Sample records for total nutrient intakes

  1. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  2. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    EFFECT OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON PREMENSTRUAL DEPRESSION JUDITHJ. WURTMAN,PhD, AMNONBRZEZINSKI and Qognitive Sciences. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Reprinted from AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS) (Printed in the U.S.A.) -- - ----- #12;Effect of nutrient intake on premenstrual depression Judith J

  3. Did School Food and Nutrient-Based Standards in England Impact on 11–12Y Olds Nutrient Intake at Lunchtime and in Total Diet? Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In September 2009, middle and secondary schools in England were required to comply with food and nutrient-based standards for school food. We examined the impact of this policy change on children’s lunchtime and total dietary intake. Methods We undertook repeat cross-sectional surveys in six Northumberland middle schools in 1999–2000 and 2009–10. Dietary data were collected from 11–12 y olds (n?=?298 in 1999–2000; n?=?215 in 2009–10). Children completed two consecutive 3-day food diaries, each followed by an interview. Linear mixed effect models examined the effect of year, lunch type and level of socio-economic deprivation on children’s mean total dietary intake. Results We found both before and after the introduction of the food and nutrient-based standards children consuming a school lunch, had a lower per cent energy from saturated fat (?0.5%; p?=?0.02), and a lower intake of sodium (?143 mg; p?=?0.02), and calcium (?81 mg; p?=?0.001) in their total diet, compared with children consuming a home-packed lunch. We found no evidence that lunch type was associated with mean energy, or absolute amounts of NSP, vitamin C and iron intake. There was marginal evidence of an association between lunch type and per cent energy NMES (p?=?0.06). In 1999–2000, children consuming a school lunch had a higher per cent energy from fat in their total diet compared with children consuming a home-packed lunch (2.8%), whereas by 2009–10, they had slightly less (?0.2%) (year by lunch type interaction p<0.001; change in mean differences ?3%). Conclusions We found limited evidence of an impact of the school food and nutrient-based standards on total diet among 11–12 year olds. Such policies may need to be supported by additional measures, including guidance on individual food choice, and the development of wider supportive environments in school and beyond the school gates. PMID:25409298

  4. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  5. Obesity: interactions of genome and nutrients intake.

    PubMed

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2015-03-01

    Obesity has become one of the major public health problems all over the world. Recent novel eras of research are opening for the effective management of obesity though gene and nutrient intake interactions because the causes of obesity are complex and multifactorial. Through GWASs (genome-wide association studies) and genetic variations (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms), as the genetic factors are likely to determine individuals' obesity predisposition. The understanding of genetic approaches in nutritional sciences is referred as "nutrigenomics". Nutrigenomics explores the interaction between genetic factors and dietary nutrient intake on various disease phenotypes such as obesity. Therefore, this novel approach might suggest a solution for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity through individual genetic profiles and help improve health conditions. PMID:25866743

  6. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  7. Spanish children's diet: compliance with nutrient and food intake guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M A Royo-Bordonada; L Gorgojo; J M Martín-Moreno; C Garcés; F Rodríguez-Artalejo; M Benavente; A Mangas; M de Oya

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diet of Spanish children against the nutrient and food intake guidelines. To calculate an index of overall diet quality and check its validity against nutrient intake.Design and setting: Cross-sectional study in four cities in Spain, where information on food and nutrient intake was obtained from schoolchildren through a food frequency questionnaire.Participants: The sample included 1112 children

  8. Eating patterns and energy and nutrient intakes of US women.

    PubMed

    Haines, P S; Hungerford, D W; Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K

    1992-06-01

    A longitudinal multivariate analysis was used to determine whether differences in energy and nutrient intakes were present for women classified into different eating patterns. Ten multidimensional eating patterns were created based on the proportion of energy consumed at home and at seven away-from-home locations. Data were from 1,120 women aged 19 through 50 years who were surveyed up to six times over a 1-year period as part of the 1985 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, US Department of Agriculture. Data from 5,993 days were analyzed. To examine differences in energy and nutrient intakes, longitudinal multivariate analyses were used to control for eating pattern and factors such as demographics, season, and day of week. Younger women in the Fast Food eating pattern consumed the greatest intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. Well-educated, higher-income women in the Restaurant pattern consumed diets with the highest overall fat density. Nutrient densities for dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin C, and folacin were particularly low in away-from-home eating patterns. In contrast, moderately educated, middle-aged and middle-income women in the Home Mixed eating pattern (70% at home, 30% away from home) consumed the most healthful diets. We conclude that knowledge of demographics such as income and education is not enough to target dietary interventions. Rather, educational efforts must consider both demographics and the location of away-from-home eating. This will allow development of behavioral change strategies that consider food choices dictated by the eating environment as well as personal knowledge and attitude factors related to adoption of healthful food choices. PMID:1607566

  9. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  10. Modelling of Usual Nutrient Intakes: Potential Impact of the Choices Programme on Nutrient Intakes in Young Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; van Ballegooijen, Adriana J.; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; van der Voet, Hilko; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Choices Programme is an internationally applicable nutrient profiling system with nutrition criteria for trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids, sodium, added sugar and for some product groups energy and fibre. These criteria determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. In this paper a nutrient intake modelling method is described to evaluate these nutritional criteria by investigating the potential effect on nutrient intakes. Methods Data were combined from the 2003 Dutch food consumption survey in young adults (aged 19–30) and the Dutch food composition table into the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment model. Three scenarios were calculated: the “actual intakes” (scenario 1) were compared to scenario 2, where all foods that did not comply were replaced by similar foods that did comply with the Choices criteria. Scenario 3 was the same as scenario 2 adjusted for the difference in energy density between the original and replacement food. Additional scenarios were calculated where snacks were not or partially replaced and stratified analyses for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and education. Results Calculated intake distributions showed that median energy intake was reduced by 16% by replacing normally consumed foods with Choices compliant foods. Intakes of nutrients with a maximal intake limit were also reduced (ranging from ?23% for sodium and ?62% for TFA). Effects on intakes of beneficial nutrients varied from an unintentional reduction in fat soluble vitamin intakes (?15 to ?28%) to an increase of 28% for fibre and 17% calcium. Stratified analyses in this homogeneous study population showed only small differences across gender, age, BMI and education. Conclusions This intake modelling method showed that with consumption of Choices compliant foods, nutrient intakes shift towards population intake goals for the nutrients for which nutrition criteria were defined, while effects on beneficial nutrients were diverse. PMID:24015237

  11. Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913?±?567 kcal/d) than females (1514?±?458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8?±?6.4%, Female: 73.9?±?6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9?±?6.1%, Female: 18.5?±?5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6?±?2.1%, Female: 10.9?±?5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

  12. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  13. Estimated Nutrient Intakes from Food Generally Do Not Meet Dietary Reference Intakes among Adult Members of Pacific Northwest Tribal Nations1–3

    PubMed Central

    Fialkowski, Marie K.; McCrory, Megan A.; Roberts, Sparkle M.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1–4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001–2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34–37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11–12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001–2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  14. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394) were examined at baseline (?20 weeks of pregnancy) of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p<0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take. PMID:25994096

  15. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe. PMID:21249160

  16. Breakfast consumption with and without vitamin-mineral supplement use favorably impacts daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa A Nicklas; Christina Reger; Leann Myers; Carol O’Neil

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the contribution of breakfast consumption (with and without dietary supplement intake) on total daily nutrient intake of ninth-grade students.Methods: Twenty-four-hour recall of dietary intake was collected from a random sample of 711 ninth-grade students attending 12 Archdiocesan high schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. Analysis of variance techniques, Pearson’s Chi-square statistic, and Breznahn–Shapiro method with Scheffé probabilities were

  17. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  18. Nutrient intakes related to osteoporotic fractures in men and women – The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Schuch, Natielen J; Genaro, Patrícia S; Ciconelli, Rozana M; Ferraz, Marcos B; Martini, Lígia A

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrition plays an important role in bone mass accrual and maintenance and has been demonstrated as a significant tool for the prevention of fractures in individuals with osteoporosis. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone health-related nutrients intake and its association with osteoporotic fractures in a representative sample of 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older in Brazil. Methods In a transversal population-based study, a total of 2420 individuals over 40 years old were evaluated from March to April 2006. Participants were men and women from all socio-economic classes and education levels living around the Brazilian territory Individuals responded a questionnaire including self reported fractures as well a 24-hour food recall. Nutrient intakes were evaluated by Nutrition Data System for Research software (NDSR, University of Minnesota, 2007). Low trauma fracture was defined as that resulting of a fall from standing height or less. Nutrient intakes adequacies were performed by using the DRI's proposed values. Statistical analysis comprises Oneway ANCOVA adjusted by age and use of nutritional supplements and multiple logistic regression. SAS software was used for statistical analysis. Results Fractures was reported by 13% of men and 15% of women. Women with fractures presented significantly higher calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intakes. However, in all regions and socio-economical levels mean intakes of bone related nutrients were below the recommended levels. It was demonstrated that for every 100 mg/phosphorus increase the risk of fractures by 9% (OR 1.09; IC95% 1.05–1.13, p < 0.001). Conclusion The results demonstrated inadequacies in bone related nutrients in our population as well that an increase in phosphorus intake is related to bone fractures. PMID:19178745

  19. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  20. Nutrient intake in the GEICO multicenter trial: the effects of a multicomponent worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, S; Barnard, N D; Gonzales, J; Xu, J; Agarwal, U; Levin, S

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: To assess the effects on macro- and micronutrient intake of a nutrition intervention program in corporate settings across the United States. Subjects/methods: Two hundred and ninety-two individuals who were overweight or had type 2 diabetes were recruited from 10 sites of a US insurance company. Two hundred and seventy-one participants completed baseline diet recalls, and 183 participants completed dietary recalls at 18 weeks. Sites were randomly assigned to an intervention group (five sites) or to a control group (five sites) for 18 weeks. At intervention sites, participants were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and attend weekly group meetings. At control sites, participants continued their usual diets. At baseline and 18 weeks, participants completed 2-day diet recalls. Between-group differences in changes in nutrient intake were assessed using an analysis of covariance. Results: Compared with those in the control group, intervention-group participants significantly reduced the reported intake of total fat (P=0.02), saturated (P=0.006) and monounsaturated fats (P=0.01), cholesterol (P=0.009), protein (P=0.03) and calcium (P=0.02), and increased the intake of carbohydrate (P=0.006), fiber (P=0.002), ?-carotene (P=0.01), vitamin C (P=0.003), magnesium (P=0.04) and potassium (P=0.002). Conclusions: An 18-week intervention program in a corporate setting reduces intake of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol and increases the intake of protective nutrients, particularly fiber, ?-carotene, vitamin C, magnesium and potassium. The reduction in calcium intake indicates the need for planning for this nutrient. PMID:23942177

  1. Maternal Dietary Nutrient Intake and Risk of Preterm Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine maternal dietary intake and preterm delivery. Study Design Data included 5738 deliveries from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Odds ratios (ORs) reflected risks of delivery at <32, 32–34, or 35–36 versus ?37 weeks for maternal intake in the lowest or highest quartile of nutrient intake compared with the middle two. Results Among deliveries < 32 weeks, many ORs were ?1.5 or ?0.7, but few confidence intervals excluded one. ORs were 1.5 for lowest quartiles of protein, thiamin, riboflavin, choline, vitamin A, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, vitamin E, iron, copper, and zinc and for highest quartiles of carbohydrate, glycemic index, and Mediterranean Diet Score. ORs were ?0.7 for lowest quartiles of glycemic index and betaine and for highest quartiles of protein, alanine, methionine, vitamin B6, betaine, and calcium. Few ORs met these criteria for later preterm deliveries. Conclusions Results suggested an association of nutrient intake with earlier preterm deliveries. PMID:23208764

  2. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  3. Changes in Dairy Food and Nutrient Intakes in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Carole E.; Vivian, Wendy J.; Oddy, Wendy H.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Mori, Trevor A.; O’Sullivan, Therese A.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy nutrients, such as calcium, are particularly important in adolescence, a critical time for growth and development. There are limited Australian data following individuals through adolescence, evaluating changes in dairy nutrient and dairy product consumption. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire to investigate consumption in adolescents participating in both the 14 and 17 year follow-ups of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Most adolescents did not reach age and gender specific recommended daily intakes for calcium or magnesium at 14 years, and this decreased as they aged to 17 years (from 33.0% to 29.2% meeting for calcium, P < 0.05, and from 33.6% to 20.5% meeting for magnesium, P < 0.01). Mean intakes of calcium, potassium, riboflavin and vitamin A also decreased with age (P < 0.01). Mean dairy intake decreased from 536 ± 343 g/day to 464 ± 339 g/day (P < 0.01), due mostly to a decrease in regular milk, although flavoured milk consumption increased in boys. Cheese and butter were the only products to show a significantly increased consumption over the period. Girls decreased from 2.2 to 1.9 serves/day of dairy, while boys remained relatively steady at 2.9 to 2.8 serves/day. Our findings suggest that dairy product consumption decreases over adolescence. This may have implications for bone mass, development and later health. PMID:23363991

  4. The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. PMID:26066014

  5. The Difference in Nutrient Intakes between Chinese and Mediterranean, Japanese and American Diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Zhou, Biao; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Lichun; Jiang, Shuying; Liu, Zeyu; Jiang, Jingxin; Yu, Yunxian

    2015-01-01

    Across countries, the predominant diets are clearly different and highly related with human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate dietary nutrients between them. This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrients in China and compare those between Chinese and Mediterranean (Italian), Japanese and American diets. Dietary intakes of 2659 subjects in south-east China, Zhejiang province, from 2010 to 2012, were estimated by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The contribution of carbohydrate to total energy in Chinese subjects was lower than that in Japanese and American subjects, but higher than that in Italian subjects. However, the energy contribution from fat in Chinese subjects was higher than that in Japanese and American subjects, and similar to that in Italian subjects. Moreover, the Chinese diet had lower daily intakes of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C, compared with the Japanese, American and Italian diets. Nevertheless, intakes of sodium, iron, copper and vitamin E were higher among Chinese people relative to the people of other three countries. The present study demonstrated that the structure of the Chinese diet has been shifting away from the traditional diet toward high-fat, low-carbohydrate and low-fiber diets, and nutrients intakes in Chinese people have been changing even worse than those in American people. PMID:26066014

  6. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Loper, Hillary B; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick; Steinle, Nanette

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as "flavor." It is well accepted that five taste qualities - sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami - can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  7. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards. PMID:25719784

  8. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  9. An Examination of Sex Differences in Relation to the Eating Habits and Nutrient Intakes of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kin-Kit; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Ebbeck, Vicki; Woekel, Erica; Readdy, R. Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine sex differences in eating habits and nutrient intakes and explore whether eating habits mediate the effects of sex on nutrient intakes and whether sex moderates the effects of eating habits on nutrient intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of eating habits and food-intake frequency in a convenience sample of college…

  10. Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Table A22. Total meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%

  11. Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Total meat, poultry, and seafood Table A23. Total meat, poultry, and seafood: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90%

  12. Nutrient Intakes of Third Graders: Results from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Baseline Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Eszery, Mary Kay; Nicklas, Theresa; Montgomery, Deanna; Zive, Michelle; Evans, Marguerite; Snyder, Patricia; Nichaman, Milton; Kelder, Steven H.; Reed, Debra; Busch, Ellen; Mitchell, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on baseline intakes of 1874 third-grade children representing a subsample of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) cohort. Intakes were assessed using a single, food record-assisted, 24-hour recall. The sample is unique in that it is drawn from four states and includes students from various ethnic backgrounds. Nutrients of interest include total energy, sodium, dietary cholesterol, and percent of energy from total fat and saturated fat. At baseline, third-grade students were consuming above nationally recommended levels of energy from fat, saturated fat, and sodium. The CATCH findings show a mean energy intake of 2031 kcal with significant differences by sex. Significant differences by site were seen for percent of energy from total fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol. Children from Minnesota consumed the lowest proportion of energy from total fat and saturated fat while children from Texas had the highest proportion of energy from total fat and saturated fat. Intake of dietary cholesterol was lowest in Minnesota and highest in Louisiana. Nutrient differences by ethnic group were seen only for energy, with African Americans having the highest energy intake and Hispanics having the lowest energy intake. The number of meals consumed from school food service significantly influenced children’s nutrient, intake; children consuming two meals from school food service had significantly greater intakes of energy, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol compared to students consuming one or no meals from school food-service. The results are compared to other national nutritional surveys of children. PMID:18160975

  13. Does reduced peri-pubertal nutrient intake influence the ovarian reserve in beef heifers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing nutrient intake in beef heifers after weaning decreases production costs; however, the impact of reduced nutrient intake on the ovarian reserve has not been investigated in this species. In rodent models, caloric restriction increased the number of primordial follicles and decreased the num...

  14. Low Nutrient Intake Is an Essential Component of Frailty in Older Persons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedetta Bartali; Edward A. Frongillo; Stefania Bandinelli; Fulvio Lauretani; Richard D. Semba; Linda P. Fried; Luigi Ferrucci

    2006-01-01

    Background. Poor nutrient intake is conceptualized to be a component of frailty, but this hypothesis has been little investigated. We examined the association between low energy and nutrient intake and frailty. Methods. We used data from 802 persons aged 65 years or older participating to the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) study. Frailty was defined by

  15. The Relationship among 100% Juice Consumption, Nutrient Intake, and Weight of Children 2-11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent research findings have led to continued debate over the potential associations between 100% juice consumption (JC), nutrient intake,and weight in children. The objective is to investigate the associations between JC, nutrient intake, and weight in children. Children 2 to 11 years of a...

