Background: Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods: This study is based on 40,108 women
Margaretha Haugen; Anne Lise Brantsæter; Jan Alexander; Helle Margrete Meltzer
Although foods are the major source of mineral nutrients in the diet, drinking water can contribute variable fractions of the total intake. The magnitude of the drinking water contribution, however, has not been characterized because little work has been done to quantify its contribution. The major reason is that drinking water intake is not included in most dietary surveys, and
Joyce Morrissey Donohue; R. D. Charles; O. Abernathy; D. Peter Lassovszky; George Hallberg
A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.
Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.
LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the role of breakfast in the diets of Americans including contribution to daily food and nutrient intake.The nutritional role of breakfast in American diets was examined by computing mean food and nutrient intakes from breakfast and the total diet, from food intake records from the USDA's 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The study
S. A. Bowman
The aim of the survey was to record the food habits and nutrient intake of Greek children. Data was obtained by a 3 d household measured diet record from a random stratified sample (1936 children aged 2–14 y). Mean daily protein intake was much higher than PRI and none of the children had lower intake than AR. Mean energy intake
E Roma-Giannikou; D Adamidis; M Gianniou; R Nikolara; N Matsaniotis
In 2005, the nutritional content of children’s school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children’s total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4–7 years (n?=?385 in 2003–4; n?=?632 in 2008–9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children’s mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change ?128 mg, 95% CI: ?183 to ?73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (?1.8%, ?2.8 to ?0.9) and saturated fat (?1.0%; ?1.6 to ?0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children’s total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children’s diet.
Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.
In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n?=?385 in 2003-4; n?=?632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet. PMID:24205190
Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J
Reports the results of a survey of followers of the mostly raw, pure vegetarian, Hallelujah diet, which is promoted by the Hallelujah Acres Foundation in the USA. Seven-day semi-quantitative dietary records kept by 141 followers of the diet were collected and analyzed for nutrient intake. Claims self-reported improvements in health and quality of life after adoption of the diet were
Michael S. Donaldson
Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p <0.05) lower carbohydrate intake was noted in cohort group above 80 years. As for vitamins and minerals consumption, more than 50% of the elderly population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis. PMID:22692097
Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M
To assess whether a simple nonrestrictive method of determining nutrient intake could be applied to premature infants, we compared actual measured formula intake during a 7-day period with intake calculated from deuterium dilution in 13 hospitalized, growing, premature newborn infants. An oral dose of deuterium oxide (D2O) was administered, and urine samples were analyzed by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry for D2O concentration. Using an exponential model, we calculated formula intake from the decline in D2O concentration during the 7-day study period. Intake as assessed by the deuterium model correlated well with actual intake (r = 0.93; p < 0.001). However, because the deuterium dilution model measures both dietary and nondietary water intake (metabolic and cutaneous water influx), deuterium dilution-derived intake exceeded actual intake by 25 +/- 18 ml/kg per day (16% +/- 11%). When corrections were applied to account for nondietary water intake, deuterium dilution-derived nutrient intake (160 +/- 30 ml/kg per day) closely approximated actual intake (155 +/- 17 ml/kg per day). If corrections are made for nondietary water intake, the deuterium dilution method may be a useful nonrestrictive method of measuring nutrient intake in a variety of neonatal populations. PMID:8355126
Peppard, R J; Karn, C A; McCabe, M A; Wassall, S R; Liechty, E A; Denne, S C
Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population.
Usual Intake of Total starchy vegetables Table A12. Total starchy vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.2
Changes in the quality and quantity of carbohydrate foods may compromise nutrient intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We hypothesized that glycemic index, glycemic load (GL), carbohydrate intake, grains, and cereal product consumption would be associated with nutrient adequacy. Eighty-two women with GDM (61% of Asian background, 34% whites) completed a 3-day food record following their routine group nutrition education session. Nutrient intakes were compared to Nutrient Reference Values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. Nutrient intake across energy-adjusted tertiles of glycemic index, GL, carbohydrate intake, and intake of grains and cereal products were assessed. The majority of women (66%-99%) did not meet the NRV for fiber, folate, vitamin D, iodine, and iron, and exceeded NRV for saturated fat and sodium. Higher dietary GL was associated with lower intakes of total, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat; vitamin E; and potassium (all P < .001). Higher grain intake was not significantly associated with intake of any micronutrients. In Australian women with GDM, high dietary GL predicts greater risk of poor nutrition. PMID:23602242
Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Foote, Deborah; Brand-Miller, Jennie C
This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.
Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.
Nutritional adequacy is important when diets and dietary alterations are recommended for children. Concern is expressed that low fat intakes may have deleterious effects on growth and development and may be deficient in total calories and essential nutrients. In a study of the effect of variation in percent fat in the diet, a sample of 871 ten-year-olds was stratified according to four different fat intakes: less than 30% of total kilocalories (kcal), 30% to 35% kcal, 35% to 40% kcal, and greater than 40% kcal. The race/sex distribution was similar within each fat intake group. Fourteen percent of the sample had fat intakes less than 30% of total calories. The amount of calories from breakfast, dinner, and snacks was higher in the children with fat intakes greater than 40% of total calories than those with lower fat intakes. The energy intake of all race/sex groups fell within the recommended range. The low fat intake group was eating 25% less calories than the high fat intake group (1800 kcal vs 2400 kcal). The percentage of calories from carbohydrate, specifically sugar, was greater in the low fat intake group compared with the high fat intake group. Percentage of calories from protein was approximately 13% for all groups. Fiber and starch were the same across all fat intakes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1734388
Nicklas, T A; Webber, L S; Koschak, M; Berenson, G S
The nutrient intakes and dietary practices of elite, U.S. national team, artistic female gymnasts (n = 33) were evaluated using 3-day food records. The gymnasts' reported energy intake was 43.4 kcal/kg (total 1,678 kcal/day), which was 20% below the estimated energy requirement. The contributions of protein, fat, and carbohydrate to total energy intake were 17%, 18%, and 66%, respectively. All reported vitamin intakes, except vitamin E, were above the RDA. The reported mineral intakes, especially calcium, zinc, and magnesium, were less than 100% of the RDA. The overall nutrient densities of the subjects' diets were higher than expected. Eighty-two percent of the gymnasts reported taking nonprescription vitamin and mineral supplements, and 10% reported taking prescription vitamin and mineral supplements. Forty-eight percent of the gymnasts reported being on a self-prescribed diet. Compared to NHANES III, the reported nutrient intake of these gymnasts was different from that of the average U.S. adolescent female. In summary, certain key nutrients such as calcium, iron, and zinc should be given more attention to prevent nutrient deficiencies and subsequent health consequences. PMID:9841954
Jonnalagadda, S S; Bernadot, D; Nelson, M
ObjectiveDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness in adults. Antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, may be protective of some eye disorders, such as cataract and age-related macular degeneration, but a relationship between these nutrients and DR has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the
Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis; Ronny A Bell; Beth A Reboussin; Julia Rushing; Julie A Marshall; Richard F Hamman
Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ? 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ? 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ? 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ? 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ? 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients. PMID:23345549
Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L
The most recently reported national food consumption survey, the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1989–92 was analyzed to examine the influence of breakfast consumption on nutrient intake. Each year of the 1989–92 CSFII used a stratified sample of individuals in U.S. households representing a cross section of the population of the 48 contiguous states. The sample
J. L Tietyen; K. H. Fleming
? ? ? ? ? Objective: Malnutrition is common among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Reduced nutrient intake contrib- utes to this. It has long been assumed that this reflects disturbed appetite. We set out to define the appetite pro- files of a group of PD patients using a novel technique. ? ? ? ? ? Design: Prospective, cross-sectional comparison of
Mark Wright; Graham Woodrow; Siobahn O'Brien; Neil King; Louise Dye; John Blundell; Aleck Brownjohn; John Turney
The mechanisms through which diet may influence the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are unclear but can be better understood by examining associations between nutrient consumption and NHL risk. Between 2000 and 2002, 591 NHL cases and 460 population-based controls in Sweden completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations with nutrient intake; all statistical tests were two sided. Dietary intake of most macronutrients was not associated with risk of NHL or its common subtypes. Consumption of omega-3 or marine fatty acids was associated with decreased risk of NHL and chronic lymphocytic lymphoma, and dietary fiber was associated with lower risk of all subtypes examined. When the highest and the lowest quartiles of marine fat intake were compared, the odds ratio for NHL risk was 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.9), ptrend=0.03; for dietary fiber intake, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.3, 0.7), ptrend<0.001. Dietary consumption of beta-carotene or alpha-tocopherol was associated with lower NHL risk, whereas intake of calcium or retinol was associated with increased NHL risk. Nutrients that affect inflammation, vitamin D activity, oxidative DNA damage, or DNA methylation may be associated with risk of NHL. PMID:17005624
Chang, Ellen T; Bälter, Katarina M; Torrång, Anna; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Melbye, Mads; Sundström, Christer; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov
The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438
Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z
Growth retardation is common among children with epilepsy, and poor dietary intake may be one of the causes. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare the nutrient intake of children 1 to 8 years of age with intractable epilepsy to healthy children of the same age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2002 (N=1,718) and with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children with intractable epilepsy were divided into two age groups: 1.0 to 3.9 and 4.0 to 8.9 years, to correspond with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Forty-three children with intractable epilepsy, mean age=4.7+/-2.2 years, had significantly lower intakes (P<0.05) of total energy; protein; carbohydrate; fat; dietary fiber; vitamins A, E, B-6, and B-12; riboflavin; niacin; folate; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; zinc; copper; and selenium compared with healthy children. Thirty percent or more of the children with intractable epilepsy in both age groups had intakes below the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake for vitamins D, E, and K; folate; calcium; linoleic acid; and alpha-linolenic acid. Health care professionals caring for children with intractable epilepsy should be aware of this pattern of decreased nutrient intake and educate families to provide an adequate diet and/or consider vitamin/mineral supplementation. PMID:17524723
Volpe, Stella L; Schall, Joan I; Gallagher, Paul R; Stallings, Virginia A; Bergqvist, A G Christina
This study was performed to investigate the status of food restriction and the list of restricted foods in children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD), and to find out the effect of food restriction on the changes in nutrient intake and the severity of the disease. Sixty two patient children aged 12 months to 13 years presenting AD with a SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index between 20 and 50 were enrolled. The presence of food limitation, and list of restricted foods were surveyed through the caretakers and the patients were divided into 3 groups by the number of restricted food: non-restricted group, one to three restricted group, and more than three restricted group. Dietary intake was assessed for 3 months using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Half of the subjects restricted foods. The restriction was higher in the order of soda, food additives, walnut, peanut, and other nuts as a single food item; and shellfish and crustacean group, processed foods, nuts, milk & dairy products, and meats as a food group. More than three restricted group ingested more fruits and less fish and meats, resulting in high consumption of vitamin C (p = 0.027). No significant difference in the ratio of nutrient intake by the number of restricted foods was observed in other nutrients. Significant improvement of AD symptom was observed in non-restricted group (p = 0.036) and one to three restricted group (p = 0.003). It is necessary to provide proper nutrition information and systematic and continuous nutrition management for balanced nutrient intake and disease improvement in children with AD. PMID:23429834
Lim, Hyunjin; Song, Kyunghee; Kim, Ran; Sim, Jiyeon; Park, Eunah; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin
Objective: Recently, it has been proposed that dietary factors may contribute to the etiology and progression of Sjögren's syndrome, and that nutritional intervention may modify the severity of pathological abnormalities. The objective of this study was to determine whether the nutrient intake of women with primary (1°SS) or secondary (2°SS; ie with systemic lupus erythematosus (2°SS\\/SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (2°SS\\/RA)
J M Cermak; A S Papas; R M Sullivan; M R Dana; D A Sullivan
BACKGROUND: We studied food consumption and nutrient intake in subjects with depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia as indices of compromised mental wellbeing. METHODS: The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation with alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene prevents
Reeta Hakkarainen; Timo Partonen; Jari Haukka; Jarmo Virtamo; Demetrius Albanes; Jouko Lönnqvist
Vegetables, especially white potatoes, provide significant levels of key nutrients of concern, such as potassium and dietary fiber. Per capita availability (PCA) data for vegetables-often used as a proxy for vegetable consumption-show that vegetable consumption, including consumption of white potatoes, declined in the past decade. Using dietary data for participants in the NHANES 2009-2010, we examined total vegetable, white potato, and French-fried potato consumption among all age-gender groups as well as mean energy, potassium, and dietary fiber intakes. Mean total energy intake for the US population (?2 y old) was 2080 kcal/d, with white potatoes and French-fried potatoes providing ?4% and ?2% of total energy, respectively. Individuals who consumed white potatoes had significantly higher total vegetable and potassium intakes than did nonconsumers. In addition, the proportion of potassium and dietary fiber contributed by white potatoes was higher than the proportion that they contributed to total energy. Among white potato consumers aged 14-18 y, white potatoes provided ?23% of dietary fiber and ?20% of potassium but only ?11% of total energy in the diet. The nutrient-dense white potato may be an effective way to increase total vegetable consumption and potassium and dietary fiber intake. PMID:23674802
Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dietary intake of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and assess oral intake related nutrition problems. Fifty patients who had undergone kidney transplantation were included: 24 males, 26 females. The mean age was 46.8 ± 11.2 years, height was 161.3 ± 8.3 cm, and body weight was 60.5 ± 8.7 kg. We conducted nutrition education based on the diet guideline for KTRs (energy 32 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW], protein 1.3 g/kg of IBW) and neutropenic diet guideline before discharge. Dietary intake of the patients at 1 month after transplantation was investigated by 3-day food records. Body weight and laboratory values for nutritional status and graft function were also collected. Body weight was significantly decreased from admission to discharge. Body weight from discharge to 1 month and 3 months after transplantation was increased but was not significant. Biochemical measurements were generally improved but the number of patients with hypophosphatemia increased. The daily dietary intake of energy and protein was adequate (33.1 kcal/kg, 1.5 g/kg, respectively). However, the dietary intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C did not meet the Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake of vitamins and minerals (86.8%, 62.4%, and 88.0%, respectively). Patients with low intake of calcium, folate, and vitamin C presented low intake in milk and dairy products, vegetables, and fruits, and these foods were related to restricted food items in neutropenic diet. More attention should be paid on improving quality of diet, and reconsideration of present neutropenic diet guideline is necessary. These results can be used to establish evidence-based medical nutrition therapy guideline for KTRs.
Rho, Mi Ra; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jung Hwa; Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Young Hee
PurposeDegrees of nutrient intake and food groups have been linked to differential chronic disease risk. However, intakes of specific nutrients may also be associated with differential diet costs and unobserved differences in socioeconomic status (SES). The present study examined degrees of nutrient intake, for every key nutrient in the diet, in relation to diet cost and SES.MethodsSocio-demographic data for a
Anju Aggarwal; Pablo Monsivais; Adam Drewnowski
Background/objectives: To assess the effects on macro- and micronutrient intake of a nutrition intervention program in corporate settings across the United States. Subjects/methods: Two hundred and ninety-two individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 sites of a US insurance company. Two hundred and seventy-one participants completed baseline diet recalls, and 183 participants completed dietary recalls at 18 weeks. Sites were randomly assigned to an intervention group (five sites) or to a control group (five sites) for 18 weeks. At intervention sites, participants were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and attend weekly group meetings. At control sites, participants continued their usual diets. At baseline and 18 weeks, participants completed 2-day diet recalls. Between-group differences in changes in nutrient intake were assessed using an analysis of covariance. Results: Compared with those in the control group, intervention-group participants significantly reduced the reported intake of total fat (P=0.02), saturated (P=0.006) and monounsaturated fats (P=0.01), cholesterol (P=0.009), protein (P=0.03) and calcium (P=0.02), and increased the intake of carbohydrate (P=0.006), fiber (P=0.002), ?-carotene (P=0.01), vitamin C (P=0.003), magnesium (P=0.04) and potassium (P=0.002). Conclusions: An 18-week intervention program in a corporate setting reduces intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and increases the intake of protective nutrients, particularly fiber, ?-carotene, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium. The reduction in calcium intake indicates the need for planning for this nutrient.
Mishra, S; Barnard, N D; Gonzales, J; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Levin, S
The Nutrition Facts panel on food labels in the United States currently displays Daily Values (DVs) that are based on outdated RDAs. The FDA has indicated that it plans to update the DVs based on the newer Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), but there is controversy regarding the best method for calculating new DVs from the DRIs. To better understand the implications of DV revisions, assuming that manufacturers choose to maintain current label claims for micronutrients from voluntarily fortified foods, we modeled intake of 8 micronutrients using NHANES 2007–2008 data and 2 potential methods for calculating DVs: the population-weighted Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the population-coverage RDA. In each scenario, levels of fortified nutrients were adjusted to maintain the current %DV. Usual nutrient intakes and percentages with usual intakes less than the EAR were estimated for the U.S. population and subpopulations aged ?4 y (n = 7976). For most nutrients, estimates of the percentage of the U.S. population with intakes below the EAR were similar regardless of whether the DV corresponded to the population-weighted EAR or the population-coverage RDA. Potential decreases were observed in adequacy of nutrients of concern for women of childbearing age, namely iron and folate (up to 9% and 3%, respectively), adequacy of calcium among children (up to 6%), and adequacy of vitamin A intakes in the total population (5%) assuming use of the population-weighted EAR compared with the population-coverage RDA for setting the DV. Results of this modeling exercise will help to inform decisions in revising the DVs.
Murphy, Mary M.; Spungen, Judith H.; Barraj, Leila M.; Bailey, Regan L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.
OBJECTIVES: This study measured swallowing threshold parameters and nutrient intake in partially dentate subjects rehabilitated by conventional free-end removable partial dentures (RPD) and by RPD over posterior implant retainers and ball attachments (BA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight subjects (two men and six women; mean age 60.1 ± 6.6 years old) received conventional total maxillary dentures and free-end RPD in the mandible. Two months after denture insertion, swallowing threshold and nutrient intake assessments occurred, which included an evaluation of the number of masticatory cycles and medium particle size (X50 ) of a silicone test material (Optocal). A 3-day food diary verified nutrient intake based on a standard Brazilian Food Composition Table. Then, osseointegrated implants were placed bilaterally in the mandibular first molar region, followed by BA, which was fitted in the RPD bases after healing. After 2 months of the RPD over implants and BA use, variables were again assessed. Wilcoxon signed rank tests evaluated the data (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Masticatory cycles did not differ (P > 0.05); however, subjects showed decreased X50 values at the swallowing moment (P = 0.008) and increased daily energy (P = 0.008), carbohydrate (P = 0.016), protein (P = 0.023), calcium (P = 0.008), fiber (P = 0.016), and iron (P = 0.016) intake with RPD implants and BA inserts. No differences were found in fat consumption (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Implants and BA retainers over a free-end RPD resulted in smaller swallowed median particle size and improved nutrient intake. PMID:23560748
Campos, Camila Heitor; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus
SUMMARY Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 y of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children’s cognition at age 3 y was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioral and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/d increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 y was 1.6 points [95% CI: 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [?0.4 points per 2.6 µg/d; 95% CI: ?0.8, ?0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine, or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 y.
Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily
An extensive literature has assessed the influence of diet on dental caries, but to date dietary influences on caries of the primary dentition have not been studied widely. This study examined the role of specific nutrients in the caries experience of preschool children. A total of 628 children ages 2 to 6 years received a dental examination, parent interview, and
Ana Paula; Faria Marques; Louise Brearley Messer
Nutrition labels on food packages are designed to promote and protect public health by providing nutrition information so that consumers can make informed dietary choices. High levels of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol in diets are linked to increased blood cholesterol levels and a greater risk of heart disease. Therefore, an understanding of consumer use of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels has important implications for public health and nutrition education. This study explores the association between dietary intakes of these three nutrients and psychological or demographic factors and the search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels. Psychology literature suggests a negative association between intakes of these nutrients and probability of search for their information on food labels. Health behavior theories also suggest perceived benefits and costs of using labels and perceived capability of using labels are associated with the search behavior. We estimate the relationship between label information search and its predictors using logistic regressions. Our samples came from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results suggest that search for total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol information on food labels is less likely among individuals who consume more of the three nutrients, respectively. The search is also related to perceived benefits and costs of using the label, perceived capability of using the label, knowledge of nutrition and fats, perceived efficacy of diets in reducing the risk of illnesses, perceived importance of nutrition in food shopping, perceived importance of a healthy diet, and awareness of linkage between excessive consumption of the nutrients and health problems. These findings suggest encouraging search of food label information among consumers with unhealthy dietary habits would need innovative approaches. Yet, nutrition education can be instrumental in encouraging this search by stimulating motivation and providing technical help. PMID:15312929
Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Yen, Steven T
Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…
Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker
National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.
Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.
National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507
Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L
Relationships between nutrient intakes and plasma lipids and lipoproteins were studied in 1,669 schoolchildren, aged 6 to 19 years; 948 were selected by random recall and 721 because of elevated plasma cholesterol or triglyceride (hyperlipidemic recall). Nutrient intake data was collected by using a 24-hour dietary recall. Median dietary cholesterol intakes for 6 to 9-year-old boys and girls in the random recall group were 222 and 230 mg/day, with polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratios of 0.34 and 0.33. For boys and girls, aged 10 to 12 years, median dietary cholesterol intakes were 296 and 235 mg/day, for 13 to 15 year olds, 343 and 237, and for 16 to 19 year olds, 418 and 221 mg/day. The dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratios did not change appreciably with age. Partial correlation coefficients describing relationships between lipids, lipoproteins, and nutrients after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Quetelet index (W/H2) were calculated for all children (random and hyperlipidemic recall) after excluding children having plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and calories less than or equal to the first or greater than or equal to the 99th percentiles for the random recall children. Plasma cholesterol was inversely and triglyceride positively correlated with dietary sucrose. Plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely and triglyceride positively correlated with the dietary polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio, total carbohydrate, and sugar. Potential relationships between nutrients and lipids-lipoproteins were also examined in children having low (first to tenth percentile), intermediate (45th to 55th percentile), and high (90th to 99th percentile) nutrient intake, after covariance adjustment for age, race, sex, and Quetelet index. Total plasma cholesterol fell as sucrose intake increased. Triglyceride rose along with caloric intake, total carbohydrate intake, and sucrose intake, while high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels fell with increasing caloric and sucrose intake. As dietary polyunsaturate ingestion rose from low to intermediate to high, plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased. Nutrient intake may play a small but significant role relative to lipids and lipoproteins in children and, as such, may have importance relative to pediatric precursors of atherosclerosis. PMID:7367079
Morrison, J A; Larsen, R; Glatfelter, L; Boggs, D; Burton, K; Smith, C; Kelly, K; Mellies, M J; Khoury, P; Glueck, C J
Hyperuricemia is associated with metabolic syndrome as well as gout, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia is increasing in Korea. This study aimed to compare the nutrient intake and diet quality between hyperuricemia subjects and controls. Of the 28,589 people who participated in a health examination between 2008 and 2011, 9,010 subjects were selected whose 3-day food records were available. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from electronic medical records. Diet quality was evaluated using the food habit score (FHS), nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), and mean adequacy ratio (MAR). The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 13.8% (27.1%, men; 5.2%, women). Body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (p < 0.0001), while high-density cholesterol (p < 0.001) was significantly lower in the hyperuricemia subjects than in the controls. The hyperuricemia subjects had a lower intake of vitamin A (p < 0.004), vitamin C, folate, fiber, and calcium than the controls (p < 0.0001). Intake of vegetables and dairy products was significantly lower, whereas alcohol intake was significantly higher in the hyperuricemia subjects than in the controls ( p < 0.0001). The FHS (p < 0.0001), MAR (p < 0.0001), and NARs for vitamin A (p = 0.01), vitamin B2, vitamin C, folate, and calcium (p < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the hyperuricemia subjects than in the controls. In conclusion, the hyperuricemia subjects reported poorer diet quality than the controls, including higher alcohol intake and lower vegetable and dairy product intake.
Ryu, Kyoung A; Kang, Hyun Hee; Kim, So Young; Yoo, Min Kyong; Kim, Jeong Seon; Lee, Chan Haw
Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood Table A23. Total meat, poultry, and seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90%
Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Table A22. Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%
Usual Intake of Total vegetables including beans and peas Table A6. Total vegetables including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total protein foods excluding beans and peas Table A21. Total protein foods excluding beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total protein from beans and peas (legumes) Table A32. Total protein from beans and peas (legumes): Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total protein foods including beans and peas Table A20. Total protein foods including beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total vegetables excluding beans and peas Table A7. Total vegetables excluding beans and peas: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50%
Usual Intake of Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes Table A29. Total soy, nuts and seeds, and legumes: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%
Usual Intake of Total red and orange vegetables Table A9. Total red and orange vegetables: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95%
Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P < 0.01) in the median ADG categories of pigs at the end of the experiment. Energy intake increased with increasing WW (P < 0.001; NE intake = 1.40, 1.64, and 1.89 Mcal/d for pigs from the LWW, MWW, and HWW, respectively). However, the ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P < 0.001) energy intake, utilization, and efficiency for gain, energy retained as tissue, and retained GE. The calculated to actual ME intake ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues for more directed pig management strategies in the future to minimize variation within a group. PMID:24671585
Jones, C K; Patience, J F
Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%);
Gyorgy Bodoky; Michael M. Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; Alessandro Laviano
Objectives To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.
Gagne, Doris; Blanchet, Rosanne; Lauziere, Julie; Vaissiere, Emilie; Vezina, Carole; Ayotte, Pierre; Dery, Serge; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon
Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on blood lead levels by analyzing whether the intakes of certain dietary components a) were associated with blood lead levels independent of lead exposure or b) modified the effect of lead exposure on blood lead. Subjects were 205 children from low-income families who were approximately 1 year of age and living in old, urban houses. The data collected for each child included blood lead level, nutritional status, and amount of lead exposure, which was assessed from samples of household dust. Multiple linear regression analyses showed a statistically significant positive association between lead exposure and blood lead. Statistically significant positive associations were found between blood lead and total fat as well as blood lead and saturated fat, independent of lead exposure and age of the child. Regression modeling and stratified analysis showed that mean blood lead increased with increasing lead exposure as well as with increasing caloric intake, suggesting that caloric intake modifies the association between lead exposure and blood lead. The findings from this study, if replicated in other studies, support a dietary intervention to reduce the amount of total calories, total fat, and saturated fat among children 1 year of age at risk for lead exposure, while maintaining adequate intake of these dietary components. Our results also reinforce recommendations that removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses should be the primary means of preventing lead exposure.
Gallicchio, Lisa; Scherer, Roberta W; Sexton, Mary
Objective:To estimate total energy intake and the energy gap—the daily imbalance between energy intake and expenditure—associated with discretionary behaviors of adolescents, namely their leisure active behaviors (playing or participating in sports and heavy chores), leisure sedentary behaviors (television (TV) viewing and playing video and computer games), productive sedentary behaviors (reading or doing homework).Design:Prospective observational study.Participants:A total of 538 students (mean
K R Sonneville; S L Gortmaker
Dietary patterns are a useful summary measure of diet. Few studies have examined the nutrient profiles underpinning the dietary patterns of young children. The study aim is to determine whether dietary patterns at 6 and 15 months of age are associated with nutrient intakes at 8 and 18 months, respectively. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had complete dietary pattern and nutrient intake data (n = 725 at 6–8 months, n = 535 at 15–18 months). The association between tertiles of dietary pattern scores and nutrient intake was examined using a non-parametric test for trend. Scores on the home-made traditional pattern (6–8 months) were positively associated with median energy intake. Each dietary pattern had different associations with energy-adjusted intakes of macro- and micro-nutrients. At both times, the discretionary pattern was positively and the ready-prepared baby foods pattern was negatively associated with sodium intake. At 6–8 months, calcium and iron intakes decreased across scores on the home-made traditional and breastfeeding patterns, but increased across the ready-prepared baby food patterns. These findings highlight that dietary patterns in infants and toddlers vary in their underlying energy and nutrient composition.
