dietary intake and nutritional-inflammation status in ninety-six renal transplant recipients, 7.2 ± 5.0 years after transplantation. Patients were classified as normoweight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB), if their body mass index was between 18.5 and 24.9, 25.0 and 29.9, and ?30?kg/m2, respectively. Food composition tables were used to estimate nutrient intakes. The values obtained were compared with those recommended in current nutritional guidelines. 52% of the patients were NW, 29% were OW, and 19% were OB. Total energy, fat, and dietary n-6 PUFAs intake was higher in OB than in NW. IL-6 and hs-CRP were higher in OB than in NW. The prevalence of multidrug regimen was higher in OB. In all patients, total energy, protein, saturated fatty acids, and sodium intake were higher than guideline recommendations. On the contrary, the intake of unsaturated and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber was lower than recommended. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity was high in our patients, and it was associated with inflammation and the assumption of multiple cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs. Dietary intake did not meet nutritional recommendations in all patients, especially in obese ones, highlighting the need of a long-term nutritional support in renal transplant recipients. PMID:23984354
Guida, Bruna; Maresca, Immacolata Daniela; Germanò, Roberta; Trio, Rossella; Nastasi, Anna Maria; Federico, Stefano; Memoli, Andrea; Apicella, Luca; Memoli, Bruno; Sabbatini, Massimo
This study compared the proportion of 1- to 5-year-olds in poor and non-poor households whose intakes of key nutrients were inadequate. Data were obtained from the 1986 United States Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. An intake below 70 percent of the Recommended Daily…
Cook, John T.; Martin, Katie S.
Objective To compare nutrient profiles of Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) respondents who reported use of regular and lower-fat versions of selected foods with those not reporting intake of these foods. Subjects American children (ages 2 to 19) and adults completing two days of recalls for the 1994 to 1996 CSFII. Design Dietary intakes were reviewed for
Madeleine Sigman-Grant; Rex Warland; Gloria Hsieh
Background Broad dietary patterns have been linked to asthma but the relative contribution of specific nutrients is unclear. Soy genistein has important anti-inflammatory and other biological effects that might be beneficial in asthma. A positive association was previously reported between soy genistein intake and lung function but not with asthma exacerbations. Aims To conduct a post-hoc analysis of patients with inadequately controlled asthma enrolled in a prospective multicentre clinical trial to replicate this association. Methods A total of 300 study participants were included in the analysis. Dietary soy genistein intake was measured using the Block Soy Foods Screener. The level of soy genistein intake (little or no intake, moderate intake, or high intake) was compared with baseline lung function (pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)) and asthma control (proportion of participants with an episode of poor asthma control (EPAC) and annualised rates of EPACs over a 6-month follow-up period. Results Participants with little or no genistein intake had a lower baseline FEV1 than those with a moderate or high intake (2.26L vs. 2.53L and 2.47L, respectively; p=0.01). EPACs were more common among those with no genistein intake than in those with a moderate or high intake (54% vs. 35% vs. 40%, respectively; p<0.001). These findings remained significant after adjustment for patient demographics and body mass index. Conclusions In patients with asthma, consumption of a diet with moderate to high amounts of soy genistein is associated with better lung function and better asthma control. PMID:22885561
Bime, Christian; Wei, Christine Y; Holbrook, Janet; Smith, Lewis J; Wise, Robert A
This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.