  16. Longitudinal Study of Nutrient and Food Intakes of White Preschool Children Aged 24 to 60 Months

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN D. SKINNER; BETTY RUTH CARRUTH; KELLY S. HOUCK; WENDY BOUNDS; MELISSA MORRIS; DANA R. COX; JAMES MORAN; FRANCES COLETTA

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine nutrient and food intakes of 72 white preschool children primarily from families of middle and upper socioeconomic status and to compare children's nutrient intakes with current recommendations.Design Six in-home interviews were conducted with mothers when children were 24 to 60 months old; at each time mothers provided 3 days of dietary information on the child. Children and

  17. Nutrient intakes of infants with atopic dermatitis and relationship with feeding type

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngshin; Lee, Youngmi; Park, Haeryun; Park, Sunyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants is increasing worldwide. However, the nutrient intake status of infants with atopic dermatitis has not been studied properly. This study was conducted to compare the nutrient intake status of infants in the weaning period with atopic dermatitis by feeding type. MATERIALS/METHODS Feeding types, nutrient intake status and growth status of 98 infants with atopic dermatitis from age 6 to 12 months were investigated. Feeding types were surveyed using questionnaires, and daily intakes were recorded by mothers using the 24-hour recall method. Growth and iron status were also measured. RESULTS The result showed that breastfed infants consumed less energy and 13 nutrients compared to formula-fed or mixed-fed infants (p < 0.001). The breastfed group showed a significantly lower intake rate to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans than the other two groups (p < 0.001). In addition, they consumed less than 75% of the recommended intakes in all nutrients, except for protein and vitamin A, and in particular, iron intake was very low, showing just 18.7% of the recommended intake. There was no significant difference in growth by feeding type, but breastfed infants showed a significantly higher rate of iron deficiency anemia (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Continuous management programs should be prepared for breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis, who are in a period when rapid growth takes place and proper nutrient intake is essential. PMID:25671069

  18. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  19. Nutrient intake and body weight in a large HIV cohort that includes women and minorities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGO N. WOODS; DONNA SPIEGELMAN; TAMSIN A. Knox; JANET E. FORRESTER; JOAN L. CONNORS; SARAH C. SKINNER; MARISELA Silva; JEAN H. KIM; SHERWOOD L. GORBACH

    2002-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the baseline nutrient intake of an HIV positive population that includes significant representation from women and minorities, and determine the relationship between state of disease and nutritional intake.Design Baseline data from a prospective study (Nutrition for Healthy Living).Subjects Individuals with HIV in the Boston and Rhode Island area (n=516); 25% were women and 30% were minorities.Methods Nutrient intakes

  20. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Doris; Blanchet, Rosanne; Lauzière, Julie; Vaissière, Émilie; Vézina, Carole; Ayotte, Pierre; Déry, Serge; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe traditional food (TF) consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217). TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months). Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively). In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05) higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits. PMID:22818718

  1. Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by comparison with biomarkers, nutrient and food intakes: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Krishna; Cruz Fernandez, Estefania; Fajó-Pascual, Marta; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; De Keyzer, Willem; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Moreno, Luis A; Beghin, Laurent; Breidenassel, Christina; Kersting, Mathilde; Albers, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Mouratidou, Theodora; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; De Vriendt, Tineke; Marcos, Ascensión; Bammann, Karin; Börnhorst, Claudia; Leclercq, Caterine; Manios, Yannis; Dallongeville, Jean; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Gwozdz, Wencke; Van Winckel, Myriam; Gottrand, Frédéric; Sjöström, Michael; Díaz, Ligia E; Geelen, Anouk; Hallström, Lena; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Denes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2013-06-01

    Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood. PMID:23110799

  2. Growth and Nutrient Intakes of Human Milk-Fed Preterm Infants Provided With Extra Energy and Nutrients After Hospital Discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. O'Connor; Sobia Khan; Karen Weishuhn; Jennifer Vaughan; Douglas M. Campbell; Elizabeth Asztalos; Mark Feldman; Carol Westall; Hilary Whyte

    OBJECTIVES.The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether mixing a multi- nutrient fortifier to approximately one half of the human milk fed each day for a finite period after discharge improves the nutrient intake and growth of predomi- nantly human milk-fed low birth weight infants. We also assessed the impact of this intervention on the exclusivity of human

  3. Food consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and drug use in a non-institutionalized elderly population 

    E-print Network

    Gorham, Michele Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, NUTRIENT INTAKE, AND DRUG USE IN A NON-INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION A Thesis by MICHELE KATHLEEN GORHAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Nutrition FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, NUTRIENT INTAKE, AND DRUG USE IN A NON-INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY POPULATION A Thesis by MICHELE KATHLEEN GORHAM Approved as to style...

  4. The relationship between psychological stress and nutrient intake in free-living independent older Americans

    E-print Network

    Walker, Juliann Marie

    1992-01-01

    and nutrient intake for independent and dependent gender groups. . . . . . . 31 Mean values (+ standard error of the mean) for anthropometric indexes of males and females categorized as independent or dependent 32 Pearson correlation coefficients between... worry and anthropometric indexes, weight gain/loss and amount lost/gain for independent and dependent gender groups. 33 Multiple regression analysis of nutrient intake as a function of amount of worry for independent and dependent gender groups. 34...

  5. The relationship between psychological stress and nutrient intake in free-living independent older Americans 

    E-print Network

    Walker, Juliann Marie

    1992-01-01

    and nutrient intake for independent and dependent gender groups. . . . . . . 31 Mean values (+ standard error of the mean) for anthropometric indexes of males and females categorized as independent or dependent 32 Pearson correlation coefficients between... worry and anthropometric indexes, weight gain/loss and amount lost/gain for independent and dependent gender groups. 33 Multiple regression analysis of nutrient intake as a function of amount of worry for independent and dependent gender groups. 34...

  6. Dietary pattern, energy and nutrient intake in patients with oro-facial discomfort complaints.

    PubMed

    Yontchev, E; Sandström, B; Carlsson, G E

    1989-07-01

    In ninety-six patients with oro-facial and general complaints, which the patients assumed were caused by galvanic currents and/or metallic restorations, the recording and analysis of dietary pattern, energy and nutrient intake were performed. The records, in household measures, of the intake of food and beverages during 7 consecutive days according to a written instruction were collected. Sixty-eight out of the ninety-six records were sufficiently complete for calculation of nutrient intake. The remaining twenty-eight could only be used partially in the analyses. Most of the patients had a varied food intake of all the food groups during the 7-day period. The range was wide, however, and a few patients had relatively low intake of essential nutrients. It was not possible to find any correlation between oro-facial discomfort complaints and intake of any single nutrient that could indicate a cause-effect relationship. No correlation between diet pattern, energy and essential nutrients, and the measured electrode potentials of the fillings and constructions could be proved. Nor could the hypothesis that beverage intake might influence the electrode potentials and increase or aggravate the oro-facial complaints be verified. PMID:2677282

  7. Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

  8. It is well established that dietary restriction, which involves limiting nutrient intake below

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    with previous observations on the mechanisms of dietary-restriction- induced longevity and tumour suppressionIt is well established that dietary restriction, which involves limiting nutrient intake below lifespan, but also youthfulness. Indeed, in both rodents and humans, limiting caloric intake delays many

  9. Relationship between nutrient intake, growth and body composition of the nursing foal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /d and protein did not vary (600 g/dl. Energy and nitrogen intakes did not depend on the source of energy and protein retention in vivo on the other. Material and methods. Animals and experimenial diets. &horbarRelationship between nutrient intake, growth and body composition of the nursing foal M. DOREAU

  10. Daily nutrient intake represents a modifiable determinant of nutritional status in chronic haemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Bellizzi; Biagio R. Di Iorio; Vincenzo Terracciano; Roberto Minutolo; Carmela Iodice; Luca De Nicola; Giuseppe Conte

    2003-01-01

    Background. In maintenance haemodialysis patients, daily food intake is changeable; however, its relation- ship with nutritional status is unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the isolated, long-term effect of daily nutrient intake on nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We performed a prospective 1-year con- trolled study in 27 chronic haemodialysis patients, without recognized risk factors for malnutrition. Each day

  11. Nutrient intake from thickened beverages and patient-specific implications for care.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Amanda; Robbins, JoAnne; Hind, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, affects more than 15 million Americans and can result in adverse and potentially fatal consequences, including poor quality of life, depression, dehydration, malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and airway obstruction. Although many treatment options are available, provision of thickened liquids is a common intervention for achieving slower, more controlled bolus manipulation and propulsion. To meet this therapeutic demand, commercially available products containing starch and/or gum-based components have been developed for use by patients and institutions. The nutrient content of thickened products has been neglected, although dysphagic patients are often at significant nutrition risk. Thus, there are no clinical guidelines for selection of thickened products based on patient characteristics. To consider whether such guidelines are warranted, it is necessary to quantify nutrition differences among common thickened beverages. An analysis was conducted to quantify energy, carbohydrate, and sodium provided through daily consumption of thickened beverages. To determine the relevance of these nutrition contributions in the context of total dietary intake, we compared values with dietary recommended intakes. This analysis revealed that there are substantial disparities in the nutrient content of thickened beverages. These differences suggest that product selection can be optimized based on patient-specific characteristics such as weight status and presence of comorbidities. Future research focusing on the effect of this strategy on patient outcomes will facilitate the development of evidence-based recommendations to elevate the standard of care for this population. PMID:25547337

  12. Total calcium intake and colorectal adenoma in young women

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Jennifer; Cho, Eunyoung; Orav, Endel J.; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Total calcium intake appears to reduce occurrence of colorectal adenoma; however, the dose necessary for prevention in young women is unclear. We examined fine categories of calcium intake in relation to occurrence of first colorectal adenoma in a cohort of mostly premenopausal (88%) women aged 26-60 at time of endoscopy. Design We conducted an analysis among 41,403 participants in the Nurses'Health Study II and assessed intakes of calcium prior to endoscopy through participants'responses to biannual questionnaires. Results Between 1991-2007, we documented 2,273 colorectal adenoma cases. There was a significant trend across categories of calcium intakes with lowest intakes suggestive of higher occurrence of adenoma (p=0.03) and those in the distal colon (p=0.03) and rectum (p=0.04). Compared with 1001-1250 mg/day of calcium intake, <=500 mg/day was suggestive of a modest increase in occurrence of adenoma (multivariable RR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.90-1.61); there were also suggestions of an increased risk with >500-<=700 mg/day of calcium. The association between <=500 mg/day of calcium intake and adenoma was stronger for multiple (RR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.38, 3.72), large (>=1cm) (RR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.21), and high risk adenoma (>=1cm or mention of villous histology/high grade dysplasia) (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.72). No differences in associations were noted between jointly categorized calcium and phosphorus or magnesium intakes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that low intakes of calcium, <500 and possibly 500-700 mg/day, in younger women are associated with an increased risk of multiple and advanced colorectal adenoma. PMID:24562904

  13. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  14. Relationship of nutrient intakes and bone mineral density of elderly women in Daegu, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ja; Park, Eun-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Ju

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nutrient intake and bone mineral density (BMD) of elderly women in Daegu, Korea. In this study, the bone mineral densities of 101 elderly women in Daegu were measured, and their nutrient intake, dietary habits, and maternal factors were determined through a survey. The subjects were divided into the normal group, the osteopenia group, and osteoporosis group to find out if there is a correlation between bone mineral density and maternal factors, dietary habits, and nutrient intake through their T-scores, analyzed according to the standards of WHO. Classification by T-scores of the participants were the normal group 25.7%, the osteopenia group 39.6%, the osteoporosis group 34.7%. Menopause age of the osteoporosis group was lower, postmenopausal period was longer, and last delivery age was significantly higher than the normal group (p<0.05). Osteoporosis group had a lower percentage of 'everyday' fruit and vegetable intakes and higher percentage of 'never' dairy intake than of the normal group. Vitamin A, vitamin B(1), and vitamin B(2) intakes of participants in the osteoporosis group were lower than those in the normal group (p<0.05). In conclusion, nutritional education is necessary to encourage high intake of milk and vegetables and fruits along with calcium, vitamin A, B(1), and B(1) intakes and low intake of sodium for the prevention of elderly women's osteoporosis. PMID:20368958

  15. Dietary Intake of Selected Nutrients Affects Bacterial Vaginosis in Women123

    PubMed Central

    Neggers, Yasmin H.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Andrews, William W.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Yu, Kai-fun; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition of altered vaginal flora, is associated with various adverse reproductive health outcomes. We evaluated the association between diet and the presence of BV in a subset of 1521 women (86% African-American) from a larger study of vaginal flora. Participants completed the Block Food Questionnaire and clinical assessments and self-report measures of sexual and hygiene behavior. A total of 42% of the women were classified as having BV (Nugent score ?7). Severe BV (Nugent score ?9 and vaginal pH ?5) was present in 14.9% of the women. BV was associated [adjusted OR (AOR)] with increased dietary fat (1.5, 1.1–2.4) after adjusting for other energy nutrients and behavioral and demographic covariates. Severe BV was associated with total fat (2.3, 1.3–4.3), saturated fat (2.1, 1.2–3.9), and monounsaturated fat (2.2, 1.2–4.1). Energy intake was only marginally associated (P = 0.05) with BV (1.4, 1.0–1.8). There were significant inverse associations between severe BV and intakes of folate (0.4, 0.2–0.8), vitamin E (0.4, 0.2–0.8), and calcium (0.4, 0.3–0.7). We conclude that increased dietary fat intake is associated with increased risk of BV and severe BV, whereas increased intake of folate, vitamin A, and calcium may decrease the risk of severe BV. PMID:17709453

  16. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition. PMID:24741404

  17. Caloric and nutrient intake in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with extended-release methylphenidate: analysis of a cross-sectional nutrition survey

    PubMed Central

    Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study calorie and nutrients intake in a group of patients diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under treatment with extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-ER), and to analyse the need to design nutrition intervention strategies. Design Observational (case-control). Setting Navarra Hospital Complex, Pamplona, Spain. Participants A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ADHD under treatment with MPH-ER and 100 healthy children (control group). Main outcome measures A nutrition survey was carried out (food intake registration of 3 consecutive school days). Calorie and nutrient intake, as well as nutrition status, were evaluated and compared in both groups. Results Nutritional status in ADHD group was significantly lower (p?intake in mid-morning snack, lunch and afternoon snack was significantly higher (p?intake in supper was significantly higher (p?Total calorie intake, as well as protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, selenium and phosphorous, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate intake, in control group was significantly higher than in ADHD group. Conclusions The daily calorie and nutrients intake in patients under treatment with MPH-ER is, generally, lower than in healthy population of similar age. The need to impart programmes of nutrition education simultaneously with multimodal treatment in order to avoid the nutrition consequences of treatment with MPH should be considered. PMID:25057372

  18. Nutrient Intake in Italian Infants and Toddlers from North and South Italy: The Nutrintake 636 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cassatella, Cristina; Morelli, Ambra; Cucugliato, Maria Cristina; Catinello, Giuseppina; del Balzo, Valeria; Guidarelli, Lucia; Agostoni, Carlo; Mameli, Chiara; Troiano, Ersilia; Bedogni, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the intake of energy, macronutrients, fiber, sodium and iron and the anthropometric status of infants and toddlers living in North (Milano) and South Italy (Catania). Nutrient intake was evaluated using a 7-day weighed food record. Out of 400 planned children aged 6 to 36 months, 390 (98%) were recruited, 189 in Milano and 201 in Catania. The mean (standard deviation) age was 17 (9) months in Milano and 17 (10) months in Catania. Anthropometry, energy intake and macronutrient intake were similar in Milano and Catania. However, iron intake was 27% lower and fiber intake 16% higher in Milano than in Catania. Despite normal anthropometry and energy intake, in the pooled sample there was a high intake of proteins, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats and sodium, and a low intake of iron and fiber compared to Italian reference values. This is the first study to report the macro- and micro-nutrient intake of children aged <12 months using the 7-day weighed food record and one of the very few studies that have employed such reference method in children from the general population. PMID:25111122

  19. Comparison of nutrient intake by sleep status in selected adults in Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Khyrunnisa

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia has become a major public health issue in recent times. Although quality of sleep is affected by environmental, psychophysiological, and pharmacological factors, diet and nutrient intake also contribute to sleep problems. This study investigated the association between nutrient intake and co-morbid symptoms associated with sleep status among selected adults. Subjects in this study included 87 men and women aged 21-45 years. Presence of insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Screening Questionnaire, and dietary intake was measured over three consecutive days by dietary survey. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and Chi-Square tests were performed to compute and interpret the data. Approximately 60% of the participants were insomniacs. People with insomnia consumed significantly lesser quantities of nutrients as compared to normal sleepers. Differences in intakes of energy, carbohydrates, folic acid, and B12 were highly significant (P < 0.002). Further, intakes of protein, fat, and thiamine were significantly different (P < 0.021) between insomniacs and normal sleepers. The nutrient intake pattern of the insomniacs with co-morbid symptoms was quite different from that of the normal sleepers. Based on these results, it is probable that there is an association between nutrition deficiency, co-morbid symptoms, and sleep status. More studies are required to confirm these results. PMID:21779527

  20. Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

  1. Impact of lifestyle factors and nutrients intake on occurrence of gastrointestinal cancer in Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Olfa; Chaaben, Arij Ben; Mezlini, Amel; Moussa, Amel; Omrane, Ines; Jilson, Irene; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Chabchoub, Soufia

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to show the relationship between lifestyle and risk of colorectal and gastric cancers in Tunisian population. The food frequency survey method was used to obtain information about the dietary intake and way of life. Nutrients intake was calculated according to the food composition database. According to our results, the consumption of vegetables, fruits, fish, as well as coffee seems to be protective against digestive cancer, while the consumption of citrus and olive oil is protective against gastric cancer. Tobacco, alcohol, and tea represent a risk against gastrointestinal cancer. Highly educated people are more conscious of the crucial role of prevention. In addition, nutrients were significantly associated with colorectal and gastric cancer. The findings suggest that lifestyle is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Moreover, higher intake of nutrients from foods was observed more in cases with colorectal and gastric cancer than controls. PMID:24615521

  2. Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey.