Smithers, Lisa G.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Brazionis, Laima; Emmett, Pauline; Northstone, Kate; Lynch, John W.
Measuring the effect of nutrition information on an individual's intake of dietary fiber is crucial for understanding and quantifying the linkage between nutrition education programs and actual consumption behavior. Dietary information and intake data for...
D. Smallwood J. Blaylock J. N. Variyam
Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…
The nutrient intake of 47 female nursing home residents, able to eat without help, and of 20 eating-dependent seniors was measured by weighing method. Hand grip strength was examined by a dynamometer. Furthermore the level of physical activity of the seniors able to eat without help was determined by means of a questionnaire. The results showed that the median energy intake of self-feeding elderly women was 1620 kcal (850-4450 kcal). More than one third of the seniors consumed less than 1700 kcal / d. The intake of vitamins and minerals remained below 40-90% of the recommended level. One important cause for the inadequate micronutrient intake was that 30% of the total energy intake is met by foods of a low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, spreadable fats, soups). The eating-dependent seniors were at high risk for protein-calorie malnutrition, consuming an average of 1130 kcal / d and 34 g protein / d. The level of physical activity was very low. Only 34% of the seniors were active for more than 2 hours per week (walking, gymnastics). 30% of the residents were largely inactive although they were able to walk. It is often ignored that immobility is a major risk factor for the development of malnutrition. Firstly inactivity accelerates the loss of muscle mass. This loss of metabolically active tissue decreases the energy requirements thus leading to a loss of appetite and reduced food intake. PMID:12917742
Schmid, A; Weiss, M; Heseker, H
Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age and ethnically diverse subgroups of the population. PMID:22691761
Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H
Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality.
Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.
Objective. To estimate energy, nutrient intake and diet adequacy in school-aged children based on the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). Material and Methods. Food intake data from food frequency questionnaires was analyzed for 8 716 children aged 5 to 11 years. Energy and nutrients intake and adequacy were obtained. Comparisons were made at regional, urban\\/rural areas,
Mario Flores; Nayeli Macías; Marta Rivera; Simón Barquera; Lucía Hernández; Armando García-Guerra; Juan A Rivera
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition.
Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung
The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional value and nutrients provided by each meal and snack of consumed by university students. Subjects were randomly selected from volunteer students at five universities in Ankara. A sample of 400 students (167 female and 233 male) aged between 19 and 24 years participated in this study. A questionnaire designed to assess general characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and 24 hours dietary records was administered using face to face interviews. According to body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male students, and 77.7% of female students were found to be in the normal weight categories. Overweight categories were found to be 25.1% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. Breakfast and lunch were the most frequently skipped meals, with a total of 47.7% of students skipping breakfast and 25.2% skipping lunch. The percentages of energy deficiency were found to be 78.4% in males, and 81.1% in females. Dinner was the main meal for consumption of energy and the other nutrients, except saturated fatty acids, for both genders. Also, dinner was the largest contributor of energy in both genders. Students ate more bread, cereals, and meat at dinner than during the other meals and snacks. Fruit was consumed more during snacks than at the other meals by all students. It was concluded that students need more nutritional information about healthy nutritional habits, adequate intake of nutrients, and ideal body weights. PMID:21556225
Nesli?ah, Rak?c?o?lu; Emine, Akal Y?ld?z
Data from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to determine food and nutrient intake differences between current smokers (also categorized as light, moderate, and heavy smokers) and non-smokers. Smokers in several age-race-sex categories have lower intakes of vitamin C, folate, fiber, and vitamin A than non-smokers, and intake tended to decrease as cigarette consumption increased, particularly for vitamin C, fiber, and folate. Smokers were less likely to have consumed vegetables, fruits (particularly fruits and vegetables high in vitamins C and A), high fiber grains, low fat milk, and vitamin and mineral supplements than non-smokers. A negative linear trend was found between smoking intensity and intake of several categories of fruits and vegetables. These data suggest that the high cancer risk associated with smoking is compounded by somewhat lower intake of nutrients and foods which are thought to be cancer protective.
Subar, A F; Harlan, L C; Mattson, M E
Background and Aims Little data are published on habitual home oral diet of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients living in the United States. Methods We assessed habitual macro-and micronutrient intake from oral food and beverages in 19 stable patients with severe SBS who live in the Southeastern United States. Intestinal absorption of energy, fat, nitrogen (N) and carbohydrate (CHO) was determined in a metabolic ward setting. Results We studied 12 women and 7 men, age 48±3 years (mean±SE) receiving chronic PN for 31±8 months following massive small bowel resection (118±25 cm residual small bowel). Patients had intact (N=5), partial (N=9), or no residual colon (N=5). The subjects demonstrated severe malabsorption of energy (59±3% of oral intake), fat (41±5%), N (42±5%) and CHO (76±3%). Average oral energy intake was 2656±242 kcal/day (39±3 kcal/kg/day) and oral protein intake was 1.4 ±0.1 g/kg/d. Oral food/beverage intake constituted 49±4% of total (enteral + parenteral) daily fluid intake, 66±4% of total daily kcal and 58±5% of total daily N intake. Oral fat intake averaged 92±11g/day (? 35% of total oral energy). Oral fluid intake averaged 2712±240 ml/d, primarily from water, soft drinks, sweet tea and coffee. Simple sugars comprised 42±3% of oral CHO intake. Usual dietary intake of multiple micronutrients were below the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in a large percentage of patients: vitamin A (47%), vitamin D (79%), vitamin E (79%), vitamin K (63%), thiamine (42%), vitamin B6 (68%), vitamin B12 (11%), vitamin C (58%), folate (37%), iron (37%), calcium (63%), magnesium (79%) and zinc (68%). Only 7 patients (37%) were taking oral multivitamin-mineral supplements and only 6 subjects (37%) were taking oral iron and calcium supplements, respectively. Conclusions In these SBS patients living in the Southeastern United States, oral diet provides a significant proportion of daily nutrient intake. However, the types of foods and fluids consumed are likely to worsen malabsorption and increase PN requirements. Oral intake of essential micronutrients was very low in a significant proportion of this cohort of SBS patients.
Fernandez-Estivariz, Concepcion; Luo, Menghua; Umeakunne, Kay; Bazargan, Niloofar; Galloway, John R.; Leader, Lorraine M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.
The effect of six independent factors on the stability of i.v. nutritional emulsions was studied. Forty-five i.v. nutritional admixtures were prepared, each containing the following: (1) amino acids (range, 2.5-7%), (2) hydrated glucose (range, 5-20%), (3) lipid emulsion (range, 2-5%), (4) monovalent cations (range, 0-150 meq/L), (5) divalent cations (range, 4-20 meq/L), and (6) trivalent cations (range, 0-10 mg of elemental iron/L). Stability assessments included particle-size analysis, pH determination, and visual inspection. Sizing and counting of fat particles was achieved by using light obscuration and dynamic light scatter methods. Light obscuration and visual assessments were performed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 30 hours. Dynamic light scatter and pH determinations were performed at 0 and 30 hours. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that trivalent cation concentration was the only variable that affected the stability of nutritional emulsions (p < 0.00001), accounting for approximately 60% of the potentially dangerous increases in fat particle sizes observed. In addition, a percentage of large fat particles (> 5 microns in diameter) greater than 0.4% was associated with unstable emulsions. However, this instability was visibly evident only 65% of the time. Changes in mean globule diameter, cream-layer thickness, and pH did not reveal instability in these emulsions. Emulsions in which > 0.4% of the initial fat concentration consists of particles of > 5 microns in diameter are likely to become unstable. Of the six factors studied, the trivalent cation in iron dextran was most disruptive to lipid-based parenteral nutrient admixtures. PMID:7606577
Driscoll, D F; Bhargava, H N; Li, L; Zaim, R H; Babayan, V K; Bistrian, B R
The association of dietary intakes with blood pressure levels was examined in a cross-sectional sample of 805 men aged 40-69 years free from clinical hypertension, coronary heart disease or cancer. After controlling for age, body habitus, and alcohol consumption, blood pressure levels were inversely associated with the intake of fruit (r = -0.09, p less than 0.05, for both systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure) and of fruit fibre (r = -0.07, p = 0.05 for SBP; r = -0.07, p = 0.07 for DBP). This association was independent of the intake of minerals and fibre from other sources. Calcium and magnesium intake were not significantly associated with blood pressure levels, but our results are statistically compatible with the modest inverse associations previously reported. These cross-sectional data suggest that some component of fruit has a blood pressure lowering effect. PMID:1666065
Ascherio, A; Stampfer, M J; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; McKinlay, J
Studies were carried out in two estates in Kedah and Johor to characterize the anthropometry and dietary patterns of 334 (169 females, 165 males) Malaysian estate workers. Subjects were Malay and Indian adults (aged 18 to 60 years) engaged in various work activities including rubber tappers, palm fruit harvesters, field supervisors and workers in the estate factories. Anthropometric results showed that the prevalence of overweight (26% in men, 25% in women) and obesity (5% in men, 11% in women) were higher compared to prevalence of underweight (11% in men, 9% in women) in these workers despite being engaged in moderate to heavy activities. The dietary intake pattern revealed that the main sources of calories in the diet were rice, cooking oil and sugar. Major sources of protein in the Malay diet were anchovies and fish whilst in the Indian diet protein was provided by salted fish, anchovies, eggs, fish, and pulses. The consumption of poultry, meat and dairy products were low for both ethnic groups. The dietary intakes of a subsampel of 108 normal weight subjects (56 females, 52 males) were recorded for 3 days. The results showed that the mean energy intake was 8.44 ± 2.12 MJ in males and 6.48 ± 1.29 MJ in females. The contribution of calories from protein, fat and carbohydrate were 13%, 22% and 60% in males and 12%, 23% and 65% in females, respectively. Alcohol intake was found to contribute five percent of energy in the diet of the Indian male subjects. Calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin intake were below 66% of the Malaysian RDA, particularly amongst the women. Income appeared to have a significant correlation with energy and iron intakes of the female workers as well as thiamin, niacin and riboflavin intakes of the male workers. There is a need for improving the quality of the dietary intakes of these workers as well as nutrition education on the prevention of obesity and its consequences. PMID:22692134
Chee, S; Zawiah, H; Ismail, M; Ng, K
Objectives To study calorie and nutrients intake in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER), and to analyse the need to design nutrition intervention strategies. Design Observational (case-control). Setting Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. Participants A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD under treatment with MPH-ER and 100 healthy children (control group). Main outcome measures A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results Nutritional status in ADHD group was significantly lower (p?0.05) than in control group. Calorie intake in mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack was significantly higher (p?0.05) in the control group. Calorie intake in supper was significantly higher (p?0.05) in the ADHD group. There were no significant differences in breakfast. Total calorie intake, as well as protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate intake, in control group was significantly higher than in ADHD group. Conclusions The daily calorie and nutrients intake in patients under treatment with MPH-ER is, generally, lower than in healthy population of similar age. The need to impart programmes of nutrition education simultaneously with multimodal treatment in order to avoid the nutrition consequences of treatment with MPH should be considered.
Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors.
This study evaluates the reproducibility of nutrient intake in a 45-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was mailed in 1980 to persons eligible to participate in a large cohort study on diet and cancer risk; a follow-up version with 75 food items was mailed in 1988 to selected original participants. A random sample of 500 men and 500 women from the New York State general population was selected from individuals who responded to both waves of the study. The subjects' 1988 responses were compared with their original 1980 responses; Pearson's correlations ranged from 0.25 for retinol to 0.55 for vitamin C with or without supplements and vitamin E with supplements in women. Reproducibility of nutrient intake in this questionnaire indicates that brief FFQs may be a useful tool to study nutrient intake and chronic disease relationships, although they are subject to substantial measurement error and dietary change. PMID:8771569
Xing, X; Burr, J A; Brasure, J R; Neugut, A I; Marshall, J R
This study aims to show the relationship between lifestyle and risk of colorectal and gastric cancers in Tunisian population. The food frequency survey method was used to obtain information about the dietary intake and way of life. Nutrients intake was calculated according to the food composition database. According to our results, the consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish, as well as coffee seems to be protective against digestive cancer, while the consumption of citrus and olive oil is protective against gastric cancer. Tobacco, alcohol, and tea represent a risk against gastrointestinal cancer. Highly educated people are more conscious of the crucial role of prevention. In addition, nutrients were significantly associated with colorectal and gastric cancer. The findings suggest that lifestyle is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Moreover, higher intake of nutrients from foods was observed more in cases with colorectal and gastric cancer than controls. PMID:24615521
Baroudi, Olfa; Chaaben, Arij Ben; Mezlini, Amel; Moussa, Amel; Omrane, Ines; Jilson, Irene; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Chabchoub, Soufia
Objective. To estimate energy and nutrient intake and ad- equacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999). Material and Methods. Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309) and school (n=2 611) children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions,
Simón Barquera; Juan A Rivera; Margarita Safdie; Mario Flores; Ismael Campos-Nonato; Fabricio Campirano
This report presents 3-day nutrient intake data for about 36,100 individuals in 48 states. Data are provided in 157 tables, and results are summarized in the text. The contribution of 14 food groups to intakes of food energy and 14 nutrients are presented. Also included are the average intakes of food energy and nutrients, the nutrient densities…
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
Objective Case control studies evaluating the relationship between dietary intake of specific nutrients and risk of congenital, neonatal or early childhood disease require the ability to rank relative maternal dietary intake during pregnancy. Such studies are limited by the lack of validated instruments for assessing gestational dietary intake several years post-partum. This study aims to validate a semi-quantitative interview-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for retrospectively estimating nutrient intake at two critical time points during pregnancy. Methods The FFQ was administered to women (N=84), who 4 to 6 years earlier had participated in a prospective study to evaluate dietary intake during pregnancy. The FFQ queried participants about intake during the previous month (FFQ-month). This was then used as a reference point to estimate consumption by trimester (FFQ-pregnancy). The resulting data were compared to data collected during the original study from two 24-hour recalls (24hr-original) using Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon sign-rank-test. Results Total energy intake as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments did not differ and was only weakly correlated in the trimesters (1st & 3rd) as a whole (r = 0.18-32), though more strongly correlated when restricted to the first half of the 1st trimester (r=0.32) and later half of the 3rd trimester (r=0.87). After energy adjustment, correlation between the 24hR-original and FFQ-pregnancy in the 3rd trimester were r=0.25 (p<0.05) for dietary intake of vitamin A, and r=0.26 (p<0.05) for folate, and r= 0.23-0.77 (p<0.005) for folate, and vitamins A, B6 and B12 in the 1st and 3rd trimester after including vitamin supplement intake. Conclusions The FFQ-pregnancy provides a consistent estimate of maternal intake of key micronutrients during pregnancy and permits accurate ranking of intake 4-6 years post-partum.
Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Orjuela, Manuela A.; Garcia-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado David; Neufeld, Lynnette M.
Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed
N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham
Relationships between nutrient intakes and plasma lipids and lipoproteins were studied in 949 randomly selected children, ages 6--19, in the biracial, suburban, Princeton School District. While nutrient intake increased with age in males, such age-associated increases in nutrient ingestion were much less consistent or were not significant for females. Primarily in the 6--9 and 10--12 yr age groups, white children ingested more total calories, more saturated fat, and a lower ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fat, more total carbohydrates, sucrose, starch, and other carbohydrates, and more protein than black children. After adjusting for age, race, sex, weight, and height, several nutrient-lipid and lipoprotein partial correlation coefficients were significant, but of relatively low magnitude. There were weak but significant inverse correlations between dietary P/S ratios and dietary carbohydrates with both total (r = -.07, -0.7) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (C-LDL), (r = -.07, -.08). Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (C-HDL) was inversely and significantly correlated with dietary sucrose (r = -.07); plasma triglyceride correlated positively with dietary sucrose (r = .08). Potential relationships between nutrients and lipids-lipoproteins were also examined in children at the extremes of, and in the middle of, lipid-lipoprotein distributions. After covariance adjustment for age, sex, race, and Quetelet index, children having the highest levels of C-HDL had the lowest intake of dietary carbohydrate and total calories. After further covariance adjustment for total calories, children at the highest end of the plasma cholesterol distribution had a greater intake of cholesterol and total protein than did children in the lowest end of the distribution. Nutrient intake may play a small but significant role relative to lipids and lipoproteins in children, and as such, may have importance relative to pediatric precursors of atherosclerosis. PMID:7354721
Morrison, J A; Larsen, R; Glatfelter, L; Boggs, D; Burton, K; Smith, C; Kelly, K; Mellies, M J; Khoury, P; Glueck, C J
Background Associations among dietary intake, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are inconsistent among male and female youth, possibly from lack of adjustment for pubertal status. The purpose of this report is to describe the associations of CVD risk factors among youth, adjusted for sexual maturation. Methods Data analyzed in 2007 from a sumsample of 556 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years in Project HeartBeat!, 1991–1993, provide cross-sectional patterns of CVD risk factors by age and gender, adjusting for sexual maturation, within dietary fat and physical activity categories. Results Girls consuming moderate- to high-fat diets were significantly less physically active than those consuming low-fat diets. Boys and girls consuming high-fat diets had higher saturated fat and cholesterol intakes than children in low-fat categories. Boys had no significant differences in physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, or plasma cholesterol levels across fat categories. Girls’ plasma cholesterol levels showed no significant differences across fat categories. Dietary intake did not differ across moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) categories within gender. There were no differences in BMI by fat or MVPA categories for either gender. Girls’ waist circumference differed significantly by fat category, and systolic blood pressure differed significantly across fat and MVPA categories. Boys’ fifth-phase diastolic blood pressure was significantly different across MVPA categories. Conclusions Girls consuming atherogenic diets were significantly less physically active than those with low fat intakes, whereas boys consuming high-fat diets did not show differences in physical activity measures. With the prevalence of overweight rising among youth, the impact of atherogenic diets and sedentary lifestyles on CVD risk factors is of concern to public health professionals.
Day, R. Sue; Fulton, Janet E.; Dai, Shifan; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Barradas, Danielle T.
Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04) years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys) completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day), over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI)), calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)), folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls), and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL)). Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.
Objective: To assess various marginal effects of nutrient intakes, health behaviours and nutrition knowledge on the entire distribution of body mass index (BMI) across individuals. Design: Quantitative and distributional study. Setting: Taiwan. Methods: This study applies Becker's (1965) model of health production to construct an individual's BMI…
Chen, Shih-Neng; Tseng, Jauling
This study evaluates the reproducibility of nutrient intake in a 45?item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was mailed in 1980 to persons eligible to participate in a large cohort study on diet and cancer risk; a follow?up version with 75 food items was mailed in 1988 to selected original participants. A random sample of 500 men and 500 women
Xueping Xing; Jeffrey A. Burr; John R. Brasure; Alfred I. Neugut; James R. Marshall
Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…
Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the body composition, dietary habits, daily intake of nutrients and clinical blood indices in female college students by body mass index of normal weight, overweight and obese. The subjects of this research were 141 respondents of a survey carried out on students, and subjects were given 60 minutes to answer questionnaires, by recording their own answers. The average heights and weights of subjects by BMI were 162.17 cm, 52.73 kg in normal weight group, 162.35 cm, 62.22 kg in overweight group and 161.72 cm, 69.82 kg in obesity group, respectively. As for the survey daily of meals, starving breakfast and kind of snacks of subjects were significantly different among the groups by BMI. In animal protein food intakes, meat intake was the highest 'every day' food consumed by subjects, and there was a significant difference in distribution of BMI among subjects. Fruits, and greenish and yellow vegetables intakes were the highest 'every day' foods indicated by the normal weight group. Consumption of carbonated beverages and juices showed a significant difference among groups by BMI. The average of total-cholesterol was the overweight group was the higher value. There was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure among the groups by BMI. Average daily calories intake levels were insufficient and the intake ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat was the normal weight group 68:17:15, the overweight group 64:18:18 and the obese group 73:14:13. Results of the daily vitamin intake analyses displayed riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folic acid levels lower than the RI levels. Fe intake was the normal weight group 81%, overweight group 76%, obese group 59% of the RI level. Therefore, it is necessary for college students to establish regular meals, good quality snacks and consuming more vitamin and mineral nutritions for optimal health conditions. PMID:20535399
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the body composition, dietary habits, daily intake of nutrients and clinical blood indices in female college students by body mass index of normal weight, overweight and obese. The subjects of this research were 141 respondents of a survey carried out on students, and subjects were given 60 minutes to answer questionnaires, by recording their own answers. The average heights and weights of subjects by BMI were 162.17 cm, 52.73 kg in normal weight group, 162.35 cm, 62.22 kg in overweight group and 161.72 cm, 69.82 kg in obesity group, respectively. As for the survey daily of meals, starving breakfast and kind of snacks of subjects were significantly different among the groups by BMI. In animal protein food intakes, meat intake was the highest 'every day' food consumed by subjects, and there was a significant difference in distribution of BMI among subjects. Fruits, and greenish and yellow vegetables intakes were the highest 'every day' foods indicated by the normal weight group. Consumption of carbonated beverages and juices showed a significant difference among groups by BMI. The average of total-cholesterol was the overweight group was the higher value. There was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure among the groups by BMI. Average daily calories intake levels were insufficient and the intake ratio of carbohydrates, protein, and fat was the normal weight group 68:17:15, the overweight group 64:18:18 and the obese group 73:14:13. Results of the daily vitamin intake analyses displayed riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folic acid levels lower than the RI levels. Fe intake was the normal weight group 81%, overweight group 76%, obese group 59% of the RI level. Therefore, it is necessary for college students to establish regular meals, good quality snacks and consuming more vitamin and mineral nutritions for optimal health conditions.
Day-to-day variability in dietary intake makes it difficult to measure accurately the "usual" intake of foods and nutrients. The objectives of the present study were to estimate within- and between-subject variability for foods and nutrients by adjusted and unadjusted models and to assess the number of days required to assess nutrient and food group intakes accurately by two different methods. Adult men and women aged 18-65 y (n = 1543) in the Food Habits of Canadians Study provided a 24-h recall. A repeat interview was conducted in a subsample to estimate components of variability. Within- and between-subject variability were determined by mixed model procedure (crude and adjusted for age, gender, education, smoking, family size and season). The number of days required to obtain various degrees of accuracy was ascertained by two methods, one that uses the variance ratio for groups and one that considers within-subject variability alone for individuals. Variance ratios were higher using the adjusted compared with the unadjusted method (e.g., for men, energy 1.07 vs. 0.49). More days were required to reflect usual intake with accuracy using the adjusted model (energy 5 vs. 2 d), indicating the need to control for confounders to obtain reliable estimates of intakes. PMID:12514296
Palaniappan, U; Cue, R I; Payette, H; Gray-Donald, K
The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrient intake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be compromised, and no study has described dietary status of a random sample of food bank users. Nutrient intakes of adult female and male food bank users in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, were monitored week-by-week over a month by dietitian-administered 24-h recall interviews. A total of 428 participants from a stratified random sample of 57 urban area food banks completed all four interviews. Mean energy intake, as an indicator of diet quantity, was similar to other adult populations (10.2 +/- 4.8 and 7.9 +/- 3.6 MJ for men and women, respectively, age 18-49 y) and not related to sociodemographic variables except the expected biological variation of age and sex. Macronutrient intake was stable throughout the month. Overall median intakes of calcium, vitamin A, and zinc were below recommended levels for all age and sex groups. Intakes of several micronutrients were related to frequency of food bank use, household size, smoking, education, and country of birth. High nutrient intake variability characterized these adult food bank users. PMID:10203565
Jacobs Starkey, L; Gray-Donald, K; Kuhnlein, H V
The Saami diet consisted almost entirely of meat and fish in the past and has in general changed considerably during the twentieth century. The diet has become more like a western society diet with increased intake of carbohydrates, both as vegetables and fruits but also as sugar and a decreased intake of meat. These changes are confirmed in this dietary survey and the results reveals that the Saami diet today contains less protein and more carbohydrates and hence a lower phosphate/carbohydrate ratio than in the past. The old traditional diet contained high levels of nutrients such as zinc, phosphate, vitamin B12 and selenium due to high meat consumption. The todays Saami diet still contains more of these nutrients compared with the Swede's diet. The changes in food habits and nutrient intake, expressed in this study as nutrient density and nutrient ratios together with empirical statements in old documents are important to include in the discussion of diet, health and disease. PMID:1365287
Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24?h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables. PMID:24681104
Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia
As food intake declines with aging, older adults develop energy and nutrient inadequacies. It is important to design practical approaches to combat insufficient dietary intakes to decrease risk for acute and chronic diseases, illness, and injury. Manipulating the energy density of meals has improved energy intakes in institutional settings, but the effects on community-residing older adults who are at nutrition
Heidi J. Silver; Mary S. Dietrich; Victoria H. Castellanos
Objective:The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.Design:A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8?kg?m(-2)) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0?kg?m(-2)) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured.Results:While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004?kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P?0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2%; P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9%; P<0.001) and protein (18.6% vs 17.5%, P?0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9?g) were significantly lower (P<0.001). Dietary glycaemic load (GL) was also lower in T2DM (120.8 vs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls.Conclusion:Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain intake and the substitution of monounsaturated for saturated-fat sources, in energy balanced conditions. PMID:24492470
Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D
Objective: The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8?kg?m?2) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0?kg?m?2) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured. Results: While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004?kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P?0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2% P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9% P<0.001) and protein (18.6% vs 17.5%, P?0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9?g) were significantly lower (P<0.001). Dietary glycaemic load (GL) was also lower in T2DM (120.8 vs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls. Conclusion: Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain intake and the substitution of monounsaturated for saturated-fat sources, in energy balanced conditions.
Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D
Nutrient intake of 29 male (M Group) and 16 female (F Group) highly competitive collegiate karate players were compared. The results were also compared with the daily energy expenditure (DEE), Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes (ADIs). Dietary information was collected using a 3-weekday diet record. Although the M Group showed significantly higher mean %RDAs or %ADIs in iron, vitamin B1, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium than the F Group, many of the mean %RDAs or %ADIs were below RDAs or ADIs in both groups. The subjects who skipped meals tended to show lower mean %DEE, Japanese %RDAs or %ADIs in minerals and vitamins than the subjects who did not skip in both M and F Groups. The consumption of green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products in both M and F Groups were low. It is concluded that the male and female highly competitive karate players studied in the present study may be at risk of sub-optimal nutrient intake, which increases the potential for nutrient deficiency. The subjects were advised not to skip meals, and to consume a balanced high-carbohydrate, moderate-protein, low-fat diet with increasing green and other vegetables and milk and dairy products to increase mineral, vitamin and dietary fiber intakes. PMID:12407989
Teshima, Kaori; Imamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Seiji; Miyamoto, Noriko; Yamauchi, Yoichi; Hori, Hitoshi; Moriwaki, Chinatsu; Shirota, Tomoko
Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrients’ intake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrients’ intakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?0.001) due to energy provided by complementary foods (321 vs. 190 Kcal, p?0.001) and milk (363 vs. 301 Kcal, p?=?0.007). Non-breastfed infants had also higher intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health.