In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797
May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip
Background: Uncompensated overnutrition promotes obesity, but the controls of children's eating behavior are poorly understood. Insights may be achieved by testing whether the eating patterns of children are associated with demographic variables or whether they aggregate among family members. Objective: We tested whether children's total energy intake and macronutrient intake and their ability to compensate for earlier en- ergy intake
Myles S Faith; Kathleen L Keller; Susan L Johnson; Angelo Pietrobelli; Patty E Matz; Marie Alexandra Jorge; Jordana Cooperberg; Steven B Heymsfield
Although supplement use is prevalent in North America, there is little information on how supplements affect the prevalence of nutrient adequacy or risk of intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and percent of intakes greater than the UL from diet alone between supplement users and nonusers and determine the contribution of supplements to nutrient intakes. Dietary intakes (24-h recall) and supplement use (previous 30 d) from respondents ?1 y in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 34,381) were used to estimate the prevalence of nutrient adequacy and intakes greater than the UL. Software for Intake Distribution Evaluation was used to estimate usual intakes. The prevalence of nutrient adequacy from diet alone was not significantly higher among supplement users than nonusers for any nutrient. Based on diet alone, children 1-13 y had a low prevalence of nutrient adequacy (<30%) except for vitamin D and calcium. Among respondents ?14 y, inadequacies of vitamins A and D, calcium, and magnesium were >30%. For other nutrients, there was a low prevalence of nutrient adequacy. There were no nutrient intakes greater than the UL from diet alone, except zinc in children. When supplements were included, ?10% of users in some age/sex groups had intakes of vitamins A and C, niacin, folic acid, iron, zinc, and magnesium greater than the UL, reaching >80% for vitamin A and niacin in children. In conclusion, from diet alone, the prevalence of nutrient adequacy was low for most nutrients except for calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A and D. For most nutrients, supplement users were not at greater risk of inadequacy than nonusers; supplement use sometimes led to intakes greater than the UL. PMID:22298574
Shakur, Yaseer A; Tarasuk, Valerie; Corey, Paul; O'Connor, Deborah L
The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991
Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen
Previous epidemiologic studies that have examined the relationship between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and intakes of plant foods and antioxidant nutrients have yielded inconsistent results. We therefore examined the associations between intakes of fruit, vegetables, carotenoids, flavonoids, vitamin E, and vitamin C and RCC risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort. At baseline, 27,062 male Finnish smokers aged 50–69 years completed a 276-item dietary questionnaire that included questions on frequency of consumption and portion size. During up to 19 years of follow-up, 255 men developed RCC. Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Despite a large range in intake, no association was observed between fruit, vegetables, or antioxidant nutrients and RCC risk. For example, multivariate RRs and 95% CIs for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake were 0.79 (0.55–1.14), 1.23 (0.85–1.79), 1.09 (0.74–1.60), 0.83 (0.57–1.21), 1.09 (0.73–1.64), and 0.99 (0.67–1.46) for fruit, vegetables, total carotenoids, total flavonoids, total vitamin E, and vitamin C, respectively (all p-values for trend > 0.05). Our results indicate that diet may not play a large role in the etiology of RCC in male smokers, although further examination of these associations in nonsmokers, women, and diverse racial populations is warranted. PMID:19685494
Bertoia, Monica; Albanes, Demetrius; Mayne, Susan T.; Männistö, Satu; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wright, Margaret E.
The effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of yearling heifers were investigated in a 150-day feeding trial. Eighteen, crossbred heifers (Brahman x Thai native) were randomly allotted according to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Low or high levels of CEP (15 or 30% of concentrate, LCEP, or HCEP) were basal treatments and 0, 2, and 4% CPO were daily top-dressed. Concentrate was supplemented at 1.75% of body weight (BW) and rice straw offered ad libitum. CEP level had no significance on feed intake. CPO increased roughage intake, concentrate intake, and total feed intake when expressed as %BW/d (P < 0.01) and as metabolic BW (kg(0.75)/d, P < 0.05). Intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) were similar (P > 0.05). Intake of fat increased with higher levels of CPO (P < 0.001). The DM, OM, CP, and EE digestibility of cattle-fed HCEP was lower than LCEP, but adding 4% CPO increased digestibility. Growth performance was similar for all diets (P > 0.05). We concluded that CEP can be used up to 30% in the diet, with or without additional fat inclusion. PMID:24510198
Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong; Berg, Eric Paul
Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05), with white and black children reporting saturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181
Au, Lauren E; Economos, Christina D; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R; Morgan, Emily H; Sacheck, Jennifer M
Isoflavones, mainly found in soy, have been shown to inhibit ovarian cancer cell proliferation. We hypothesized that soy consumption and isoflavone intake are related to the risk of ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted in southern China to ascertain this hypothesis. Five hundred incident patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the ovary and 500 controls (mean age 59 years) were recruited from four public hospitals in Guangzhou. Information on habitual consumption of soy foods, including soybean, soy milk, fresh tofu, dried tofu, and soybean sprout, was obtained face-to-face from participants through a validated and reliable semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Isoflavone intakes were then estimated using the USDA nutrient database. The ovarian cancer patients reported lower consumption levels of individual and total soy foods (75.3 ± 53.6 g/day) compared to the controls (110.7 ± 88.8 g/day). Logistic regression analyses showed that regular intake of soy foods could reduce the ovarian cancer risk, the adjusted odds ratio being 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.42) for women who consumed at least 120 g/day relative to those less than 61 g/day. Similarly, isoflavone intakes were inversely associated with the ovarian cancer risk, with significant dose-response relationships (P < 0.001). We concluded that consumption of soy foods is associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in southern Chinese women. PMID:24774066
Lee, Andy H; Su, Dada; Pasalich, Maria; Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Qiu, Liqian
With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared
Elizabeth Dunford; Jacqui Webster; Federica Barzi; Bruce Neal
Rice is a commonly consumed food staple for many Asian and Pacific cultures thus, nutrient enrichment of rice has the potential to increase nutrient intakes for these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of enrichment nutrients (ie, thiamin, niacin, iron, and folic acid) in white rice found in Guam, Saipan (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana
Rachael T. Leon Guerrero; Susan E. Gebhardt; Joanne Holden; Mary J. Kretsch; Karen Todd; Rachel Novotny; Suzanne P. Murphy
Effects of supplemental energy and/or degradable intake protein on performance, grazing behavior, intake, digestibility, and fecal and blood indices by beef steers grazed on dormant native tallgrass prairie.