    PubMed

    Thane, C.W.; Bates, C.J.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS: Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS: Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'. They consumed higher proportions of milk and milk products, although this was significant only in older children (P = 0.007), owing to high consumption by the high proportion of Asian children. In vegetarians, energy intakes tended to be lower in both age groups. Percentage energy from protein and fat were lower, while that from carbohydrate was higher compared with omnivores. Cholesterol intakes were lower, significantly so for younger children (P < 0.001). Intakes of micronutrients were either higher (vitamins C and E, potassium) or lower (niacin and sodium) in younger vegetarians compared with omnivores. Energy-adjusted intakes of iron and zinc did not differ significantly from those of omnivores, although both intakes were low in many children (6-20% < LRNI), particularly in the younger group. Haematological and biochemical nutrient status indices showed few differences. Serum ferritin was lower in vegetarians, significantly so in younger children (P = 0.002). Antioxidant vitamin (A, C and E) status tended to be higher in vegetarians, while vitamin B12 intakes and status were more than adequate. Apart from poorer vitamin D intake and status in older Asian vegetarians, very few ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intakes and status were generally adequate in preschool children who did not eat meat. Although serum ferritin levels were inferior (particularly in vegetarians under 3 years old), the lower intakes of fat, cholesterol and sodium, and higher antioxidant vitamin intakes and status indices were potentially beneficial. Given a balanced diet, adequate nutrient intakes and status can be maintained without consuming meat. PMID:12383122

  3. Diet and Nutrient Intakes and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Connecticut Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tongzhang Zheng; Theodore R. Holford; Brian Leaderer; Yawei Zhang; Shelia Hoar Zahm; Stuart Flynn; Giovanni Tallini; Bing Zhang; Kaiyong Zhou; Patricia H. Owens; Qing Lan; Nathaniel Rothman; Peter Boyle

    A population-based case-control study (601 cases and 717 controls) was conducted in 1995-2001 among Connecticut women to evaluate the relation between diet and nutrient intakes and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). When the highest quartile of intake was compared with the lowest, the authors found an increased risk of NHL associated with animal protein (odds ratio = 1.7, 95%

  4. Nutrient intakes during diets including unkilned and large amounts of oats in celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T A Kemppainen; M T Heikkinen; M K Ristikankare; V-M Kosma; R J Julkunen

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:We have shown earlier that consumption of moderate amount of oats improve intakes of vitamin B1, fiber, magnesium and iron in celiac patients using gluten-free diet (GFD). The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of high amount of both kilned and unkilned oats on food and nutrient intakes in celiac patients in remission. Kilning as an industrial

  5. Nutrient intake of steers in a continuous and a rotational grazing system 

    E-print Network

    McKown, Charles David

    1987-01-01

    (FOM) for esophageal fistulated and intaot steers from January 1984 to August 1984. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 2 Mean nutrient intake values for organic matter intake expressed as a percent of body weight (BWI), kg... of Texas . 38 Average steer weights (kg) and number of steers allocated to eaoh treatment by trial for esophageal fistulated steers during trials 1-4 and ior fistulated and intact steers during trials 5-8 on the Texas Experimental Ranch...

  6. Systematic review of the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the independent elderly.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Substantial number of elderly people suffer from poor mastication, which is considered to have a detrimental effect on their dietary habits. However, the association between mastication and diet is far from conclusive. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the association of mastication with food and nutrient intake in the community dwelling elderly. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scirus databases to obtain information on the epidemiological studies in this research area. The included publications were analyzed for study design, main conclusions, and strength of evidence. A comprehensive quality assessment of all the included studies (28 cross-sectional and 7 intervention studies) was performed. In 22 of the 28 cross-sectional studies, elderly persons with better mastication and dentition reported significantly higher consumption of foods and intake of some nutrients than those with poorer oral health; however, the remaining studies showed no such differences. Five of the 7 intervention studies with an intervention involving the provision of new prostheses did not show significant improvement in food and/or nutrient intake. These discrepant findings suggest that masticatory ability explains only part of the variance in food and nutrient intake of the elderly. Two intervention studies with the combination of prosthetic treatment and dietary intervention produced changes in intake of foods such as fruits and vegetables. PMID:25179444

  7. Influence of contrasting Prosopis/Acacia communities on diet selection and nutrient intake of steers

    E-print Network

    Hanson, David Mark

    1987-01-01

    Copita Research Area, Alice, Texas, January 1906. LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Location of tho La Copita Research Area, Jim We)Is County, in relation to the southern most vegetational areas of Texas. 10 Generalized nonlinear model Y=(C-2)e ( p )+2..., (Tp&T), used to regress residual mass variables againt nutrient intake attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 General ized nonl incr model Y=(C-2)e ( p )+2, (Tp&T), used to regress grazing pressure variables against nutrient...

  8. Food and nutrient intakes and K?ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Vioque, Jesús; López, Tomàs; Mendez, Michelle A; Pumarega, José; Malats, Núria; Crous?Bou, Marta; Ngo, Joy; Rifà, Juli; Carrato, Alfredo; Guarner, Luisa; Corominas, Josep M; Real, Francisco X

    2007-01-01

    Background No studies have investigated the relation between K?ras mutations and dietary factors in exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC), and fewer than 10 studies have done so in other neoplasms. Patients and Methods Incident cases of EPC were prospectively identified, and interviewed face?to?face during hospital admission. Food and nutrient intakes were measured with a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compare EPC cases (n?=?107) with and without K?ras mutations (case?case study). Results K?ras mutations were more common among daily consumers of milk and other dairy products than among non?daily consumers: the odds ratio adjusted by total energy, age, sex, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption (ORa) was 5.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 24.5, p?=?0.040). For all dairy products, including butter, the ORa for the medium and upper tertiles of intake were 5.4 and 11.6, respectively (p for trend?=?0.023). The ORa for regular coffee drinkers further adjusted by dairy consumption was 4.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 20.7, p?=?0.043). K?ras mutated cases reported a lower intake of vitamin E (ORa?=?0.2, p for trend?=?0.036), polyunsaturated fats and omega 3 fatty acids (ORa?=?0.2; p for trend <0.03). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that in EPC exposure to specific dietary components or contaminants may influence the occurrence or persistence of K?ras mutations. PMID:17568059

  9. Optimal foraging when regulating intake of multiple nutrients

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    littoralis. Ó 2004 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights of Natural History, University of Oxford ySchool of Animal and Microbial Sciences, University of Reading z evidence that, rather than maximizing energy intake subject to constraints, many animals attempt

  10. Examining differences in nutrient intake and dietary quality on weekdays versus weekend days in Canada.

    PubMed

    Yang, Penny H W; Black, Jennifer L; Barr, Susan I; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2014-12-01

    This study examined differences in dietary intake on weekdays versus weekends in Canada (n = 34?402) and found that energy intake was 62 ± 23 kcal higher, and dietary quality was slightly lower on weekends (p < 0.05). After energy adjustment, Canadians consumed 66% more alcohol, 10% more cholesterol, and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrates, protein, and most micronutrients (ranging from 2.0%-6.9% lower) on weekends. Findings suggest that Canadians consume a slightly less favourable nutrient profile and poorer dietary quality on weekends. PMID:25350458

  11. Measuring Food Intake and Nutrient Absorption in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaro, Rafael L; Valentine, Elizabeth R; Carretero, Maria; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Broaddus, Caroline D; Solis, Gregory M; Williamson, James R; Petrascheck, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a powerful model to study the genetics of feeding, food-related behaviors, and metabolism. Despite the many advantages of C. elegans as a model organism, direct measurement of its bacterial food intake remains challenging. Here, we describe two complementary methods that measure the food intake of C. elegans. The first method is a microtiter plate-based bacterial clearing assay that measures food intake by quantifying the change in the optical density of bacteria over time. The second method, termed pulse feeding, measures the absorption of food by tracking de novo protein synthesis using a novel metabolic pulse-labeling strategy. Using the bacterial clearance assay, we compare the bacterial food intake of various C. elegans strains and show that long-lived eat mutants eat substantially more than previous estimates. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulse-feeding assay, we compare the assimilation of food for two C. elegans strains in response to serotonin. We show that serotonin-increased feeding leads to increased protein synthesis in a SER-7-dependent manner, including proteins known to promote aging. Protein content in the food has recently emerged as critical factor in determining how food composition affects aging and health. The pulse-feeding assay, by measuring de novo protein synthesis, represents an ideal method to unequivocally establish how the composition of food dictates protein synthesis. In combination, these two assays provide new and powerful tools for C. elegans research to investigate feeding and how food intake affects the proteome and thus the physiology and health of an organism. PMID:25903497

  12. Association between intake of nutrients and food groups and liking for fat (The Nutrinet-Santé Study).

    PubMed

    Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia

    2014-07-01

    Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24?h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables. PMID:24681104

  13. Nutrient intake and cataract extraction in women: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Hankinson; M. J. Stampfer; J. M. Seddon; G. A. Colditz; B. Rosner; F. E. Speizer; W. C. Willett

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the association between dietary intake of vitamins C and E, carotene, and riboflavin and cataract extraction in women. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study beginning in 1980 with eight years of follow up. SETTING--11 states of the United States. PARTICIPANTS--Female registered nurses who were 45 to 67 years of age. 50,828 women were included in 1980 and others were added

  14. The influence of cooking and fat trimming on the actual nutrient intake from meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gerber; M. R. L. Scheeder; C. Wenk

    2009-01-01

    The effects of cooking and trimming of visible fatty tissue on the content of fat, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins was studied in six meat cuts (beef rib-eye and brisket, pork neck steak and belly, veal chop and rolled breast) in order to improve the estimates of the actual nutrient intake from meat. Cooking decreased the absolute fat content by

  15. Maternal one-carbon nutrient intake and cancer risk in offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intake of one-carbon nutrients, particularly folate, vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and choline have been linked to the risk of cancers of the colon and breast in both human and animal studies. More recently, experimental and epidemiological data have emerged to suggest t...

  16. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  17. Cooking Schools Improve Nutrient Intake Patterns of People with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Halderson, Karen; Jackson, K'Dawn; Bock, Margaret Ann; Eastman, Wanda; Powell, Jennifer; Titone, Michelle; Marr, Carol; Wells, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cooking classes offered by the Cooperative Extension Service improved nutrient intake patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. Design: Quasi-experimental using pretest, posttest comparisons. Setting: Community locations including schools, churches, and senior centers. Participants: One hundred seventeen people with…

  18. Limitations of nutrient intake. The effect of stressors: trauma, sepsis and multiple organ failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    The response to injury includes a diminution in appetite, a decrease in nutrient intake, an acute mobilisation of endogenous energy stores (glucose and fat), but an impaired ability to use them. Lean tissue is broken down to its constituent amino acids, which provide precursors for the synthesis of glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis). Glucose is used as a source of

  19. Relationship between 100% juice consumption and nutrient intake and weight of adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the associations among 100% juice consumption, nutrient intake, and measures of weight in adolescents. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (n=3939) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 wa...

  20. Nutrient intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: Evidence from a large prospective cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia D. Morris; Sig-Linda Jacobson; Ravinder Anand; Marian G. Ewell; John C. Hauth; Luis B. Curet; Patrick M. Catalano; Baha M. Sibai; Richard J. Levine

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this analysis was to prospectively determine the effects of nutrient intakes on the incidences of preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension among women enrolled in the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention study. Study Design: This was a prospective observational cohort study of women in a randomized clinical trial that included women seeking prenatal care at university medical centers and

  1. Effect of feed intake and method of feeding and digestibility of nitrogen, amino acids and energy at the distal end of the small intestine and over the total tract in growing-finishing swine 

    E-print Network

    Haydon, Keith Dale

    1980-01-01

    UTILIZATION IN GROWING-FINISHING SWINE ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ 17 EFFECT OF FEED INTAKE ON APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AND ENERGY VALUES OF DIETS MEASURED AT THE TERMINAL ILEUM AND OVER THE TOTAL DIGESTIVE TRACT USI'NG CHROMIC OXIDE AS AN INDIGESTIBLE... REVIEW OF LITERATURE Nutrient utilization. The possible effects of altering daily feed intake and daily feeding frequency, or a combination of these factors, on utilization of dietary nutrients by the pig has not been thoroughly investigated. However...

  2. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8?kg?m?2) and 124 adults (age 57.4±7.0 years, BMI 31.2±5.0?kg?m?2) with no diabetes (ND) was undertaken using a 4-day semiweighed food diary. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were also measured. Results: While reported energy intake was similar in T2DM vs ND (1954 vs 2004?kcal per day, P=0.99), T2DM subjects consumed more total-fat (38.8% vs 35%, P?0.001), monounsaturated-fat (13.3% vs 12.2% P=0.004), polyunsaturated-fat (6.7% vs 5.9% P<0.001) and protein (18.6% vs 17.5%, P?0.01). Both groups exceeded saturated-fat recommendations (14.0% vs 13.8%). T2DM intakes of carbohydrate (39.5% vs 42.9%), non-milk sugar (10.4% vs 15.0%) and fibre (14.4 vs 18.9?g) were significantly lower (P<0.001). Dietary glycaemic load (GL) was also lower in T2DM (120.8 vs 129.2; P=0.02), despite a similar glycaemic index (59.7 vs 60.1; P=0.48). T2DM individuals reported consuming significantly more wholemeal/brown/wholegrain breads, eggs, oils, vegetables, meat/meat products, savoury snacks and soups/sauces and less white breads, breakfast cereals, cakes/buns, full-fat dairy, chocolate, fruit juices, oily fish and alcohol than ND controls. Conclusion: Adults with T2DM made different food choices to ND adults. This resulted in a high saturated-fat diet, with a higher total-fat, monounsaturated-fat, polyunsaturated-fat and protein content and a lower GL, carbohydrate, fibre and non-milk sugar content. Dietary education should emphasise and reinforce the importance of higher fibre, fruit, vegetable and wholegrain intake and the substitution of monounsaturated for saturated-fat sources, in energy balanced conditions. PMID:24492470

  3. Patterns of nutrientsintake at six months in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adequate complementary feeding is recognized as an important predictor of health later in life. The objective of this study was to describe the feeding practices and nutrientsintake, and their association with breastfeeding at six months of age, in a cohort of infants enrolled at birth in the maternity hospital of Trieste, Italy. Methods Out of 400 infants enrolled at birth, 268 (67%) had complete data gathered through a 24-hour feeding diary on three separate days at six months, and two questionnaires administered at birth and at six months. Data from feeding diaries were used to estimate nutrientsintakes using the Italian food composition database included in the software. To estimate the quantity of breastmilk, information was gathered on the frequency and length of breastfeeds. Results At six months, 70% of infants were breastfed and 94% were given complementary foods. The average daily caloric intake was higher in non-breastfed (723 Kcal) than in breastfed infants (547 Kcal, p?intakes of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. The mean intake of macronutrients was within recommended ranges in both groups, except for the higher protein intake in non-breastfed infants. These consumed significantly higher quantities of commercial baby foods than breastfed infants. Conclusions Contrary to what is recommended, 94% of infants were not exclusively breastfed and were given complementary foods at six months. The proportion of daily energy intake from complementary foods was around 50% higher than recommended and with significant differences between breastfed and non-breastfed infants, with possible consequences for future nutrition and health. PMID:24884789

  4. Body mass changes and nutrient intake of dinghy sailors while racing.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gary; Tan, Benedict

    2007-08-01

    Dinghy sailing is a physically challenging sport with competitors on water for several hours. Regulations and space in the boat limit the amount of food and fluid competitors can carry. Consequently, it is possible that the hydration and nutritional status of dinghy sailors may be compromised while racing. Despite this, the food and fluid intake of sailors while racing are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a group of club sailors while racing and compare this with current sports nutrition guidelines. Thirty-five sailors (9 females, 26 males) were monitored during a club regatta. Body mass changes were measured before and after racing, as were food and fluid intake. Results showed that most participants were in negative fluid balance after racing (males: mean -2.1%[95% confidence limits -1.7 to -2.5%]; females: -0.9%[0 to -1.8%]), most likely due to low voluntary fluid intake (males: 1215 ml [734 to 1695 ml]; females: 792 ml [468 to 1117 m]). Carbohydrate intake (males: 59 g [21 to 97 g]; females: 30 g [0 to 61 g]) was below recommendations for normal sports activity. Results revealed that the nutritional practices of club sailors do not comply with current sports nutrition guidelines. However, the performance implications of a compromise in nutrient intake remain to be investigated. Practical advice on methods of overcoming space limitations for the carriage of adequate fluid and food is offered. PMID:17613736

  5. Food Habits and Intake of Nutrients in Elderly Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lorefält; W. Ganowiak; U. Wissing; A.-K. Granérus; M. Unosson

    2006-01-01

    Background: Weight loss is reported frequently in patients with Parkinson´s disease also early during the disease. Objective: To investigate food habits and nutrient intake in elderly Parkinson´s disease patients compared with matched controls, as well as to compare PD patients with and without weight loss. Methods: Twenty-six elderly free-living patients with PD, and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls, were

  6. Dietary Intakes of Selected Nutrients and Food Groups and Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaitali Ghosh; Julie A. Baker; Kirsten B. Moysich; Ruqayyah Rivera; John R. Brasure; Susan E. McCann

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between intakes of selected dietary nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer in a hospital-based, case-control study including 239 cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 979 hospital patients with nonneoplastic diagnoses who completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1982 and 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95%

  7. Dietary Pattern and Nutrient Intake of Korean Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hui Song; Ahn, In Su; Byun, Yun Sun; Yang, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jin Hye; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by itching and eczema-like skin lesions, and its symptoms alleviate with age. Recently, the prevalence of AD has increased among adolescents and adults. The increasing prevalence of AD seems to be related to westernized lifestyles and dietary patterns. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary patterns and nutrient intake of patients with AD. Methods The study population consisted of 50 children with AD who visited the Department of Dermatology at Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea from May 2008 to May 2009. Physical condition and calorie intake were evaluated using the Eczema Area and Severity Index score and Food Record Questionnaire completed by the subjects, and the data were analyzed using the Nutritional Assessment Program Can-pro 3.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, 2005) program to determine the gap between the actual ingestion and average requirements of 3 major nutrients (i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), vitamins (i.e. A, B, C, and E), niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc in all subjects. Results The intake rate of proteins was 18.02% (recommended dietary allowance [RDA], 7%~20%), of carbohydrates was 67.7% (RDA, 55%~70%), and of lipids was 14.24% (RDA, 15%~30%). Thirty-one subjects (62%) showed deficiency of folic acid, and 21 subjects (42%), of iron supplements. Conclusion Essential nutrient intake tends to be lower in AD patients than in healthy subjects, and this low intake is closely related to the severity of AD. PMID:25324648

  8. Older Adults Who Use Vitamin\\/Mineral Supplements Differ from Nonusers in Nutrient Intake Adequacy and Dietary Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhonda S. Sebastian; Linda E. Cleveland; Joseph D. Goldman; Alanna J. Moshfegh

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveTo measure nutrient intake adequacy of vitamin\\/mineral supplement users and nonusers aged 51 years and older, determine the efficacy of supplement practices in compensating for dietary deficits, and identify predictors of supplement use.