Background: Weight loss is reported frequently in patients with Parkinson´s disease also early during the disease. Objective: To investigate food habits and nutrient intake in elderly Parkinson´s disease patients compared with matched controls, as well as to compare PD patients with and without weight loss. Methods: Twenty-six elderly free-living patients with PD, and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls, were
B. Lorefält; W. Ganowiak; U. Wissing; A.-K. Granérus; M. Unosson
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe iron status, nutrient intakes, and growth of infants with PKU undergoing therapy with Phenex(tm)-1 Ami no Acid Modified Medical Food with Iron.Several recent studies have reported deficient iron status and poor growth in children with PKU on therapy. Iron deficiency and malnutrition result in lower than normal IQ and should be prevented in infants with PKU
S. Yannicelli; P. B. Acosta
The influence of living arrangements and nationality on nutrient intakes and food habits and beliefs were explored in young adults. Two hundred and thirty-two participants (20.4±2.8 years) completed a food questionnaire and two 24-h food records. Sixty-nine percent were living at home, and 72% described their nationality as Australian. Most participants performed their own food preparation (84%); those living away
Lynnette J. Riddell; Bixia Ang; Russell S. J. Keast; Wendy Hunter
We investigated the relationships between intakes of selected dietary nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer in a hospital-based, case-control study including 239 cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 979 hospital patients with nonneoplastic diagnoses who completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1982 and 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95%
Chaitali Ghosh; Julie A. Baker; Kirsten B. Moysich; Ruqayyah Rivera; John R. Brasure; Susan E. McCann
We studied changes in physical characteristics: body composition; muscle and physical strength; hematological parameters;\\u000a and nutrients and food intake in 22 male college judoists who were losing weight purposefully. Nutritional parameters in blood,\\u000a such as triglycerides, decreased immediately before matches and rebounded after matches. Free fatty acid increased before\\u000a matches and returned to previous levels 10 days after matches. IgM
Shigeyoshi Kurakake; Takashi Umeda; Shigeyuki Nakaji; Kazuo Sugawara; Kazuo Saito; Yosuke Yamamoto
Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival. Therefore, we compared dietary intake, mainly plant food groups among 382 controls and 478 PC cases (373 incident and 105 prevalent cases). Caucasian controls had significantly higher daily servings of vegetables (3.4 vs. 2.5, P= 0.002) and fruits and\\/or fruit juices (1.6 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02)
John E. Lewis; Hosanna Soler-Vilá; Peter E. Clark; Laura A. Kresty; Glenn O. Allen; Jennifer J. Hu
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.
Garcia-Roves, Pablo M.; Garcia-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M.; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo
The effects of inadequate nutrition, menstrual dysfunction, and low body weight on the injury rate of ballerinas were studied. Forty-nine female ballet dancers, mean age 18.7 years, completed food frequency and injury questionnaires. Subjects were placed in one of two groups: those with an intake less than 70% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for key nutrients and those with an intake greater than 70% of the RDA for key nutrients. Sixty-nine percent of the dancers had intakes less than 70% of the RDA and were randomly assigned to either a vitamin/mineral supplement or to placebo for 6 months. The remaining dancers with diets adequate (greater than 70% RDA) in key nutrients received no treatment. All groups were questioned monthly about the incidence, severity, and nature of ballet injuries. Information regarding menses and height and weight was obtained. There were no significant differences in the severity or type of injuries among the dancers in the supplement, placebo, or no treatment groups. Dancers with abnormal menses had more bone injuries (mean = 15.00) than normally menstruating dancers (mean = 4.97) (p less than .05). Dancers with a Body Mass Index less than 19.0 spent more days with a low-grade injury (mean = 24.05) than dancers with a greater BMI (mean = 11.63) (p less than .05). There appears to be a relationship between dance injuries and both BMI and menstrual function. PMID:2909593
Benson, J E; Geiger, C J; Eiserman, P A; Wardlaw, G M
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of urea-treated fibrous diets on the intake, nutrient digestibility, performance and haematological parameters of Yankasa rams. A total of 48 Yankasa rams (BW 10.00 ± 1.50 kg; 6-8 months old) were allocated into four treatment groups in a completely randomised design (12 rams per treatment). Animals were placed on complete rations of yam peels, maize bran and rice husk treated with 0, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0% urea. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. Yankasa rams fed with urea-treated diets had higher feed intake (949.88 and 938.04 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively), daily weight gain (227.67 and 181.00 g/day for U?? and U??, respectively) and better feed conversion ratio (4.17 and 5.18 for U?? and U??, respectively). Rams on urea-treated diets had higher haemoglobin and red blood cell contents and higher weight gains, indicating that urea treatment enhanced nutrient supply and utilisation at the tissue level. It was concluded that urea treatment of fibrous farm by-products is a promising feeding strategy especially during the dry season when there is scarcity of high-quality forages. Addition of 1.5% urea to roughage diets and farm by-products to form a total mixed ration may preclude the search for supplements. PMID:23397549
Alabi, John Olushola; Arigbede, Moses; Ng'ambi, Jones; Norris, David; Shiawoya, Emma; Onyekachi, Sunday
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM); 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg). Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05). Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p<0.05). Buffalo fed with HCM had a lower roughage intake, nutrient intake, population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria and microbial nitrogen supply than the LCM fed group (p<0.05). However, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ammonia concentration, population of protozoa and fungi, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected by cottonseed meal levels (p>0.05). Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.
Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Polyorach, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Khejornsart, P.; Rowlinson, P.
Background.Twenty-four-hour recalls were used to assess the change in nutrient intake among elementary-age school children exposed to the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). The purpose of this paper is to compare changes in nutrient intakes between treatment groups, sexes, ethnic groups, and the four CATCH sites.Methods.Twenty-four-hour recalls were administered to a subsample of the CATCH cohort at
Leslie A. Lytle; Elaine J. Stone; Milton Z. Nichaman; Cheryl L. Perry; Deanna H. Montgomery; Theresa A. Nicklas; Michelle M. Zive; Paul Mitchell; Johanna T. Dwyer; Mary Kay Ebzery; Marguerite A. Evans; Todd P. Galati
Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532
Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla
Objective To compare demographic and maternal charac- teristics and usual nutrient intakes of Hispanic and non- Hispanic infants and toddlers 4 to 24 months of age in the United States. Design We conducted three interviews by telephone to collect information on sociodemographic and maternal characteristics, feeding practices, and dietary intake in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. We col-
RONETTE BRIEFEL; PAULA ZIEGLER; TIMOTHY NOVAK; MICHAEL PONZA
The present study examines the prevalence and characteristics of vegetarians in the Taiwanese elderly. We analysed data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000), which used a multi-staged, stratified, clustered probability sampling design. Community-dwelling elderly (n 1071), aged 65 years and older, were included. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and metabolic variables, and eating habits were obtained through household interviews and health examinations. Nutrient intake was assessed using a 24 h dietary recall. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to examine factors significantly and independently associated with vegetarian status and to estimate the OR of the hypertension and the metabolic syndrome (MS) for vegetarians compared with omnivores. About 25 % of the Taiwanese elderly persons were vegetarians. Systolic pressure (OR 1·01, 95 % CI 1, 1·02, P = 0·038), female sex (OR 5·02, 95 % CI 3·11, 8·1, P < 0·001), smoking status (P = 0·034; current smoker (OR 0·45, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·85, P = 0·014)) and regular exercise (OR 1·87, 95 % CI 1·37, 2·56, P < 0·001) were independently associated with vegetarian status among Taiwanese elderly persons. Vegetarians consumed significantly lower daily total energy (P < 0·001), lower cholesterol (P = 0·002), a higher percentage of fat as PUFA (P = 0·022), higher Ca (P < 0·001) and higher crude fibres (P = 0·041) compared with omnivores. Between the two vegetarian diets, ovo- or lacto-vegetarian diets contained more beneficial micronutrients, such as K, Ca and Mg, and higher crude fibres than vegan diets (all P < 0·05). The likelihood of having hypertension and the MS was not significantly different between vegetarians and omnivores as examined by sex- or multivariate-adjusted logistic regression. PMID:21385505
Huang, Chun-Jen; Fan, Yen-Chun; Liu, Jen-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Shan
INTRODUCTION AND AIM In a human body iron occurs at a level of 3 to 5 g, 60-70 % of which are in hemoglobin, ca. 10% in myoglobin, and ca. 3% are accumulated in enzymes of cellular respiration or enzymes degrading toxic hydrogen peroxide. The other part of iron is accumulated in liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow. The dietary deficiency of iron appears at its insufficient level in a diet and at impaired absorption of iron ions present in food products by a body. Groups at an especially high risk of iron deficiencies include, among others, menstruating girls in the pubescence period and women with heavy and irregular menstruations, as well as vegetarians and patients with chronic enteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of iron and nutrients that affect its bioavailability from daily food rations of girls. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 159 girls aged 17-18, students of high schools in the city of Wroclaw. The study was conducted between November 2010 and ay 2011. Girls were divided into 3 subgroups according to the BMI score. Girls' diets were analyzed with the method of a direct interview of the last 24 hours before the test and the interview was repeated seven times. RESULTS The present study demonstrated that the intake of iron from food rations of almost all the girls surveyed was below the requirements defined for this age group. Statistically significant differences were noted in the intake of energy and nutrients among the three distinguished subgroups of girls. CONCLUSIONS Food rations of the surveyed girls were characterized by a low, compared to dietary allowances, calorific value, which resulted in deficiencies of nutrients increasing iron bioavailability. PMID:24959783
Broniecka, Anna; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika; Piotrowska, Ewa; Biernat, Jadwiga
Energy and nutrient intake estimated using a pre-coded dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) was compared with results obtained from a 7-d weighed intake record (WI) in a group of 37 elderly Malays residing in rural areas of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia to determine the validity of the DHQ. The DHQ consists of a pre-coded dietary history with a qualitative food frequency questionnaire which was developed to obtain information on food intake and usual dietary habits. The 7-d WI requires subjects to weigh each food immediately before eating and to weigh any leftovers. The medians of intake from the two methods were rather similar and varied by less than 30% for every nutrient, except for vitamin C (114%). For most of the nutrients, analysis of group means using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test showed no significant difference between the estimation of intake from the DHQ and from the WI, with the exceptions of vitamin C and niacin. The DHQ significantly overestimated the intake of vitamin C compared to the WI (p<0.05), whilst, the intake of niacin was significantly underestimated (p<0.05). The consistency of ranking as assessed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) was satisfactory since there were positive correlations between all of the investigated nutrients estimated using the DHQ with those assessed using the WI, except for niacin. Furthermore, both the DHQ and the WI classified approximately 38 to 62% of the subjects into the same tertile for all nutrients, except vitamin C. Therefore, the DHQ was modified by adding a checklist of foods rich in vitamin C and niacin. In conclusion, the DHQ was fairly valid for obtaining the usual intake of most nutrients, particularly on a group basis. These findings indicate that in an elderly population with a high prevalence of illiteracy, a specially designed DHQ can provide very similar estimations to that obtained from 7-d WI. PMID:22692390
Shahar, S; Earland, J; Abdulrahman, S
Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr) from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC) were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028). Energy (p = 0.0564) and protein intake (p = 0.0776) tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = <0.0001). The normal weight elderly had significantly (p < 0.05) higher intake of all nutrients studied, except energy which was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in obese and overweight elderly. Overall, however, the majority of subjects had lower than adequate nutrient intake (67.3 - 100% of recommendation). Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.
Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients.
Tham, Ho Thanh; Uden, Peter
Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101) were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium. Conclusion Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients.
Bitarafan, Sama; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Nafissi, Shahriar; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Togha, Mansoureh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Alipour, Elham; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Chamary, Maryam; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh
Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond. PMID:23077185
Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul
Risk of skin lesions due to chronic arsenic exposure can be further affected by nutrient intake. We prospectively evaluated the association of nutrient intake and gender with incident skin lesions using data from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Discrete time hazard models were used to estimate these effects in stratified analyses based on skin lesion severity. Overall, we observed significant associations between low intakes of various nutrients (retinol, calcium, fiber, folate, iron, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamins A, C, and E) and skin lesion incidence, particularly for keratotic skin lesions. Associations for vitamins C and E showed significant linear trends. Gender-specific analyses revealed an inverse association between the lowest quartile of nutrient intake and keratotic skin lesion incidence for retinol equivalents, calcium, folate, iron, and fiber among women. Interactions by gender were observed for retinol equivalents (P-interaction = 0.03), calcium (P-interaction = 0.04), vitamin A (P-interaction = 0.03), and riboflavin (P-interaction = 0.04) with the incidence of keratotic skin lesions. Understanding differential susceptibility to skin lesion incidence based on nutrient intake will help researchers develop targeted interventions to prevent health consequences of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh and beyond.
Melkonian, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Pierce, Brandon; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Ahsan, Habibul
The existence of three different ethnic groups, living within a defined geographic area in Texas and maintaining fairly distinct life-styles, provided an excellent opportunity to compare their dietary behaviors. Information about food consumption was obtained by 24-hour dietary recall from a group of 431 whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans residing in two counties in southeast Texas. Food group and subgroup contributions to 11 nutrients were calculated. The intake patterns of Mexican Americans demonstrated both an adherence to traditional or familiar Mexican food items, such as beans and tortillas, and a preference for foods not previously reported to be commonly consumed by that ethnic group, specifically beef. The current study provides a base of information necessary to implement dietary changes acceptable within the context of a particular culture's world view. Results revealed differences in food intake patterns that would be helpful in designing practical nutrition education programs specifically targeted toward these ethnic groups. For example, inadequate sources of nutrients were identified, as were sources of excess fat. PMID:2760367
Borrud, L G; Pillow, P C; Allen, P K; McPherson, R S; Nichaman, M Z; Newell, G R
This study was conducted to identify dietary factors that may affect the occurrence of gastric cancer in Koreans. Preoperative daily nutrition intake and diet quality of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were evaluated. Collected data were comparatively analyzed by gender. The results were then used to prepare basic materials to aid in the creation of a desirable postoperative nutrition management program. The subjects of this study were 812 patients (562 men and 250 women) who were diagnosed with gastric cancer and admitted for surgery at Soonchunhyang University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2010. Nutrition intake and diet quality were evaluated by the 24-hr recall method, the nutrient adequacy ratio, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), nutrient density (ND), index of nutritional quality (INQ), dietary variety score (DVS), and dietary diversity score (DDS). The rate of skipping meals and eating fast, alcohol consumption, and smoking were significantly higher in males than those in females. The levels of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), niacin, and cholesterol consumption were significantly higher in males than those in females. Intake of fiber, zinc, vitamin A, retinol, carotene, folic acid were significantly higher in females than those in males. MAR in males was significantly higher (0.83) than that in females (0.79). INQ values were higher in females for zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B(2), vitamin B(6), and folic acid than those in males. The average DVS was 17.63 for females and 13.19 for males. The average DDS was 3.68 and the male's average score was 3.44, whereas the female's average score was 3.92. In conclusion, males had more dietary habit problems and poor nutritional balance than those of females. Our findings suggest that proper nutritional management and adequate dietary education for the primary prevention of gastric cancer should be emphasized in men. PMID:22808345
Lim, Heesook; Cho, Gyuseok; Kim, Soonkyung
In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods. PMID:24901096
Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair Js; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V
Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status. We investigated the potential role of AMPK in the hypothalamus in the regulation of food intake. Here we report that AMPK activity is inhibited in arcuate and paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) by the anorexigenic hormone leptin, and in multiple hypothalamic regions by insulin, high glucose and refeeding. A melanocortin receptor agonist, a potent anorexigen, decreases AMPK activity in PVH, whereas agouti-related protein, an orexigen, increases AMPK activity. Melanocortin receptor signalling is required for leptin and refeeding effects on AMPK in PVH. Dominant negative AMPK expression in the hypothalamus is sufficient to reduce food intake and body weight, whereas constitutively active AMPK increases both. Alterations of hypothalamic AMPK activity augment changes in arcuate neuropeptide expression induced by fasting and feeding. Furthermore, inhibition of hypothalamic AMPK is necessary for leptin's effects on food intake and body weight, as constitutively active AMPK blocks these effects. Thus, hypothalamic AMPK plays a critical role in hormonal and nutrient-derived anorexigenic and orexigenic signals and in energy balance. PMID:15058305
Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Alquier, Thierry; Furukawa, Noboru; Kim, Yong-Bum; Lee, Anna; Xue, Bingzhong; Mu, James; Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal; Birnbaum, Morris J; Stuck, Bettina J; Kahn, Barbara B
Purpose Pre-eclampsia is a multi-system disorder caused by inadequate placentation in early pregnancy; however, little is known about the influence of nutrient intake on placental development during the crucial 1st trimester. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between nutrient intake and the raw values and ratios of angiogenic [placental growth factor (PlGF)] and antiangiogenic [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng)] placental biomarkers in the 1st trimester. Methods A cross-sectional study of low-income, pregnant women (n = 118). Average nutrient intake was calculated from three 24-h dietary recalls. Biomarker values were adjusted for gestational age and nutrients were adjusted for energy. Results The angiogenic to antiangiogenic ratio [PlGF/(sFlt-1 × sEng)] was positively related to intake of vitamin D (r = 0.24), vitamin B2 (r = 0.25), B12 (r = 0.20), dietary folate equivalents (r = 0.19), iron (r = 0.19), and zinc (r = 0.19) and negatively related to transfats (r = ?0.24). Principal component analysis revealed that a vitamin/mineral factor [t (112) = 2.58, p = 0.011] and transfats factor [t (112) = ?2.03, p = 0.045] were significant predictors of the PlGF/(sFlt-1 × sEng) ratio. The vitamin and mineral factor was a significant predictor of sFlt-1 [t (122) = 2.29, p = 0.024]. Conclusions Expression of placental biomarkers in the early weeks of pregnancy may be influenced by intake of nutrients. Understanding the influence of maternal nutrient intake and placental development in the 1st trimester may provide the opportunity to avert the development or blunt the severity of preeclampsia.
Walker, Lorraine O.; Marti, C. Nathan; Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Wommack, Joel; Bryant, Miranda; Kim, SungHun; Timmerman, Gayle M.
The activity of octreotide acetate in a total nutrient admixture (TNA) and the effect of the drug on the stability of lipid emulsion in the TNA were studied. Octreotide acetate injection was added to a standard solution containing 3% lipids, amino acids, dextrose, electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements to achieve a theoretical concentration of 45 micrograms/dL. Samples were stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Octreotide concentrations were determined in triplicate by radioimmunoassay; physical stability of the solutions was assessed by lipid particle-size determination, pH measurement, and visual observation of emulsion integrity at 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The activity of octreotide in two samples of each solution (with and without lipid) was analyzed immediately after preparation and after seven days under refrigeration. There was no evidence of emulsion breakdown or pH change in any solution over the study period. In addition, particle-size distributions at 48 hours and 7 days were comparable to those at time zero, suggesting physical stability. Octreotide acetate activity was not consistently greater than 90% (mean +/- S.D.) after storage for 48 hours. Octreotide acetate at a theoretical concentration of 45 micrograms/dL in a TNA solution containing 3% lipids appeared to be physically compatible for 48 hours at room temperature and for 7 days under refrigeration. However, the chemical activity of octreotide in TNA was not consistent after storage for 48 hours. PMID:1781474
Ritchie, D J; Holstad, S G; Westrich, T J; Hirsch, J D; O'Dorisio, T M
The intake of food and nutrients differs between urban and rural areas in China. To develop a practical semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to cover both the urban and rural areas, we conducted diet surveys and compared food and nutrient intake between the two areas. We recruited 198 urban and 214 rural healthy inhabitants aged 35-55 years, and performed diet surveys, using a 3-day weighed dietary record approach. The intake of 29 nutrients was calculated according to actual consumption of foods, with Standard Food Composition Tables for China and Japan. Then, contribution analysis and multiple regression analysis were employed to select food items covering up to a 90% contribution and a 0.90 R2 of coefficient of determination, respectively. Consumption of energy and carbohydrates was greater in the rural area, but mean protein intake was higher in the urban case. Values for total fat were greater for rural than for urban males, with animal fat as the major contributor. We finally selected 117 and 76 food items for the urban and rural semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, respectively, covering 18 and 27 nutrients constituting up to 90% of the nutrient intake. Further validity and reproducibility tests are now needed to assess their appropriateness for usage. PMID:12675116
Wang, Ying-Ming; Mo, Bao-Qing; Takezaki, Toshiro; Imaeda, Nahomi; Kimura, Mieko; Wang, Xin-Ru; Tajima, Kazuo
Background A comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ: 150-item semi-quantitative questionnaire) and a brief self-administered DHQ (BDHQ: 58-item fixed-portion–type questionnaire) were developed for assessing Japanese diets. We compared the relative validity of nutrient intake derived from DHQ with that from the BDHQ, using semi-weighed 16-day dietary records (DRs) as reference. Methods Ninety-two Japanese women aged 31 to 69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32 to 76 years completed a 4-nonconsecutive-day DR, a DHQ, and a BDHQ 4 times each (once per season) in 3 areas of Japan (Osaka, Nagano, and Tottori). Results No significant differences were seen in estimates of energy-adjusted intakes of 42 selected nutrients (based on the residual method) between the 16-day DRs and the first DHQ (DHQ1) or between the DR and the first BDHQ (BDHQ1) for 18 (43%) and 14 (33%) nutrients, respectively, among women and for 4 (10%) and 21 (50%) nutrients among men. The median (interquartile range) Pearson correlation coefficients with the DR for energy-adjusted intakes of the 42 nutrients were 0.57 (0.50 to 0.64) for the DHQ1 and 0.54 (0.45 to 0.61) for the BDHQ1 in women; in men, the respective values were 0.50 (0.42 to 0.59) and 0.56 (0.41 to 0.63). Similar results were observed for the means of the 4 DHQs and BDHQs. Conclusions The DHQ and BDHQ had satisfactory ranking ability for the energy-adjusted intakes of many nutrients among the present Japanese population, although these instruments were satisfactory in estimating mean values for only a small number of nutrients.
Kobayashi, Satomi; Honda, Satoru; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa
Nutrient recommendations in use today are often derived from relatively old data of few studies with few individuals. However, for many nutrients, including vitamin B-12, extensive data have now become available from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials, addressing the relation between intake and health-related status biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide new methodology for dietary planning based on dose-response data and meta-analysis. The methodology builds on existing work, and is consistent with current methodology and measurement error models for dietary assessment. The detailed purposes of this paper are twofold. Firstly, to define a Population Nutrient Level (PNL) for dietary planning in groups. Secondly, to show how data from different sources can be combined in an extended meta-analysis of intake-status datasets for estimating PNL as well as other nutrient intake values, such as the Average Nutrient Requirement (ANR) and the Individual Nutrient Level (INL). For this, a computational method is presented for comparing a bivariate lognormal distribution to a health criterion value. Procedures to meta-analyse available data in different ways are described. Example calculations on vitamin B-12 requirements were made for four models, assuming different ways of estimating the dose-response relation, and different values of the health criterion. Resulting estimates of ANRs and less so for INLs were found to be sensitive to model assumptions, whereas estimates of PNLs were much less sensitive to these assumptions as they were closer to the average nutrient intake in the available data. PMID:24682145
van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J; Souverein, Olga W; Doets, Esmée L; van 't Veer, Pieter
Previouslyobservedstrongrelationshipsbetweendry matter (DM) intake and milk yield in dairy cows were the basis for this meta-analysis aimed to determine the influence of intake of specific dietary nutrients on milk yield and milk protein yield in Holstein dairy cows. Diets (563) from feeding trials published in the Journal of Dairy Science were evaluated for nutrient composi- tion using 2 diet evaluation
A. N. Hristov; W. J. Price; B. Shafii
Using probability plots and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), we fit lognormal distributions to data compiled by Ershow et al. for daily intake of total water and tap water by three groups of women (controls, pregnant, and lactating; all between 15-49 years of age) in the United States. We also develop bivariate lognormal distributions for the joint distribution of water ingestion and body weight for these three groups. Overall, we recommend the marginal distributions for water intake as fit by MLE for use in human health risk assessments. PMID:9637077
Burmaster, D E
Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general.
Background: Dietary fat intake is associated with coronary heart disease risk, but the relationship between fat intake and ischemic stroke risk remains unclear. We hypothesized that total dietary fat as part of a Western diet is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Methods: As part of the prospective Northern Manhattan Study, 3,183 stroke-free community residents over 40 years of
Bernadette Boden-Albala; Mitchell S. V. Elkind; Halina White; Annette Szumski; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco
Nutrient intakes of male and female cadets were evaluated during the 1979-80 academic year as part of a study to determine factors contributing to weight gain in the West Point cadets. Five consecutive days of dietary data were collected from 136 males an...
H. E. Sauberlich M. J. Kretsch P. M. Conforti
The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone
A. I. Ukanwoko; J. A. Ibeawuchi
Documentation of dietary and nutrient intake of the Army and Navy (including Marine) personnel from the United States, who were prisoners-of-war (POWs) in North and South Vietnam, has been limited to reports obtained from 241 repatriated men whose time in...