To evaluate the effects of balancing total diet degradable intake protein with dietary total digestible nutrients (TDN), we conducted two studies during 2 yr with 100 (302 +/- 8 kg initial BW) mixed-breed yearling steers and 12 ruminally cannulated steers (526 +/- 28 kg). Steers individually received one of four supplements 5 d/wk while grazing dormant native tallgrass prairie. Supplements included: 1) corn and soybean meal, balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN (CRSBM), 2) corn and soybean hulls, equal in supplemental TDN to CRSBM (CORN), 3) soybean meal, equal in supplemental degradable intake protein to CRSBM (SBM), or 4) a cottonseed hull-based control supplement (CONT). At each feeding (5 d/wk), steers consumed 13.6, 13.6, or 4.2 g of dry matter/kg of body weight, or 178 g of DM, respectively, of supplement. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P < 0.01) average daily gain than cattle fed CORN or SBM. Feeding soybean meal (CRSBM, SBM) resulted in improved (P < 0.01) efficiency of supplement. Grazing time, intensity, and harvesting efficiency were reduced (P < 0.05) by corn supplementation (CRSBM and CORN), whereas the number of grazing bouts per day was increased (P < 0.08). Intake and digestibility of forage organic matter were reduced (P < 0.01) for steers supplemented with corn (CORN and CRSBM) vs cattle not fed corn (SBM and CONT). Total diet digestibility (P < 0.12) and digestible organic matter intake (P < 0.01) were greater for CRSBM-fed steers than for cattle fed either CORN or SBM. Steers fed CRSBM had greater (P < 0.01) fecal nitrogen and serum insulin than cattle fed CORN or SBM. Corn-fed cattle had lesser (P < 0.01) fecal pH and ADF concentrations than steers not consuming grain. Cattle fed supplements with soybean meal (CRSBM and SBM) had greater (P < 0.01) serum urea nitrogen than steers fed supplements without soybean meal (CORN, CONT). Supplemented steers grazing dormant tallgrass prairie had a greater rate of gain, with the greatest response in animal performance occurring when grain supplements were balanced for total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN. These results lead us to suggest that grain-supplemented cattle grazing dormant tallgrass prairie require a balance of total diet degradable intake protein in relation to total diet TDN to optimize animal performance. PMID:12597402
Bodine, T N; Purvis, H T
Although breakfast is associated with more favourable nutrient intake profiles in children, limited data exist on the impact of breakfast on nutrient adequacy and the potential risk of excessive intakes. Accordingly, we assessed differences in nutrient intake and adequacy among breakfast non-consumers, consumers of breakfasts with ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) and consumers of other types of breakfasts. We used cross-sectional data from 12,281 children and adolescents aged 4-18 years who took part in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey, 2004. Mean nutrient intakes (obtained using a multiple-pass 24 h recall method) were compared among the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Usual nutrient intake distributions, generated using the National Cancer Institute method, were used to determine the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy or the potential risk of excessive intakes from food sources alone and from the combination of food plus supplements. Of these Canadian children, 10% were breakfast non-consumers, 33% were consumers of RTEC breakfasts and 57% were consumers of other types of breakfasts. Non-consumption of breakfast increased with age (4-8 years: 2%; 9-13 years: 9%; 14-18 years: 18%). Breakfast consumers had higher covariate-adjusted intakes of energy, many nutrients and fibre, and lower fat intakes. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy for vitamin D, Ca, Fe and Mg (from food alone or from the combination of food plus supplements) was highest in breakfast non-consumers, intermediate in consumers of other types of breakfasts and lowest in consumers of RTEC breakfast. For vitamin A, P and Zn, breakfast non-consumers had a higher prevalence of nutrient inadequacy than both breakfast groups. The potential risk of excessive nutrient intakes was low in all groups. Efforts to encourage and maintain breakfast consumption in children and adolescents are warranted. PMID:25196844
Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L
Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977–2006123
Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fast foods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies. PMID:21918222
The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588
Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine
Our objectives were to investigate patterns of food and nutrient consumption in Golestan province, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer (EC) in northern Iran. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls were administered during a 1-yr period to 131 healthy participants in a pilot cohort study. We compare here nutrient intake in Golestan with recommended daily allowances (RDAs) and lowest threshold intakes (LTIs). We also compare the intake of 27 food groups and nutrients among several population subgroups using mean values from the 12 recalls. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake, which was even lower than LTIs (P < 0.01). Daily intake of vitamins A and C was lower than LTI in 67% and 73% of rural women, respectively. Among rural men, the vitamin intakes were not significantly different from LTIs. Among urban women, the vitamin intakes were significantly lower than RDAs but were significantly higher than LTIs. Among urban men, the intakes were not significantly different from RDAs. Compared to urban dwellers, intake of most food groups and nutrients, including vitamins, was significantly lower among rural dwellers. In terms of vitamin intake, no significant difference was observed between Turkmen and non-Turkmen ethnics. The severe deficiency in vitamin intake among women and rural dwellers and marked differences in nutrient intake between rural and urban dwellers may contribute to the observed epidemiological pattern of EC in Golestan, with high incidence rates among women and people with low socioeconomic status and the highest incidence rate among rural women. PMID:19838919