  9. Intakes of most nutrients remain at acceptable levels during a weight management program using the food exchange system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA M BENEZRA; DAVID C NIEMAN; CATHY M NIEMAN; CHRIS MELBY; KIRK CURETON; DAN SCHMIDT; EDWARD T HOWLEY; CAROL COSTELLO; JAMES O HILL; JAMES R MAULT; HEALTHER ALEXANDER; DARBY J STEWART; KRIS OSTERBERG

    2001-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if the food exchange system allows subjects’ nutrient intake to remain at recommended levels during a weight-loss program.Design Subjects in an intervention were prescribed an energy-restriction diet and exercise program lasting 32 weeks, and nutrient intake was measured prestudy and after 12, 16, and 32 weeks.Subjects\\/setting Healthy but overweight and obese

  10. Whole grain intake and its association with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between whole grain consumption and the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some cancers. A recent analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (NDNS-RP) has shown lower intake of whole grain in the UK. It is important to understand whether the health benefits associated with whole grain intake are present at low levels of consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the association of whole grain intake with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health (anthropometric and blood measures) in the NDNS-RP 2008-11, a representative dietary survey of UK households. A 4-d diet diary was completed by 3073 individuals. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure levels, and blood and urine samples were collected after diary completion. Individual whole grain intake was calculated with consumers categorised into tertiles of intake. Higher intake of whole grain was associated with significantly decreased leucocyte counts. Significantly higher concentrations of C-reactive protein were seen in adults in the lowest tertile of whole grain intake. No associations with the remaining health markers were seen, after adjustments for sex and age. Over 70 % of this population did not consume the minimum recommend intake associated with disease risk reduction, which may explain small variation across health markers. Nutrient intakes in consumers compared with non-consumers were closer to dietary reference values, such as higher intakes of fibre, Mg and Fe, and lower intakes of Na, suggesting that higher intake of whole grain is associated with improved diet quality. PMID:25893512

  11. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food intake measures. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of five CLOCK single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) with food-intake and to explore the p...

  12. Types of food and nutrient intake in India: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Paramesh, Elizabeth Cherian; Paramesh, Haralappa; Loganes, Claudia; Ballali, Simonetta; Gafare, Claudia Elena; Verduci, Elvira; Gulati, Achal

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays India is undergoing an impressive economic growth accompanied by a very slow decline, almost stagnation, in malnutrition levels. In developing countries, studies on dietary patterns and their relationship with nutritional status are scarce. Over the years some nutritional studies have been performed to explore different types of food consumed in various Indian regions, among different social samples. The aim of the present paper is to review and describe trends in food and nutrition intake patterns in the different states of India. The review was carried out in PubMed, using the advanced research criteria: [food* OR ("meal pattern*") OR ("eating pattern*")] AND ("nutrient intake") AND India*. PubMed research gave back 84 results and out of these, 7 papers due to their focus on food intake and consumption levels in India have been included in this study. Food intake patterns showed that most of the Indians are vegetarians and that food items rich in micronutrients (pulses, other vegetables, fruits, nuts, oilseeds and animal foods) are generally consumed less frequently. Poor and monotonous cereals-based diet may promote inadequate nutrition intakes according to Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) standards. PMID:24928105

  13. Consumption of breakfast and the type of breakfast consumed are positively associated with nutrient intakes and adequacy of Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Barr, Susan I; DiFrancesco, Loretta; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between breakfast intake and nutrient adequacy [where inadequacy reflects prevalence of usual intakes below the estimated average requirement (EAR) and potential excess reflects the prevalence above the tolerable upper intake level (UL)]. This study examined associations among breakfast, nutrient intakes, and nutrient adequacy in Canadian adults. Respondents aged ?19 y in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2 (n = 19,913) were classified as breakfast nonconsumers (11%), ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) breakfast consumers (20%), or other breakfast consumers (69%). Nutrient intakes from food (24-h recall) and the prevalence of usual intakes below the EAR and above the UL from food alone and from food plus supplements were compared by breakfast group. Usual intake distributions were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method. Breakfast consumers, and to a greater extent RTEC breakfast consumers, had significantly higher intakes of fiber and several vitamins and minerals than breakfast nonconsumers. Compared with nonconsumers, RTEC and other breakfast consumers had significantly lower prevalences below the EARs for vitamin A and magnesium. The prevalences below the EARs of these nutrients and calcium, thiamin, vitamin D, and iron were significantly lower with RTEC breakfasts than with other breakfasts. Similar patterns were observed from food alone compared with food plus supplements. Breakfast consumption did not affect prevalence above the UL based on food sources, although based on food plus supplements, breakfast consumers had slightly higher proportions that were above the UL than nonconsumers for several nutrients. Breakfast, especially an RTEC breakfast, is associated with improved nutrient adequacy and does not meaningfully affect prevalence above the UL. PMID:23173176

  14. Food-group and nutrient-density intakes by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos123

    PubMed Central

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ginsberg, Mindy; Himes, John H; Liu, Kiang; Loria, Catherine M; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Rock, Cheryl L; Rodriguez, Brendaly; Gellman, Marc D; Van Horn, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early deaths in the United States. Objective: We estimated the distribution of usual intakes (of both food groups and nutrients) by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds by using National Cancer Institute methodology. Design: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study that recruited participants who were 18–74 y of age from 4 US cities in 2008–2011 (Miami, Bronx, Chicago, and San Diego). Participants who provided at least one 24-h dietary recall and completed a food propensity questionnaire (n = 13,285) were included in the analyses. Results were adjusted for age, sex, field center, weekend, sequencing, and typical amount of intake. Results: Overall, Cubans (n = 2128) had higher intakes of total energy, macronutrients (including all subtypes of fat), and alcohol than those of other groups. Mexicans (n = 5371) had higher intakes of vitamin C, calcium, and fiber. Lowest intakes of total energy, macronutrients, folate, iron, and calcium were reported by Dominicans (n = 1217), whereas Puerto Ricans (n = 2176) had lowest intakes of vitamin C and fiber. Food-group servings reflected nutrient intakes, with Cubans having higher intakes of refined grains, vegetables, red meat, and fats and Dominicans having higher intakes of fruit and poultry, whereas Puerto Ricans had lowest intakes of fruit and vegetables. Central and South Americans (n = 1468 and 925, respectively) were characterized by being second in their reported intakes of fruit and poultry and the highest in fish intake in comparison with other groups. Conclusion: Variations in diet noted in this study, with additional analysis, may help explain diet-related differences in health outcomes observed in Hispanics and Latinos. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060344. PMID:24760972

  15. Clinical issues regarding the use of total nutrient admixtures.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, D F

    1990-03-01

    The introduction of total nutrient admixtures (TNAs) has offered several clinical advantages. Substituting a portion of the daily dextrose calories with lipids may reduce the incidence of carbohydrate-associated complications (e.g., disturbances in glucose control and immune function). In addition, providing intravenous lipids continuously over 24 hours as a TNA appears to be better utilized by the liver and less likely to interfere with reticuloendothelial system function when compared with conventionally administered, discontinuous lipid infusions. If the peripheral vein is used as a route for parenteral nutrition, the addition of fat to the admixture provides the advantage of enhancing caloric density, while contributing significantly less tonicity than dextrose. Certain pharmaceutical and microbiological issues need to be considered to ensure the intravenous administration of a safe and homogenous dispersion. Attention to established guidelines provided by the lipid manufacturers, as well as careful extrapolation of TNA stability data, will avert the dangers associated with infusion of coalesced lipid particles. This article reviews the evidence supporting the use of lipids as daily caloric sources, with particular emphasis on the role of the total nutrient admixtures as the primary vehicle for administration. PMID:2107641

  16. Effect of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) silage on intake and nutrient digestibility in cattle fed rice straw and cottonseed cake.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  17. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  18. Basic data on food intake, nutrient digestibility and energy requirements of lorikeets.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Häbich, A-C; Bürkle, M; Kamphues, J

    2007-06-01

    Although knowledge of the nutrient requirements of pet birds has increased a lot over the last few years, basic data on food and water intake and the energy requirements of nectarivorous species, such as lorikeets, are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to try to generate some of these data for lorikeets kept at maintenance. Determination of the daily maintenance energy requirement enables calculation of the daily ration and thus, the appropriate nutrient concentrations in order to maintain body weight. Investigations were carried out with six Goldie's lorikeets (GL; Trichoglossus goldiei: 40-50 g BW; 1-4 years) and six rainbow lorikeets (RL; Trichoglossus haematodus haematodus: 120-140 g BW; 1-12 years). Three of the most commonly used diets/foods (commercial 'lory soup'/apples/pollen: crude ash - 52.9/17.8/18.8; crude protein - 178/32.5/191; crude fat - 52.8/0.89/73.1; crude fibre - 17.9/40.5/30.4; starch - 139/not detectable/127; sugar - 522/859/418 g/kg DM; ME - 13.9/14.6/10.9 MJ/kg DM) were individually offered ad libitum. The measured dry matter (DM) intake (g/100 g BW) corresponded well to the values reported for granivorous bird species of similar body mass. Both lorikeet species achieved an apparent digestibility of organic matter of more than 90% for apples, approximately 82% for 'lory soup' and approximately 55% for pollen. The water content of the food affected the DM content of the excreta; 8% when fed 'lory soup', 2% for apples and approximately 30% when fed pollen. Regression analysis of body weight change relative to energy intake demonstrated constant body mass (assuming no change in body composition) when the daily energy intakes were 860 (GL) or 650 (RL) kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). PMID:17516953

  19. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Ann M.; Wold, A. Christine; Joshi, Nandan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI), nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET) survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ?8 servings). Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance. PMID:23094158

  20. Comparison of Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems for the assessment of nutrient intake before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Marques da Silva, Mariane; Sala, Priscila Campos; Cardinelli, Camila Siqueira; Torrinhas, Raquel Suzana; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of nutritional intake before and after bariatric surgery assists in identifying eating disorders, nutritional deficiencies and weight loss/maintenance. The 7-day record is the gold standard for such an assessment and is interpreted using specialized software. This study sought to compare the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems in assessing nutrient intake in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. METHODS: Nutritional intake was assessed in 10 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus before and 3 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The 7-day record was used to assess food intake and then, the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® software systems were used to calculate calorie, macronutrient and micronutrient intake based on validated food chemical composition databases. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01251016. RESULTS: During the preoperative period, deficits in the ingestion of total fiber and 15 out of 22 estimated micronutrients were observed when using the Virtual Nutri Plus®, compared to deficiencies in total fiber and 4 micronutrients when using the Dietpro 5i®. During the postoperative period, both the Virtual Nutri Plus® and Dietpro 5i® systems detected deficits in the ingestion of total fiber, carbohydrates and 19 micronutrients, but only the Virtual Nutri Plus® detected deficits in complex B vitamins (except B12) and minerals. CONCLUSION: Virtual Nutri Plus® was more sensitive than Dietpro 5i® for the identification of deficits in nutrient intake in obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. PMID:25518027

  1. Nutrient and nontraditional food intakes by Zambian children in a controlled feeding trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Kaliwile, Chisela; Arscott, Sara A.; Gannon, Bryan; Masi, Cassim; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many programs aim to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Biofortification is an approach to improve provitamin A carotenoid concentrations of staple crops in some developing countries. In rural Zambia, maize accounts for the majority of energy intake. Provitamin A–biofortified (orange) maize has been released in Zambia. Objective This study quantified food intake of Zambian children from records collected in a feeding trial in 2012 in order to compare adoption of orange maize and a new vegetable (green beans) with white maize and traditional foods. Methods One hundred thirty-six children with a mean age of 71.5 ± 6.9 months were fed three meals a day for 6 days a week for 15 weeks at four feeding centers. Breakfast consisted of maize porridge, and lunch and dinner were stiff porridge (nshima) with various side dishes (relishes). There were three treatment groups, which received orange maize and placebo oil, white maize and placebo oil, or white maize and a daily vitamin A supplement. Food was weighed before and after consumption. Nutritionists were trained to interview the children’s caregivers about the previous day’s intake using dietary recalls. Nine dietary recalls for each child were recorded and analyzed. Results Total food intake did not differ among the groups (p = .31) and energy intakes on Sundays (<880 kcal) were below recommendations. Nshima intake was lower in the orange-maize group (p = .008), largely due to a genotype effect. Intakes of relish, green bean, and porridge did not differ among the groups (p > .19). Dietary recalls revealed that children living in sites closer to the main road consumed more on Sundays than children living about 8 km from the main road, but less in the evenings when children were off site. Conclusions The intakes of energy of these Zambian children suggest inadequacy. Implementation and adoption of new and biofortified foods is possible with promotion. PMID:24791580

  2. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  3. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species. PMID:26154509

  4. Restricted nutrient intake does not alter serum-mediated measures of implant response in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During nutritional stress, reduced intake may reduce the efficacy of anabolic implants. This study was conducted to evaluate basic cellular responses to a growth promotant implant at two intake levels. Methods Sixteen crossbred steers (293?±?19.3 kg) were used to evaluate the impact of anabolic implants in either an adequate or a restricted nutritional state. Steers were trained to individual Calan gates, and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2?×?2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of: presence or absence of an anabolic growth implant (Revalor-XS, 200 mg TBA and 40 mg estradiol; IMPLANT or CONTROL) and a moderate energy, pelleted, starting cattle diet fed at either 2.0?×?or 1.0?×?maintenance energy (NEM) requirements (HIGH or LOW). Serum (d 0, 14, and 28) was used for application to bovine muscle satellite cells. After treatment with the serum (20% of total media) from the trial cattle, the satellite cells were incubated for 72 h. Protein abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC), phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (phospho-ERK), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR) were analyzed to determine the effects of implant, intake, and their interaction (applied via the serum). Results Intake had no effect on MHC (P =?0.85) but IMPLANT increased (P intake status, and the interaction had no effect on the abundance of phospho-ERK (P???0.23). Implanting increased phospho-mTOR (P intake or intake?×?implant. Conclusions The nearly complete lack of interaction between implant and nutritional status indicates that the signaling molecules measured herein respond to implants and nutritional status independently. Furthermore, results suggest that the muscle hypertrophic effects of anabolic implants may not be mediated by circulating IGF-1. PMID:24245980

  5. Dietary assessment in Whitehall II: The influence of reporting bias on apparent socioeconomic variation in nutrient intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DD Stallone; EJ Brunner; SA Bingham; MG Marmot

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess socio-economic differences in nutrient intake, giving particular consideration to the influence of reporting bias.Design: Cross-sectional study. Three methods of data analysis (inclusion of all subjects, exclusion of low energy reporters, and regression-based energy adjustment) were evaluated against biomarkers of fatty acid and antioxidant intakes.Setting: London-based Civil Servants.Subjects: Age and employment grade stratified random sub-sample of 459 men

  6. Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria: I. Nutrient intake and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Shabayek, Magda M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of nutrient intake and food consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics and dietary data were determined in a sample of 231 disabled children chosen randomly from five specialized day care centers. Results showed that the age of the sample ranged from less than 7 to 24 years with a mean age of 12.6 +/- 4.7 years. Mental retardation represents the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and then Autism Male subjects were found to consume higher nutrients than females at all ages except age under seven years. The intake of both gender was less than the recommended for energy, calcium, vitamin A, niacin and zinc. While the intake of protein and vitamin C was more than the RDA Iron intake was below the recommended for females at all ages and within the acceptable level for male. The results also showed that there is a relationship between nutrient intake and disability type. Down syndrome children were found to consume more nutrients than mentally retarded and autistic subjects. PMID:16918148

  7. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  8. Dietary intake and coronary heart disease: A variety of nutrients and phytochemicals are important

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Tucker

    2004-01-01

    Opinion statement  Until quite recently, the dietary focus on prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been almost exclusively centered\\u000a on reducing intake of cholesterol, total fat, and saturated fat. The food industry responded vigorously with low-fat products,\\u000a some of which are helpful, particularly low-fat dairy products, but others that are less so, due to increases in refined carbohydrate\\u000a content. Recent

  9. Whole-grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The consumption of whole grains and its association with nutrient intake has not been assessed in a recent nationally representative population. The objective was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains, using the new whole-grain definition, with diet quality and nutrient intake in...