T. M. Hill R. A. Nelson C. F. Consolazio J. E. Canham
The stated purpose of the study discussed here was to investigate the relationship of socio-economic factors to both nutrient intake and nutritional status using data gathered in Kent from September 1968 to March 1970; for each child in the study, information collected comprised a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical…
Jacoby, Ann; And Others
The present study tests the hypothesis that higher consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt is associated with higher intake of energy, saturated fats, sugars and worse overall diet quality among Spanish children. This is a cross-sectional study covering 1112 children aged 6.0-7.0 years in four Spanish cities. Nutrient and food intake were obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire, and overall diet quality calculated using the healthy-eating index (HEI) developed by Kennedy et al. (1995). Standardized methods were used to measure anthropometric variables. Associations of interest were summarized as the difference in nutrient and food consumption between the value of the fifth and the first quintile of consumption (dq) of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks or yogurt, adjusted for energy intake and BMI. Bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt supplied 15.5, 1.0 and 5.6 % energy intake respectively. Higher consumption of these three foods was associated with greater energy intake (P<0.001), but not with higher BMI. Consumption of bakery products was associated with the proportion of energy derived from intake of total carbohydrates (dq 4.5 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2 %, P<0.001), but did not show association with the HEI. Consumption of sweetened soft drinks was associated with a lower consumption of milk (dq -88 ml, P<0.001) and Ca (dq -175 mg/d, P<0.001), and worse HEI (dq -2, P<0.01). Consumption of yogurt, while associated with higher energy intake from saturated fats (dq 1.77 %, P<0.001) and sugars (dq 2.02 %, P<0.001), showed no association with the HEI. Differences in the intake of nutrients and foods across quintiles of consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt were usually very small. We conclude that the impact of the consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt on the quality of the diet of Spanish children is only modest, although it may contribute to aggravating certain unhealthy characteristics of their diet, particularly excess energy, saturated fats and sugars. Therefore, consumption of bakery products and sweetened soft drinks should be moderated, and priority given to consumption of low-fat, low-sugar yogurt. PMID:12628036
Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; García, Esther López; Gorgojo, Lydia; Garcés, Carmen; Royo, Miguel Angel; Martín Moreno, José María; Benavente, Mercedes; Macías, Alfonso; De Oya, Manuel
Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091
Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J
The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (?20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence. PMID:23576215
Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia
C57BL/6J (B6) and CAST/EiJ (CAST), the inbred strain derived from M. musculus Castaneus, differ in nutrient intake behaviors, including dietary fat and carbohydrate consumption in a two-diet choice paradigm. Significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for carbohydrate (Mnic1) and total energy intake (Kcal2) are present between these strains on chromosome (Chr) 17. Here we report the refinement of the Chr 17 QTL in a subcongenic strain of the B6.CAST-D17Mit19–D17Mit91 congenic mice described previously. This new subcongenic strain possesses CAST Chr 17 donor alleles from 4.8 to 45.4 Mb on a B6 background. Similar to CAST, the subcongenic mice exhibit increased carbohydrate and total calorie intake per body weight, while fat intake remains equivalent. Unexpectedly, this CAST genomic segment also confers two new physical activity phenotypes: 22% higher spontaneous physical activity levels and significantly increased voluntary wheel running activity, compared with the parental B6 strain. Overall, these data suggest that gene(s) involved in carbohydrate preference and increased physical activity are contained within the proximal region of Chr 17. Interval-specific microarray analysis in hypothalamus and skeletal muscle revealed differentially expressed genes within the subcongenic region including neuropeptide W (Npw), glyoxalase I (Glo1), cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily f, polypeptide 1 (Cyp4f15), phospholipase A2, group VII (Pla2g7), and phosphodiesterase 9a (Pde9a). This subcongenic strain offers a unique model for dissecting the contributions and possible interactions among genes controlling food intake and physical activity, key components of energy balance.
Kumar, K. Ganesh; DiCarlo, Lisa M.; Volaufova, Julia; Zuberi, Aamir R.; Smith Richards, Brenda K.
This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy to control GIN compared with no intervention. PMID:22436162
Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L
There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre–school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3–6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate–diet approach was used for the assessment of
M. Haftenberger; G. Viergutz; V. Neumeister; G. Hetzer
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether nutrient-rich whole grains reduce mortality risk. METHODS: The study included 38,740 Iowa women, aged 55 to 69 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain data on grain intake. RESULTS: Median whole grain intake quintiles ranged from a median of 0.2 to more than 3 servings per day. Women with higher intakes had healthier lifestyles and less baseline disease. The total death rate decreased in increasing quintiles, and the pattern repeated for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes combined. Adjusted for lifestyle and baseline disease, the relative hazard rate ratio for total death was about 0.85 in daily consumers of whole grain. Findings persisted in strata of baseline healthy and diseased and were not explained by dietary fiber. Rates of total mortality, but not cardiovascular disease mortality, were higher among frequent consumers of refined grain. CONCLUSIONS: Total mortality risk was inversely associated with whole grain intake and positively associated with refined grain intake. Refined grains contributed more than 20% of energy intake, and whole grains contributed 1%. Substitution of whole for refined grain may reduce chronic disease risk in the United States.
Jacobs, D R; Meyer, K A; Kushi, L H; Folsom, A R
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.
Awawdeh, M. S.; Obeidat, B. S.
This study was performed to compare the dietary food and nutrient intakes according to supplement use in pregnant and lactating women in Seoul. The subjects were composed of 201 pregnant and 104 lactating women, and their dietary food intake was assessed using the 24-h recall method. General information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as health-related behaviors, including the use of dietary supplements, were collected. About 88% and 60% of the pregnant and lactating women took dietary supplements, respectively. The proportion of dietary supplements used was higher in pregnant women with a higher level of education. After adjusting for potential confounders, among the pregnant women, supplement users were found to consume 45% more vegetables, and those among the lactating women were found to consume 96% more beans and 58% more vegetables. The intakes of dietary fiber and ?-carotene among supplement users were higher than those of non-users, by 23% and 39%, respectively. Among pregnant women, the proportion of women with an intake of vitamin C (from diet alone) below the estimated average requirements (EAR) was lower among supplement users [users (44%) vs. non-users (68%)], and the proportion of lactating women with intakes of iron (from diet alone) below the EAR was lower among supplement users [usesr (17%) vs. non-users (38%)]. These results suggest that among pregnant and lactating women, those who do not use dietary supplements tend to have a lower intake of healthy foods, such as beans and vegetables, as well as a lower intake of dietary fiber and ?-carotene, which are abundant in these foods, and non-users are more likely than users to have inadequate intake of micro-nutrient such as vitamin C and iron.
Kim, Hyesook; Jang, Won; Kim, Ki-Nam; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chung, Hae-Kyung; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Hee; Moon, Gui-Im; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Tae-Seok
The teaching and research tool called 'DietPLUS', developed by the present author at an institution of higher learning in 2007, contains nutrient information of 840 food items in Excel format. DietPLUS functions as a '2-in-1' food composition database plus a rapid calculator of nutrient intakes, with the option of 'collapsing' the food composition face leaving only the nutrient calculator face. The macronutrients featured in the programme are energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, sugars (intrinsic + added), polyunsatuared omega-6 fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid, LA) and polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids [alphalinolenic acid (ALA) or eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenolic acid (DHA)]. The micronutrients in the programme are vitamin A (as retinol equivalents, RE), vitamin C, thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), and niacin. Cholesterol content was included to complete the list of food components tabled. Food items consumed are converted into gram quantities (edible portion) and are entered in one column in the Excel programme which emphasises the simplicity and user-friendliness of the present nutrient calculator. DietPLUS instantaneously sums up the macronutrients and micronutrients consumed with each subsequent entry. Macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, sugars and dietary fibre) consumed are presented as gram quantities and a percentage of the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia 2005. An approximate number of servings are also provided for vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish and meat, which may be useful in meal planning and nutrition/dietetic counselling. PMID:22691859
Tony Ng, K W
Energy restriction inhibits mammary tumor development in animal models. Epidemiologic studies in humans generally do not support an association between dietary energy intake and breast cancer risk, although some studies suggest a more complex interplay between measures of energy intake, physical activity, and body size. We examined the association between total energy intake jointly with physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and the risk of breast cancer among 1,775 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2006 and 2,529 of their unaffected sisters, enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We collected dietary data using the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort food frequency questionnaire. Using conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) associated with total energy intake, we observed an overall 60-70 % increased risk of breast cancer among women in the highest quartile of total energy intake compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 1.6, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.0; P (trend) < 0.0001); these associations were limited to pre-menopausal women or women with hormone receptor-positive cancers. Although the associations were slightly stronger among women with a higher BMI or lower level of average lifetime physical activity, we observed a positive association between total energy intake and breast cancer risk across different strata of physical activity and BMI. Our results suggest that within sisters, high energy intake may increase the risk of breast cancer independent of physical activity and body size. If replicated in prospective studies, then these findings suggest that reductions in total energy intake may help in modifying breast cancer risk. PMID:23225141
Zhang, Fang Fang; John, Esther M; Knight, Julia A; Kaur, Manleen; Daly, Mary; Buys, Saundra; Andrulis, Irene L; Stearman, Beth; West, Dee; Terry, Mary Beth
Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.
Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.
When pregnant adolescent sheep are overnourished during pregnancy normal nutrient partitioning priorities to the gravid uterus are altered, leading to impaired placental development and fetal growth restriction. We hypothesized that decreasing dietary intake in overnourished dams during the final third of gestation may reverse this inappropriate nutrient partitioning in favor of the fetus. Adolescent ewes were offered control (C; n = 12) or high (H; n = 20) dietary intakes to induce normal vs. compromised placental development. Ten ewes receiving the H intake were switched to a low intake at d90 of gestation (HL). Between d90 to 130, HL dams lost weight and adiposity, and metabolic hormones and glucose at d130 were less than H and similar to C. In spite of these maternal changes, at d130 fetal bodyweight was equivalent in HL and H groups and ?20% less than in C. A greater degree of brain sparing was evident in HL fetuses and glucose and insulin concentrations were more perturbed than in H fetuses. Relative to C, placentome weight was reduced by 46 and 32% in H and HL and the fetal:placentome weight ratio was H > HL > C. Placental vascular morphology was largely unaffected by maternal diet during late gestation but mRNA expression of five angiogenic genes was up-regulated in the fetal cotyledon of HL pregnancies, commensurate with blood vessel remodeling. Nevertheless, overfeeding to promote maternal anabolic growth during adolescent pregnancy impairs feto-placental development that cannot be rescued by reducing maternal intake during the final third of gestation. PMID:22154692
Redmer, D A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Johnson, M L; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S; Wallace, J M
Objective There is increasing evidence to suggest that diet, one of the most important modifiable environmental factors, may play a role in preventing or delaying cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examines the relationship between dietary nutrients and brain biomarkers of AD in cognitively normal individuals (NL) with and without AD risk factors. Design As part of an ongoing brain imaging study, participants received clinical and laboratory examinations, a neurocognitive test battery, positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB; a measure of amyloid-? (A?) load) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG; a proxy of neuronal activity), and completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Setting Research centre affiliated with the Alzheimer's disease Core Center at New York University School of Medicine. Participants 49 NL individuals (age 25–72?years, 69% women) with dietary information, 11C-PiB and 18F-FDG PET scans were examined. Results Controlling for age and total caloric intake, higher intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D and ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was associated with lower A? load in AD regions on PiB-PET, while higher intake of ?-carotene and folate was associated with higher glucose metabolism on FDG-PET. ?-carotene and folate were associated with reduced glucose metabolism for women, apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE4) carriers and participants with positive AD family history, but not for their risk-free counterparts. The associations of vitamin B12, vitamin D and ?-3 PUFA with PiB retention were independent of gender, APOE and family history. The identified nutrient combination was associated with higher intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fish and legumes, and lower intake of high-fat dairies, meat and sweets. Conclusions Our data provide a potential pathophysiological mechanism for epidemiological findings showing that dietary interventions may play a role in the prevention of AD. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether there is a direct link between nutrient intake, brain biomarkers and risk of AD.
Mosconi, Lisa; Murray, John; Davies, Michelle; Williams, Schantel; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Spector, Nicole; Tsui, Wai H; Li, Yi; Butler, Tracy; Osorio, Ricardo S; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; McHugh, Pauline; Marmar, Charles R; de Leon, Mony J
Objective To evaluate the dietary patterns of 7-year-old children participating in an atherosclerosis prevention project and the relationship of those dietary patterns to nutrient intakes and serum cholesterol values.Design In the randomized, prospective Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) 1,062 children were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=540; low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet) or to a control group
MINNA RÄSÄNEN; JAN-CHRISTIAN LEHTINEN; HARRI NIINIKOSKI; SOILI KESKINEN; SOILE RUOTTINEN; MARI SALMINEN; TAPANI RÖNNEMAA; JORMA VIIKARI; OLLI SIMELL
A pre-school-based dietary survey, using 7-day records, was carried out in Sweden in the Stockholm area at 12 pre-schools; the survey included 109 of 131 participating children. The present study was designed to describe weekday and weekend food patterns, i.e. the frequency of consumption of food items and the contribution of energy and nutrient intake from different food groups, and
H. Sepp; L. Abrahamsson; M. Lennernäs Junberger; E. Risvik
The association between nutrient intake and bone mineral density (BMD) at calcaneus was cross-sectionally examined in 243 pre- (aged 29-60 years) and 137 postmenopausal (aged 39-60 years) Japanese women who participated in a BMD checkup and have kept a stable diet for at least 3 previous years and had no dietary therapy. Nutrient intakes were assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. BMD at calcaneus was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In a multiple regression analysis with adjustments for nondietary factors such as age, body height, fat body weight, nonfat body weight, and number of deliveries, calcium (p<0.01) and niacin (p<0.05) significantly and positively, and phosphorus and dietary fiber (p<0.05 for both) significantly and negatively correlated in premenopausal women, and only potassium (p<0.05) significantly and positively correlated in postmenopausal women with BMD. The results suggest that several nutrients correlate with BMD, and the associations differ depending on menopausal status. epidemiology, diet, nutrients, bone mineral density. Japanese women PMID:11767209
Sasaki, S; Yanagibori, R
ObjectiveTo describe changes in breakfast and cereal consumption of girls between ages 9 and 19 years, and to examine the association of breakfast and cereal intake with body mass index (BMI) and consumption of nutrients.
Bruce A. Barton; Alison L. Eldridge; Douglas Thompson; Sandra G. Affenito; Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko; Ann M. Albertson; Susan J. Crockett
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS). DESIGN: The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed. SETTING: TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat). Subject Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively. RESULTS: Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46-0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35-0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37-0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38-0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44-0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35-45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0-6%)). CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants. PMID:23782894
Chiu, Tina Ht; Huang, Hui-Ya; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Wu, Yu-Ru; Chiu, Jason Pc; Li, Yi-Hwei; Chiu, Brian C-H; Lin, Chin-Lon; Lin, Ming-Nan
There have only been few investigations comparing total fluoride intake and the fluoride proportion excreted in urine in pre-school children. In addition, the results of available studies are conflicting. Total fluoride intake was assessed in 11 healthy children aged 3-6 years on 2 consecutive days and urinary fluoride excretion was determined. The duplicate-diet approach was used for the assessment of fluoride intake from solid and liquid foods. Fluoride intake from toothbrushing was calculated as the difference between the amount of fluoride in the paste put on the toothbrush and the drinking water (fluoride concentration 0.25 mg/l) used for rinsing vs. the fluoride amounts recovered in the toothpaste spat out and in the rinsing water. Use of fluoridated domestic salt and/or fluoride tablets was recorded. The children's intake of fluoride from food averaged 202.5+/-116.2 microg F/day. They swallowed an average amount of 273.9+/-175.6 microg F/day when brushing their teeth. Daily fluoride ingestion from all sources totalled 930.7+/-391.5 microg or 53.0+/-21.4 microg/kg body weight. On average 51.5% of the fluoride ingested was excreted in urine. The wide interindividual variation makes it necessary to evaluate the urinary excretion rate for fluoride in larger study populations with varied fluoride exposure. PMID:11799286
Haftenberger, M; Viergutz, G; Neumeister, V; Hetzer, G
To examine differences in intake of nutritional parameters among blacks and whites with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), patients at a large family practice ambulatory care unit and a community health center in Winston-Salem, North Carolina were recruited. Two hundred eighty three patients completed three-day food records, which were analyzed using the Nutritionist III software program. Subdivisions of the group
Ronny A. Bell; John H. Summerson; Joseph C. Konen; Debra Bolton
Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ?2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ?70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ?70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ?70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319
Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B
The report presents data on 1-day food and nutrient intakes of 9,620 individuals from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78 in the 48 conterminous States of the United States in the spring of 1977. Average food intakes of individuals in 22 sex-ag...
The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults. PMID:24483977
Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia
Background/Objectives:This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) intake from food and beverages in a Japanese population from 7-day seasonal dietary records.Subjects/methods:The 7-day weighed dietary records of 390 subjects over four seasons between 1996 and 1998 were used. The TAC values (?mol trolox equivalents (?mol TE)/g) of various foods and beverages were defined, as reported in previous studies for weighed dietary records, using several different methods. TAC values of foods were estimated in 242 food and beverage items: 86.5% of vegetables, 99.1% of fruits, 71.5% of potatoes, 96.7% of beans, and 100% of chocolates. Differences in TAC intake per day and intake (g) per day among seasons in each of the food and beverage group were compared using a general linear model for repeated measures. The TAC intake/day were calculated for each food and beverage item in the four seasons.Results:TAC intake/day (?mol TE/day) varied from 10?189 (summer) to 12?292 (winter). TAC intake/day from fruits (2696) and potatoes (395) was highest in autumn, from vegetables (2827) it was highest in summer and from beans (4151) and tea (2331) it was highest in winter.Conclusions:The dietary habits of the studied Japanese population showed the highest antioxidant capacity in winter and the lowest in summer. PMID:24736680
Tatsumi, Y; Ishihara, J; Morimoto, A; Ohno, Y; Watanabe, S
Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.
Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang
Evaluations of dietary trends can show whether food habits are changing in recommended directions. Trends in intakes among adolescents age 12 to 19 years were examined by using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-96, the CSFII 1989-91, and the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78. Increases were seen in intakes of soft drinks, grain mixtures,
Cecilia Wilkinson Enns; Sharon J. Mickle; Joseph D. Goldman
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR). PMID:18167505
Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael
Data from the 1994 USDA nationwide survey (CSFII) on 190 non- smoking males (aged 20–29) were used to propose a method for adjusting total water intake for the diuretic effects of caffeine and alcohol, and evaluate the potential for related misclassification bias. The data were processed on a per meal basis. Under the assumption that subjects were in water balance
J. D. Stookey
An easily-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)\\/dietary screener was developed for current (adult) and retrospective (adolescent) intakes of nutrients important for bone development and maintenance. This tool quantified serving sizes and nutrients from foods using gender- and age-specific techniques. Nutrients of interest were calcium, vitamin D, caffeine and alcohol, and 15 categories of foods were selected for inclusion based on frequency
Julie M. E. Gilmore; Teresa A. Marshall; Steven M. Levy; Phyllis J. Stumbo
Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour-flavour learning or flavour-nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P<0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P<0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P<0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P<0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children. PMID:23110783
Caton, Samantha J; Ahern, Sara M; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M
Within- and Between-Individual Variation in Energy and Nutrient Intake in Japanese Adults: Effect of Age and Sex Differences on Group Size and Number of Records Required for Adequate Dietary Assessment
Background Information on within- and between-individual variation in energy and nutrient intake is critical for precisely estimating usual dietary intake; however, data from Japanese populations are limited. Methods We used dietary records to examine within- and between-individual variation by age and sex in the intake of energy and 31 selected nutrients among Japanese adults. We also calculated the group size required to estimate mean intake for a group and number of days required both to rank individuals within a group and to assess an individual’s usual intake, all with appropriate arbitrary precision. A group of Japanese women (younger: 30–49 years, n = 58; older: 50–69 years, n = 63) and men (younger: 30–49 years, n = 54; older: 50–76 years, n = 67) completed dietary records for 4 nonconsecutive days in each season (16 days in total). Results Coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation were generally larger in the younger group than in the older group and in men as compared with women. The group size required to estimate a group’s mean intake, and number of days required to assess an individual’s usual intake, were generally larger for the younger group and for men. In general, a longer period was required to rank women and older adults. Conclusions In a group of Japanese adults, coefficients of within-individual variation and between-individual variation, which were used to estimate the group size and number of records required for adequate dietary assessment, differed by age, sex, and nutrient.
Fukumoto, Azusa; Asakura, Keiko; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa
Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently.
Tennant, David R.
Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food-intake measures. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of CLOCK single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with food intake and to explore the specific role of the cytokine system. A total of 1100 individual participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Dietary intake was estimated with a validated questionnaire. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-2 soluble receptor-? (IL-2sR-?) and adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured. Our results showed that four of five CLOCK SNPs selected were significantly associated with total energy intake (P<0.05). For SNP rs3749474, the energy intake and total fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in minor allele carriers than in non-carriers. Frequency of the minor allele was greater in subjects with high energy intake than in those with low intake. Subjects with the minor allele were 1.33 times more likely to have high energy intake than non-carriers (95% CI 1.09–1.72, P=0.0350). All CLOCK SNPs were associated with plasma cytokine values, in particular with those that were highly correlated with energy intake: MCP1, IL-6 and adiponectin. Interestingly, minor allele carriers with high energy intake showed decreased cytokine values, which could be related with a lower anorectic effect and decreased sleep in these subjects. In conclusion, we show a novel association of genetic variation at CLOCK with total energy intake, which was particularly relevant for SNP rs3749474. Associations could be mediated through the alteration of cytokine levels that may influence energy intake and sleep pattern.
Garaulet, Marta; Lee, Yu-Chi; Shen, Jian; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Tsai, Michael Y; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovas, Jose M
The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items' nutrient profile with their replacements' profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population. PMID:22031664
Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Onufrak, Stephen J; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol L; Bogle, Margaret L; Yadrick, Kathy
Background Seafood is the main source of organic arsenic exposure (arsenobetaine, arsenosugars and arsenolipids) in the population. Arsenosugars and arsenolipids are metabolized to several species including dimethylarsinate (DMA). Objective Evaluate the association of seafood intake with spot urine arsenic concentrations in the 2003–2006 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We studied 4276 participants ?6 y. Total arsenic was measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Urine DMA and arsenobetaine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ICPMS. Results Participants reporting seafood in the past 24-h had higher urine concentrations of total arsenic (median 24.5 vs. 7.3 µg/L), DMA (6.0 vs. 3.5 µg/L), arsenobetaine (10.2 vs. 0.9 µg/L) and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine (11.0 vs. 5.5 µg/L). Participants reporting seafood ?2/wk vs. never during the past year had 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.9, 2.7), 1.4 (1.2, 1.6), 6.0 (4.6, 7.8) and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0) times higher (p-trend <0.001) concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine, respectively. In participants without detectable arsenobetaine and in analyses adjusted for arsenobetaine, seafood consumption in the past year was not associated with total arsenic or DMA concentrations in urine. Conclusion Seafood intake was a major determinant of increased urine concentrations of total arsenic, DMA, arsenobetaine and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine in the US population. Epidemiologic studies that use total arsenic, DMA, the sum of inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate and DMA, and total arsenic minus arsenobetaine as markers of inorganic arsenic exposure and/or metabolism need to address seafood intake.
Navas-Acien, Ana; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Guallar, Eliseo
Background It may be useful to examine associations of fat intakes with total mortality as a basis for dietary recommendations. We aimed to elucidate associations between dietary fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with low fat intake. Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 58,672 men and women aged 40 to 79 years. Fat intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality by sex were computed according to quintiles of energy-adjusted fat intakes. Results During the follow-up period (median duration, 19.3 years), 11,656 deaths were recorded. In men, we found no clear association between total fat and total mortality. HRs across quintiles of total fat intake were 1.00, 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.12), 1.02 (0.94–1.10), 0.98 (0.90–1.07), and 1.07 (0.98–1.17). No significant association was detected in regard to types of fat. In women, HR was lowest in the fourth quintile of total fat intake followed by the top quintile; HRs across quintiles were 1.00, 1.03 (0.94–1.11), 1.00 (0.92–1.09), 0.88 (0.81–0.96), and 0.94 (0.86–1.03). Regarding types of fat in women, total mortality was inversely associated with intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); the lowest HR was in the top quintile of intake for SFA, MUFA, and PUFA: 0.91 (95% CI, 0.83–1.00), 0.91 (0.83–0.99) and 0.88 (0.80?-?0.97), respectively (trend P across quintiles, 0.020, 0.012, and 0.029, respectively). Causes of death other than cancer and cardiovascular disease contributed most to decreases in HRs for total and types of fat. In women, analysis with finer categories revealed that the lowest risk for total mortality appeared at total fat intake of 28% of energy. Conclusions Our findings from a large cohort study among populations with relatively low fat intake provide evidence regarding optimal levels of fat intakes.
Objective: Unfavourable dietary habits might explain a part of the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among the lower socioeconomic groups. The aim of the study was to describe differences in dietary intake in older subjects by socioeconomic status, as indicated by educational level.Design: A cross-sectional analysis of socioeconomic status in relation to dietary intake.Setting: The Rotterdam Study.Subjects: 2213 men and
CTM van Rossum; H van de Mheen; JCM Witteman; E Grobbee; JP Mackenbach; C TM van Rossum
High intakes of calcium, potassium, and fluids have been shown to be associated with lowered risk of kidney stones. The authors studied the associations between diet and risk of kidney stones in a cohort of 27,001 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years who were initially free of kidney stones. All men participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study and completed a validated dietary questionnaire at baseline. After 5 years of follow-up (1985-1988), 329 men had been diagnosed with kidney stones. After data were controlled for possible confounders, the relative risk of kidney stones for men in the highest quartile of magnesium intake was 0.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.85) as compared with men in the lowest quartile. Intake of fiber was directly associated with risk (relative risk (RR) = 2.06, 95% CI 1.39-3.03). Calcium intake was not associated with the risk of kidney stones. Beer consumption was inversely associated with risk of kidney stones; each bottle of beer consumed per day was estimated to reduce risk by 40% (RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47-0.76). In conclusion, the authors observed that magnesium intake and beer consumption were inversely associated and fiber intake was directly associated with risk of kidney stones. PMID:10412964
Hirvonen, T; Pietinen, P; Virtanen, M; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J
The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep.
Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.
The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states - the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) - were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the 'Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that food security in the villages studied is far from achieved. It is hoped that the new Food Security Ordinance will make a dent in the situation. The calculator for computing nutrients of foods consumed which we developed based on the ICMR defined nutrient values for Indian foods has been made available as freeware on the internet. This is with the hope that more such studies can be carried out at the household level. PMID:24995224
Sathyamala, C; Kurian, Nj; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, Kb; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish; Puliyel, Jacob
The Public Report on Health (PRoH) was initiated in 2005 to understand public health issues for people from diverse backgrounds living in different region specific contexts. States were selected purposively to capture a diversity of situations from better-performing states and not-so-well performing states. Based on these considerations, six states – the better-performing states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Maharashtra (MH) and Himachal Pradesh (HP) and the not-so-well performing states of Madhya Pradesh (MP), Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Orissa (OR) – were selected. This is a report of a study using food diaries to assess food intakes in sample households from six states of India. Method: Food diaries were maintained and all the raw food items that went into making the food in the household was measured using a measuring cup that converted volumes into dry weights for each item. The proportion consumed by individual adults was recorded. A nutrient calculator that computed the total nutrient in the food items consumed, using the ‘Nutritive Value of Indian Foods by Gopalan et al., was developed to analyze the data and this is now been made available as freeware (http://bit.ly/ncalculator). The total nutrients consumed by the adults, men and women was calculated. Results: Identifying details having been removed, the raw data is available, open access on the internet http://bit.ly/foodlogxls.The energy consumption in our study was 2379 kcal per capita per day. According to the Summary Report World Agriculture the per capita food consumption in 1997-99 was 2803 which is higher than that in the best state in India. The consumption for developing countries a decade ago was 2681 and in Sub-Saharan Africa it was 2195. Our data is compatible in 2005 with the South Asia consumption of 2403 Kcal per capita per day in 1997-99. For comparison, in industrialized countries it was 3380. In Tamil Nadu it was a mere 1817 kcal. Discussion: The nutrient consumption in this study suggests that food security in the villages studied is far from achieved. It is hoped that the new Food Security Ordinance will make a dent in the situation. The calculator for computing nutrients of foods consumed which we developed based on the ICMR defined nutrient values for Indian foods has been made available as freeware on the internet. This is with the hope that more such studies can be carried out at the household level.