Islami, Farhad; Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar; Kimiagar, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Wakefield, Jon; Goglani, Goharshad; Rakhshani, Nasser; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Salahi, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza
Objective To simulate the effect of child-friendly adaptations of the National Cancer Institute's Automated Self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) on estimates of nutrient intake. Method One hundred twenty children, 8-13 years old entered their previous day's intake using the ASA24 and completed an interviewer-administered recall using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR). Based on a hypothesis that proposed adaptations to the ASA24 will not significantly affect mean nutrient estimates, ASA24 data were manipulated post-administration to simulate a child-friendly version in which two categories of data collection were removed: 1) foods not likely to be consumed by children (45%) based on previous analyses of national dietary data and, 2) food detail questions (probes) to which children are unlikely to know the answers (46%), based on our experience. Results Mean estimates of select nutrients between the beta version of ASA24 and the simulated child-friendly recall showed no significant differences, indicating that the food and probe elimination did not significantly affect results. However, a comparison of total sugar and Vitamin C assessments between the original ASA24, the child-friendly version and NDSR showed that the daily nutrient totals for both nutrients were significantly higher in the self-administered methods (both ASA24 and child-friendly version) than in NDSR (interviewer-administered) which warrants a review of different methods for obtaining information about foods that are sources of these nutrients. Conclusion The simulation of child-friendly adaptations showed that it is feasible to implement thereby reducing child-friendly response burden without significantly affecting the results. PMID:24015716
Douglass, Deirdre; Islam, Noemi; Baranowski, Janice; Chen, Tzu-An; Subar, Amy F.; Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Baranowski, Tom
Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. There is a significant variation in the dietary requirement for choline that can be explained by common genetic polymorphisms. Because of its wide-ranging roles in human metabolism, from cell structure to neurotransmitter synthesis, choline-deficiency is now thought to have an impact on diseases such as liver disease, atherosclerosis and possibly neurological disorders. Choline is found in a wide variety of foods. Egg yolks are the most concentrated source of choline in the American diet, providing 680 milligrams per 100 grams. Mean choline intakes for older children, men, women and pregnant women are far below the Adequate Intake established by the IOM. Given the importance of choline in a wide range of critical functions in the human body, coupled with less than optimal intakes among the population, dietary guidance should be developed to encourage the intake of choline-rich foods. PMID:19906248
da Costa, Kerry-Ann
Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ? 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(2); 466-71. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25662427
Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Tworoger, Shelley S; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hankinson, Susan E; Fernandes, Judy; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Gram, Inger T; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, María-José; Salmerón, D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Ericson, Ulrica; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Patel, Chirag J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J
Vitamin K has been related to cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, data on total mortality are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary intake of different types of vitamin K and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 7216 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (median follow-up of 4.8 y). Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary vitamin K intake was calculated annually using the USDA food composition database and other published sources. Deaths were ascertained by an end-point adjudication committee unaware of the dietary habits of participants after they had reviewed medical records and linked up to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the RR of mortality. Energy-adjusted baseline dietary phylloquinone intake was inversely associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality after controlling for potential confounders (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96; and HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.90, respectively). In longitudinal assessments, individuals who increased their intake of phylloquinone or menaquinone during follow-up had a lower risk of cancer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; and HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.64, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73; and HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.73, respectively) than individuals who decreased or did not change their intake. Also, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86). However, no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.29). An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular, cancer, or all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. PMID:24647393
Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Bulló, Mònica
Diet is the food and drink taken daily by an animal. Although the composition of the Lieber-DeCarli 36% alcohol diet is such that recommended amounts of nutrients could be ingested when the diet is fed, the fact is that rats have an aversion to alcohol, ingestion is reduced and the intake of total energy and several nutrients are below recommended levels. Hence the diet is nutritionally inadequate for growth, gestation and lactation. Recent studies with baboons have also shown that the baboon liquid diet is also deficient in total energy and several nutrients. Hence all studies with these liquid alcohol diets have involved two treatments; namely, ethanol and malnutrition. Thus, effects observed when these diets were fed could have been due to alcohol, malnutrition or an interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition. When liquid diets are fed to rats that provide recommended amounts of nutrients for growth, gestation and lactation and the same dose of ethanol per kg body weight as the 36% alcohol diet, no toxic effects of alcohol are observed. Hence, effects not observed in the malnourished pair-fed controls but observed in the alcohol diet fed rats were likely due to the interaction effect of alcohol and malnutrition.
Derr, R.F.; Draves, K. (VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN (USA))
The aims of this study were to determine food and nutrient intakes and the socio-economic factors influencing food and nutrient intakes of rural Thai-Muslim women in the third trimester of pregnancy. The study was conducted in Pattani province, Thailand, where 166 women were interviewed between 32 and 40 weeks gestation. A questionnaire, including a Food Frequency Questionnaire was used. Data
Sumalika Piammongkol MCN; Geoffrey C Marks; Gail Williams; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
consisted of a 5-day adjustment period, 4-day fecal and urine collection and 3-day ileal digests collection. Ad Iibifnm fed pigs consumed an av- erage of 7. 5, 6. 2 and 4. 8X of their body weight/day for periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Feed intake, gain.... Measured across all treat- ments 20. 3X of diet dry matter, 6. 4X of diet nitrogen, and 18. 1%%d diet gross energy disappeared in the pigs lower tract. These data suggest that varying feed intake levels from ad Efbftum to 3. 0X of body weight/day has...
Haydon, Keith Dale
Objective To report dietary intake and physical activity among preschool-aged children living in rural American Indian (AI) communities prior to a family-based healthy lifestyle intervention and to compare data to current age-specific recommendations. Subjects/Design One hundred thirty-five preschool-aged children, living in rural AI communities, provided diet and physical activity data, prior to a two-year randomized healthy lifestyle intervention. Three 24-hour dietary recalls assessed nutrient and food and added sugar intake, which were compared to the National Academy of Science's Daily Reference Intakes, the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPyramid, and the American Heart Association recommendations. Time watching television and moderate plus vigorous activity (MVA) was compared to the MyPyramid and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations. Statistical analysis Nutrient, food group, added sugar intake and time watching television and in MVA were compared to recommendations by computing the percent of recommendations met. Nonparametric tests identified differences in diet and physical activity among age groups and normal and overweight children (body mass index < 85th and ? 85th percentile). Results Average nutrient intakes met recommendations whereas food group intakes did not. Mean fruit and vegetable intakes for two to three year-olds were 0.36 cups/day fruit and 0.45 cups/day vegetables and, for four to five year-olds, 0.33 cups/day fruit and 0.48 cups/day vegetables. Both age groups reported consuming more than 50 grams of added sugar, exceeding the recommendation of 16 grams. Overweight versus normal weight children reported significantly more sweetened beverage intake (8.0 ± 0.10 vs. 5.28 ± 0.08 ounces/day, p < 0.01) On average, all children reported watching television 2.0 hours/day and significant differences were observed for total television viewing and non-viewing time between overweight and normal weight children (8.52 ± 0.6 vs. 6.54 ± 0.6 hours/day, p < 0.01). All children engaged in less than 20 minutes/day of MVA. Conclusions Overall, children in this sample did not meet MyPyramid recommendations for fruits or vegetables and exceed added sugar intake recommendations. Viewing and non-viewing television time was highly prevalent along with low levels of MVA. The HCSF intervention has the potential for improving nutrition and physical activity among preschool children living in rural AI communities. PMID:20630162
LaRowe, Tara L.; Adams, Alexandra K.; Jobe, Jared B.; Cronin, Kate A.; Vannatter, SuAnne M.; Prince, Ronald J.