  10. A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship Between Intake of Nutrients and Body Weight with Milk Volume and Milk Protein Yield in Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Hristov; W. J. Price; B. Shafii

    2005-01-01

    Previouslyobservedstrongrelationshipsbetweendry matter (DM) intake and milk yield in dairy cows were the basis for this meta-analysis aimed to determine the influence of intake of specific dietary nutrients on milk yield and milk protein yield in Holstein dairy cows. Diets (563) from feeding trials published in the Journal of Dairy Science were evaluated for nutrient composi- tion using 2 diet evaluation

  11. Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annet J. C. Roodenburg; Anke Schlatmann; Mariska Dötsch-Klerk; Robert Daamen; Jie Dong; Marta Guarro; Margarita Stergiou; Nazeeia Sayed; Eunice Ronoh; Léon Jansen; Jacob C. Seidell; Daniel Tomé

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionNutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient

  12. Both Comprehensive and Brief Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaires Satisfactorily Rank Nutrient Intakes in Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Honda, Satoru; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2012-01-01

    Background A comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ: 150-item semi-quantitative questionnaire) and a brief self-administered DHQ (BDHQ: 58-item fixed-portion–type questionnaire) were developed for assessing Japanese diets. We compared the relative validity of nutrient intake derived from DHQ with that from the BDHQ, using semi-weighed 16-day dietary records (DRs) as reference. Methods Ninety-two Japanese women aged 31 to 69 years and 92 Japanese men aged 32 to 76 years completed a 4-nonconsecutive-day DR, a DHQ, and a BDHQ 4 times each (once per season) in 3 areas of Japan (Osaka, Nagano, and Tottori). Results No significant differences were seen in estimates of energy-adjusted intakes of 42 selected nutrients (based on the residual method) between the 16-day DRs and the first DHQ (DHQ1) or between the DR and the first BDHQ (BDHQ1) for 18 (43%) and 14 (33%) nutrients, respectively, among women and for 4 (10%) and 21 (50%) nutrients among men. The median (interquartile range) Pearson correlation coefficients with the DR for energy-adjusted intakes of the 42 nutrients were 0.57 (0.50 to 0.64) for the DHQ1 and 0.54 (0.45 to 0.61) for the BDHQ1 in women; in men, the respective values were 0.50 (0.42 to 0.59) and 0.56 (0.41 to 0.63). Similar results were observed for the means of the 4 DHQs and BDHQs. Conclusions The DHQ and BDHQ had satisfactory ranking ability for the energy-adjusted intakes of many nutrients among the present Japanese population, although these instruments were satisfactory in estimating mean values for only a small number of nutrients. PMID:22343326

  13. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  14. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Ukanwoko; J. A. Ibeawuchi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone

  15. Nutrient Intakes from Restaurants: 2011-2012 What We Eat in America, NHANES Tables 45-56

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center has analyzed nutrient intakes from foods and beverages consumed from restaurants and released 12 additional summary data tables. Using dietary data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutritio...

  16. Effects of exposure to television advertising for energy-dense/nutrient-poor food on children's food intake and obesity in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Hyogyoo; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of television food advertising on participant food intake and risk of obesity. A total of 2419 children aged 11-13?years were selected from 118 elementary schools in South Korea. All participants completed a self-administered questionnaire with questions about height, weight, television viewing times, food preferences, and food intakes. To estimate actual exposure to food advertising, we asked participants to specify the times at which they usually watched television. We then collected data on the various types of food advertisement broadcast on five different television networks during those viewing times over the course of the previous 7?months. The amount of television watched and exposure to energy-dense/nutrient-poor (EDNP) food advertising were associated with an increased risk of being overweight or obese. Exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was also significantly associated with higher EDNP food preference and intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, these relationships disappeared for all foods after adjusting for the overall amount of television watched. Although it was not possible to conclude that exposure to television advertising for EDNP food was associated with an increased risk of obesity, preference for EDNP foods, or overall food intake due to the strong comprehensive effects of television viewing time, there was a reason to believe the evidence of the effects of advertising in this study. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exclusive effects of exposure to television advertising for EDNP food. PMID:24996594

  17. Nutrient intake and socio-economic status among children attending a health exhibition in Malaysian rural villages.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Noor Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S; Zainudin, B; Fatimah, A

    1995-12-01

    A dietary survey was carried out in 216 children (109 males, 107 females) aged 1-7 years, living in rural villages in Selangor, Malaysia to assess their nutrient intake and to determine the association between nutrient consumption and socio-economic background. All the children studied had inadequate intakes of energy, iron and niacin according to Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). Children aged of 4-9 years showed inadequate intake of calcium, thiamine and riboflavin. However, the intake of protein, vitamin A and ascorbic acid were above the recommended value. The mean percentage requirements of protein, iron and niacin were significantly higher in children from small families compared with children from large families. However the employment status of mothers had a significantly effect on the mean percentage requirements of niacin. The results indicate that education level of the mothers, is strongly associated with the mean percentage nutrient requirements of children and we strongly feel that this is a strategy to be adopted for improvement in nutrition of children. PMID:8668061

  18. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of ?-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by ?-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower ( < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles. PMID:26020316

  19. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized by higher consumption of take away food, meat, confectionary and soft drinks ('western' and 'traditional and western') were found particularly among 16- to 17-years old boys and among adolescents with lower SES. These patterns were also associated with higher energy density, higher percent of energy from unsaturated fatty acids and lower percent of energy from carbohydrates as well as lower nutrient densities of several vitamins and minerals. Therefore, nutritional interventions should try to focus more on adolescents with lower SES and boys in general. PMID:22439777

  20. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Viwatwongkasem, Chukiat; Kitvorapat, Wanicha

    2014-01-01

    Rapid changes in Thailand's nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485?kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females' median energy intake was 1,428?kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand's rapidly growing sedentary workforce. PMID:25525512

  1. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT.

    PubMed

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-06-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (?20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.31-0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high "vitamins and fiber" pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the "vitamin and fiber" nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence. PMID:23576215

  2. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    PubMed Central

    Awawdeh, M. S.; Obeidat, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid. PMID:25049836

  3. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors in overweight subjects (GOLDN population)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Garaulet; Yu-Chi Lee; Jian Shen; Laurence D Parnell; Donna K Arnett; Michael Y Tsai; Chao-Qiang Lai; Jose M Ordovas

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food-intake measures. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of CLOCK single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with food intake and to explore the specific role of the cytokine system. A total of 1100 individual participants in the Genetics of

  4. Quantification of food and nutrient intakes in Zambian children with and without malaria under controlled feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Chileshe, Justin; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A supplementation improves status, which may protect against malarial infection. Provitamin A carotenoid biofortified staple crops may provide a more sustainable approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency than supplementation, but the impact of febrile illness on food intake must be considered in malaria endemic regions. Morbidity data and food logs from a three-month efficacy trial on provitamin A biofortified (orange) maize in preschool Zambian children (n?=?181, age 3-5 years) were systematically analyzed over time to determine the impact of malaria on food intake. Nutrients examined included macronutrients, iron, zinc, and vitamin A. Comparisons based on individual intakes in healthy and malarial states over three-day intervals were made including children from both the orange and white maize groups (n?=?100). Malaria prevalence did not differ overall or between treatment groups over time (all P?>?0.05). Lower nutrient intakes were observed for all variables during malaria outbreaks (food 289?±?412?g; energy 248?±?346?kcal; carbohydrate 42?±?62?g; protein 8?±?12?g; fat 5?±?7?g; iron 1?±?2?mg; zinc 1?±?1?mg; vitamin A 58?±?100 retinol activity equivalents; all P?nutrient decreases in orange and white maize groups (P?>?0.05). Considering the impact of malaria on food and nutrient intakes and increased vitamin A utilization and excretion due to the acute phase response, biofortification targets for provitamin A carotenoids may need to be elevated in malaria endemic regions. PMID:24415277

  5. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052

  6. Total antioxidant intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence in the Health Professionals Follow up Study

    PubMed Central

    Russnes, Kjell M; Wilson, Kathryn M; Epstein, Mara M; Kasperzyk, Julie L; Stampfer, Meir J; Kenfield, Stacey A; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune; Giovannucci, Edward L; Willett, Walter C.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the association of antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence is inconsistent. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence has not previously been examined. Using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of diet and supplements were assessed in relation to prostate cancer incidence. A prospective cohort of 47,896 men aged 40-75 years was followed from 1986 to 2008 for prostate cancer incidence (N=5,656), and they completed food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) every 4 years. A FRAP value was assigned to each item in the FFQ, and for each individual, TAC scores for diet, supplements and both (total) were calculated. Major contributors of TAC intake at baseline were: coffee (28%), fruit and vegetables (23%) and dietary supplements (23%). In multivariate analyses for dietary TAC a weak inverse association was observed; (highest versus lowest quintiles: 0.91 (0.83-1.00, p-trend=0.03) for total prostate cancer, 0.81 (0.64-1.01, p-trend=0.04) for advanced prostate cancer); this association was mainly due to coffee. No association of total TAC on prostate cancer incidence was observed. A positive association with lethal and advanced prostate cancer was observed in the highest quintile of supplemental TAC intake: 1.28 (0.98-1.65, p-trend<0.01) and 1.15 (0.92-1.43), p-trend=0.04). The weak association between dietary antioxidant intake and reduced prostate cancer incidence may be related to specific antioxidants in coffee, to non-antioxidant coffee compounds, or other effects of drinking coffee. The indication of increased risk for lethal and advanced prostate cancer with high TAC intake from supplements warrants further investigation. PMID:23959920

  7. Total fat intake is associated with decreased mortality in Japanese men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamai, Yuya; Kawachi, Toshiaki

    2012-09-01

    Dietary guidelines generally recommend avoiding a high-fat diet. However, the relationship between fat subtypes and mortality remains unclear especially in a population with a relatively low intake of fat. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between dietary fat intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese community. In 1992, a total of 28,356 residents of Takayama, Japan, without cancer, stroke, or coronary heart disease, responded to a validated 169-item FFQ. We identified 4616 deaths during a 16-y follow-up. The HR of mortality according to the percentage of energy from the total and subtypes of fat when substituted for an isoenergic quantity of carbohydrate was calculated after controlling for potential confounders. A high intake of total fat and PUFA was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality in men; the HR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.99; P-trend = 0.048) for total fat and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.95; P-trend = 0.05) for PUFA. Both fats were associated with a decrease in mortality from cancer and diseases other than cardiovascular disease. In women, a higher SFA intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality [HR = 1.22 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.49; P-trend = 0.03)]. A favorable effect was suggested for total fat and PUFA intakes on mortality in men except for that from cardiovascular disease, whereas increased SFA intake may be associated with adverse health consequences in women. PMID:22810986

  8. Energy and nutrient intake of young-old, old-old and very-old elderly in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Volkert; K Kreuel; H Heseker; P Stehle

    2004-01-01

    Background: Reliable information about the nutritional status of elderly people in Germany is lacking.Objective: To describe energy and nutrient intake of elderly people living in private households in Germany with special focus on age-related differences in the elderly.Design: Descriptive nationwide cross-sectional study.Setting: Germany, 1998.Subjects: A random sample of 4020 elderly men and women living independently in private households stratified in

  9. Effect of Replacing Corn Silage with Annual Ryegrass Silage on Nutrient Digestibility, Intake, and Milk Yield for Lactating Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Bernard; J. W. West; D. S. Trammell

    2002-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were used in an 8-wk random- ized block design study to determine the effects of re- placing corn silage with ryegrass silage on nutrient intake, apparent digestion, milk yield, and milk compo- sition. The 8-wk trial consisted of a 2-wk preliminary period followed by a 6-wk collection period. Experimen- tal diets were formulated to provide 55.5% of

  10. Cooked oatmeal consumption is associated with better diet quality, better nutrient intakes, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity in children 2–18 years: NHANES 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Carol E.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; DiRienzo, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background None of the studies of whole grains that have looked either at diet or weight/adiposity measures have focused exclusively on oatmeal. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the association between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity of children aged 2–18. Design A nationally representative sample of children aged 2–18 (N=14,690) participating in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010 was used. Intake was determined from a single 24-h dietary recall. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Covariate-adjusted regression analyses, using appropriate sample weights, were used to determine differences between oatmeal consumers and non-consumers for demographics, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures (p<0.01). Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios for weight measures and obesity (p<0.05). Results Compared to non-consumers, oatmeal consumers were more likely to be younger and less likely to be smokers. Consumers had higher intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, and potassium, and significantly lower intakes of total, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sodium. Oatmeal consumers had higher dietary quality scores attributable to higher intakes of whole grains and lower intakes of refined grains and empty calories. Children consuming oatmeal were at lower risk for having central adiposity and being obese. Conclusions Consumption of oatmeal by children was associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and reduced risk for central adiposity and obesity and should be encouraged as part of an overall healthful diet. PMID:26022379

  11. Program of Studies for the Master of Education in Special Education September 2012 Intake Date Course Cum. Total

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Course Cum. Total Fall 2012 EDUC 636-3 (Language and Learning Disabilities) 3 Winter 2013 EDUC 633 for the Master of Education in Special Education ­ January 2013 Intake Date Course Cum. Total Winter 2013 EDUC of Studies for the Master of Education (Special Education) ­ September 2014 Intake Date Course Cum. Total

  12. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006, usual nutrient intakes from food and water compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report presents national estimates of usual nutrient intake distributions from food and water for vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium and compares those estimates to the Dietary Reference Intakes published by the Institute of Medicine in 1997. Estimates are based on data from 8,437 in...

  13. Water and nutrient intake in pregnant New Zealand women: association with wheeze in their infants at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Watson, Patricia Ellyett; McDonald, Barry William

    2014-01-01

    The association between water and nutrient intake in pregnant women, and wheeze in their 18 month old infants, was investigated in a prospective study. Volunteers (n=369) recruited from northern New Zealand were visited in months 4 and 7 of pregnancy. At each visit anthropometric measurements were taken, diet assessed by 24-hour recall and 3-day food records and questionnaires determining personal details administered. Eighteen months after birth, infants were measured, and questions on infant feeding and wheeze asked. Overall, mothers reported 32% of their infants had wheezed in the last 12 months. After adjusting for significant covariates and energy intake, higher maternal intakes of dietary water (p=0.009) and manganese (p=0.024) were associated with decreased wheeze, and glucose (p=0.003) with increased wheeze. Prevalence of infant wheeze decreased 18.5% from the lower to the upper quartile of water intake, and 17.4% from the lower to the upper quartile of manganese intake. Wheeze was more common in Polynesian than European infants (41.8% vs 28.9%). Polynesian mothers consumed significantly less dietary water (median 451 g less) and manganese (median 1374 ?g less) than European mothers per day. Glucose was only significant because of strong association with infant wheeze at extremely high maternal intakes of >40 g/day in ~10% of the subjects. There was no association between maternal dietary supplement intake and wheeze. Mothers estimated at high risk of infant wheeze consumed less tap water, whole grains, tea, fruit; and more fruit juice, soft drink, processed meat and fish products, and refined grain products. This is the first study to report an intergenerational association between maternal water, and glucose intake with infant wheeze. PMID:25516325

  14. A total diet study of nickel intake in a Spanish population (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    González-Weller, Dailos; Gutiérrez, Ángel José; Rubio, Carmen; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse nickel content in foods and beverages most commonly consumed by the Canary Island people to determine the dietary intake of this metal throughout the Canary Islands as a whole and in each of the seven islands. A total of 440 samples were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Nickel concentrations ranged between 2.348 ± 1.716 mg/kg in nuts and 0.002 ± 0.002 mg/l in water. Estimated total intake of nickel was 0.093 mg/day for the Canary population, which is far below the tolerable upper intake level (UL) established for adults. Gran Canaria turned out to be the island with the highest nickel intake. Differential analysis of nickel intake by age and sex of the Canary Island community showed that values were below the UL in children as well as in adults. These outcomes were compared with data from other populations at the national and international levels. PMID:22574635

  15. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clarence William; Egan, Sara Kathleen; Kim, Henry; Beru, Nega; Bolger, Philip Michael

    2008-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and car airbags), occurs naturally in some fertilizers, and may be generated under certain climatic conditions. It has been detected in surface and groundwater and in food. Perchlorate at high (e.g., pharmacological) doses can interfere with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland, disrupting its function. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has identified that "the fetuses of pregnant women who might have hypothyroidism or iodide deficiency as the most sensitive population." This study reports on intake estimates of perchlorate and iodine, a precursor to iodide, using the analytical results from the TDS. Estimated average perchlorate and iodine daily intakes as well as the contribution of specific food groups to total intakes were estimated for 14 age/sex subgroups of the US population. The estimated smallest lower bound to the largest upper bound average perchlorate intakes by the 14 age/sex groups range from 0.08 to 0.39 micrograms per kilogram body weight per day (microg/kg bw/day), compared with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 microg/kg bw/day. Infants and children demonstrated the highest estimated intakes of perchlorate on a body weight basis. The estimated average iodine intakes by the 14 age/sex groups reveal a lower bound (ND=0) and upper bound (ND=LOD) range of average intakes from 138 to 353 microg/person/day. Estimated iodine intakes by infants 6-11 months exceed their adequate intake (AI), and intakes by children and adult age/sex groups exceed their relevant estimated average requirement (EAR). PMID:18167505