Sathyamala, C; Kurian, NJ; DE, Anuradha; Saxena, KB; Priya, Ritu; Baru, Rama; Srivastava, Ravi; Mittal, Onkar; Noronha, Claire; Samson, Meera; Khalsa, Sneh; Puliyel, Ashish
Avocado consumption is associated with better diet quality and nutrient intake, and lower metabolic syndrome risk in US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008
Background Avocados contain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) dietary fiber, essential nutrients and phytochemicals. However, no epidemiologic data exist on their effects on diet quality, weight management and other metabolic disease risk factors. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationships between avocado consumption and overall diet quality, energy and nutrient intakes, physiological indicators of health, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods Avocado consumption and nutrition data were based on 24-hour dietary recalls collected by trained NHANES interviewers using the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM). Physiological data were collected from physical examinations conducted in NHANES Mobile Examination Centers. Diet quality was calculated using the USDA’s Healthy Eating Index-2005. Subjects included 17,567 US adults ???19 years of age (49% female), including 347 avocado consumers (50% female), examined in NHANES 2001–2008. Least square means, standard errors, and ANOVA were determined using appropriate sample weights, with adjustments for age, gender, ethnicity, and other covariates depending on dependent variable of interest. Results Avocado consumers had significantly higher intakes of vegetables (p?0.05); fruit, diet quality, total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, dietary fiber, vitamins E, K, magnesium, and potassium (p?0.0001); vitamin K (p?=?0.0013); and lower intakes of added sugars (p?0.0001). No significant differences were seen in calorie or sodium intakes. Body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were significantly lower (p?0.01), and HDL-C was higher (p?0.01) in avocado consumers. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 50% (95th CI: 0.32-0.72) lower in avocado consumers vs. non-consumers. Conclusions Avocado consumption is associated with improved overall diet quality, nutrient intake, and reduced risk of metabolic syndrome. Dietitians should be aware of the beneficial associations between avocado intake, diet and health when making dietary recommendations.
Background Limiting oxidative stress to the ovarian epithelium has been proposed as a first-line defense against ovarian cancer. Although evidence for an association between individual dietary antioxidant intake and ovarian cancer risk is conflicting, the combined evidence suggests a modest inverse association. Our study aimed to evaluate the association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant intakes (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, lutein, and lycopene) and ovarian cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study in New Jersey. Cases were women ages 21?years and older with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer who resided in six counties of New Jersey. Controls were women in the same age range who resided in the same geographic area. A total of 205 ovarian cancer cases and 390 controls were included. Dietary intake was ascertained using the Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and TAC indices were constructed by linking FFQ-derived estimates to two standardized antioxidant capacity databases, the USDA Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) Database, and the University of Olso’s Antioxidant Food Database. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95?% confidence intervals while controlling for major ovarian cancer risk factors. Results We found a strong inverse association with selenium from food sources (OR: 0.41; 95?% CI: 0.20-0.85, for the highest vs. lowest tertile of dietary selenium intake). However, there was little evidence of an association with dietary TAC or the others individual antioxidants. In contrast, compared to non-users, supplement users had significant increased risk for all micronutrients, but no statistically significant increased risk was observed for combined intake from foods and supplements of any of these antioxidants. Conclusions This study found an inverse association between selenium consumption from food sources and ovarian cancer risk, while there was little evidence of an association with TAC or any of the other individual antioxidants. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings.
Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche.
Wiley, Andrea S.
Following concerns about the nutritional content of school lunches and the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the UK, changes to the standards of school meals were made. From September 2008, all primary schools in England were required, by law, to be fully compliant with the new food-based standards (FBS) and nutrient-based standards (NBS) for school lunches. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate the introduction of the NBS for school lunches on the nutritional profile of food and drink items provided by schools and chosen by pupils at lunchtime. A nationally representative sample of 6696 pupils from 136 primary schools in England aged 3-12 years and having school lunches was recruited. Data were collected on lunchtime food and drink provision at each school and on pupil food and drink choices at lunchtime. Caterers also provided planned menus, recipes and other cooking information. Compliance with both the FBS and NBS was then assessed. Results show that even when the FBS was met, many schools did not provide a school lunch that met the NBS as well. The average school lunch eaten was significantly lower in fat, saturated fat and Na in schools that met both the FBS and NBS for school lunches compared with schools that met only the FBS. Change in school lunch policy has contributed to improvements in pupils' choices and the nutritional profile of foods selected at lunchtime. PMID:21736822
Haroun, Dalia; Wood, Lesley; Harper, Clare; Nelson, Michael
Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs. PMID:22408581
Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R
OBJECTIVE Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (?-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: ?0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (?-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: ?0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels.
Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Anderson, Jennifer S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida; Bennett, Amanda J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Florez, Jose C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hofman, Albert; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Houston, Denise K.; Hu, Frank B.; Jacques, Paul F.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; McKeown, Nicola; Ordovas, Jose; Pankow, James S.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Wareham, Nick J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Bandinelli, Stefania; Forouhi, Nita G.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J.; Hallmans, Goran; Dupuis, Josee; Langenberg, Claudia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Siscovick, David S.; Meigs, James B.; Franks, Paul W.; Dedoussis, George V.
Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p < 0.01). Chewing activity per kilogram of daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by the different diets tested. However, chewing activity significantly decreased for kilogram intake of NDF, but increased for peNDF > 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p < 0.01). Total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients significantly increased for DM, organic matter (p < 0.05) and NDF (p < 0.01) but decreased for crude protein (p < 0.05) as the proportion of SH was increased in the diets. Rumen pH value of cattle was not influenced by the diets. Including medium and high amounts of SH in the diets decreased DMI of the animals (p < 0.05) without any significant effect on their daily milk or 4% fat-corrected milk production. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the NDF from a non-forage fibre source like SH had a lower potential for stimulating chewing activity than did forage NDF. Despite this, the small size of dietary particles increased not only the chewing activity per kilogram of peNDF intake but also saliva secretion as well as the potential for rumen to neutralize acids. The findings of this study demonstrate the greater differences in peNDF > 8 among the diets and that these differences are better reflected in terms of DMI, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility, but not in rumen pH. PMID:23758335
Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A
Water is an essential nutrient necessary to support life, and adequate water supply is crucial for animal survival and productivity. The present study was designed to determine seasonal changes in the water metabolism of horses under outdoor conditions. Total body water (TBW) and total water intake (TWI) of 10 adult Shetland pony mares were estimated at monthly intervals for 14 mo by using the deuterium dilution technique. During the last 4 mo, 5 ponies were fed restrictively to simulate natural feed shortage in winter, and 5 ponies served as controls. The TBW (kg) was closely related to body mass [TBW (kg) = -2.86 + 0.67 × body mass (kg); P < 0.001; n = 105] explaining 86% of the variation. In contrast to TBW (kg), TBW (%) remained relatively stable across all measurements (57.8 to 71.2%). The TWI showed an increase in summer and a decrease in winter [TWI (mL·kg(-1)·d(-1)) = 15.07 + 23.69 × month - 1.45 × month(2) (R(2) = 0.64, P < 0.01)]. However, TWI measured at ambient temperatures (Ta) < 0°C did not follow the same trend as TWI at Ta > 0°C. Therefore, removing TWI values measured at Ta < 0°C from the analysis resulted in high correlations with locomotor activity (r = 0.87), Ta (r = 0.86), and resting heart rate (r = 0.88). The multiple regression among TWI, Ta, and heart rate explained 84% of the variation in TWI [TWI (mL·kg(-1)·d(-1)) = -13.38 + 1.77 × heart rate (beats/min) + 2.11 × Ta (°C); P < 0.001]. Feed restriction had no effect on TWI and TBW. The TBW content was unaffected by season and physical activity. The established regression equation for TBW and body mass can be used to predict TBW from body mass in ponies under field conditions. The comparison of TWI with published data on drinking water intake revealed that ponies had 1.7 to 5.1 times greater total water intakes when other sources of water such as feed and metabolic water were included. The TWI was highly influenced by environmental conditions and metabolic rate. Contrary to expectation, water supply during the cold seasons might be more critical than under summer conditions when water content of grass is high to allow for the compensation of limited availability of drinking water. PMID:23736044
Brinkmann, L; Gerken, M; Riek, A
A study was conducted on high-density young plantations of three native trees (Albizia lebbeck, Albizia. procera and Tectona grandis) and one native woody grass species (Dendrocalamus strictus) to examine their influence on total nutrient concentrations of coal mine spoil during early phase of plantation establishment.\\u000a Soil samples were analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC), Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus (TP)
A. N. Singh; D. H. Zeng
Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake--especially at night after dinner--was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to -0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616
Markwald, Rachel R; Melanson, Edward L; Smith, Mark R; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H; Wright, Kenneth P
Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ?5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to ?0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity.
Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.
Two hundred ninety-eight Rambouillet ewe and wether lambs approximately 9 mo old from Texas were allotted to pens (29 to 30 lambs\\/pen). Two replicate pens were fed each of five diets. Two methods of restricting energy intake were evaluated: altering nutrient density (55% vs 72.5% vs 90% concentrate levels) and restricting intake of the 90% concentrate pelleted diet (92.5% or
Hudson A. Glimp; Steven P. Hart; David VonTungeln
The mean dietary exposure to the nutrient elements iodine, Fe, Se and Na by eight age-sex groups of the New Zealand population was estimated from foods purchased and prepared as for consumption. A total of 968 samples comprising 121 foods were collected and analysed. Mean daily exposures were calculated from mean concentration levels of the selected nutrients in each food combined with simulated diets for a 25+-year-old male and female, a 19-24-year-old male, a 11-14-year-old boy and girl, a 5-6-year-old child, a 1-3-year-old toddler and a 6-12-month-old infant. Food concentrations and dietary exposures are reported and compared with nutrient reference values (for example, recommended daily intakes, adequate intakes or upper limits). Dietary iodine exposures for all age-sex groups were well below recommended levels and have steadily decreased since 1982, raising concern especially for the physical and mental development of infants and young children. Fe exposures meet the recommended daily intake for the average male and 11-14 year olds but are only about half that recommended for adult females. Se exposure is about 20 % less than optimal for females. Na exposures, excluding discretionary salt, are above the acceptable exposure level for all age-sex groups, and exceed the upper intake limits for 25+-year-old males, 19-24-year-old young males, and 11-14-year-old boys and girls by up to 125 % for an average consumer. PMID:17925056
Thomson, Barbara M; Vannoort, Richard W; Haslemore, Roger M
We made a low calorie diet(LCD)menu which added two commercial supporting nutritional supplements to a meal. Because a conventional formula food is very expensive, the patient was not able to afford it at home. Those supplements are a total enteral formula with enriched nutrient(ACURE EN800)and vitamin-mineral rich drink(V CRESC). The contents of vitamin and mineral in this menu satisfied the dietary reference intakes, though protein was a little low. However, we could keep the price low compared to the formula food. The patient was able to switch over to home LCD therapy with the menu. PMID:21368549
Hata, Akiko; Ibata, Takeshi; Shinoki, Keiji; Ando, Yukiko; Hirata, Takahiro; Kojima, Atsuko; Nishijima, Ritsuko; Doi, Seiko; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei
The nutritional intakes and eating patterns of elite, world and Olympian figure skaters were evaluated. Three day diet records, weights and heights were collected. Participants included 20 females 17.7 ± 8 years of age and 18 males 19.5 ± 3.6 years of age. Average weight and height for females was 107.5 ± 15.0 pounds, 5.1 ± .2 feet and for
P. Ziegler; C. S. Khoo; Bonnie Sherr; J. Nelson
Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.
Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.
Four complete isonitrogenous (crude protein 13%) rations with 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3) and 15 (T4) per cent calcium soap from red palm oil (protected fat) were formulated and evaluated using four Deccani lambs (19.32 ±\\u000a 0.82 kg) in a completely randomized design at the end of a growth trial. The average daily dry matter intake (% body weight
R. Kumar; K. Sivaiah; Y. Ramana Reddy; B. Ekambram; T. J. Reddy; G. V. N. Reddy
The aim of the study was to assess the association between usual dietary nutrient intake and obesity in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. We examined 2,832 type 2 diabetic patients from the Korean National Diabetes Program cohort who completed dietary assessment and clinical evaluation in this cross-sectional study. In men, higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower odds of being obese (Ptrend = 0.003) and in women, higher protein intake was associated with a lower odds of being obese (Ptrend = 0.03) after adjustment for age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, alcohol drinking, income, education level, and calorie intake. In men, higher fiber intake was associated with lower odds of obesity after further adjustment for diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, and possible confounding nutritional intake and medication. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for the highest quintile of fiber intake was 0.37 (Ptrend < 0.001). In women, protein intake was not associated with obesity after further adjustment. In conclusion, higher intake of dietary fiber is associated with lower odds of being obese in type 2 diabetic men, suggesting a role for dietary fiber in the management and prevention of obesity in type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01212198).
Kim, So Hun; Hong, Seong Bin; Suh, Young Ju; Choi, Yun Jin; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Park, Ie Byung; Chon, Suk; Woo, Jeong-Taek; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan Woo; Kim, Young Seol
The omega-3 fatty acids found mostly in seafood are essential nutrients that may help prevent or control a number of diseases; however, the evidence for this is not conclusive. The positive effects may be because of other dietary and lifestyle factors. Therefore, we investigated the association between fish intake and other nutrition indicators and lifestyle and demographic factors among children. The study employed grade-4 student data of the 2000-2004 Hawaii Nutrition Education Needs Assessment Survey. In a sample 666 children (mean age = 9.57 ± 0.06 years, 55.6% female, 62.4% Asian/Pacific Islander), analysis indicated that fish consumption is positively associated with healthy lifestyle indicators, such as physical activity and a healthy body mass index. Fish consumption is also positively associated with protein and kilocalories intake but not with fruits and vegetables consumption. Findings suggest that the positive health behaviors linked to fish consumption may lie more in physical activity than in diet behaviors. Given that fish consumption is important for children, interventions promoting fish consumption in a balanced diet with fruit and vegetable, as well as other positive lifestyle behaviors are warranted. PMID:23666831
Chung, Hai V; Iversen, Cara S; Lai, Morris; Saka, Susan; Anwar, Md Mahabub-Ul; Nigg, Claudio R
The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrient intake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be compromised, and no study has described dietary status of a
Linda Jacobs Starkey; Katherine Gray-Donald; Harriet V. Kuhnlein
The purpose of the study was to compare nutrient intakes among Chinese, Japanese, UK, and US INTERMAP samples, and assess possible relationships of dietary patterns to differential patterns of cardiovascular diseases between East Asian and Western countries. Based on a common Protocol and Manuals of Operations, high-quality dietary data were collected by four standardized 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h
BF Zhou; J Stamler; B Dennis; A Moag-Stahlberg; N Okuda; C Robertson; L Zhao; Q Chan; P Elliott
The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.
Nikolic, Marina; Glibetic, Maria; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Milesevic, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco
The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195
Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229
Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji
Nationwide surveys of food and nutrient intake in China have revealed geographical variation between urban and rural areas. This study developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) for cancer risk assessment suitable for both urban and rural populations by conducting a survey of food intake in Chongqing, China. We recruited 100 urban and 104 rural healthy residents aged from 35 to 55 years in Chongqing, and collected dietary data with 3-day weighed records to assist in the development of the SQFFQ. The intake of 35 nutrients was calculated according to Standard Food Composition Tables for China and Japan. For each nutrient estimated by percentage contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA), foods with up to a 90% contribution or a 0.90 cumulative R(2) were selected as items for SQFFQs. The food items of the combined SQFFQ were selected from all items listed in either urban or rural SQFFQs. Mean intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate did not differ between the urban and rural residents. The latter consumed more fat than their urban counterparts. We selected 119 food items for the combined SQFFQ, comprising 22 specific items for the urban SQFFQ, 6 for the rural, and 78 common and 13 additional items. The combined SQFFQ covered 33 nutrients with up to a 90% contribution in each area. We were able to develop a data-based SQFFQ that can estimate nutrient intake of both urban and rural populations, with suitable coverage rates. Further reliability and reproducibility tests are now needed to assess its applicability. PMID:15331340
Zhou, Zi-Yuan; Takezaki, Toshiro; Mo, Bao-Qing; Sun, Hua-Ming; Wang, Wen-Chang; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Sheng-Xue; Ao, Lin; Cheng, Guo-Hua; Wang, Ying-Ming; Cao, Jia; Tajima, Kazuo
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.
Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.
It has been hypothesized that high fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and bladder epithelium and consequently reduce carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies examining fluid intake and bladder cancer have been extremely inconsistent, ranging from strong inverse to strong positive associations. The authors reevaluated the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study over a period of 22 years. During follow-up (1986–2008), 823 incident bladder cancer cases were diagnosed. Information on fluid intake was collected by using the food frequency questionnaire at baseline and every 4 years thereafter. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to adjust for risk factors for bladder cancer. Total fluid intake was inversely associated with bladder cancer when the analysis was based on the baseline diet (relative risk = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.97), comparing the highest total daily fluid intake quintile (>2,531 mL/day) with the lowest quintile (<1,290 mL/day) (Ptrend = 0.01). However, no association was detected when the analysis was based on recent diet or cumulative updated diet. The updated analysis for total fluid intake and bladder cancer was attenuated compared with the original findings from the first 10-year follow-up period.
Zhou, Jiachen; Smith, Scott; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.
Small intestine luminal nutrient sensing may be crucial for modulating physiological functions. However, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We used a model of enteral nutrient deprivation, or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), resulting in intestinal mucosal atrophy and decreased epithelial barrier function (EBF). We examined how a single amino acid, glutamate (GLM), modulates intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) growth and EBF. Controls were chow-fed mice, T1 receptor-3 (T1R3)-knockout (KO) mice, and treatment with the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-5 antagonist MTEP. TPN significantly changed the amount of T1Rs, GLM receptors, and transporters, and GLM prevented these changes. GLM significantly prevented TPN-associated intestinal atrophy (2.5-fold increase in IEC proliferation) and was dependent on up-regulation of the protein kinase pAkt, but independent of T1R3 and mGluR5 signaling. GLM led to a loss of EBF with TPN (60% increase in FITC-dextran permeability, 40% decline in transepithelial resistance); via T1R3, it protected EBF, whereas mGluR5 was associated with EBF loss. GLM led to a decline in circulating glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) during TPN. The decline was regulated by T1R3 and mGluR5, suggesting a novel negative regulator pathway for IEC proliferation not previously described. Loss of luminal nutrients with TPN administration may widely affect intestinal taste sensing. GLM has previously unrecognized actions on IEC growth and EBF. Restoring luminal sensing via GLM could be a strategy for patients on TPN.-Xiao, W., Feng, Y., Holst, J. J., Hartmann, B., Yang, H., Teitelbaum, D. H. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition. PMID:24497581
Xiao, Weidong; Feng, Yongjia; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette; Yang, Hua; Teitelbaum, Daniel H
Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p < 0.001). The ATTD of CP in mink (77.8%) did not differ from AID, ACD (78.5%) and SID (79.6%) in dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p < 0.01) and for AA ranking with respect to digestibility level (p < 0.001). In dogs, ether extract digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs. PMID:24870271
Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein
Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis.
GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.
Background Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by impaired postnatal mineralisation of the rapidly growing infant skeleton. Objective To longitudinally evaluate postnatal changes in tibial speed of sound (tSOS; which reflects cortical thickness and bone mineral density) and lower limb length (LLL; a measure of tibial growth) in very low birthweight preterm infants receiving contemporary neonatal care. Methods tSOS and LLL were measured using a quantitative ultrasound device and an electronic neonatal knemometer, respectively, in the same limb, weekly, for a median period of four weeks (3–16 weeks) in 84 preterm infants (median gestation 26.8 weeks (range 23–35.2?weeks) and median birth weight 869.5?g (range 418–1481?g)). Results Initial tSOS and LLL were correlated with gestation (r?=?0.42, p<0.001; r?=?0.76, p<0.001, respectively) and birth weight (r?=?0.23, p?=?0.038; r?=?0.93, p<0.001, respectively). Postnatally, tSOS decreased (r?=??0.15, p?=?0.011) whereas LLL increased (r?=?0.96, p<0.001) with age. The rate of postnatal change in LLL, but not in tSOS, was positively influenced by intake of calcium (p?=?0.03), phosphorus (p?=?0.01) and vitamin D (p?=?0.03). Conclusions The postnatal decline in tSOS, which is probably due to cortical thinning secondary to endocortical bone loss, and increase in LLL provide new insight into the development of long bones in preterm infants.
Mercy, J; Dillon, B; Morris, J; Emmerson, A J; Mughal, M Z
It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901
Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia
Objective: To determine and evaluate changes in nutritional status, food consumption, energy and nutrient intake in rural Bangladesh, using appropriate statistical analyses.Design: Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Two seasons in 1981–1982 and 1995–1996.Setting: Two villages with different production patterns.Subjects: Anthropometric measurements of 1883 individuals, food consumption data of 404 households.Methods: Repeated measurements of one-day food weighing and anthropometry in two seasons in
O Hels; N Hassan; I Tetens; S Haraksingh Thilsted
This experiment studied effects of increasing levels of dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on ruminal fluid pH, feed intake, nutrient utilization, body weight (BW) gain and feed conversion efficiency of lambs fed high concentrate diets offered ad libitum. Forty weaner (90 days) Malpura lambs, divided into four equal groups, were fed levels of NaHCO3: 0 (control), 7.5, 15.0, or 22.5g NaHCO3
M. K Tripathi; A Santra; O. H Chaturvedi; S. A Karim
Summary \\u000a Background: Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980 s in Germany, data as to the\\u000a consumption of fortified food is sparse. Aim of the study: To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in\\u000a the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally
Wolfgang Sichert-Hellert; Mathilde Kersting; Friedrich Manz
Objective To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Design Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. Setting A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Subjects Pregnant women (n 366) aged ?18 and ?40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ?14 weeks of gestation. Results Mean age was 22.6 (SD 3.4) years, mean BMI was 20.4 (SD 3.3) kg/m2 and 236 (64.5%) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11.0g/dl) was 30.3% and of microcytic anaemia (anaemia with mean corpuscular volume <80fl) 20.2%. Mean dietary intakes of energy, Ca, Fe and folate were well below the Indian RDA. In multivariable log-binomial regression analysis, anaemia was independently associated with high dietary intakes of Ca (relative risk; 95% CI: 1.79; 1.16, 2.76) and P (1.96; 1.31, 2.96) and high intake of meat, fish and poultry (1.94; 1.29, 2.91). Conclusions Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India.
Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher
The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219
Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M
A food consumption survey was conducted in rural Bangladesh in January-March 1996 using a 24-h food weighing method. Intakes and adequacies of energy, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron and calcium were estimated for 81 children (aged 24-71 months) and 182 women (aged 18-45 years) using three sets of food composition tables. The local food composition table was modified with newer values for nutrient contents of foods identified as important for the contribution of vitamin A and iron. Significant differences in estimated dietary intakes and adequacies were found for vitamin A and iron when different sets of food composition values were used. This study shows that up-to-date chemical analyses of foods selected on the basis of a high frequency of consumption and a large contribution of the nutrients in focus is a useful approach in improving the quality of food composition tables, resulting in greater accuracy of estimates of nutrient intakes and adequacies. PMID:14522691
Hels, Ole; Kidmose, Ulla; Larsen, Torben; Hassan, Nazmul; Tetens, Inge; Thilsted, Shakuntala Haraksingh
Usual dietary intake is the long-run average daily intake of a nutrient or food. The concept of long-term average daily intake, or "usual intake," is important because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time and diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term.
Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009.
Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim
The evaluation of nutrient intake is essential for the definition of health policies and as guidance for the establishment of factors, which could be involved in the occurrence of disease. The study aims to describe energy, nutrients and ethanol intake and the prevalence of inadequate macronutrient intake of Portuguese adults, by gender, age and education. We collected information on 2389 adults (61.6% of women), living in Porto, Portugal, selected by random digit dialling. Dietary intake was estimated by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, covering the previous year. Nutrient intake data was obtained using the software Food Processor Plus, adapted to Portuguese foods. The prevalence of nutrient inadequate intake was established by comparison with the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges of Dietary Reference Intakes: 10-35% (proteins), 45-65% (carbohydrates) and 20-35% (total fat). The average contribution of protein, carbohydrates, total fat and ethanol to the total daily energetic intake was 18.4%, 48.9%, 29.3% and 5.0%, respectively. The consumption of energy and macronutrients was inversely related with age and directly with education. The higher ethanol consumption was found among men with 50-64 years and less educated (= 4 years). More than 80% of the adult population of Porto reported an intake of protein, carbohydrates and total fat, according to the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges of Dietary Reference Intakes. Total fat was the macronutrient with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (17.1% in women and 21.0% in men). PMID:18489834
Oliveira, Andreia; Lopes, Carla; Santos, Ana C; Ramos, Elisabete; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique
This study aimed to assess impacts of fungal treatment on the nutritional value of peanut hulls (PH) or urea at the rate of 5 kg/100 g of PH. Fermented sugar beet pulp inoculated with Trichoderma viride was supplemented to PH at rates of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 g/100 g air dry of PH and mixed well before aerobic incubation for 21 days. Organic matter (OM) content of PH declined with increased levels of fermented sugar beet pulp inoculums, while crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), and ash increased. Fiber contents were decreased with both treatments of fermented sugar beet pulp and urea. Total N of PH increased with urea treatment, which reduced the true protein N to total protein N ratio. In sacco degradabilities of dry matter (DM), OM, and CP with urea treatment increased compared with fungal treatment. The DM intake of peanut hulls treated with fungus (PHF) was higher (P?0.05) than with peanut hulls treated with urea (PHU). Digestibility of OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber, and non-fiber carbohydrate by native breed Ossimi sheep with PH were higher (P?0.05) than with PH or urea treated PH. The intakes, losses, and balance of N increased (P?0.01) with PHF versus PH feeding. Feeding PHF increased (P?0.01) ruminal concentrations of NH3-N, acetic acid, butyric acid, and the acetic to propionic acid ratio. Bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P?0.05) with feeding PHF or PHU versus PH. Overall, this fungal treatment of peanut hulls created a higher nutritive value feed for ruminants. PMID:24085418
Abo-Donia, Fawzy M; Abdel-Azim, Safa N; Elghandour, Mona M Y; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Buendía, Germán; Soliman, N A M
High education is associated with low fat and high fibre, beta-carotene and vitamin C - Computation of nutrient intake based on a short food frequency questionnaire in 17,265 men and women in the Tromsø Study
Educational level has been correlated to the intake of several nutrients. In a population-based study including 17,265 men and women aged 25-69 years, the intake of nutrients were calculated based on 37 questions about food habits. In this paper, we present results from the dietary survey with emphasis on the relationships between dietary habits and educational level. Compared to subjects
Bjarne Koster Jacobsen; Hugo Nilsen
The stability of amino acids in total parenteral nutrient (TPN) solutions stored for 30 days and the potential for stored TPN solutions to support growth of microbial contaminants were studied. Solutions of 3.5% crystalline amino acids and 25% dextrose with electrolytes were prepared either by using a commercially available amino acid solution with electrolytes or by adding electrolytes individually to a base TPN solution. Solutions were stored in polyvinyl chloride bags at refrigerated (4 degrees C) or room (25 degrees C) temperature for 30 days. Some bags were inoculated with Candida albicans or Pseudomonas maltophilia before storage to serve as positive controls for evaluation of microbial contamination. At appropriate intervals, bags of each type of solution under each storage condition were analyzed for amino acid content. Microbial growth was evaluated by filtering the contents of each bag and incubating the filter in brain-heart infusion broth. No microbial growth was detected in any of the study solutions, but all solutions inoculated with C. albicans and 2 of 16 solutions inoculated with Ps. maltophilia had evidence of growth. No significant decreases in the concentrations of any of the amino acids were noted for solutions stored at refrigerated temperature, but significant decreases in the concentrations of arginine and methionine were noted for solutions stored at room temperature. Total parenteral nutrient solutions can be stored for up to 30 days if they are kept at refrigerated temperatures and protected from light; however, quality assurance measures for these solutions should include end-product microbiologic testing. PMID:3936355
Parr, M D; Bertch, K E; Rapp, R P
Food samples were purchased in Nagoya based on daily intake in the Tokai region, and prepared as total diet samples according to the market basket method. The contents of radioactive cesium (Cs) were determined by using a ?-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector, and a committed effective dose was estimated. Radioactive Cs was not detected in samples collected in 2006 before the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radioactive Cs was detected in samples prepared in August, 2011, five months after the accident. The sources were sugar and confectioneries (3rd food group), other vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms (8th food group) and fishes, shellfishes and processed seafoods (10th food group). Only Cs-137 was detected in samples prepared in August, 2012, one year and five months after the accident. The sources were the 8th and the 10th food groups. The estimated committed effective dose for radioactive Cs was 0.0015 mSv in 2011 and 0.00016 mSv in 2012. PMID:23676694
Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Haruyasu; Kato, Yukari; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya
Clinical experience supports a critical role for nutrition in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three-day dietary intake records were analyzed for 156 visits in 47 SMA type I patients, 25 males and 22 females, ages 1 month-13 years (median 9.8 months) and compared to dietary reference intakes for gender and age along with anthropometric measures and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) data. Using standardized growth curves, twelve patients met criteria for failure to thrive (FTT) with weight for age < 3rd percentile; eight met criteria based on weight for height. Percentage of body fat mass was not correlated with weight for height and weight for age across percentile categories. DEXA analysis further demonstrated that SMA type I children have higher fat mass and lower fat free mass than healthy peers (p<0.001). DEXA and dietary analysis indicates a strong correlation with magnesium intake and bone mineral density (r=0.65, p<0.001). Average caloric intake for 1–3 year olds was 68.8 ±15.8 kcal/kg - 67% of peers’ recommended intake. Children with SMA type I may have lower caloric requirements than healthy age-matched peers, increasing risk for over and undernourished states and deficiencies of critical nutrients. Standardized growth charts may overestimate FTT status in SMA type I.