The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772
Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J
Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake???75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P?=?0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health consequences, interventions involving parents and school environment to promote water consumption seem pertinent. PMID:24964803
Objective There are increasing global concerns about improving the dietary intakes of children and adolescents. In the United States (U.S.) the focus is on reducing energy from foods and beverages that provide empty calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). We examine trends in intakes and sources of solid fat and added sugars among U.S. 2- to 18- year olds from 1994-2010. Methods Data from five nationally representative surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals Surveys (1994-1996) and the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to examine key food sources and energy from solid fats and added sugars. Sample sizes ranged from 2,594 to 8,259 per survey period, for a total of 17,268 observations across the five surveys. Food files were linked over time to create comparable food groups and nutrient values. Differences were examined by age, race/ethnicity and family income. Results Daily intake of energy from SoFAS among U.S. 2-18 year olds decreased from 1994-2010, with declines primarily detected in the recent time periods. Solid fats accounted for a greater proportion of total energy intake than did added sugars. Conclusions Although the consumption of solid fats and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States decreased between 1994–1998 and 2009–2010, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits. PMID:23554397
Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.
Recommended Amounts of Total red and orange vegetables Table B4. Total red and orange vegetables: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting
Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake. PMID:21291551
Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes. Key pointsAthletic girls show lower carbohydrate intakes compared to boys.Substrate oxidation during exercise appears to be maturity related, fat being the preferred fuel for oxidation in younger athletic children.Children appear to have lower endogenous but greater exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise.Carbohydrate intake during exercise appears to show no additional performance improvement in young athletes. Perhaps fat intake or a combination of both nutrients may be a better approach for nutrient supplementation during exercise.Gastric emptying physiology of young athletes is not well known. Adult sport drinks showed a tendency to delay gastric emptying in young athletes during exercise at higher intensities.More research is needed in paediatric sports nutrition. PMID:24149421
Montfort-Steiger, Veronica; Williams, Craig A
Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318
Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.
This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein?×?Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453
Neto, Severino Gonzaga; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias
Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…
Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler
Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye, where they may protect against development of age-related macular degeneration. Accurate assessment of their intakes is important in the understanding of their individual roles in eye health. Current dietary databases lack the appropriate information to ascertain valid dietary intakes of these individual nutrients. The
Elizabeth J. Johnson; Janice E. Maras; Helen M. Rasmussen; Katherine L. Tucker
Objectives: Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary factors can play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer. Results from several case–control and cohort studies on nutrient intake and prostate cancer have been unclear. The authors examined the effect of lipid intake on the risk of prostate cancer.
Josep M. Ramon; Ricard Bou; Soledad Romea; M. Eugenia Alkiza; Merce Jacas; Josefa Ribes; Joaquim Oromi
Background\\/Aims: Both ?–6 and ?–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognised as essential nutrients in the human diet, yet we have little information on the extent to which different food sources contribute to their intake. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the daily intakes and food sources of ?–6 and ?–3 PUFAs in our local community. Methods:
Tennille E. Ollis; Barbara J. Meyer; Peter R. C. Howe
The nutrient status of the herbivore de pends on the nutritive value of the plants available, the botanical composition of the consumed diet and the intake of the animal. It has always been difficult to quantify these last two. At present, intake is usually calculated from separate estimates of fecal output and diet digestibility. In this review we discuss the
H. DOVE; R. W. MAYESf
The major health problems in populations of economically developed countries at the present time are of a chronic nature with, as their main clinical characteristic, the frequently occurring premature coronary heart disease. When food intake data are to be evaluated, it would be incorrect in this situation to devote attention chiefly to the intake of essential nutrients. Instead, investigations into
Haar van der F; D. Kromhout