  16. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder during pregnancy1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Margaretha Haugen; Helle M Meltzer; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Cecilie Knopf-Berg; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M Bulik

    Background: Little is known concerning the dietary habits during pregnancy of women with eating disorders that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective: We examined the nutrient and food group intakes of womenwithbulimianervosaandbinge-eatingdisorderduringpreg- nancy and compared these with intakes of women with no eating disorders. Design: Data on 30 040 mother-child pairs from the prospective Norwegian

  17. Antioxidant capacity total in non-melanoma skin cancer and its relationship with food consumption of antioxidant nutrients.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Betânia e Silva de Almendra; de Castro, Laís Lima; Aguiar, Jordana Rayane Sousa; de Araújo, Camila Guedes Borges; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Tuan, Bruna Taliani; Pincinato, Eder de Carvalho; Moriel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer and accounts for more than half of the diagnoses of cancer, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, corresponding to 70-80% of cutaneous tumors. Oxidative stress is an important trigger for skin carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to evaluate oxidative stress, in order to discern effective therapeutic strategies able to stop it or attenuate it, thereby prevent the installation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cross-sectional study with controls, involving 84 individuals of both sexes aged between 38-84 years, divided into two groups: control group of healthy people(n = 24) and the case group included individuals who presented non-melanoma skin and they have undergoing surgery (n = 60). The blood samples of the individuals were obtained for evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane, nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity). The usual dietary intake and nutritional status of the subjects were evaluated. The significance level for this study was 5%. Patients in the case group had higher serum concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress, F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher compared to controls. The results showed high rates of overweight and obesity in the case and control groups. The dietary concentrations of antioxidant minerals zinc, copper and selenium in the case group were significantly lower compared to controls. The correlation between markers of oxidative stress and dietary concentrations of antioxidant nutrients showed the influence of food intake of vitamins A and E in reducing oxidative stress, since these nutrients behave as important antioxidants, acting as sweepers of RL, by removing of the body the negative effects on the redox balance of the skin. We emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits that optimize the consumption of antioxidant nutrients as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage to the skin. PMID:25795958

  18. Colorectal cancer and the intake of nutrients: Oligosaccharides are a risk factor, fats are not. A case?control study in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. Tuyns; Margareta Haelterman; Rudolf Kaaks

    1987-01-01

    A case?control study was carried out in the populations of two Belgian provinces that differed in food consumption habits, particularly fat intake. There were 453 colonic and 365 rectal cancer cases and 2,851 population controls.There were no significant differences in the average intake of the major nutrients, with the exception of carbohydrates; patients had a larger intake, limited to oligosaccharides.

  19. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. PMID:26049019

  20. A simulation study of the potential effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta adults.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Onufrak, Stephen J; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol L; Bogle, Margaret L; Yadrick, Kathy

    2011-12-01

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items' nutrient profile with their replacements' profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population. PMID:22031664

  1. An effective dietary survey framework for the assessment of total dietary arsenic intake in Bangladesh: part-A--FFQ design.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Owens, Gary; Bruce, David; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-04-01

    The accurate assessment of dietary intake patterns is important for the determination of total dietary arsenic (As) exposure in As-contaminated regions of Bangladesh. Food intake questionnaires are a common means of assessing food intake. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed to assess the daily intake of frequently consumed food items and was successfully implemented to assess dietary patterns and intake of the rural populations in 18 villages from three Districts of Bangladesh (Comilla, Manikganj Sadar, and Munshiganj). The FFQ presented in this paper comprises a complete set of tools which allowed not only collection of information on dietary patterns but also information on the spatial characteristics of the landscape, socio-demographic indicators, and geographic locations of the identified environmental media of the contaminants, which resulted in As exposure to humans. The FFQ was designed in three sections: (1) general household information, (2) household water and rice information, and (3) individual dietary intake of other foods. The dietary intake of other food was then further subdivided into five different food subgroups: (i) grain intake, (ii) protein intake, (iii) fruit intake (iv), vegetable intake, and (v) dal (pulse) intake. During the design and development of the FFQ, emphasis was given to the source of food, the frequency (day/week/month) of consumption, and the daily amount of food consumed by each adult male, adult female, and child to accurately determine the dietary pattern and intake of arsenic in the rural population of Bangladesh. PMID:19172402

  2. Adequate nutrient intakes are associated with traditional food consumption in nunavut inuit children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2010-07-01

    Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices. PMID:20444949

  3. Potential intakes of total polyols based on UK usage survey data

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyols are approved for use as sweeteners in specific foods but they may be used for other technological purposes in a wider range of foods, all on a quantum satis basis. The European Polyols Association (EPA) has identified 24 categories of food where polyols are used and it has been able to establish the levels at which the polyols are used in each type of food and whether for sweetening or non-sweetening purposes. The UK National Dietary and Nutrition survey database was used to estimate potential exposures to total polyols based on reported use levels. It was possible to express potential polyol intake on the basis of exposure relating to a single eating occasion, a meal period, 1 day and the average over 4 days of the survey. Potential intakes of polyols were approximately twice that found on a per-item or a meal-period basis when estimated on a daily basis. Apparent intakes were lower when averaged over the 4 days of the survey. It was felt that intake expressed on a per-meal occasion basis was most relevant to the development of digestive discomfort. On the basis of maximum use levels of polyols in all food categories, adults had the highest intake of total polyols up to 5.6 g per meal period at the 95th percentile. However, when expressed on a bodyweight basis, children had higher intakes, up to 0.15 g kg?1 bw per meal period. Distributions of potential polyol exposures were highly skewed towards lower values with higher levels of exposure relating to sweetener uses occurring relatively infrequently. PMID:24447207

  4. Dietary intakes of fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with a low fat intake: the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It may be useful to examine associations of fat intakes with total mortality as a basis for dietary recommendations. We aimed to elucidate associations between dietary fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with low fat intake. Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 58,672 men and women aged 40 to 79 years. Fat intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality by sex were computed according to quintiles of energy-adjusted fat intakes. Results During the follow-up period (median duration, 19.3 years), 11,656 deaths were recorded. In men, we found no clear association between total fat and total mortality. HRs across quintiles of total fat intake were 1.00, 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95–1.12), 1.02 (0.94–1.10), 0.98 (0.90–1.07), and 1.07 (0.98–1.17). No significant association was detected in regard to types of fat. In women, HR was lowest in the fourth quintile of total fat intake followed by the top quintile; HRs across quintiles were 1.00, 1.03 (0.94–1.11), 1.00 (0.92–1.09), 0.88 (0.81–0.96), and 0.94 (0.86–1.03). Regarding types of fat in women, total mortality was inversely associated with intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); the lowest HR was in the top quintile of intake for SFA, MUFA, and PUFA: 0.91 (95% CI, 0.83–1.00), 0.91 (0.83–0.99) and 0.88 (0.80?-?0.97), respectively (trend P across quintiles, 0.020, 0.012, and 0.029, respectively). Causes of death other than cancer and cardiovascular disease contributed most to decreases in HRs for total and types of fat. In women, analysis with finer categories revealed that the lowest risk for total mortality appeared at total fat intake of 28% of energy. Conclusions Our findings from a large cohort study among populations with relatively low fat intake provide evidence regarding optimal levels of fat intakes. PMID:24597664

  5. Repetition counts: repeated exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in UK pre-school children compared to flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Ahern, Sara M; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-06-01

    Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour-flavour learning or flavour-nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P<0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P<0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P<0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P<0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children. PMID:23110783

  6. Trends in the prevalence of undernutrition, nutrient and food intake and predictors of undernutrition among under five year tribal children in India.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Indrapal Ishwarji; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Mallikharjuna Rao, Kodavanti; Laxmaiah, Avula; Brahmam, Ginnela Nag Veera

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition among children under five year is a significant public health problem in India. The present study was carried out to assess trends in nutritional status, nutrient and food intake among children under five year over two time periods. It was a community-based cross-sectional study, carried out in tribal areas of India. A total of 14,587 children, 0-5 years old were covered for nutritional assessment in terms of underweight, stunting and wasting. A 24 hour diet survey was carried out in a sub-sample of households surveyed. Wealth index was constructed using principle component analysis. The prevalence of underweight and stunting had declined significantly over the periods (49% vs 57%, 51% vs 58%, respectively), while the prevalence of wasting remained similar (22% vs 23%). There was marginal decrease in the intake of foods and nutrients over the periods, and was below recommended levels. Stepwise regression showed that the risk of underweight and stunting was significantly (p<0.01) higher among children of illiterate mothers and children from lowest and middle households wealth index. Morbidities during preceding fortnight had 1.3 times higher risk of underweight and wasting. In conclusion, undernutrition is a significant health problem among tribal children and is associated with literacy status of mothers, household wealth index and morbidities. Therefore implementation of appropriate nutritional intervention strategies and improvement in households food security through public distribution systems, food intakes, socioeconomic condition, literacy of parents and personal hygiene may help in improving the nutritional status of tribal children. PMID:23017315

  7. Comparison of Dietary Macro and Micro Nutrient Intake between Iranian Patients with Long-term Complications of Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    -MOOD, Mahdi Balali; ZILAEE, Marzie; -MOBARHAN, Majid Ghayour; SHEIKH-ANDALIBI, Mohammad Sobhan; MOHADES-ARDABILI, Hossein; DEHGHANI, Hamideh; FERNS, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning are often less able to undertake optimum levels of physical activity and adequately control their dietary intake. The aim of present study was to investigate the dietary intake of patients with SM poisoning in comparison to a control group Methods: The study was undertaken on 55 Iranian male veterans, who had > 25% disabilities due to long-term complications of SM poisoning and 55 men age-matched healthy subjects. A previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for measuring dietary macro/micro nutrient intake for both groups; and the results were analysed using Dietplan6 software. Results: Analysis of macro/micro nutrients in dietary intakes of the patients versus the controls showed a significantly lower intake of several nutrients including selenium and carbohydrate. On the other hand, the dietary intake of trans-fatty acids and iodine were significantly higher in these patients. Conclusion: Long-term complications of SM poisoning in the Iranian veterans induce both chemical and physical disabilities. Macro/micro nutrient intake in these patients was significantly different in comparison with matched, healthy subjects. Dietary advice for these patients should be strongly recommended to these patients in order to prevent other chronic diseases. PMID:25897279

  8. The Nutritional Geometry of Resource Scarcity: Effects of Lean Seasons and Habitat Disturbance on Nutrient Intakes and Balancing in Wild Sifakas.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Mitchell T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R; Chapman, Colin A; Rothman, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups' diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates' within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons. PMID:26061401

  9. The Nutritional Geometry of Resource Scarcity: Effects of Lean Seasons and Habitat Disturbance on Nutrient Intakes and Balancing in Wild Sifakas

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Mitchell T.; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Raubenheimer, David R.; Chapman, Colin A.; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Animals experience spatial and temporal variation in food and nutrient supply, which may cause deviations from optimal nutrient intakes in both absolute amounts (meeting nutrient requirements) and proportions (nutrient balancing). Recent research has used the geometric framework for nutrition to obtain an improved understanding of how animals respond to these nutritional constraints, among them free-ranging primates including spider monkeys and gorillas. We used this framework to examine macronutrient intakes and nutrient balancing in sifakas (Propithecus diadema) at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar, in order to quantify how these vary across seasons and across habitats with varying degrees of anthropogenic disturbance. Groups in intact habitat experience lean season decreases in frugivory, amounts of food ingested, and nutrient intakes, yet preserve remarkably constant proportions of dietary macronutrients, with the proportional contribution of protein to the diet being highly consistent. Sifakas in disturbed habitat resemble intact forest groups in the relative contribution of dietary macronutrients, but experience less seasonality: all groups’ diets converge in the lean season, but disturbed forest groups largely fail to experience abundant season improvements in food intake or nutritional outcomes. These results suggest that: (1) lemurs experience seasonality by maintaining nutrient balance at the expense of calories ingested, which contrasts with earlier studies of spider monkeys and gorillas, (2) abundant season foods should be the target of habitat management, even though mortality might be concentrated in the lean season, and (3) primates’ within-group competitive landscapes, which contribute to variation in social organization, may vary in complex ways across habitats and seasons. PMID:26061401

  10. Habitual total water intake and dimensions of mood in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Colleen X; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Graverholt, Gitte; Casa, Douglas J; Maresh, Carl M; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2015-09-01

    Acute negative and positive mood states have been linked with the development of undesirable and desirable health outcomes, respectively. Numerous factors acutely influence mood state, including exercise, caffeine ingestion, and macronutrient intake, but the influence of habitual total water intake remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe relationships between habitual water intake and mood. One hundred twenty healthy females (mean?±?SD; age?=?20?±?2 y, BMI?=?22.9?±?3.5?kg?m(-2) ) recorded all food and fluids consumed for 5 consecutive days. Investigators utilized dietary analysis software to determine Total Water Intake (TWI; total water content in foods and fluids), caffeine, and macronutrient consumption (i.e. protein, carbohydrate, fat). On days 3 and 4, participants completed the Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire, which examined tension, depression, anger, vigor, and confusion, plus an aggregate measure of Total Mood Disturbance (TMD). For comparison of mood, data were separated into three even groups (n?=?40 each) based on TWI: low (LOW; 1.51?±?0.27?L/d), moderate (MOD; 2.25?±?0.19?L/d), and high (HIGH; 3.13?±?0.54?L/d). Regression analysis was performed to determine continuous relationships between measured variables. Group differences (p?

  11. Milk Intake and Total Dairy Consumption: Associations with Early Menarche in NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Andrea S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several components of dairy products have been linked to earlier menarche. Methods/Findings This study assessed whether positive associations exist between childhood milk consumption and age at menarche or the likelihood of early menarche (<12 yrs) in a U.S sample. Data derive from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Two samples were utilized: 2657 women age 20–49 yrs and 1008 girls age 9–12 yrs. In regression analysis, a weak negative relationship was found between frequency of milk consumption at 5–12 yrs and age at menarche (daily milk intake ??=??0.32, P<0.10; “sometimes/variable milk intake” ??=??0.38, P<0.06, each compared to intake rarely/never). Cox regression yielded no greater risk of early menarche among those who drank milk “sometimes/varied” or daily vs. never/rarely (HR: 1.20, P<0.42, HR: 1.25, P<0.23, respectively). Among the 9–12 yr olds, Cox regression indicated that neither total dairy kcal, calcium and protein, nor daily milk intake in the past 30 days contributed to early menarche. Girls in the middle tertile of milk intake had a marginally lower risk of early menarche than those in the highest tertile (HR: 0.6, P<0.06). Those in the lowest tertiles of dairy fat intake had a greater risk of early menarche than those in the highest (HR: 1.5, P<0.05, HR: 1.6, P<0.07, lowest and middle tertile, respectively), while those with the lowest calcium intake had a lower risk of early menarche (HR: 0.6, P<0.05) than those in the highest tertile. These relationships remained after adjusting for overweight or overweight and height percentile; both increased the risk of earlier menarche. Blacks were more likely than Whites to reach menarche early (HR: 1.7, P<0.03), but not after controlling for overweight. Conclusions There is some evidence that greater milk intake is associated with an increased risk of early menarche, or a lower age at menarche. PMID:21347271

  12. Influence of Dietary Supplementation of Condensed Tannins through Leaf Meal Mixture on Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Haemonchus contortus Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, A. K.; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P. S.; Pattanaik, A. K.; Sharma, K.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effect of dietary supplementation of leaf meal mixture (LMM) containing condensed tannins (CT) on feed intake, nutrient utilization and performance of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Eighteen adult sheep of similar age and body weight (25.03±1.52) were included in this study and out of these, 12 sheep were infected with single dose of infective third stage larvae of H. contortus at 2,000 larvae per sheep. The experimental sheep were allocated in three different groups’ i.e. negative control (NC; no infection), control (C; H. contortus infected) and treatment (T; H. contortus infected+CT at 1.5% of the DM through LMM) and the experiment was conducted for a period of 90 d. The intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and digestibility of DM, OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were comparable among three animal groups. However, digestibility of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in NC group as compared to both C and T groups. Nitrogen (N) retention (g/d or % of N intake) was significantly (p = 0.038) lower in C group as compared to T and NC groups. Daily intake (g/kg W0.75) of digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible organic matter (DOM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) did not differ significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups. Haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly (p<0.001) higher in treatment group as compared to control. The level of Hb and PCV reduced (p<0.001) after 30 days of experimental feeding. CT significantly (p<0.001) reduced serum urea in T group as compared to NC and C groups. Serum proteins differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three groups. The activity of serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and LDH were also statistically non significant (p<0.05) among treatments. The weight of abomasal lymph nodes (ALN) in T group was higher (p<0.05) than in C group. Treatment group had lower (p<0.05) total worms and fecal egg count compared to control group. It may be concluded that dietary supplementation of CT through LMM significantly improved the N retention, and inhibited the different developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus in experimental sheep. PMID:25049728

  13. Associations between FTO genotype and total energy and macronutrient intake in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, K M; Celis-Morales, C; Lara, J; Ashor, A W; Lovegrove, J A; Martinez, J A; Saris, W H; Gibney, M; Manios, Y; Traczyk, I; Drevon, C A; Daniel, H; Gibney, E R; Brennan, L; Bouwman, J; Grimaldi, K A; Mathers, J C

    2015-08-01

    Risk variants of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with increased obesity. However, the evidence for associations between FTO genotype and macronutrient intake has not been reviewed systematically. Our aim was to evaluate the potential associations between FTO genotype and intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate and protein. We undertook a systematic literature search in OVID MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and Cochrane of associations between macronutrient intake and FTO genotype in adults. Beta coefficients and confidence intervals (CIs) were used for per allele comparisons. Random-effect models assessed the pooled effect sizes. We identified 56 eligible studies reporting on 213,173 adults. For each copy of the FTO risk allele, individuals reported 6.46?kcal day(-1) (95% CI: 10.76, 2.16) lower total energy intake (P?=?0.003). Total fat (P?=?0.028) and protein (P?=?0.006), but not carbohydrate intakes, were higher in those carrying the FTO risk allele. After adjustment for body weight, total energy intakes remained significantly lower in individuals with the FTO risk genotype (P?=?0.028). The FTO risk allele is associated with a lower reported total energy intake and with altered patterns of macronutrient intake. Although significant, these differences are small and further research is needed to determine whether the associations are independent of dietary misreporting. PMID:26016642

  14. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time.