Poruk, Katherine E; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Smart, Abby L; Chisum, Benjamin S; LaSalle, Bernie A; Chan, Gary M; Gill, Gurmail; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J
Clinical experience supports a critical role for nutrition in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Three-day dietary intake records were analyzed for 156 visits in 47 SMA type I patients, 25 males and 22 females, ages 1month to 13years (median 9.8months) and compared to dietary reference intakes for gender and age along with anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) data. Using standardized growth curves, twelve patients met criteria for failure to thrive (FTT) with weight for age <3rd percentile; eight met criteria based on weight for height. Percentage of body fat mass was not correlated with weight for height and weight for age across percentile categories. DEXA analysis further demonstrated that SMA type I children have higher fat mass and lower fat free mass than healthy peers (p<0.001). DEXA and dietary analysis indicates a strong correlation with magnesium intake and bone mineral density (r=0.65, p<0.001). Average caloric intake for 1-3years old was 68.8±15.8kcal/kg - 67% of peers' recommended intake. Children with SMA type I may have lower caloric requirements than healthy age-matched peers, increasing risk for over and undernourished states and deficiencies of critical nutrients. Standardized growth charts may overestimate FTT status in SMA type I. PMID:22832342
Poruk, Katherine E; Davis, Rebecca Hurst; Smart, Abby L; Chisum, Benjamin S; Lasalle, Bernie A; Chan, Gary M; Gill, Gurmail; Reyna, Sandra P; Swoboda, Kathryn J
Background: Nutrient stimulation of muscle protein anabolism is blunted with aging and may contribute to the development and progression of sarcopenia in older adults. This is likely due to insulin resistance of protein metabolism and/or endothelial dysfunction with a reduction in nutritive flow, both of which can be improved by aerobic exercise. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether increasing physical activity can enhance the muscle protein anabolic effect of essential amino acid (EAA) + sucrose intake in older subjects by improving nutritive flow and/or insulin signaling. Design: Using a randomized crossover design, we measured in older subjects [n = 6, 70 ± 3 y of age, BMI (in kg/m2) of 25 ± 1] the acute effects of increasing physical activity with aerobic exercise, as compared with normal sedentary lifestyle, on the response of blood flow, microvascular perfusion, insulin signaling, and muscle protein kinetics to EAA+sucrose intake. Results: No differences between treatment groups were found in the basal state. The change from the basal state in blood flow, muscle perfusion, phenylalanine delivery, net balance, and muscle protein synthesis during the consumption of EAA+sucrose was significantly higher after the exercise than after the control treatment (P < 0.05). Insulin signaling increased during EAA+sucrose ingestion in both groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our data indicate that a prior bout of aerobic exercise increases the anabolic effect of nutrient intake in older adults. This effect appears to be mediated by an exercise-induced improvement in nutrient-stimulated vasodilation and nutrient delivery to muscle rather than to improved insulin signaling. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00690534.
Timmerman, Kyle L; Dhanani, Shaheen; Glynn, Erin L; Fry, Christopher S; Drummond, Micah J; Jennings, Kristofer; Rasmussen, Blake B; Volpi, Elena
Food and Nutrient Intakes by Individuals in the United States, 1994-96 by Income, Food Stamp Program participation, Race, Hispanic Origin and Race, and Region, 2 Volumes, NFS Report No. 96-3. (USDA, ARS)
This publication contains estimates of food and nutrient intakes by individuals in the United States from 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Two nonconsecutive days of food int...
Ron Phibun District, approximately 800 km south of Bangkok, is the site of tin mines operated almost 100 years ago. As a result of mining activities, arsenic contaminated the soil and groundwater of the district. The specific aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 20 adults (10 males and 10 females) residing in Ron Phibun District by a duplicate food approach for 7-consecutive days. The weekly intake rates of inorganic arsenic ranged from 5.54 to 13.3 microg/kg BW for males and 6.11-12.1 microg/kg BW for females. PMID:20039017
Ruangwises, Suthep; Saipan, Piyawat
Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol: a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation.
We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a widely used coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor. Fatty acid status was determined by measurement of fatty acids in serum cholesterol esters and erythrocytes. Data reflecting the influence of fatty acid intakes on serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained from documented intervention studies. We found that 14:0, 16:0 and saturated fatty acid (SFA) status correlates positively with total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, while their intakes were unrelated. Linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and PUFA intake exhibited negative relations with the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. These data suggest that a high SFA status, not a high SFA intake, is associated with increased CAD risk, while both high linoleic acid status and PUFA status are associated with reduced CAD risk. Consequently, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio is a questionable risk marker since meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show that partial dietary replacement of SFA for linoleic acid, the dominating dietary PUFA, does not change CAD risk. We conclude that many lifestyle factors, not SFA intake alone, determine SFA status, and suggest that interaction with many other lifestyle factors determines whether SFA status has a relevant contributing effect in low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein changes and CAD risk. The present outcome may teach us to consider the health effects of the entire diet together with many nondietary lifestyle factors, opposite to the reductionist approach of studying the effects of single nutrients, SFA and PUFA included. PMID:24524903
Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; De Graaf, Deti J; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J
The aim of the present study was to determine equations that predict ME in total mixed rations (TMR) based on routine methods. The ME content of 30 TMR for dairy cows was determined based on digestible crude nutrients obtained with wether sheep. Concentrations in the TMR (in g/kg DM) varied between 118 and 234 for crude protein, 26 and 48 for crude lipid, 131 and 250 for crude fibre, 281 and 488 for NDF, and 173 and 304 for ADF. Gas production ranged from 40.7 to 54.1 ml/200 mg DM, and enzymatically degraded organic matter from 652 to 800 g/kg DM. Digestibility [%] ranged from 68.6 to 84.0 for organic matter, from 55.6 to 84.3 for crude lipid, from 55.0 to 77.8 for crude fibre, from 57.6 to 77.0 for NDF and from 53.1 to 79.6 for ADF. ME ranged from 9.6 to 11.9 MJ/kg DM, and NEL from 5.7 to 7.4 MJ/kg DM. ME content was highly correlated with the concentration of both crude fibre and enzymatically degradable organic matter as well as with organic matter digestibility. A multiple regression equation based on crude fibre and crude lipid predicted ME with a reasonable goodness of fit (r2 = 0.81; s(y.x) = 2.4%). The inclusion of other nutrients, of neutral and acid detergent fibre, neither of gas production did improve the goodness of fit. The best prediction was achieved with inclusion of enzymatically degraded organic matter (r2 = 0.90; s(y.x) = 1.7%). PMID:14533865
Boguhn, Jeannette; Kluth, H; Steinhöfel, O; Peterhänsel, Martina; Rodehutscord, M
Background Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789), 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001) and magnesium (P<0.05) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05). Potassium and ?-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001). Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]). Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.05), However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality. Grapefruit may provide a healthful option for adults striving to meet fruit recommendations.
Murphy, Mary M.; Barraj, Leila M.; Rampersaud, Gail C.
Smoking-related airflow obstruction can develop with or without emphysema. Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to diminish the risk of centrilobular emphysema caused by smoking. Our aim was to study the influence of total energy and nutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol) intake on smoking-related emphysema. Lung function and nutrient intake including alcohol consumption were recorded at the age of
K. Ström; L. Janzon; B. S. Hanson; B. Hedblad; H.-E. Rosberg; M. Arborelius
This study examined the relationships among dietary intake, substance use, socioeconomic and acculturation-related factors among Latinas in Miami-Dade County. Substance abuse is rising among Latinas. A fuller understanding of this problem is needed given the rise of the Hispanic population and the role of women in Latin society. A better understanding between substance use and dietary intake can guide nutrition
Elsa Pinto Lopez
Purpose The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption
Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe the relationship between fat and saturated fat intakes and serum lipid values in hyperlipidemic children consuming very low fat diets.The Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol levels in Children and Adolescents of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association recommend a low fat (<30%), low saturated fat (<10%),
N. Copperman; L. Josberger; J. Schebendach; M. A. Arden; M. S. Jacobson
African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet + supplement) intake of alpha-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not gamma-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum gamma-tocopherol. For delta-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of delta-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for alpha-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher alpha- but lower gamma-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study. PMID:17885014
Talegawkar, Sameera A; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Carithers, Teresa; Taylor, Herman A; Bogle, Margaret L; Tucker, Katherine L
ESR1 has been listed in the Human Obesity Gene Map as candidate gene associated with obesity. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of the ESR1 rs1884051 polymorphism on obesity-related variables, together with their modulations by dietary intake in Korean men. The obesity-related variables and dietary intake of 3,039 Korean men aged 40-59 years from KoGES database were analyzed. Body weight (P = 0.007), BMI (P = 0.003), waist-hip ratio (= 0.011), fat body mass (P = 0.010), and body fat percentage (P = 0.040) were significantly lower in subjects with the minor T allele of ESR1 rs1884051 than in subjects carrying the C allele. Moreover, the rs1884051 T allele was associated with a decreased risk of obesity prevalence (P = 0.040). Among the subjects whose total energy intake was below the median, carrier of the minor T allele of ESR1 rs1884051 had a lower BMI (P = 0.003) when compared with subjects carrying the C allele. In addition, among subjects whose plant protein intake was above the median, carrier of the minor T allele of ESR1 rs1884051 had a lower BMI (P = 0.044) compared with subjects carrying the C allele. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant association between the ESR1 rs1884051 variant and obesity-related variables and this association can be potentially modified by dietary energy and plant protein intake.
A dry matter intake (DMI) prediction equation was estimated by using a data file that contained 124 treat- ment means collected from published studies. Animal factors considered for inclusion in the prediction model were body weight (BW) and its natural logarithm, BW0.75, milk yield (MY) and its natural logarithm, milk fatandproteinyields,monthoflactationanditssquare, as well as its natural logarithm. The dietary factors
J. Fuentes-Pila; M. Ibañez; J. M. De Miguel; D. K. Beede
Plant-based protein sources are generally less variable in chemical composition than animal-based protein sources. However, relatively few data are available on the nutrient digestibilities of plant-based protein sources by companion animals. The effects of including selected soybean protein sources in dog diets on nutrient digestion at the ileum and in the total tract, as well as on fecal characteristics, were evaluated. Six protein sources were used: soybean meal (SBM), Soyafluff 200W (soy flour), Profine F (traditional aqueous-alcohol extracted soy protein concentrate [SPC 1]), Profine E (extruded SPC [SPC 2]), Soyarich I (modified molecular weight SPC [SPC 3]), and poultry meal (PM). All diets were extruded and kibbled. Test ingredients varied in CP and fat contents; however, diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Nutrient intakes were similar, except for total dietary fiber (TDF), which was lower (P < 0.01) for dogs fed the PM diet. Apparent ileal digestibilities of DM, OM, fat, and TDF were not different among treatments; however, CP digestibility at the terminal ileum was higher (P < 0.01) for diets containing soy protein sources than for PM. Total tract CP digestibility was greater (P < 0.01) for soy protein-containing diets than for PM. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, fat, and TDF were not different among treatments. Apparent amino acid digestibilities at the terminal ileum, excluding methionine, threonine, alanine, and glycine, were higher (P < 0.01) for soy protein-containing diets than for PM. Dogs fed SPC diets had lower (P < 0.01) fecal outputs (g asis feces/g DMI) than dogs fed the SF diet, and dogs fed SBM tended (P < 0.11) to have lower fecal outputs than dogs fed the SF diet. However, dogs fed the PM diet had lower (P < 0.03) fecal outputs than dogs fed SPC-containing diets. Fecal outputs and scores reflected the TDF and nonstructural carbohydrate contents of the soy protein fraction. Soy protein sources are well utilized by the dog prior to the terminal ileum, and SPC offers a viable alternative to PM as a protein source in dry, extruded canine diets. PMID:11424690
Clapper, G M; Grieshop, C M; Merchen, N R; Russett, J C; Brent, J L; Fahey, G C
Background: The aim of this study was the development and validation of a short list of food items to assess the intake of total fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. The short list should be able to correctly classify persons according to their intake. Methods: A short list of 20 food items was selected out of 1009 seven-day
SABINE ROHRMANN; GISELA KLEIN
In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood
L. Louw; A. Dannhauser
The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients.
Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J.; Wilder, Shawn M.
The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients. PMID:24911958
Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J; Wilder, Shawn M
Inconsistent associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and body fatness may be partly due to differences in the underlying dietary patterns or energy under-reporting. In the present study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity, accounting for energy under-reporting. The subjects were 1487 British adults aged 19-64 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. Breads and potatoes were the positive predictive foods for dietary GI, while fruit, other cereals and dairy products were the negative predictors. These foods were similarly identified in the analysis of only acceptable reporters (AR; ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement within 0·665-1·335) and under-reporters (UR; ratio < 0·665). Dietary GL was closely correlated with carbohydrate intake. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary GI was independently associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI ? 30 kg/m²) and central obesity (waist circumference ? 102 cm in men and ? 88 cm in women). Dietary GL was also associated with general (only women) and central obesity. Similarly, in the analysis of AR, the GI showed positive associations with general and central obesity, and, only in women, the GL showed positive associations with general and central obesity. Conversely, in the analysis of UR, the associations were generally weaker and many of them failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, we found independent positive associations of dietary GI and GL with general and central obesity in British adults. PMID:23656860
Murakami, Kentaro; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Livingstone, M Barbara E
Ten-day dietary records of 205 female and 73 male home economics students, 13 and 14 years of age, indicated that the males had a significantly higher intake of all nutrients except ascorbic acid. Snacks contributed more to the total daily intake of females than to that of males, and break fast contributed less than one-quarter of the daily intake for
Phyllis T. Brown; James G. Bergan; Caroline F. Murgo
Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplements (FS) were evaluated for effects on ruminal digestion kinetics, and ruminal and postruminal nutrient diges- tion. Eight early lactation ruminally and duodenally cannulated cows (77 ± 12 days in milk, mean ± SD) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were control and a linear
K. J. Harvatine; M. S. Allen
The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. PMID:24095933
Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J
The Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requires detailed methodologies to identify sources of flows and pollutants (particles and nutrients) for estimating time-variant loads as input data for the Lake Tahoe clarity model. Based on field data and a modeling study, the major sources of pollutant loads include streams (three subdivisions of this category are urban, nonurban, and stream channel erosion), intervening zones (IZs) (two subdivisions of this category are urban and nonurban), atmosphere (wet and dry), groundwater and shoreline erosion. As Lake Tahoe remains well oxygenated year-round, the contribution of internal loading from the bottom sediments was considered minor. A comprehensive quantitative estimate for fine particle number (< 16 ?m diameter) and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading is presented. Uncertainties in the estimation of fine particle numbers and nutrients for different sources are discussed. Biologically available phosphorus and nitrogen were also evaluated. Urban runoff accounted for 67% of the total fine particle load for all sources making it the most significant contributor although total urban runoff was only 6%. Non-urban flows accounted for 94% of total upland runoff, but the nitrogen, phosphorus and fine sediment loadings were 18%, 47% and 12%, respectively of the total loadings. Atmospheric nitrogen, phosphorus, and fine particle loadings were approximately 57%, 20%, and 16%, respectively of the total loading. Among streams and IZs, IZ 8000, Upper Truckee River, Trout Creek, Blackwood Creek, and Ward Creek are the top fine particle, nitrogen and phosphorus contributors. The relative percentage contribution of inorganic fine particles from all sources based on annual average for the period 1994-2008 on size classes 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-8, and 8-16 ?m are 73%, 19%, 5%, 2%, and 1%, respectively. These results suggest clear priorities for resource managers to establish TMDL on sources and incoming pollutants and preserving lake clarity. PMID:23314069
Sahoo, G B; Nover, D M; Reuter, J E; Heyvaert, A C; Riverson, J; Schladow, S G
Aims: The study was carried out to determine associations of reported alcohol intake with dietary habits, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and smoking. Subjects and Methods: 24,894 subjects who participated in the baseline examination of the German part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) in Heidelberg and were between 35 and 65 years of age
T. Ruf; G. Nagel; H.-P. Altenburg; A. B. Miller; B. Thorand
Background.Although diet is implicated in the elevated rate of cardiovascular disease among some American Indian tribes, the dietary intakes of these individuals have not been described. The Strong Heart Dietary Study compared diets of 10 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas to examine the possible contribution of diet to cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.Methods.During 1988–1991, 892 people responded to
Ellie M. Zephier; Carol Ballew; Ali Mokdad; James Mendlein; Cynthia Smith; J. L. Yeh; Elisa Lee; Thomas K. Welty; Barbara Howard
This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in vitro degradation if the ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the substrate was below 60-100 mg\\/l. No effect of
S. J. Oosting
The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.
Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
We have evaluated the effect of folate supplementation (5 mg\\/day) on global deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation status of the rectal mucosa of 20 patients with resected colonic adenomas in a prospective, controlled, cross-over study. Baseline values of DNA methylation were inversely correlated with caloric (P = 0.03) and fat intake (P = 0.05) and patients harbouring multiple polyps consumed significantly
M. L. Cravo; A. G. Pinto; P. Chaves; J. A. Cruz; P. Lage; C. Nobre Leitão; F. Costa Mira
The Total Diet Study (TDS), sometimes called the Market Basket Study, is an ongoing FDA program that determines levels of various pesticide residues, contaminants, and nutrients in foods, for the purpose of estimating intakes of these substances in representative diets of specifi...
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that carotenoids may inhibit bone resorption, yet no previous study has examined individual carotenoid intake (other than ?-carotene) and the risk of fracture. We evaluated associations of total and individual carotenoid intake (?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin) with incident hip fracture and nonvertebral osteoporotic fracture. Three hundred seventy men and 576 women (mean age, 75 ± 5 yr) from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in 1988–1989 and were followed for hip fracture until 2005 and nonvertebral fracture until 2003. Tertiles of carotenoid intake were created from estimates obtained using the Willett FFQ adjusting for total energy (residual method). HRs were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards regression, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, height, total energy, calcium and vitamin D intake, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, multivitamin use, and current estrogen use. A total of 100 hip fractures occurred over 17 yr of follow-up. Subjects in the highest tertile of total carotenoid intake had lower risk of hip fracture (p = 0.02). Subjects with higher lycopene intake had lower risk of hip fracture (p = 0.01) and nonvertebral fracture (p = 0.02). A weak protective trend was observed for total ?-carotene for hip fracture alone, but associations did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.10). No significant associations were observed with ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, or lutein + zeaxanthin. These results suggest a protective role of several carotenoids for bone health in older adults.
Sahni, Shivani; Hannan, Marian T.; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P.; Tucker, Katherine L.
A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes
Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?0.01-P?=?0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P?=?0.01-P?=?0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P?0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P?=?0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P?0.01). Conclusions Daily consumption of a peanut enriched (46 g/d) ADA meal plan over 24 weeks improves the nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222
A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh. PMID:24506053
Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S
A strict vegetarian diet (vegan diet (VD)l was investigated. Six middle-aged vegans (three men and three women) collected copies of 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition was determined in detail and compared with corresponding figures ofa normal mixed Swedish diet. In the VD 30% ofthe energy originated from fat compared with 40%
Nils-Georg Asp; Knud Berthelsen; Dowen Birkhed; Ingrid Dencker; Kurt Kolar; Baboo M. Nair; Peter Nilsson-Ehle; Ake Nord; Solvig Rassner; Sven Svensson; BjOrn Akesson; Per-Arne Ockerman
ESTABLECIMIENTO DE CULTIVOS DE COBERTURA Y EXTRACCIÓN TOTAL DE NUTRIENTES EN UN SUELO DE TRÓPICO HÚMEDO EN LA AMAZONÍA PERUANA ESTABLISHMENT OF COVER CROPS AND THEIR GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE IN A HUMID TROPICAL SOIL OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON
Resumen Con la finalidad de evaluar el establecimiento de cinco cultivos de cobertura y determinar su aporte potencial a la fertilidad del suelo en función a la extracción total de nutrientes, se instaló un experimento en la Estación Experimental \\
Fernando Puertas; Enrique Arévalo; Luis Zúñiga; Julio Alegre; Oscar Loli; Hugo Soplin; Virupax Baligar
Our objective was to determine the effects of frequency of soybean meal (SBM) sup- plementation on forage intake and net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic flux of nutrients in ewes that consume low-quality forage. Six Polled Dorset ewes (BW ± SD = 82 ± 9 kg) fitted with hepatic venous, hepatic portal, abdominal aortic, and mesen- teric venous catheters were
Clint R. Krehbiel; Calvin L. Ferrell; Harvey C. Freetly; Roman L. Hruska
This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…
Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook
The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 ?mol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.
Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf
Increased energy intakes are contributing to overweight and obesity. Growing evidence supports the role of protein appetite in driving excess intake when dietary protein is diluted (the protein leverage hypothesis). Understanding the interactions between dietary macronutrient balance and nutrient-specific appetite systems will be required for designing dietary interventions that work with, rather than against, basic regulatory physiology. Data were collected from 38 published experimental trials measuring ad libitum intake in subjects confined to menus differing in macronutrient composition. Collectively, these trials encompassed considerable variation in percent protein (spanning 8-54% of total energy), carbohydrate (1.6-72%) and fat (11-66%). The data provide an opportunity to describe the individual and interactive effects of dietary protein, carbohydrate and fat on the control of total energy intake. Percent dietary protein was negatively associated with total energy intake (F?=?6.9, P?0.0001) irrespective of whether carbohydrate (F?=?0, P?=?0.7) or fat (F?=?0, P?=?0.5) were the diluents of protein. The analysis strongly supports a role for protein leverage in lean, overweight and obese humans. A better appreciation of the targets and regulatory priorities for protein, carbohydrate and fat intake will inform the design of effective and health-promoting weight loss diets, food labelling policies, food production systems and regulatory frameworks. PMID:24588967
Gosby, A K; Conigrave, A D; Raubenheimer, D; Simpson, S J
We evaluated the role of total dietary antioxidant capacity and of individual antioxidants on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New Jersey, including 417 cases and 395 controls. Dietary intake was ascertained using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) intake was estimated using the USDA Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) Database and the University of Oslo’s Antioxidant Food Database (AFD) and FFQ-derived estimates of intake. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived using multivariate logistic regression controlling for major endometrial cancer risk factors. Using the ORAC database, after adjusting for major covariates, we found decreased risks for the highest tertile of total phenolic intake compared to the lowest (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–0.98). There was no association for TAC intake based on the AFD, which utilized the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay to assess antioxidant capacity. There was no strong evidence for an association with intake of any of the individual antioxidants. Our findings suggest that total phenolic consumption may decrease endometrial cancer risk.
Gifkins, Dina; Olson, Sara H.; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Bandera, Elisa V.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and
Clarence William Murray; Sara Kathleen Egan; Henry Kim; Nega Beru; Philip Michael Bolger
Objective:To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g\\/day) of total, animal and
J Halkjær; A Olsen; L J Bjerregaard; G Deharveng; A Tjønneland; A A Welch; F L Crowe; E Wirfält; V Hellstrom; M Niravong; M Touvier; J Linseisen; A Steffen; M C Ocké; P H M Peeters; M D Chirlaque; N Larrañaga; P Ferrari; P Contiero; G Frasca; D Engeset; E Lund; G Misirli; M Kosti; E Riboli; N Slimani; S Bingham
Background Patients with thalassemia have low circulating levels of many nutrients, but the contribution of dietary intake has not been assessed. Objective Assess dietary intake in a large contemporary sample of patients with thalassemia. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study using a validated food frequency questionnaire Participants 221 patients (19.7±11.3 yrs, 106 female) categorized into three age groups: young children (3–7.9 y), older children/adolescents (8–18.9 yr), and adult (? 19 yr). 78.8% ?-thalassemia; 90% chronically transfused. Setting 10 hematology outpatient clinics in the United States and Canada. Main outcome measures Comparison of intake with U.S. Dietary Reference Intakes, and correlation with serum 25-OH vitamin D and total body iron stores. Statistical Analyses Performed Intake was defined as inadequate if less than the estimated average requirement (EAR). Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and Student’s t-test were utilized to compare intake between age categories and logistic regression analysis to test the relationship between intake and outcomes, controlling for age, gender and race. Results Over 30% of patients consumed inadequate levels of vitamin A, D, E, K, folate, calcium, and magnesium. The only nutrients for which >90% of patients consumed adequate amounts were riboflavin, vitamin B12 and selenium. Dietary inadequacy increased with increasing age group (p<0.01) for vitamins A, C, E, B6, folate, thiamin, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Over half the sample took additional supplements of calcium and vitamin D, although circulating levels of 25-OH vitamin D remained insufficient in 61% of patients. Dietary iron intake was not related to total body iron stores. Conclusion Patients with thalassemia have reduced intake of many key nutrients. These preliminary findings of dietary inadequacy is concerning and supports the need for nutritional monitoring to determine which patients are at greatest risk for nutritional deficiency. Future research should focus on the effect of dietary quality and nutritional status on health outcomes in thalassemia.