We hypothesized that toxins and nutrients in foods interact to influence foraging behavior by herbivores. Based on this hypothesis we predicted that 1) terpenes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) influence intake and preference in sheep for diets varying in sources of nonstructural (barley grain) and structural (sugar beet pulp) carbohydrates, and 2) these effects are due to the differential effects of terpenes on fermentation products and apparent digestibility of each class of carbohydrates. Lambs were fed 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with varying proportions of the same ingredients (beet pulp- and barley grain-based diet) or offered a choice between the 2 diets; all feeds were fed without and with terpenes, in consecutive periods. We also compared intake and preference of the beet pulp-and barley-based diets before and after the lambs ate a meal of sagebrush. Finally, we assessed the effect of terpenes on ruminal variables and in vivo digestibility. Lambs ate less when fed beet pulp or when they were offered a choice of diets with terpenes (P < 0.001), and intake of the beet pulp-based diet was the most affected (P < 0.05). Lambs preferred the beet pulp-to the grain-based diet with terpenes, but their preference reversed when terpenes were removed from the diets (P < 0.05). When lambs were offered both diets, intake and preference did not differ (P > 0.20) before eating sagebrush, but they preferred the beet pulp-based diet after eating sagebrush (P < 0.05). Intake of sagebrush did not differ among groups consuming the test diets (P = 0.21). Addition of terpenes to both diets increased the digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF and decreased concentrations of total VFA and acetate (P < 0.05). Terpenes also depressed butyrate concentration in the barley-based diet (P < 0.05). Propionate concentrations were not affected by terpenes in either feed (P = 0.63). In summary, the predominant type of feed ingredient (beet pulp, grain) ingested with terpenes influenced fermentation products, intake, and preference in lambs. The source of energy from supplements, or other plants in the diet, is likely to influence intake and preference for sagebrush in sheep foraging on rangelands. Moreover, ingesting terpenes from sagebrush may also influence intake and preference for other plant species or supplements. PMID:16908651
Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Olson, K C
Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ? 25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations. PMID:22438075
Molina-Montes, Esther; Wark, Petra A; Sánchez, María-José; Norat, Teresa; Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Michaud, Dominique S; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Katarachia, Helen; Skeie, Guri; Henningsen, Maria; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Duell, Eric J; Quirós, José-Ramón; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Li, Kuanrong; Grote, Verena A; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Peeters, Petra H M; Siersema, Peter D; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to investigate the intake of zinc in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Dietary intakes of zinc and other nutrients were assessed and updated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from 1980 to 2002 among 82,297 women who were aged 33–60 years at baseline in 1980 and followed up to 2004 in the Nurses' Health Study. RESULTS During the 24 years of follow-up, 6,030 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained. After adjustment of lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the relative risks (RRs) (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 0.90 (0.82–0.99) (Ptrend = 0.04) for total zinc intake and 0.92 (0.84–1.00) (Ptrend = 0.009) for dietary zinc intake from food sources, respectively. We further found an inverse association for dietary zinc to heme iron ratio. After multivariate adjustment of covariates, the RRs (95% CI) across quintiles of this ratio were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.86–1.01), 0.86 (0.79–0.94), 0.82 (0.75–0.90), and 0.72 (0.66–0.80), respectively (Ptrend < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Higher zinc intake may be associated with a slightly lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. More studies are warranted to confirm this association and to explore potential mechanisms. PMID:19171718
Sun, Qi; van Dam, Rob M.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.
Nutritional and genetic determinants of the one-carbon metabolism pathway have been related to risk of malignant lymphomas, but little is known about their associations with Hodgkin lymphoma risk specifically. The authors examined nutrient intake (folate, vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), methionine) and multivitamin use among 497 Hodgkin lymphoma patients and 638 population-based controls (Massachusetts and Connecticut, 1997-2000), and genetic variation (MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, SHMT1 1420C>T, TYMS 1494del6) and gene-diet interactions in a subset. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Hodgkin lymphoma risk was not associated with total nutrient intake or intake from food alone (excluding supplements). Multivitamin use (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96), total vitamin B(6) (OR(quartile 4 vs. 1) = 1.62) (P(trend) = 0.03), and total vitamin B(12) (OR(quartile 4 vs. 1) = 1.75) (P(trend) = 0.02) intakes were positively associated with risk of Epstein-Barr virus-negative, but not -positive, disease. The 5 genetic variants were not significantly associated with Hodgkin lymphoma risk; no significant gene-diet interactions were observed after Bonferroni correction. Study findings do not support a strong role for nutrients and genetic variation in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in susceptibility to Hodgkin lymphoma. Associations between diet and risk of Epstein-Barr virus-negative disease require confirmation in other populations. PMID:21810727
Kasperzyk, Julie L; Chang, Ellen T; Birmann, Brenda M; Kraft, Peter; Zheng, Tongzhang; Mueller, Nancy E
This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the intake of DM, OM, EE, ADF, and NDF as a function of dietary protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed on the CP and NDF digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses related to NI, NA, and the estimated NR to NA ratio. The NDF and ADF responses indicated that dietary fiber was more digested with an increased amount of N in the digestive tract. PMID:25568371
Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q
Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188
Background Weight gain in the postpartum period is a risk factor for long-term obesity. Investigations of dietary intake among lactating and non-lactating, overweight women may identify nutritional concerns specific to this population. Objective To compare nutrient, meal and snack intakes, food group servings and prevalence of dieting among fully breastfeeding (BF) mixed breast and formula feeding (MF), and formula feeding (FF), overweight and obese women. The second aim was to compare nutrient intakes and food group servings to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and MyPyramid recommendations, respectively. Design Data were collected from September 2004 through April 2006 in Durham, NC. Infant feeding practices and dietary information were collected on 450 women between six and nine weeks postpartum. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were completed by phone, using Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Analysis of covariance was used to compare infant feeding groups in dietary quality (nutrient intake per 1000 kcal) and food group servings, controlling for pre-pregnancy body mass index, race, age, education, income, and marital status. Chi-squared (X 2) analysis was performed to determine differences in meal and snack intake and dieting among infant feeding groups. Results BF women consumed more energy (2107 ± 50 kcal) than MF (1866 ± 56 kcal) or FF (1657 ± 50 kcal), p<0.001. Adjusted nutrient intake did not differ between groups. All groups were at risk for inadequate intakes of vitamins A, E, C, and folate and did not meet recommended servings of all food groups. BF women consumed lunch and snacks more frequently, were less likely to diet and reported higher intakes of grains and desserts than MF and FF women. Conclusions To help increase intakes of nutrients lacking in the diet and prevent postpartum weight gain, overweight women should be encouraged to increase fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, whole grains, legumes, and healthy types of fat, while decreasing refined grains, regular soda, sweetened beverages, and desserts. PMID:21185967
Durham, Holiday A.; Brouwer, Rebecca J. N.; Krause, Katrina M.; Østbye, Truls
We examined the association of dietary carbohydrates, protein, fat (including fatty acid subtypes) and alcohol with the metabolic syndrome and its components, in a cross-sectional study of 1626 patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Multivariate nutrient density substitution models were used to examine the associations between macronutrients (assessed by 24 h dietary recall) and the metabolic syndrome. These models express the effects of 'substituting' one macronutrient for another without altering total energy intake. Increases in carbohydrates offset by isoenergetic decreases in either fat or protein were associated with a decrease in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (OR 0.87 (95 % CI 0.81, 0.93), P 0.10). Consumption of up to one standard alcoholic drink per d was associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome when compared with non-drinkers (OR 0.67 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.89), P = 0.006); however, these benefits were weakened with higher levels of alcohol intake (P = 0.10 for one to three drinks and P = 0.29 for >three drinks). Thus, a diet high in carbohydrates, low in fat and protein, with low-to-moderate alcohol intake, is associated with a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18197990
Skilton, Michael R; Laville, Martine; Cust, Anne E; Moulin, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice
This paper discusses, in combination with an internal combustion engine, a system for regulating engine speed by regulating the air flow across a throttle valve in an air intake passage. It comprises an engine air intake valve and means of sensing an operating variable representative of engine speed and sending an electrical signal representative of the engine speed to the
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lipids with different fatty acid profiles on the intake, performance, and enteric CH4 emission of Nellore steers. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial BW of 419 ± 11 kg (at 15 ± 2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a DM basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without additional fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The lipid source significantly affected (P < 0.05) nutrient intake. The greatest intakes of DM, OM, and CP were observed in the animals that were fed the WF or PF diets, and the lowest intakes were observed in the animals that were fed the PO diet. Intake of NDF decreased (P < 0.05) with the addition of PO. Enteric methane emission (g/kg DMI) was reduced by an average of 30% when the animals were fed diets containing WS, LO, and PO (P < 0.05), and these diets caused a larger reduction in the energy loss in the form of methane compared to those without added fat and with added PF (3.3 vs. 4.7%). The different fatty acid profiles did not affect the backfat thickness or the loin eye area of the animals (P > 0.05). However, animals fed PO displayed lower daily weight gain (0.36 kg/d), feed efficiency (0.08 kg ADG/kg DM), HCW (245 kg), and hot yield percentage (52.6%) compared to animals that were fed the other diets. Therefore, PO compared to the other lipid sources used in this study reduces intake, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass yield. Therefore, PO is not suggested for feedlot-finished animals. PMID:24492580
Fiorentini, G; Carvalho, I P C; Messana, J D; Castagnino, P S; Berndt, A; Canesin, R C; Frighetto, R T S; Berchielli, T T
In the United States, dietary reference intakes describe the relations between nutrient intakes and indicators of adequacy, prevention of disease, and avoidance of excessive