    PubMed

    Martin, Corby K; Correa, John B; Han, Hongmei; Allen, H Raymond; Rood, Jennifer C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gunturk, Bahadir K; Bray, George A

    2012-04-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1's objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake (EI) with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over 6 days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, EI estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n = 24) or Customized Prompts (n = 16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating EI when Standard (mean ± s.d. = -895 ± 770 kcal/day, P < 0.0001), but not Customized Prompts (-270 ± 748 kcal/day, P = 0.22) were used. Error (EI from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM's ability to accurately estimate EI in free-living adults (N = 50) over 6 days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living EI (-152 ± 694 kcal/day, P = 0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  15. Dairy Consumption and Related Nutrient Intake in African-American Adults and Children in the United States: Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VICTOR FULGONI III; JILL NICHOLLS; ALAN REED; RITA BUCKLEY; KAREN KAFER; PETER HUTH; DOUGLAS DIRIENZO; GREGORY D. MILLER

    Objective To establish the first baseline of dairy and re- lated nutrient intake in African Americans, an at-risk population of public health concern in the United States. To document dairy consumption in African Americans by age and sex during 1994-1998 and 1999-2000 and com- pare it with concomitant dairy, calcium, and related nu- trient intakes in non-African-American adults and chil-

  16. Food intake, nutrient utilization and water turnover in the lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given lundai (Sapium baccatum).

    PubMed

    Nolan, J V; Liang, J B; Abdullah, N; Kudo, H; Ismail, H; Ho, Y W; Jalaludin, S

    1995-05-01

    Voluntary food intake, digestibility and water turnover were determined in adult Malaysian lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given unlimited access to lundai foliage (Sapium baccatum). Daily dry matter (DM) intake was 42.4 g/kg metabolic live mass (M0.73) or 3.7% M. Digestible energy intake was 853 kJ/day (571 kJ metabolisable energy per M0.73), calculated to be used with 79% efficiency. Apparent digestibility (%) of organic matter was 83.8, crude fibre 63.7, acid detergent fibre 60.5, neutral detergent fibre 72.1 and crude protein 65.0. Urinary excretion of the purine derivative, allantoin, was 0.05 mg/g digestible DM intake suggesting rumen microbial yield efficiency may be lower than in other ruminant species. Total water intake was 182 ml/M0.82. The body-water content of the fed mouse-deer, from tritiated water dilution, was 77% M, consistent with a very lean carcass. Turnover of body water was 17% per day. The mouse-deer produced relatively dry, well-defined faecal pellets. PMID:7735907

  17. Effects of cooked navy bean powder on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and safety in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Forster, G M; Hill, D; Gregory, G; Weishaar, K M; Lana, S; Bauer, J E; Ryan, E P

    2012-08-01

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) are a low glycemic index food containing protein, fiber, minerals, essential vitamins, and bioactive compounds and have not been evaluated for inclusion in commercial canine diets. The objective of this study was to establish the apparent total tract digestibility and safety of cooked navy bean powder when incorporated into a canine diet formulation at 25% (wt/wt) compared with a macro- and micro-nutrient matched control. Twenty-one healthy, free-living, male and female adult dogs of different breeds were used in a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled, 28-d dietary intervention study. Apparent total tract energy and nutrient digestibility of the navy bean powder diet were compared with the control diet. Digestibilities and ME content were 68.58 and 68.89% DM, 78.22 and 79.49% CP, 77.57 and 74.91% OM, 94.49 and 93.85% acid hydrolyzed fat, and 3,313 and 3,195 kcal ME/kg for the navy bean diet and control diet, respectively. No differences were observed between the groups. No increased flatulence or major change in fecal consistency was observed. Navy bean powder at 25% (wt/wt) of total diet was determined to be palatable (on the basis of intake and observation) and digestible in a variety of dog breeds. No changes were detected in clinical laboratory values, including complete blood counts, blood biochemical profiles, and urinalysis in either the bean or control diet groups. These results indicate that cooked navy bean powder can be safely included as a major food ingredient in canine diet formulations and provide a novel quality protein source, and its use warrants further investigation as a functional food for chronic disease control and prevention. PMID:22367072

  18. [The use of total enteral formula with enriched nutrient in home Low Calorie Diet(LCD)therapy based on regular meal].

    PubMed

    Hata, Akiko; Ibata, Takeshi; Shinoki, Keiji; Ando, Yukiko; Hirata, Takahiro; Kojima, Atsuko; Nishijima, Ritsuko; Doi, Seiko; Komuro, Ryutaro; Iijima, Shohei

    2010-12-01

    We made a low calorie diet(LCD)menu which added two commercial supporting nutritional supplements to a meal. Because a conventional formula food is very expensive, the patient was not able to afford it at home. Those supplements are a total enteral formula with enriched nutrient(ACURE EN800)and vitamin-mineral rich drink(V CRESC). The contents of vitamin and mineral in this menu satisfied the dietary reference intakes, though protein was a little low. However, we could keep the price low compared to the formula food. The patient was able to switch over to home LCD therapy with the menu. PMID:21368549

  19. The phenomenon of Sanskritization in a forest?dwelling tribe of Gujarat, India. nutrient intake and practices in the special groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Gopaldas; Anjali Gupta; Kalpna Saxena

    1983-01-01

    “Sanskritization,” a social?cultural phenomenon attempting to improve caste or tribal status, was studied for differences in nutrient intake and food practices in the infant, toddler, preschooler, pregnant and lactating woman of the Sanskritized and non?Sanskritized segments of the Rathwakoli, Gujarat. The retinol intakes in all groups of both segments was alarmingly low. The non?Sanskritized special groups, however, showed notably higher

  20. Nutrient and food intakes of middle-aged adults at low risk of cardiovascular disease: the international study of macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP)

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Dyer, Alan R.; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Elliott, Paul; Zhao, Liancheng; Okuda, Nagako; Miura, Katsuyuki; Daviglus, Martha L.; Van Horn, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with favorable levels of readily measured cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (low risk, LR) experience low long-term rates of CVD mortality and greater longevity. The purpose of the current study was to compare nutrient/food intakes of LR participants with participants not LR in the INTERMAP study. Methods Men and women (40–59 years) from 17 population samples in four countries (China, Japan, UK, US) provided four 24-h dietary recalls and two timed 24-h urine collections. LR was defined as meeting all of the following CVD risk criteria: systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) ?120/?80 mmHg; no drug treatment for high BP, hyperlipidemia, or CVD; non-smoking; BMI <25.0 kg/m2 (US, UK) or <23.0 kg/m2 (China, Japan); alcohol consumption <26.0 g/day (men)/<13.0 g/day (women); and no history of diabetes or CVD. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations of nutrient/food intakes with LR. Results LR individuals reported higher intake of vegetable protein, fiber, magnesium, non-heme iron, potassium; lower energy intake; lower intake of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, animal protein; and lower 24-h urinary sodium compared with individuals not LR. With regard to foods, LR individuals reported higher intake of fruits, vegetables, grains, pasta/rice, fish; lower intakes of meats, processed meats, high-fat dairy, and sugar-sweetened beverages than individuals not LR. Conclusions Lower energy intake and differential intake of multiple specific nutrients and foods are characteristic of individuals at low risk for developing CVD. Identification of dietary habits associated with LR is important for further development of public health efforts aimed at reduction/prevention of CVD. PMID:22057680

  1. Nutrient intake and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramón, J M; Serra-Majem, L; Cerdó, C; Oromí, J

    1993-12-01

    A case-control study of dietary factors and gastric cancer was conducted between September 1986 and March 1989 in the Barcelona metropolitan area, Spain. In all 117 cases with histologically confirmed diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma were matched on sex, age and possession of a telephone to 234 population controls. Of the controls 188 (80.3%) were selected by random digit telephone dialing and 46 (19.7%) by neighbourhood of residence. Information about frequency and amount of consumption of 89 alimentary items was gathered by questionnaire, and cases and controls were interviewed in their homes by trained interviewers. The gastric cancer risk decreased in proportion to vitamin C intake. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables, energy and vitamin A intake, the estimated odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of vitamin C intake was 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-0.8). After adjustment for major covariables, calories and vitamin C intake, vitamin A did not show significant association with the gastric cancer risk. Our findings are consistent with previous case-control studies and with the hypothesis that vitamin C may inhibit the intragastric nitrosation process. PMID:8144311

  2. Prediction of genetic values for feed intake from individual body weight gain and total feed intake of the pen.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Ferrell, C L; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2010-06-01

    Records of individual feed intake (FI) and BW gain (GN) were obtained from the Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) program at US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Animals were randomly assigned to pens. Only pens with 6 to 9 steers (n = 289) were used for this study (data set 1). Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using data set 1. Estimated genetic values (EGV) for FI were calculated by 5 methods using single and 2-trait analyses: 1) individual FI and individual GN, 2) individual FI alone, 3) 2-trait with individual GN but with FI missing, 4) individual GN and pen total FI, and 5) pen total FI alone. Analyses were repeated but with some of the same records assigned artificially to 36 pens of 5 and 4 paternal half sibs per pen (data sets 2 and 3). Models included year as a fixed factor and birth and weaning weights, age on test, and days fed as covariates. Estimates of heritability were 0.42 +/- 0.16 and 0.34 +/- 0.17 for FI and GN. The estimate of the genetic correlation was 0.57 +/- 0.23. Empirical responses to selection were calculated as the average EGV for the top and bottom 10% based on rank for each method but with EGV from method 1 substituted for the EGV on which ranking was based. With data set 1, rank correlations between EGV from method 1 and EGV from methods 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 0.99, 0.53, 0.32, and 0.15, respectively. Empirical responses relative to method 1 agreed with the rank correlations. Accuracy of EGV for method 4 (0.44) was greater than for method 3 (0.35) and for method 5 (0.29). Accuracies for methods 4 and 5 were greater than indicated by empirical responses and correlations with EGV from method 1. Comparisons of the 5 methods were similar for data sets 2 and 3. With data set 2, rank correlations between EGV from method 1 and EGV from methods 3, 4, and 5 were 0.47, 0.64, and 0.62. Average accuracies of 56, 75, and 75% relative to method 1 (0.67) generally agreed with the empirical responses to selection. As expected, accuracy using pen total FI and GN to obtain EGV for FI was greater than using GN alone. With data set 1, empirical response to selection with method 4 was one-third of that for method 1, although average accuracy was 65% of that for method 1. With assignment of 5 paternal half sibs to artificial pens, using pen total FI and individual GN was about 81% as effective for selection as using individual FI and GN to obtain EGV for FI and was substantially more effective than use of GN alone. PMID:20190180

  3. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890

  4. EFFECTS OF CONSUMPTION OF BEEF CUTS ON NUTRIENT INTAKE IN AMERICANS IN NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines report identifies the meat group as a contributor of 13 nutrients: major (protein, niacin, vitamin B6, and zinc) or substantial (K, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, vitamins B1, B2, B12, and E). However, the specific contribution of beef to the American diet has not yet been determined. W...

  5. EFFECTS OF CONSUMPTION OF BEEF CUTS ON NUTRIENT INTAKE IN AMERICANS IN NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines report identifies the meat group as a contributor of 13 nutrients: major (protein, niacin, vitamin B6, and zinc) or substantial (K, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, vitamins B1, B2, B12, and E). However the specific contribution of beef to the American diet has not yet been determined. We ...

  6. High-resolution mapping of a genetic locus regulating preferential carbohydrate intake, total kilocalories, and food volume on mouse chromosome 17.

    PubMed

    Gularte-Mérida, Rodrigo; DiCarlo, Lisa M; Robertson, Ginger; Simon, Jacob; Johnson, William D; Kappen, Claudia; Medrano, Juan F; Richards, Brenda K

    2014-01-01

    The specific genes regulating the quantitative variation in macronutrient preference and food intake are virtually unknown. We fine mapped a previously identified mouse chromosome 17 region harboring quantitative trait loci (QTL) with large effects on preferential macronutrient intake-carbohydrate (Mnic1), total kilcalories (Kcal2), and total food volume (Tfv1) using interval-specific strains. These loci were isolated in the [C57BL/6J.CAST/EiJ-17.1-(D17Mit19-D17Mit50); B6.CAST-17.1] strain, possessing a ? 40.1 Mb region of CAST DNA on the B6 genome. In a macronutrient selection paradigm, the B6.CAST-17.1 subcongenic mice eat 30% more calories from the carbohydrate-rich diet, ? 10% more total calories, and ? 9% more total food volume per body weight. In the current study, a cross between carbohydrate-preferring B6.CAST-17.1 and fat-preferring, inbred B6 mice was used to generate a subcongenic-derived F2 mapping population; genotypes were determined using a high-density, custom SNP panel. Genetic linkage analysis substantially reduced the 95% confidence interval for Mnic1 (encompassing Kcal2 and Tfv1) from 40.1 to 29.5 Mb and more precisely established its boundaries. Notably, no genetic linkage for self-selected fat intake was detected, underscoring the carbohydrate-specific effect of this locus. A second key finding was the separation of two energy balance QTLs: Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 for food intake and a newly discovered locus regulating short term body weight gain. The Mnic1/Kcal2/Tfv1 QTL was further de-limited to 19.0 Mb, based on the absence of nutrient intake phenotypes in subcongenic HQ17IIa mice. Analyses of available sequence data and gene ontologies, along with comprehensive expression profiling in the hypothalamus of non-recombinant, cast/cast and b6/b6 F2 controls, focused our attention on candidates within the QTL interval. Zfp811, Zfp870, and Btnl6 showed differential expression and also contain stop codons, but have no known biology related to food intake regulation. The genes Decr2, Ppard and Agapt1 are more appealing candidates because of their involvement in lipid metabolism and down-regulation in carbohydrate-preferring animals. PMID:25330228

  7. Impact of fast food meals on nutrient intake of two groups.

    PubMed

    Greecher, C P; Shannon, B

    1977-04-01

    Two groups in different population centers were studied to determine how often consumers frequented fast food restaurants, and consequently, how heavily they relied on this type of food for nutrients. A questionnaire was answered by 280 customers of two fast food restaurants of the same chain. They were asked how often they patronized fast food restaurants, their specific food choices, and other pertinent questions. Food choices were evaluated for energy and seven nutrients on the basis of published analyses of the menu items of the particular fast food chain. Fifty-two per cent of the subjects in the two groups considered their purchases to be meals. Seventy-seven per cent of these consumed one-third or more of the recommended dietary allowance for protein, but no more than 30 per cent received that amount of the other nutrients examined, including food energy. Calcium and particularly vitamin A were least often consumed in amounts equal to one-third of the recommended allowances. Consumer choices were responsible for low consumption of calcium, but no good sources of vitamin A were included on the menus. Fast food items were purchased so infrequently by the majority of our respondents that nutrient composition of the fast food meals or snacks would be of concern in only a small number of cases. This study indicates that any attempts to improve nutritive value of fast food snacks or meals must include efforts to lead consumers to make wiser food choices, as well as encourage the fast food industry to provide rich sources of all the nutrients in their menus. PMID:845349

  8. The effect of income and length of urban residence on food patterns, food intake and nutrient adequacy in an Amazonian Peri?urban slum population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Christina de Mello Amorozo; Roger Shrimpton

    1984-01-01

    The influence of income and length of urban residence over the dietary patterns, food intakes and nutrient adequacies were investigated in a slum suburb of Manaus, capital of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The staple diet consisted of cassava flour, bread, rice, fish, meat, sugar and coffee. The consumption of vegetables, pulses and fruits was low. The diet did not

  9. Effect of feeding napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines as sole diets to dairy heifers on nutrient intake, weight gain and rumen degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Kariuki; C. K. Gachuiri; G. K. Gitau; S. Tamminga; J. van Bruchem; J. M. K. Muia; K. R. G. Irungu

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the nutrient intake, weight gain (ADG) and rumen degradation of napier grass (NG), lucerne (L) and sweet potato vines (SPV) fed to growing dairy heifers. In the first experiment, 33 Friesian heifers were randomly allocated to the three treatments namely; napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines which were fed for 104 days. In

  10. Improved diet quality, nutrient intake, and health associated with out-of-hand tree nut consumption in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HANES (1999–2004), data were used to examine the association of out-of-hand tree nut consumption (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) with diet quality, nutrient intakes, and health risks in adults 19+ yrs (n equals 13,292). Using 24 hour ...