Fung, Ellen B.; Xu, Yan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Odame, Isaac; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Boudreaux, Jeanne; Quinn, Charles T.; Vichinsky, Elliott P.
An epidemiological study on the dose-response relationship of cadmium was performed on 1850 Cd-exposed and 294 nonexposed inhabitants of the Kakehashi River basin in Ishikawa Prefecture. beta 2-microglobulinuria was used as an index of the effect of cadmium on health and the average cadmium concentration in locally produced rice was employed as an indicator of cadmium exposure. Cadmium exposure was found to affect health in a dose-related manner when the subjects were classified according to the average cadmium concentration in their village rice and their length of residence in the polluted area. Based on the available data, the total cadmium intake that produced an adverse effect on health was calculated as approximately 2000 mg for both men and women.
Nogawa, K.; Honda, R.; Kido, T.; Tsuritani, I.; Yamada, Y.; Ishizaki, M.; Yamaya, H.
This study examines the degree of under-reporting of energy intake by elite, female gymnasts, and the impact this predicted under-reporting has on associated macro and micro nutrient intake. Twenty-eight female U.S. national team artistic gymnasts participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records, and the degree of under-reporting was predicted from the ratio of reported energy intake (EI) to predicted basal metabolic rate (BMRestd), using the standards described by Goldberg et al. (10). Sixty-one percent of the subjects had an EI/BMRestd ratio of < 1.44, and were classified as under-reporters. The under-reporters had higher BMIs and percent body fat, and lower reported total energy intakes than the adequate energy reporters. Additionally, under-reporting of energy intake had a significant impact on reported micro nutrient intake. The under-reporting of energy intake seen in these subjects has an impact on the reported intake of macro and micro nutrients that can influence the interpretation of the nutritional status of these athletes and the strategy for nutrition intervention. Therefore, when assessing dietary intakes of elite gymnasts, some means of determining the accuracy of the reported energy and nutrient intake should be employed to more accurately identify the true nutritional problems experienced by these elite athletes. PMID:10997955
Jonnalagadda, S S; Benardot, D; Dill, M N
Selected nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrient), suspended sediment and total suspended-solids surface water data were compiled from January 1980 through December 1995 within the Great Salt Lake Basins National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, which exten...
Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.
Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.
The experimental objective was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast (LCY; Procreatin-7, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Milwaukee, WI) at 2 dosages in high-starch (HS) diets [30% starch in dry matter (DM)] on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows compared with HS or low-starch (LS; 20% starch in DM) non-LCY diets. Sixty-four multiparous Holstein cows (114 ± 37 d in milk and 726 ± 74 kg of body weight at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to 32 electronic gate feeders (2 cows per feeder), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design. A 2-wk covariate adjustment period with cows fed a 50:50 mixture of the HS and LS diets was followed by a 12-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diets. The HS diets were fed without (HS0) and with 2 (HS2) or 4 (HS4) g/cow per day of LCY. The LS diet did not contain LCY (LS0) and was formulated by partially replacing dry ground shelled corn with soy hulls. Cows fed LS0 consumed more DM than cows fed HS diets during wk 3, 10, 11, and 12. Yields of actual (44.5 kg/d, on average), fat-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content tended to be greater for LS0 than for HS0 and HS2 but not different from HS4. Milk urea nitrogen contents were greater for cows fed LS0 than for cows fed the HS diets. Feed conversion (kg of milk/kg of DM intake) was numerically greater for HS diets than for LS0. Ruminal pH was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate was greater, whereas that of propionate was lower, for LS0 compared with HS diets. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were greater for HS2 and HS4 than for HS0. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater for HS4 than for HS0 and HS2. Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were greater for LS0 than for HS diets; starch digestibility was greater for LS0 than for HS0 and HS4. Feeding LS0 increased DM intake and milk fat content, but reduced feed conversions. The addition of 4 g/cow per day of LCY to HS diets tended to increase milk fat content and increased total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows. PMID:22720956
Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J
An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P?0.05) as level of concentrate increased in complete rations. No significant difference was found in digestibilities of proximate nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P?>?0.05), CR-III (P?>?0.05), and CR-IV (P?0.05) rations in comparison to lambs fed with CR-I ration. Furthermore, CP digestibility was higher by 7.09 and 3.66 % in lambs fed with CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-II (P?0.05) and CR-III (P?>?0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P?0.01) different and progressively increased by 31.46, 48.69, and 82.86 % in ram lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. The N balance (g/day) was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 34.46 (P?>?0.05), 133.46 (P?0.01), and 198.87 % (P?0.01) with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations, respectively, in comparison to CR-I ration. Based on results, it is inferred that the level of sorghum straw in complete ration had no effect on digestibility of nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs. PMID:24585217
Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani
Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women’s diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of “extra” foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants’ dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of “serve”. The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor “extra” foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety.
McArthur, Jennifer O.; Gough, Natalie M.; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir
Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women's diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of "extra" foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants' dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of "serve". The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor "extra" foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547
McArthur, Jennifer O; Gough, Natalie M; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir
LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe compliance of consumed school lunches to nutrient goals and the strengths and weaknesses of lunch contributions to total daily intakes of 6th graders from low income areas of West Virginia.The purpose of this study was to assess compliance of the consumed school lunch (SL) to nutrient goals and to identify SL contributions to the daily nutritional
W. L. Stuhldreher
Our understanding of the influence of overall nutrient intake on bone mineral density (BMD) is limited because most studies to date have focused on the intakes of calcium, vitamin D, or a few isolated nutrients. Therefore, we examined the association of major nutrient patterns with BMD in a sample of postmenopausal Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 160 women aged 50-85 years were studied and their lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire, and daily intakes of 30 nutrients were calculated. All nutrient intakes were energy adjusted by the residual method and were submitted to principal component factor analysis to identify major nutrient patterns. Overall, three major nutrient patterns were identified, among which only the first pattern, which was high in folate, total fiber, vitamin B6, potassium, vitamin A (as retinol activity equivalent), vitamin C, ?-carotene, vitamin K, magnesium, copper, and manganese, had a significant association with BMD. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate adjusted mean of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores was significantly higher than those in the lowest tertile (mean difference 0.08; 95 % confidence interval 0.02-0.15; P = 0.01). A nutrient pattern similar to pattern 1, which is associated with high intakes of fruits and vegetables, may be beneficial for bone health in postmenopausal Iranian women. PMID:24687522
Karamati, Mohsen; Yousefian-Sanni, Mahboobeh; Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Rashidkhani, Bahram
Objective To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Inclusion criteria Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data extraction Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. Results 33 randomised controlled trials (73?589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval ?2.0 to ?1.2 kg, I2=75%, 57?735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (?0.51 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval ?0.76 to ?0.26, nine trials, I2=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval ?0.58 to ?0.02, 15?671 women, one trial). There was no suggestion of negative effects on other cardiovascular risk factors (lipid levels or blood pressure). GRADE assessment suggested high quality evidence for the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults. Only one randomised controlled trial and three cohort studies were found in children and young people, but these confirmed a positive relation between total fat intake and weight gain. Conclusions There is high quality, consistent evidence that reduction of total fat intake has been achieved in large numbers of both healthy and at risk trial participants over many years. Lower total fat intake leads to small but statistically significant and clinically meaningful, sustained reductions in body weight in adults in studies with baseline fat intakes of 28-43% of energy intake and durations from six months to over eight years. Evidence supports a similar effect in children and young people.
Objective:Most research on constipation has focused on dietary fiber intake. Here, we examined the intake of water and magnesium, nutrients possibly associated with constipation, as well as that of dietary fiber in relation to constipation.Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:A total of 3835 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18–20 years from 53 institutions in Japan.Methods:Dietary intake was estimated with a validated, self-administered diet history
K Murakami; S Sasaki; H Okubo; Y Takahashi; Y Hosoi; M Itabashi
In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen synthesis. Of cardinal importance may be the lower intake of calcium in the keloid patients that may contribute to abnormal cell signal transduction in fibroblasts and consequent collagen overproduction, and the lower copper intake that may influence the immune system, or perhaps even the high magnesium intake that stimulates metabolic activity. Micronutrient deficiencies also occurred in the diets of the normal black South Africans that served as a control group. In the case of plasma TPLs, deficiency of the omega-3 EFA series (ALA, EPA and DHA) occurred, and this is in accordance with the apparent lower omega-3 EFA intake in the diets of these patients. In the case of the red blood cell TPLs, as a true and reliable source of dietary fatty acid intake and metabolism, sufficient EFAs of the omega-6 series (LA and AA) and the omega-3 series (ALA, EPA and DHA) occurred. For this study group a relative deficiency of nutritional omega-3 EFA intake apparently did occur, but was probably compensated for by blood fatty acid metabolism. PMID:11090250
Louw, L; Dannhauser, A
Dan Chang district, approximately 100 km west of Bangkok, was a site of tin mines operated almost 40 years ago. Mining operations caused arsenic contamination in soil, surface water, and groundwater within the district. The specific aim of this study was to estimate the dietary intakes of total and inorganic arsenic in 60 adults (30 males and 30 females) residing in Dan Chang district, using a duplicate food approach. The daily intake rates of inorganic arsenic ranged from 0.496 to 1.817 ?g/kg BW for males and 0.342 to 1.778 ?g/kg BW for females. PMID:21253702
Ruangwises, Suthep; Ruangwises, Nongluck; Saipan, Piyawat
Objective We examined trends from 1977–2010 in calorie, macronutrient, and food group intake among US adults 55 and older. Design Cross-sectional time series. Setting A nationally representative sample of the US non-institutionalized population. Participants Older Americans aged ?55 years (n=18,603) from four surveys of dietary intake in 1977–1978, 1989–1991, 1994–1996, and 2005–2010. Measurements Dietary intake was assessed using one 24-hour recall. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine adjusted per capita mean energy and macronutrient intake for each survey year. Interactions were used to examine differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and generation. The top five food group contributors to total calorie intake were identified for each year. Results Mean total calorie intake increased significantly among older Americans from 1977–2010. Increases in carbohydrate intake (43% to 49% of total calories) were coupled with decreases in total fat intake (from 40% to 34%) while saturated fat (11%) remained constant. Corresponding shifts in food group intake were observed, as red meat intake greatly declined while bread and grain desserts became dominant calorie sources. Calorie intake was significantly higher for whites compared to blacks from 1994–2010. Cohort analysis indicated a shift from decreasing caloric intake with age to relatively stable calorie intake despite increasing age in more recent cohorts. Conclusion Increases in total calorie intake from 1977–2010, coupled with the finding that more recent generations did not show the expected age-related decrease in caloric consumption, raise concerns about obesity risk among older Americans. Additionally, despite declines across time in total fat intake, saturated fat intake continues to exceed recommendations and shifts toward increased consumption of grain-based desserts suggest that high discretionary calorie intake by older Americans might make it difficult to meet nutrient requirements while staying within energy needs.
Johnston, Rachel; Poti, Jennifer M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.
High-energy diets that induce obesity decrease striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (DRD2/3) availability. It is however poorly understood which components of these diets are underlying this decrease. This study assessed the role of saturated fat intake on striatal DRD2/3 availability. Forty rats were randomized to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) or a standard chow diet for 28 days. Striatal DRD2/3 availability was measured using (123)I-IBZM storage phosphor imaging at day 29. The HFHS group was split in a HFHS-high-fat (HFHS-hf) and HFHS-low-fat (HFHS-lf) group based on the percentage energy intake from fat. Rats of both HFHS subgroups had increased energy intake, abdominal fat stores and plasma leptin levels compared with controls. DRD2/3 availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was significantly lower in HFHS-hf than in HFHS-lf rats, whereas it was similar for HFHS-lf and control rats. Furthermore, DRD2/3 availability in the NAcc was positively correlated with the percentage energy intake from sugar. Total energy intake was lower for HFHS-hf than for HFHS-lf rats. Together these results suggest that a diet with a high fat/carbohydrate ratio, but not total energy intake or the level of adiposity, is the best explanation for the decrease in striatal DRD2/3 availability observed in diet-induced obesity. PMID:22868829
van de Giessen, E; la Fleur, S E; Eggels, L; de Bruin, K; van den Brink, W; Booij, J
The total caloric and specific nutrient intakes of smokers who became abstinent were compared with those of a control group. Both groups were composed of volunteer inpatients housed in a research ward for 7 days. After smoking ad libitum for 3 days, the experimental group was required to abstain from tobacco for the next 4 days while the control group
Dorothy Hatsukami; Lynda LaBounty; John Hughes; Dawn Laine
In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination (R2) of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (y-axes) and observed IVTDMD (x-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats.
Background Evidence supports that increasing number of postmenopausal women are suffering from one or more chronic diseases. Dietary patterns have a pivotal role in maintaining human health. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutrients and energy intake in postmenopausal women, with the special focus on seasonal variation effect in their food intake. Methods The study population consisted of 30 postmenopausal women referred to Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran (Iran). Socio-demographic characteristics and BMI were registered. Dietary assessment was performed by a 3 day food records in each season through one year, allowing the estimation of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake. The mean of nutrient intake in each season was adjusted for energy intake. The effect of season on energy and nutrients intake was assessed based on the General linear model (GLM). Results The mean of daily intake of vitamin C, B, B2, B12, iron, zinc, phosphorus and chromium was significantly higher than Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs ) (p?0.05). The mean of vitamin D, E, B6, B5, folate, calcium, magnesium, potassium and selenium consumption was significantly less than RDAs (p?0.05). All the participants meet the goal for vitamins A, K and B3 from food. The mean of energy intake was not different between seasons. However, the mean intake of fat, vitamin C, vitamin K and folate was significantly different between seasons. Conclusion These findings highlight some nutrients deficiency in postmenopausal women and therefore suggest nutritional education with emphasis on seasonal variation effect.
We investigated the independent associations of total and beverage-specific ethanol consumption with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in middle-aged Japanese males, because of the scarcity of epidemiologic data in Japan. The subjects were 2227 male self-defense officials who received a pre-retirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka, Kumamoto, and Sapporo Hospitals. Data on alcohol intake, smoking,
Yutaka Sakurai; Takashi Umeda; Koichi Shinchi; Satoshi Honjo; Kazuo Wakabayashi; Isao Todoroki; Hiroshi Nishikawa; Shinsaku Ogawa; Mitsuhiko Katsurada
Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. PMID:24064183
Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K
In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) macronutrient report the Committee recommended a maximal intake of ? 25% of energy from added sugars. The primary objectives of this study were to utilize National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to update the reference table data on intake of added sugars from the IOM report and compute food sources of added sugars.
Bernadette P. Marriott; Lauren Olsho; Louise Hadden; Patty Connor
Objective Our aim was to examine the relative contributions of changes in dietary fat intake and use of cholesterol-lowering medications to changes in concentrations of total cholesterol among adults in the United States from 1988–1994 to 2007–2008. Method We used data from adults aged 20–74 years who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1988–1994 to 2007–2008. The effect of change in dietary fat intake on concentrations of total cholesterol was estimated by the use of equations developed by Keys, Hegsted, and successors. Results Age-adjusted mean concentrations of total cholesterol were 5.60 mmol/L (216 mg/dl) during 1988–1994 falling to 5.09 mmol/L (197 mg/dl) in 2007–2008 (P<0.001). No significant changes in the intake of total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and dietary cholesterol were observed from 1988–1994 to 2007–2008. However, the age-adjusted use of cholesterol-lowering medications increased from 1.6% to 12.5% (P<0.001). The various equations suggested that changes in dietary fat made minimal contributions to the observed trend in mean concentrations of total cholesterol. The increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications was estimated to account for approximately 46% of the change. Discussion Mean concentrations of total cholesterol among adults in the United States have declined by ?4% since 1988–1994. The increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications has apparently accounted for about half of this small fall. Further substantial decreases in cholesterol might be potentially achievable by implementing effective and feasible public health interventions to promote the consumption of a more healthful diet by US adults. Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Ford, Earl S.; Capewell, Simon
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g?1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g?1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g?1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g?1), canned peas (16.8 ng g?1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g?1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g?1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g?1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84–2.46 ng g?1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g?1), baking powder (0.64 ng g?1), some cheeses (0.68–2.24 ng g?1), breads and some cereals (0.40–1.73 ng g?1), and fast foods (1.1–10.9 ng g?1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age–sex groups, with 0.17–0.33 ?g kg?1 body weight day?1 for infants, 0.082–0.23 ?g kg?1 body weight day?1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052–0.081 ?g kg?1 body weight day?1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.
Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504
Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M
Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n ¼ 1150) and women (n ¼ 1094) .65 y, examined in 2 population-based
Helmut Schroder; Joan Vila; Jaume Marrugat; Maria-Isabel Covas; CIBER de Epidemiologia
The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine
Background Low intakes of dietary antioxidants may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy. Objective We investigated the association of maternal total intakes (foods + supplements) of 10 antioxidant nutrients during pregnancy with wheezing and eczema in 2-y-old children. Design Subjects were 1290 mother-child pairs in an ongoing cohort study. Maternal dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered in the first and second trimesters. Antioxidant nutrient intakes were calculated, and the mean for each nutrient was considered to be the exposure during pregnancy. The outcomes of interest were any wheezing by the child during either the first or second year of life, recurrent wheezing in both years, and eczema in either the first or second year. Results No association was observed between maternal total intake of any antioxidant nutrient and eczema. In multivariate logistic regression models, the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of maternal total intakes of vitamin E [odds ratio (OR): 0.70; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.03] and zinc (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.88) was inversely associated with any wheezing at 2 y of age (P for trend = 0.06 and 0.01 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Similar results were obtained for recurrent wheezing at 2 y of age with vitamin E (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.90) and zinc (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.87) (P for trend = 0.05 and 0.06 over quartiles of intake for vitamin E and zinc, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that higher maternal total intakes of antioxidants during pregnancy may decrease the risks for wheezing illnesses in early childhood.
Litonjua, Augusto A; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Ly, Ngoc P; Tantisira, Kelan G; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Camargo, Carlos A; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R
Objectives:To assess the contribution of out-of-home (OH) energy and nutrient intake to total dietary intake, and to compare out- versus in-home nutrient patterns among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Methods:Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 participants aged between 35–74 years completed a standardized 24-h dietary recall using a software
P Orfanos; A Naska; A Trichopoulou; S Grioni; J M A Boer; M M E van Bakel; U Ericson; S Rohrmann; H Boeing; L Rodríguez; E Ardanaz; C Sacerdote; M C Giurdanella; E M Niekerk; P H M Peeters; J Manjer; B van Guelpen; G Deharveng; G Skeie; D Engeset; J Halkjær; A M Jensen; A McTaggart; F Crowe; V Stratigakou; E Oikonomou; M Touvier; M Niravong; E Riboli; S Bingham; N Slimani
The Japanese population routinely consumes iodine-rich seaweed, thereby probably making Japan the nation with the highest iodine intake worldwide. The present study aimed to estimate the duration of dietary records (DRs) needed to calculate the usual iodine intake and to ascertain the frequency of iodine intakes above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese. Four 3-d DRs for the 4 seasons within a year were collected for 55 men and 58 women. On the basis of analysis of variance, the total variance in iodine intake was classified into inter-individual and intra-individual components. The frequency of appearance for high iodine intakes was estimated. The most commonly consumed types of iodine-containing food items were seaweed, milk and milk products, fish and shellfish, and tofu. The percentage contribution of intra-individual variance was markedly greater than that of inter-individual variance, and the excessive iodine intake was intermittent rather than continuous. The duration for which dietary records were required to assess the usual intake of iodine within 10% of their true mean was 6,276 d for men and 4,953 d for women. The period that transpired until a value was exceeded once was 6.3 d/occurrence for values above UL (2,200 ?g), 8.5 d/occurrence for values above 3,000 ?g, 9.8 d/occurrence for values above 4,000 ?g, 11.2 d/occurrence for values above 5,000 ?g, and 16.7 d/occurrence for values above 10,000 ?g. To avoid errors in interpretation, it is inappropriate to assess the habitual nutrient intake of a nutrient that is intermittently consumed at maximal levels. It is important to assess the iodine intake in consideration of the range of the nutrient intake and of the time period in which the upper limit is exceeded. PMID:24064731
Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Nakade, Makiko; Matsumoto, Teruki; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Tsubono, Yoshitaka
Objective: Multivitamin/mineral (MVMM) supplements are the most common dietary supplements consumed in the United States; however, intake data specific to how MVMM use contributes to micronutrient intakes among Americans are absent from the current scientific literature. Methods: This analysis aimed to assess contributions of micronutrients to usual intakes derived from MVMM supplements and to compare those intakes to the dietary reference intakes for US residents aged ? 4 years according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 (n = 16,444). We used the National Cancer Institute method to assess usual intakes of 21 micronutrients. Results: Our results showed that 51% of Americans consumed MVMM supplements containing ? 9 micronutrients. Large portions of the population had total usual intakes (food and MVMM supplement use) below the estimated average requirement for vitamins A (35%), C (31%), D (74%), and E (67%) as well as calcium (39%) and magnesium (46%). Only 0%, 8%, and 33% of the population had total usual intakes of potassium, choline, and vitamin K above the adequate intake when food and MVMM use was considered. The percentage of the population with total intakes greater than the tolerable upper intake level (UL) was very low for all nutrients; excess intakes of zinc were the highest (3.5%) across the population of all of the nutrients assessed in NHANES. Conclusions: In large proportions of the population, micronutrient sufficiency is currently not being achieved through food solutions for several essential vitamins and minerals. Use of age- and gender-specific MVMM supplements may serve as a practical means to increase the micronutrient status in subpopulations of Americans while not increasing intakes above the UL. PMID:24724766
Wallace, Taylor C; McBurney, Michael; Fulgoni, Victor L
The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake
This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals.
Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju
The effect of breakfast and breakfast omission on daily food intake in normal and overweight participants was investigated. 37 participants were recruited for this experimental study and assigned to one of four groups on the basis of their body mass index (BMI) (normal weight BMI <25kg/m(2) or overweight/obese BMI >25kg/m(2)) and breakfast habits (breakfast eater or breakfast omitter). All participants were requested to eat breakfast for an entire week, and then following a washout period, omit breakfast for an entire week, or vice versa. Seven-day food diaries reporting what was consumed and the timing of consumption were completed for each breakfast condition. Overall more energy was consumed during the breakfast than the no breakfast week. The present study revealed significant effects of timing on energy intakes; more energy was consumed during the afternoon in the no breakfast week compared to the breakfast week. Overweight participants consumed greater amounts of energy than normal weight participants in the early evening. Breakfast omitters consumed more than did breakfast eaters later in the evening. All groups consumed significantly less energy, carbohydrate and fibre in the no breakfast week; however, overweight participants increased their sugar intakes. Consumption of the micronutrients iron and folate was reduced in the no breakfast week. The findings highlight that the timing of food intake and habitual breakfast eating behaviour are important factors when investigating why breakfast consumption may be associated with BMI. PMID:24866910
Reeves, Sue; Huber, Jörg W; Halsey, Lewis G; Horabady-Farahani, Yasmin; Ijadi, Mehrnaz; Smith, Tina
Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as ?-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. PMID:20853414
Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H
Objective: The objective of this study was to provide national estimates of whole-grain intake in the United States, identify major dietary sources of whole grains and compare food and nutrient intakes of whole-grain consumers and nonconsumers. Methods: Data were collected from 9,323 individuals age 20 years and older in USDA's 1994 -96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals through
Linda E. Cleveland; Alanna J. Moshfegh; Ann M. Albertson; Joseph D. Goldman
Summary: We report excessive binging and total reversal of weight loss in a patient after adjustable gastric banding surgery (AGBS). A 42-year-old female who underwent AGBS 4 years earlier was randomized to a diet group in a study on exercise training. The patient was on therapy for pre-diabetes and depression. She weighed 115 kg pre-surgery, lost 27.3 kg post-surgery, and weighed 117.3 kg at the start of the study. Her energy intake, assessed by 3-day food record, was 14,096 kcal/d at the beginning of the study of which 3086 kcal/d was from liquid and 7273 kcal/d from solid energy dense foods. The patient reported that the liquid foods facilitated binging on solid foods despite gastric band adjustments. Following intensive dietary counseling for 5 weeks, her reported energy intake decreased to <3000 kcal/d and body weight by 1 kg. Evaluating and actively addressing any dietary behavioral issues before and after AGBS are recommended.: PMID:24331012
Shah, Meena; Rao, Sneha; Snell, Peter; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Quittner, Claudia; Garg, Abhimanyu
Objective To determine how sodium, chloride, and potas- sium intakes of today's infants and toddlers compare with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) of these nutrients established recently by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Study design Population estimates of usual intake distri- butions of sodium, chloride (assumed to be equamolar to sodium), and potassium of 4-
Toddlers WILLIAM C. HEIRD; PAULA ZIEGLER; KATHLEEN REIDY; RONETTE BRIEFEL
We studied the effect of different chronic (3-4 weeks) dietary salt intakes on intrarenal hemodynamics of normal and mercury-intoxicated rats. Cardiac output (CO), total renal blood flow (RBF), and the zonal perfusion rate in the outer cortex (OC) and inner cortex (IC) were measured by the radioactive microsphere method. The distribution of cortical blood flow was calculated as the distribution index (DI), which reflects the ratio OC/IC. Rats were placed on a high salt diet (group I), intermediate salt diet (group II), or low salt diet (group III). For each group control rats (subgroup A) and mercury-intoxicated rats (subgroup B) were studied. No effect of the different salt intakes on the DI could be detected. The DI in group IA was 2.35 +/- 0.14; in IIA, 2.40 +/- 0.16; and in IIIA, 2.38 +/- 0.09 (P greater than 0.05). After mercury injection RBF changed from 5.32 +/- 0.36 ml/g.min(-1) (IIA) to 3.31 +/- 0.20 ml/g.min(-1), IIB and from 4.32 +/- 0.11ml/g.min(-1) (IIIA) to 1.98 +/- 0.10 ml/g.min(-1) (IIIB) P less than 0.01). The DI was lowered to 1.53 +/- 0.06 (IIB) (P less than 0.05) and to 1.16 +/- 0.10 (IIIB) (P less than 0.01). In both IIB and IIIB a marked elevation of the blood urea was noted (IIB = 97 +/- 9 MG/100 ML AND IIIB = 182 +/- 25 mg/100 ml). In group IB no effect on RBF, OC, IC, or DI could be observed (for all values, P greater than 0.05) despite similar histological renal lesions. Group IB rats also had normal blood urea levels (31 +/- 6 mg/100 ml;P greater than 0.05). We conclude (1) that variations in dietary salt intake appear to have no detectable effect on the intracortical blood flow distribution; and furthermore (2) that the mercury-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is characterized hemodynamically by a total renal and preferential outer cortical ischemia and that chronic salt loading prevents the ARF while preserving normal renal perfusion. PMID:963834
Lameire, N; Ringoir, S; Leusen, I
Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709
Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C
This research evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth, nutritional status, total antioxidant activity (AOX), total soluble phenolics content (TPC), and total nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of leaves and roots of Melilotus albus Medik planted in diesel-contaminated sand (7500 mg kg(-1)). Seedlings of Melilotus either Non inoculated (Non-AMF) or pre-inoculated plants (AMF) with the AMF-inoculum Glomus Zac-19 were transplanted to non-contaminated or contaminated sand. After 60 days, diesel significantly reduced plant growth. AMF- plants had no significant greater (64% and 89%, respectively) shoot and leaf dry weight than Non-AMF plants, but AMF plants had lower specific leaf area. AMF-plants had significantly greater content of microelements than non-AMF plants. Regardless diesel contamination, the total AOX and TPC were significantly higher in leaves when compared to roots; in contrast, NRA was higher in roots than leaves. Diesel increased total AOX of leaves, but AMF-plants had significantly lower AOX than non-AMF plants. In contrast, roots of AMF-plants had significantly higher AOX but lower NRA than non-AMF plants. AMF-colonization in roots detected via the fungal alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly reduced by the presence of diesel. AMF-inoculation alleviated diesel toxicity on M. albus by enhancing plant biomass, nutrient content, and AOX activity. In addition, AMF-plants significantly contributed in higher degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons when compared to non-AMF-plants. PMID:21420227
Hernández-Ortega, Herminia Alejandra; Alarcón, Alejandro; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda Araceli; López-Delgado, Humberto Antonio; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios
OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.
Woo, J.; Leung, S. S.; Ho, S. C.; Lam, T. H.; Janus, E. D.
A digestibility experiment using six ileally cannulated growing gilts (initial BW 31.6 kg) was carried out to study the effect of microbial phytase and diet form on apparent ileal and total tract digest - ibilities of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and energy and on apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids. The basal P-deficient diet was
S. Nitrayová; P. Patráš; M. Brestenský; J. Zelenka; J. Brož; J. Heger
Food surveillance in the Basque Country (Spain). II. Estimation of the dietary intake of organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals, arsenic, aflatoxin M1, iron and zinc through the Total Diet Study, 1990\\/91
Total diet samples purchased at monthly intervals between March 1990 and December 1991 were analysed for different contaminants and nutrients. Each total diet sample included 91 food items which were combined after preparation and\\/or cooking into 16 groups of similar foods. The ‘market basket’ was based on a food survey which referred to the adult population (25–60 years) carried out
I. Urieta; M. Jalón; I. Eguileor
Recommended Amounts of Total grains Table B8. Total grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above
Recommended Amounts of Total fruits Table B1. Total fruits: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above
Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documentation at the food and nutrient levels to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations. The International Agency for
U. R. Charrondiere; J. Vignat; A. Moller; J. Ireland; W. Becker; S. Church; A. Farran; J. Holden; C. Klemm; A. Linardou; D. Mueller; Staveren van W. A
Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documentation at the food and nutrient levels to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations. The International Agency for
U. R. Charrondiere; J. Vignat; A. Møller; J. Ireland; W. Becker; S. Church; A. Farran; J. Holden; C. Klemm; A. Linardou; D. Mueller; S. Salvini; L. Serra-Majem; G. Skeie; W. van Staveren; I. Unwin; S. Westenbrink; N. Slimani; E. Ribol
BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for
Dieu TT Huynh; Michael J Dibley; David W Sibbritt; Hanh TM Tran
Polymorphism at the ?S1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high ?S1-casein (?S1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low ?S1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for ?S2-CN, ?-CN, and ?-CN but a different genotype for ?S1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF goats. Significant diet × genotype interactions indicated how AA goats, compared with AF goats, showed higher DM digestibility and milk yield when fed the SFB diet, which had more energy. A reduction in free triiodothyronine hormone occurred in AF goats fed the MHB diet, whereas no differences were observed in AA goats. These results demonstrate how goats with a higher capacity for ?S1-CN synthesis exhibit more efficient energy and protein utilization, evident at the digestive level, and better productive responses to high-nutrition diets. PMID:23403186
Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M
This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage production and total annual operating costs. The dairy production facility used was a confinement stall barn at the Agway Farm Research Center, Tully, New York. Provisions were made to handle the manure from the barn in three ways: (1) directly into a spreader for daily spreading, (2) by gravity into a liquid manure storage tank for spring application and immediate plow down, (3) hydraulic ram to a roof-covered above-ground manure storage for spring and fall spreading. Results of the study show that a manure storage system can reduce annual labor requirements by 65 percent and fuel requirement by 60 percent or more, compared to daily spreading.
Martin, R.O.; Matthews, D.L.
Dietary interventions with flavan-3-ols have shown beneficial effects on vascular function. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA) and theaflavins in the European Union (EU) and determined their main food sources using the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Data for adults aged 18-64 years were available from fourteen European countries, and intake was determined using the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition Database, developed for the present study and based on the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. The mean habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, theaflavins and PA ranged from 181 mg/d (Czech Republic) to 793 mg/d (Ireland). The highest intakes of flavan-3-ol monomers and theaflavins were observed in Ireland (191/505 mg/d) and the lowest intakes in Spain (24/9 mg/d). In contrast, the daily intake of PA was highest in Spain (175 mg/d) and lowest in The Netherlands (96 mg/d). Main sources were tea (62%), pome fruits (11%), berries (3%) and cocoa products (3%). Tea was the major single contributor to monomer intake (75%), followed by pome fruits (6%). Pome fruits were also the main source of PA (28%). The present study provides important data on the population-based intake of flavanols in the EU and demonstrates that dietary intake amounts for flavan-3-ol monomers, PA and theaflavins vary significantly across European countries. The average habitual intake of flavan-3-ols is considerably below the amounts used in most dietary intervention studies. PMID:24331295
Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Kuhnle, Gunter G C
Guidelines for sugars intake range from a population mean of less than 10 % energy from free sugars, to a maximum for individuals of 25 % energy from added sugars. The aim of the present review was to examine the evidence for micronutrient dilution by sugars and evaluate its nutritional significance. From a web-based search of MEDLINE and hand search of linked papers, forty-eight relevant publications were identified on sugars (total sugars, non-milk extrinsic sugars, or added sugars) or sugar-containing drinks. These included five reports from expert committees, six reviews, thirty-three observational studies and four small-scale interventions. There was inconsistency between studies as to the relationship between sugars intake (however expressed) and micronutrients. The statistical patterns varied between nutrients and population groups. Curvilinear associations were found in some analyses, with lower nutrient intakes at both extremes of sugar intake; however, factors such as dieting and under-reporting may confound the associations observed. Some studies found statistically significant inverse associations but these were weak, with sugars explaining less than 5 % of the variance. Mean intakes of most micronutrients were above the RDA or reference nutrient intake except among very high consumers of sugars. The available evidence does not allow for firm conclusions on an optimal level of added sugars intake for micronutrient adequacy and the trends that exist may have little biological significance except for a few nutrients (for example, Fe). It is established that energy intake is the prime predictor of micronutrient adequacy. A better understanding of valid approaches to energy adjustment, misreporting and the assessment of micronutrient adequacy is crucial to further progress in this area. PMID:19079865
Gibson, Sigrid A
Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N?=?477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N?=?34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and perspectives of using nutrient patterns in future studies particularly at international level.
Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tj?nneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quiros, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castano, Jose M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocke, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartaker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that trans fat intake increases the risk of some chronic diseases. We hypothesize that trans fat intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by changing the lipid profile in plasma, the secretion of adipokines in adipose tissue, and the insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, the major objective of present study was to
Zhiliang Huang; Baowu Wang; Ralphenia D. Pace; Seokjoo Yoon
High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25 to 45 years old), recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n = 23) and controls (n = 15). Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd, Cambridge, UK), i.e., verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning, and delayed pattern matching (DMS), were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity, and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test). Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA), were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a DMS test. The significant nutrient–cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public health.
Gibson, E. Leigh; Barr, Suzanne; Jeanes, Yvonne M.
To determine the effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment of whole canola seed on milk fatty acid composition, 12 multiparous lactating Holstein cows (618 kg, 47 d in milk) were fed total mixed rations in a replicated ( 3 ) 4 × 4 Latin square designed experiment. The control diet contained no supplemental fat source. Canola seed (11.2%), either crushed
C. G. Aldrich; N. R. Merchen; J. K. Drackley; G. C. Fahey; L. L. Berger
Marine larval nutrition studies have classically focused on essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements and very little is known regarding the effect of total lipid level or lipid source on food ingestion and absorption, which are important factors determining growth. In the present work two experiments analysed food intake and nutrient absorption in seabream larvae in response to two dietary lipid
Sofia Morais; Michal Torten; Oryia Nixon; Sigal Lutzky; Luís E. C. Conceição; Maria Teresa Dinis; Amos Tandler; William Koven
Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844
Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (? = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health. PMID:23429440
Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro
In this activity, students observe nutrient depletion as they germinate and grow nutrient-demanding seedlings. They will discover that all plants require nutrients to grow and thrive and that these nutrients are found in the soil and absorbed through the plants' root systems. They will also learn that nutrients are dissolved in water and are distributed throughout the plant via its circulatory system; when the plants are harvested, they take the nutrients with them, depleting the soil of these essential components.
Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays critical roles in regulating food intake and energy balance. Recent genome wide scans found common variants near MC4R were related to obesity and insulin resistance. We examined the associations of the reported variants rs17782313 (T>C) and rs17700633 (G>A) with dietary intakes, weight change and diabetes risk in 5724 women (1533 with type 2 diabetes) from a
Lu Qi; Peter Kraft; David J. Hunter; Frank B. Hu
Background There is little information in the literature on methods of food composition database development to calculate nutrient intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data. The aim of this study is to describe the development of an FFQ and a food composition table to calculate nutrient intake in a Black Zimbabwean population. Methods Trained interviewers collected 24-hour dietary recalls (24 hr DR) from high and low income families in urban and rural Zimbabwe. Based on these data and input from local experts we developed an FFQ, containing a list of frequently consumed foods, standard portion sizes, and categories of consumption frequency. We created a food composition table of the foods found in the FFQ so that we could compute nutrient intake. We used the USDA nutrient database as the main resource because it is relatively complete, updated, and easily accessible. To choose the food item in the USDA nutrient database that most closely matched the nutrient content of the local food we referred to a local food composition table. Results Almost all the participants ate sadza (maize porridge) at least 5 times a week, and about half had matemba (fish) and caterpillar more than once a month. Nutrient estimates obtained from the FFQ data by using the USDA and Zimbabwean food composition tables were similar for total energy intake intra class correlation (ICC) = 0.99, and carbohydrate (ICC = 0.99), but different for vitamin A (ICC = 0.53), and total folate (ICC = 0.68). Conclusion We have described a standardized process of FFQ and food composition database development for a Black Zimbabwean population.
Merchant, Anwar T; Dehghan, Mahshid; Chifamba, Jephat; Terera, Getrude; Yusuf, Salim
Objective Dairy products contain vitamin D and other nutrients that may be beneficial for lung function, but are also high in fats that may have mixed effects on lung function. However, the overall associations of dairy intake with lung density and lung function have not been studied. Methods We examined the cross-sectional relations between dairy intake and CT lung density and lung function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Total, low-fat and high-fat dairy intakes were quantified from food frequency questionnaire responses of men and women, aged 45–84 years, free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The MESA-Lung Study assessed CT lung density from cardiac CT imaging and prebronchodilator spirometry among 3,965 MESA participants. Results Total dairy intake was inversely associated with apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and positively associated with FVC (the multivariate-adjusted mean difference between the highest and the lowest quintile of total dairy intake was ?0.92 (p for trend=0.04) for apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema and 72.0 mL (p=0.01) for FVC). Greater low-fat dairy intake was associated with higher alpha (higher alpha values indicate less emphysema) and lower apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema (corresponding differences in alpha and apical-basilar difference in percent emphysema were 0.04 (p=0.02) and ?0.98 (p=0.01) for low-fat dairy intake, respectively). High-fat dairy intake was not associated with lung density measures. Greater low- or high-fat dairy intake was not associated with higher FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC. Conclusions Higher low-fat dairy intake but not high-fat dairy intake was associated with moderately improved CT lung density.
Jiang, Rui; Jacobs, David R.; He, Ka; Hoffman, Eric; Hankinson, John; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Barr, R. Graham
The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70-80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day) for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg) compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg). The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed. PMID:22254072
Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L
Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.
To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10. PMID:20722300
Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried
Background Fruit and vegetable intake has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer and diabetes mellitus. It is possible that antioxidants play a large part in this protective effect. However, which foods account for the variation in antioxidant intake in a population is not very clear. We used food frequency data from a population-based sample of women to identify the food items that contributed most to the variation in antioxidant intake in Norwegian diet. Methods We used data from a study conducted among participants in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), the national program which invites women aged 50–69 years to mammographic screening every 2 years. A subset of 6514 women who attended the screening in 2006/2007 completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Daily intake of energy, nutrients and antioxidant intake were estimated. We used multiple linear regression analysis to capture the variation in antioxidant intake. Results The mean (SD) antioxidant intake was 23.0 (8.5) mmol/day. Coffee consumption explained 54% of the variation in antioxidant intake, while fruits and vegetables explained 22%. The twenty food items that contributed most to the total variation in antioxidant intake explained 98% of the variation in intake. These included different types of coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. Conclusions In this study we identified a list of food items which capture the variation in antioxidant intake among these women. The major contributors to dietary total antioxidant intake were coffee, tea, red wine, blueberries, walnuts, oranges, cinnamon and broccoli. These items should be assessed in as much detail as possible in studies that wish to capture the variation in antioxidant intake.
The 'Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle' computer program includes all requirements for energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A and D. Dry matter intake and energy concentration assumptions have been made more consistent from table to tabl...
In this study, two total mixed rations (TMR, based on dry ingredients) consisting (per kg dry matter (DM)) of 300 or 400g finely chopped hay mixture of grass and alfalfa (H30 versus H40) were compared concerning their effects on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation patterns and chewing activity of early-weaned (8 weeks milk-fed) calves. Ten ruminally cannulated male German
Caroline van Ackeren; Herbert Steingaß; Karin Hartung; Rainer Funk; Winfried Drochner
Frequent consumption of milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables and intakes of dietary folate and riboflavin but not vitamins B12 and B6 are inversely associated with serum total homocysteine concentrations in the US
Background: Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. Objective:Weinvestigatedtherelationbetweendietaryintakesand serum tHcy in the US population. Design: Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Exami- nationSurvey(1988-1994)wereusedtoinvestigatetheassociations between food consumption frequency and dietary B vitamin intakes and serum tHcy in 5996 persons. Results: Multivariate-adjusted tHcy concentrations were 15.2% higher in subjects who never consumed milk
Vijay Ganji; Mohammad R Kafai
Background Animal data show that low protein intake in pregnancy programs higher offspring blood pressure, but similar data in humans are limited. We examined the associations of first and second trimester maternal protein intake with offspring blood pressure (BP) at the age of six months. Methods In a prospective US cohort study, called Project Viva, pregnant women completed validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to measure gestational protein intake. Among 947 mother-offspring pairs with first trimester dietary data and 910 pairs with second trimester data, we measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) up to five times with an automated device in the offspring at the age of six months. Controlling for blood pressure measurement conditions, maternal and infant characteristics, we examined the effect of energy-adjusted maternal protein intake on infant SBP using multivariable mixed effects models. Results Mean daily second trimester maternal protein intake was 17.6% of energy (mean 2111 kcal/day). First trimester nutrient intakes were similar. Mean SBP at age 6 months was 90.0 mm Hg (SD 12.9). Consistent with prior reports, adjusted SBP was 1.94 mm Hg lower [95% confidence interval (CI) ?3.45 to ?0.42] for each kg increase in birth weight. However, we did not find an association between maternal protein intake and infant SBP. After adjusting for covariates, the effect estimates were 0.14 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.12 to ?0.40) for a 1% increase in energy from protein during the second trimester, and ?0.01 mm Hg (95% CI ?0.24 to ?0.23) for a 1% increase in energy from protein in the first trimester. Conclusions Variation in maternal total protein intake during pregnancy does not appear to program offspring blood pressure.
Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Lipshultz, Steven E; Gillman, Matthew W
This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage producti...
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%). PMID:18562778
Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko
Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003-2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234
Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet.
Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.
Calculated nitrogen balance in hemodialysis patients: Influence of protein intake.BackgroundOptimal nutrient intake is important in the maintenance of a positive nitrogen balance in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the influence of two levels of protein intakes on nitrogen balance in stable adult HD patients, and (2) to identify a minimum level of protein
Madhumathi Rao; Manju Sharma; Rajiv Juneja; Sara Jacob; Chakko Korula Jacob
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) provides the most comprehensive assessment of the health and nutrition status of the US population. Up-to-date reference intervals on biomarkers and dietary intake inform the scientific and public health policy communities on current status and trends over time. The main purpose of dietary assessment methods such as the food-frequency questionnaire, food record (or diary), and 24-hr dietary recall is to estimate intake of nutrients and, together with supplement usage information, describe total intake of various foods or nutrients. As with all self-reporting methods, these tools are challenging to use and interpret. Yet, they are needed to establish dietary reference intake recommendations and to evaluate what proportion of the population meets these recommendations. While biomarkers are generally expensive and, to some degree, invasive, there is no question as to their ability to assess nutrition status. In some cases biomarkers can also be used to assess intake or function, although rarely can one biomarker fulfill all these purposes. For example, serum folate is a good indicator of folate intake, red blood cell (RBC) folate is a good status indicator, and plasma total homocysteine is a good functional indicator of one-carbon metabolism. Using folate and vitamin D – two vitamins that are currently hotly debated in the public health arena – as two case studies, we discuss the complexities of using biomarkers and total intake information to assess nutrition status. These two examples also show how biomarkers and intake provide different information and how both are needed to evaluate and set public health policy. We also provide guidance on general requirements for using nutrition biomarkers and food and supplement intake information in longitudinal, population-based surveys.
Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Johnson, Clifford L.; Coates, Paul M.
Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) are set for healthy individuals living in clean environments. There are no gen- erally accepted RNIs for those with moderate malnutrition, wasting, and stunting, who live in poor environments. Two sets of recommendations are made for the dietary intake of 30 essential nutrients in children with moderate malnutri- tion who require accelerated growth to regain normality:
Michael H. Golden
To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME · kg DM) and
Caroline Van Ackeren; Herbert Steingass; Karin Hartung; Rainer Funk; Winfried Drochner
This study explored the effects of a Basic Climbing Education Program (BCEP) on the anthropometric measurements, flexibility, cardiovascular fitness (VO2max), muscular endurance, muscular strength, and nutrient intake (water, protein, carbohydrate, fat, total kcal) in novice mountaineers.\\u000a36 male and 34 female (mean age = 35.5 years, range = 21-61yrs.) participants currently enrolled in a BCEP class were measured for anthropometrics
DeFrang Donald A. II; Kelsey J. Franklin
Choline and betaine are important nutrients for human health, but reference food composition databases for these nutrients became available only recently. We tested the feasibility of using these databases to estimate dietary choline and betaine intakes among ethnically diverse adults who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Of the food items (n = 965) used to quantify intakes for the MEC FFQ, 189 items were exactly matched with items in the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods for total choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine, and 547 items were matched to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference for total choline (n = 547) and 148 for betaine. When a match was not found, choline and betaine values were imputed based on the same food with a different form (124 food items for choline, 300 for choline compounds, 236 for betaine), a similar food (n = 98, 284, and 227, respectively) or the closest item in the same food category (n = 6, 191, and 157, respectively), or the values were assumed to be zero (n = 1, 1, and 8, respectively). The resulting mean intake estimates for choline and betaine among 188,147 MEC participants (aged 45–75) varied by sex (372 and 154 mg/d in men, 304 and 128 mg/d in women, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.0001) and by race/ethnicity among Caucasians, African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians (P-heterogeneity < 0.0001), largely due to the variation in energy intake. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing choline and betaine intake and characterize the variation in intake that exists in a multiethnic population.
Yonemori, Kim M.; Lim, Unhee; Koga, Karin R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Au, Donna; Boushey, Carol J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.
Background: The role of one-carbon metabolism nutrients in colorectal carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Associations might be modified by mandated folic acid (FA) fortification or alcohol intake. Objective: We investigated associations between intakes of folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, stratified by time exposed to FA fortification and alcohol intake. Design: A total of 88,045 postmenopausal women were recruited during 1993–1998; 1003 incident CRC cases were ascertained as of 2009. Quartiles of dietary intakes were compared; HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Dietary and total intakes of vitamin B-6 in quartile 4 compared with quartile 1 (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.97 and HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99, respectively) and total intakes of riboflavin (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) were associated with reduced risk of CRC overall and of regionally spread disease. In current drinkers who consumed <1 drink (13 g alcohol)/wk, B vitamin intakes were inversely associated with CRC risk (P-interaction < 0.05). Dietary folate intake was positively associated with CRC risk among women who had experienced the initiation of FA fortification for 3 to <9 y (P-interaction < 0.01). Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 and riboflavin intakes from diet and supplements were associated with a decreased risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. Associations of B vitamin intake were particularly strong for regional disease and among women drinkers who consumed alcohol infrequently. Our study provides new evidence that the increased folate intake during the early postfortification period may have been associated with a transient increase in CRC risk.
Zschabitz, Stefanie; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Neuhouser, Marian L; Zheng, Yingye; Ray, Roberta M; Miller, Joshua W; Song, Xiaoling; Maneval, David R; Beresford, Shirley AA; Lane, Dorothy; Shikany, James M; Ulrich, Cornelia M
Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B?, B?, B?, B??, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country. PMID:23312136
Mensink, G B M; Fletcher, R; Gurinovic, M; Huybrechts, I; Lafay, L; Serra-Majem, L; Szponar, L; Tetens, I; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Baka, A; Stephen, A M
The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.
Background Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the “Food4Me” study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. Methods The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the food group level was highest for “other fruits” (eg, apples, pears, oranges) and lowest for “cakes, pastries, and buns”. For food groups, correlations ranged between .41 and .90. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the online Food4Me FFQ has good agreement with the validated printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ for assessing both nutrient and food group intakes, rendering it a useful tool for ranking individuals based on nutrient and food group intakes.
Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine
The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:24769296
Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi
Two experiments were conducted to test the ability of layers to increase their feed intake when fed diets of reduced nutrient density. Shaver White layers at 19 wk of age were fed diets at 2900 kcal ME\\/kg and 18.2% crude protein, or ?5, ?10, or ?15% reduced nutrient density. In Experiment 1 reduced nutrient density was achieved by adding a
S. LEESON; J. D. SUMMERS; L. J. CASTON
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei.
Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo
The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.
Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (? 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (? 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (? 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age.
Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S
In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)
Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others
Inconsistent results for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may reflect the potential adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels, and the beneficial anti-proliferative effects of calcium and vitamin D. Using data from the New England case-control study (1909 cases; 1989 controls) we examined dairy foods and nutrients in relation to risk of ovarian cancer overall, histological subtypes, and rapidly fatal versus less aggressive disease. We used logistic regression and polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. In models that were simultaneously adjusted for total (dietary plus supplements) calcium, total vitamin D and lactose, we observed a decreased overall risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of total calcium (Quartile 4 (Q4, >1319 mg/day) vs. Quartile 1 (Q1, <655 mg/day), odds ratio (OR)=0.62, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.49 – 0.79); the inverse association was strongest for serous borderline and mucinous tumors. High intake of total vitamin D was not associated overall with ovarian cancer risk, but was inversely associated with risk of serous borderline (Q4, >559 IU/day vs. Q1, <164 IU/day, OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.34–0.76) and endometrioid tumors (Q4 vs. Q1, OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.39-0.80). We found no evidence that lactose intake influenced ovarian cancer risk, or that risk varied by tumor aggressiveness in the analyses of intake of dairy foods and nutrients. The overall inverse association with high intake of calcium, and the inverse associations of calcium and vitamin D with specific histological subtypes warrant further investigation.
Merritt, Melissa A.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Titus, Linda J.; Terry, Kathryn L.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535
Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.
Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin
The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.
Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro
Six crossbred lambs (32 ± 2 kg) in a 6 × 6 Latin square design were used to determine the effects of predeprivation diet nutrient density and NaCl content on nutrient losses during periods of feed and water deprivation and nutrient repletion. Treat- ments consisted of two predeprivation dietary nutrient densities (low (LOW) and moderate (MOD)) and three NaCl intakes
N. A. Cole
Population-based strategies to combat osteoporosis are urgently needed. The role of nutrition in such strategies has been particularly contentious. We examined the relationship among six key nutrients that are thought to affect bone metabolism and bone mineral density in the axial and appendicular skeleton using data from a population-based study in the northern United States. Data on the dietary intake of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, protein, fat, and total energy were obtained from a 7-day dietary record. Bone density measurements were made by dual photon absorptiometry in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, and by single photon absorptiometry in the distal and midradius. Among the 72 premenopausal women studied, there was a statistically significant positive association between protein intake and bone mineral in the distal radius and proximal femur, which was not altered by adjustment for age, weight, and physical activity. Among 218 postmenopausal women, no such relationship was found between protein intake and bone mineral, and the only significant findings in this group were negative associations between fat consumption and bone density in the lumbar spine and radius. Our results suggest that dietary protein intake may be a determinant of the peak bone mass attained by premenopausal white women. The relevance of this finding for the design of population strategies to maximize skeletal growth requires further investigation. PMID:8661965
Cooper, C; Atkinson, E J; Hensrud, D D; Wahner, H W; O'Fallon, W M; Riggs, B L; Melton, L J
A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in
X.-L. Cao; C. Perez-Locas; G. Dufresne; G. Clement; S. Popovic; F. Beraldin; R. W. Dabeka; M. Feeley
The subjects were 18 male triathletes competing in the 4th Kaike Triathlon held at Tottori in 1984. Answers to a questionnaire on dietary and water intake before and during the competition were analysed. Cluster analysis using the average distance method was applied to 21 variables relating to order, age, stature, body weight, total calorie intake and each nutrient element ingested during three periods: after swimming, during cycling and during the marathon. The arrival order was clustered with stature and weight, and its similarity showed 69.7 when the first cluster formed. Age along with carbohydrate, protein or water intake during the marathon formed secondary clusters with order, stature, and weight (similarity: 60.0). In the upper place group, breakfast calories occupied the largest portion of 26.1% and the smallest portion of 17.2% during the marathon running. Furthermore the group ingested more energy than the other groups during cycling. PMID:1861486
Nagao, N; Imai, Y; Arie, J; Sawada, Y
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially or totally replacing fish meal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) on feed intake, growth and nutrient utilization in diets of Japanese flounder. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (crude protein 49 %, gross energy 19 kJ\\/g) were formulated, in which FM protein was replaced by SPC at 0% (S0), 25% (S25),
Junming Deng; Kangsen Mai; Qinghui Ai; Wenbing Zhang; Xiaojie Wang; Wei Xu; Zhiguo Liufu
Background There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. Objective To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. Design A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. Results The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat – from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy – from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p=0.02) and in Yakutsk (p=0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p<0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. Conclusions The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.
Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav
Overweight and obese patients may develop paradoxical nutritional deficiency from eating high-energy foods with a poor nutrient content. In such patients, this condition is probably under-recognised, and thus untreated. • The nutrient density of foods has recently been defined by a score — the naturally nutrient-rich (NNR) score — which assesses the contribution a food makes to the nutrient intake
Tania P Markovic; Sharon J Natoli