  11. Nutrient intakes of middle-aged men and women in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States in the late 1990s: The INTERMAP Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BF Zhou; J Stamler; B Dennis; A Moag-Stahlberg; N Okuda; C Robertson; L Zhao; Q Chan; P Elliott

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare nutrient intakes among Chinese, Japanese, UK, and US INTERMAP samples, and assess possible relationships of dietary patterns to differential patterns of cardiovascular diseases between East Asian and Western countries. Based on a common Protocol and Manuals of Operations, high-quality dietary data were collected by four standardized 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h

  12. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of consumption of whole grains (WG) with diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents by a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to study children ...

  13. Nutrient Intake of Food Bank Users Is Related to Frequency of Food Bank Use, Household Size, Smoking, Education and Country of Birth1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Jacobs Starkey; Katherine Gray-Donald; Harriet V. Kuhnlein

    The number of individuals and families accessing food assistance programs has continued to grow throughout the 1990s. Despite the increased health risk among low-income people, few studies have addressed nutrient intake throughout the month or at the end of the month when food and financial resources are thought to be compromised, and no study has described dietary status of a

  14. Total fluid intake and use of individual beverages and risk of renal cell cancer in two large cohorts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Giovannucci, Edward; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C; Curhan, Gary C

    2006-06-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been inversely associated with risk of renal cell cancer in recent prospective studies, and increased total fluid intake has been hypothesized to be a possible mechanism. We prospectively examined the associations between total fluid and beverage intakes and risk of renal cell cancer. Among 88,759 women followed for 20 years in the Nurses' Health Study, and 47,828 men followed for 14 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we documented 248 incident cases of renal cell cancer. We assessed consumption of beverages every 2 to 4 years using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and total fluid intake was derived from the frequency of consumption of 18 to 22 beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate study-specific multivariate relative risks (RR), which were pooled using a random-effects model. We found no association between total fluid intake and risk of renal cell cancer; the pooled multivariate RR for the highest quartile versus the lowest was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.55; P, test for trend = 0.78). Alcohol intake was marginally inversely associated with renal cell cancer risk; compared with nondrinkers, the pooled multivariate RR for > or = 15 g/d was 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.00; P, test for trend = 0.07). We did not find clear associations between intakes of coffee, tea, milk, juice, soda, punch, and water and risk of renal cell cancer. Our data suggest an inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer, but do not support the hypothesis that greater total fluid intake reduces the risk of renal cell cancer. PMID:16775182

  15. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Marcos R.; Malik, Sajida; Diot, Alan; Rapa, Elizabeth; Macleod, Lorna; Morten, Karl; Vatish, Manu; Boyd, Richard; Poulton, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth. Method We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in mice at embryonic (E) day 18 (E18). Females maintained on either low- (LPD) or normal- (NPD) protein diets were mated with NPD males. Results To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos). High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta. Conclusions These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition. PMID:26132581

  16. Prediction of Genetic Values for Feed Intake from Individual Body Weight Gain and Total Feed Intake of the Pen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of individual feed intake (FI) and gain (G) were obtained from the Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) program at US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Animals were randomly assigned to pens. Only pens with 6 to 9 steers were used for this study (Data Set 1,289 steers). Variance components and g...

  17. Kuwait's total diet study: dietary intake of organochlorine, carbamate, benzimidazole and phenylurea pesticide residues.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, W N; al-Awadhi, F A; Saeed, T; al-Omair, A; Ahmad, N; Husain, A; Khalafawi, S; al-Omirah, H; Dashti, B; al-Amiri, H; al-Saqer, J

    1999-01-01

    The State of Kuwait in cooperation with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a Total Diet Study (TDS) to estimate intakes of pesticide residues by the population. The levels of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, carbamates, benzimidazoles, and phenylureas in the TDS core list are reported here. The TDS core list was established through a national food consumption survey. All food items (140 for the Kuwaiti adult) were prepared as eaten and analyzed for the pesticides mentioned above. The FDA's multiresidue methods in Volume I of the Pesticide Analytical Manual were used in gas, liquid, and gel permeation chromatographic analyses. Only vegetable and fruit samples contained pesticide residues (mg/kg), including the carbamates 1-naphthol (1.4) and 3H-carbofuran (0.94) in carrots; the OC pesticide vinclozolin (0.47), 3H-carbofuran (0.66), and fenuron (0.6) in kiwi fruit; the OC pesticide procymidone (0.32) and carbendazim (0.5) in grapes; 3H-carbofuran (5.0) in apricots; the OC pesticides captan (0.013) and thiabendazole (0.63) in pears; captan (0.035) in plums; and carbendazim (0.4) in mandarin oranges. The levels of 3H-carbofuran found in both apricots and kiwi fruit exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) of the United Nations. The daily intakes of pesticides by the different population groups are discussed in light of the FAO/WHO acceptable daily intakes. PMID:10589497

  18. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull. PMID:25049819

  19. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  20. Tree nut consumption improves nutrient intake and diet quality in US adults: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies assessing tree nut (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) consumption and the association with nutrient intake and diet quality are lacking. This study determined the association of tree nut consumption and nutrient intake and diet quality using a nationally representative sample of adults. Adults 19+ years (y) (n=13,292) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Intake was determined from 24-hour diet recalls; tree nut consumers were defined as those consuming > or =(1/4) ounce/day (7.09 g). Means, standard errors, and ANOVA (adjusted for covariates) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Among consumers, mean intake of tree nuts/tree nut butters was 1.19 +/- 0.04 oz/d versus 0.01 +/- 0.00 oz/d for non-consumers. In this study, 5.5 +/- 0.3 % of individuals 19-50 y (n=7,049) and 8.4 +/- 0.6 % of individuals 51+ y (n=6,243) consumed tree nuts/tree nut butters. Mean differences (p<0.01) between tree nut consumers and non-consumers of adult shortfall nutrients were: fiber (+5.0 g/d), vitamin E (+3.7 mg AT/d), calcium (+73 mg/d), magnesium (+95 mg/d), and potassium (+260 mg/d). Tree nut consumers had lower sodium intake (-157 mg/d, p<0.01). Diet quality was significantly higher in tree nut consumers (58.0+/-0.4 vs. 48.5+/-0.3, p<0.01). Tree nut consumption was associated with a higher overall diet quality score and improved nutrient intakes. Specific dietary recommendations for nut consumption should be provided for consumers. PMID:20200000

  1. Daily menus can result in suboptimal nutrient intakes, especially calcium, of adolescents living in dormitories.

    PubMed

    Kresi?, Greta; Simundi?, Borislav; Mandi?, Milena L; Kendel, Gordana; Zezelj, Sandra Pavici?

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate daily menus in Croatian dormitories and to assess the overall intake of dairy products among resident adolescents. For this purpose, 168 daily menus were chosen for nutritional evaluation by random sampling. In addition, 227 adolescents (133 girls and 94 boys) participated in a questionnaire focused on food intake in addition to the meals supplied in dormitories with the aim to assess the amount and the type of dairy products consumed. The results showed that only 35% of the daily menus were nutritionally balanced. Most of the menus provided an excess of energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated fat, phosphorus, riboflavin, and vitamin A. The levels of calcium and magnesium in the menus were suboptimal. The menus offered to adolescents provided approximately 2 servings of dairy products per day. Milk was the most often supplied dairy product (1.1 servings per day), whereas yogurt had the lowest frequency of serving (0.2 servings per day). The most preferred dairy-based snack for both sexes was milk. Dairy-based snacks provided about 1 serving per day for both sexes and contributed to about 30% of the recommended dietary allowances for calcium. Adolescents who regularly consumed dairy-based snacks meet the recommendations (3.2 servings of dairy products per day and about 98% recommended dietary allowances for calcium). We conclude that the institutional menu planning should be improved because the intake of dairy snacks will continue to be a problem for achieving a healthy diet in adolescences. PMID:19083403

  2. Influence of contrasting Prosopis/Acacia communities on diet selection and nutrient intake of steers 

    E-print Network

    Hanson, David Mark

    1987-01-01

    -km southwest of Alice, Texas 1n the eastern Rio Grande Plains. Esophageal 1 y fi stu lated and non-cannu lated steers were used to determine nut rient concentration and forage intake, respectively. Four, 21-d trials were initiated in laid... Research Area, Alice, Texas, 1985-86. Available forage class composition (X) within treatments in a picloram-treated community (PIC) and a chained mixed- brush corrrnunity (CHN) 3 and 7 years post treatment, respectively, at the La Copita Research Area...

  3. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Marina; Glibeti?, Maria; Gurinovi?, Mirjana; Mileševi?, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  4. Nutrient intake and urine composition in calcium oxalate stone-forming dogs: comparison with healthy dogs and impact of dietary modification.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Abigail E; Blackburn, Judith M; Markwell, Peter J; Robertson, William G

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient intake and urine composition were analyzed in calcium oxalate (CaOx)stone-forming and healthy control dogs to identify factors that contribute to CaOx urolithiasis. Stone-forming dogs had significantly lower intake of sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus and significantly higher urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx relative supersaturation (RSS). Feeding a diet used in the treatment of canine lower urinary tract disease for 1 month was associated with increased intake of moisture, sodium, and fat; reduced intake of potassium and calcium; and decreased urinary calcium and oxalate concentrations, calcium excretion, and CaOx RSS. No clinical signs of disease recurrence were observed in the stone-forming dogs when the diet was fed for an additional 11 months. The results suggest that hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths in dogs and show that dietary modifications can alter this process. PMID:15578454

  5. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved. PMID:23088901

  6. Comparison of energy intake in toddlers assessed by food frequency questionnaire and total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L; Truby, Helen; Morgan, Philip J; Wright, Ian M R; Davies, Peter S W; Callister, Robin

    2013-03-01

    The ability of parents to accurately report energy intake in toddlers has rarely been validated using the gold-standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method to assess total energy expenditure (TEE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of toddler energy intake (EI), estimated using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by parent report compared with a weighed food record (WFR) and TEE measured by DLW. Twelve toddlers had TEE assessed over 10 days using DLW. Usual energy intake was estimated by the primary caregiver, using standard toddler portions in ACAES-FFQ and a 4-day WFR and daily EI (in kilocalories) derived using national nutrient databases. Accuracy of reporting was calculated from absolute (EI-TEE) and percentage (EI/TEE×100) differences between EI and TEE and Pearson correlations and limits of agreement from Bland-Altman plots. Toddlers (n=12, 7 boys) had a mean age of 3.2±0.5 years, body mass index 16.2±0.9 kg, body mass index z score 0.1±0.8, EI from ACAES-FFQ 1,183±281kcal/day, and WFR 1,179±278 kcal/day and DLW TEE 1,251±149 kcal/day. The mean difference and limits of agreement (±2 standard deviations) compared with DLW was -68 (-623, 488) kcal/day for the FFQ and for the WFR -72 (-499, 354) kcal/day. Although both a semiquantitative FFQ and WFR can adequately estimate toddler energy intake at the group level in this population, toddler-specific portion size estimates should be assigned to foods listed in the FFQ. Choice of method is likely to depend on practical issues, including cost and burden. PMID:23317500

  7. Learn More about Dietary Supplements and Estimating Total Nutrient Intakes | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Dietary supplements are defined as products intended to supplement the diet that contain one or more dietary ingredients. Supplements are taken orally as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. The most commonly used dietary supplements are multivitamin-mineral products.

  8. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p < 0.001). The ATTD of CP in mink (77.8%) did not differ from AID, ACD (78.5%) and SID (79.6%) in dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p < 0.01) and for AA ranking with respect to digestibility level (p < 0.001). In dogs, ether extract digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs. PMID:24870271

  9. Total antioxidant intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Russnes, Kjell M; Wilson, Kathryn M; Epstein, Mara M; Kasperzyk, Julie L; Stampfer, Meir J; Kenfield, Stacey A; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Blomhoff, Rune; Giovannucci, Edward L; Willett, Walter C; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the association of antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence is inconsistent. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer incidence have not previously been examined. Using the ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of diet and supplements was assessed in relation to prostate cancer incidence. A prospective cohort of 47,896 men aged 40-75 years was followed from 1986 to 2008 for prostate cancer incidence (N = 5,656), and they completed food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) every 4 years. A FRAP value was assigned to each item in the FFQ, and for each individual, TAC scores for diet, supplements and both (total) were calculated. Major contributors of TAC intake at baseline were coffee (28%), fruit and vegetables (23%) and dietary supplements (23%). In multivariate analyses for dietary TAC a weak inverse association was observed [highest versus lowest quintiles: 0.91 (0.83-1.00, p-trend = 0.03) for total prostate cancer and 0.81 (0.64-1.01, p-trend = 0.04) for advanced prostate cancer]; this association was mainly due to coffee. No association of total TAC on prostate cancer incidence was observed. A positive association with lethal and advanced prostate cancers was observed in the highest quintile of supplemental TAC intake: 1.28 (0.98-1.65, p-trend < 0.01) and 1.15 (0.92-1.43, p-trend = 0.04). The weak association between dietary antioxidant intake and reduced prostate cancer incidence may be related to specific antioxidants in coffee, to nonantioxidant coffee compounds or other effects of drinking coffee. The indication of increased risk for lethal and advanced prostate cancers with high TAC intake from supplements warrants further investigation. PMID:23959920

  10. of 137 g ; with unripe banana these data were 86 g of crude protein after an intake of 104 g and with silaged banana, 83 g following an intake of 77 g of total crude protein.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of 137 g ; with unripe banana these data were 86 g of crude protein after an intake of 104 g and with silaged banana, 83 g following an intake of 77 g of total crude protein. With banana, the fermentations/1 with barley, us and 111 m eq/1 with unripe or silaged banana) ; the amounts of total volatile

  11. Correlates of anaemia in pregnant urban South Indian women: a possible role of dietary intake of nutrients that inhibit iron absorption

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Thomas, Tinku; Finkelstein, Julia; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women. Design Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes. Setting A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore. Subjects Pregnant women (n 366) aged ?18 and ?40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ?14 weeks of gestation. Results Mean age was 22.6 (SD 3.4) years, mean BMI was 20.4 (SD 3.3) kg/m2 and 236 (64.5%) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11.0g/dl) was 30.3% and of microcytic anaemia (anaemia with mean corpuscular volume <80fl) 20.2%. Mean dietary intakes of energy, Ca, Fe and folate were well below the Indian RDA. In multivariable log-binomial regression analysis, anaemia was independently associated with high dietary intakes of Ca (relative risk; 95% CI: 1.79; 1.16, 2.76) and P (1.96; 1.31, 2.96) and high intake of meat, fish and poultry (1.94; 1.29, 2.91). Conclusions Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India. PMID:22575487

  12. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on ruminal fluid pH, feed intake, nutrient utilization and growth of lambs fed high concentrate diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K Tripathi; A Santra; O. H Chaturvedi; S. A Karim

    2004-01-01

    This experiment studied effects of increasing levels of dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on ruminal fluid pH, feed intake, nutrient utilization, body weight (BW) gain and feed conversion efficiency of lambs fed high concentrate diets offered ad libitum. Forty weaner (90 days) Malpura lambs, divided into four equal groups, were fed levels of NaHCO3: 0 (control), 7.5, 15.0, or 22.5g NaHCO3

  13. Effect of water deprivation on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and metabolic water production in goats under semi-arid zone of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K Misra; Khub Singh

    2002-01-01

    Effect of water deprivation on dry matter (DM) intake, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and metabolic water production was studied in bucks of Sirohi, Marwari and Kutchi breeds during August–September. Eighteen adult bucks (4–4.5 years of age), six each of the above-mentioned breeds were divided into three treatment groups in such a way that each group had two bucks of each

  14. Effect of different planes of nutrition on urea molasses mineral block intake, nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation pattern and blood profile in Murrah buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Hosamani; U. R. Mehra; R. S. Dass

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of plane of nutrition on intake and nutrient utilization from urea molasses mineral block (UMMB), rumen fermentation pattern and blood biochemical constituents, 20 intact and 12 rumen fistulated male Murrah buffaloes aged about 3 years and weighing 320.3±13.11kg were randomly distributed into four groups of eight animals in each, thus each group having five

  15. Effects of hay inclusion on intake, in vivo nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation of goats fed spineless cactus ( Opuntia fícus-indica Mill) based diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Vieira; Â. M. V. Batista; A. Guim; F. F. Carvalho; A. C. Nascimento; R. F. S. Araújo; A. F. Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the minimum level of tifton bermudagrass hay (TH) required to maximize cactus intake by buck goats without compromising nutrient utilization or ruminal fermentation. Five ruminally fistulated goats were used in a 5×5 Latin square experiment with 17-day periods. Experimental diets contained (g\\/kg dry matter (DM) basis) 765, 670, 572, 473 and 373 spineless cactus

  16. Changes in time-trends of nutrient intake from fortified and non-fortified food in German children and adolescents – 15 year results of the DONALD Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Sichert-Hellert; Mathilde Kersting; Friedrich Manz

    2001-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background: Although fortified products have played an increasing role in food marketing since the 1980 s in Germany, data as to the\\u000a consumption of fortified food is sparse. Aim of the study: To assess long-term data on changes in fortified food supply or consumption patterns, nutrient intake, and time trends in\\u000a the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally

  17. Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-01-14

    The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

  18. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  19. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  20. Assessing adolescent lifestyle factors and their effects on obesity indicators and nutrient intake 

    E-print Network

    Odefey, Misti Nicole

    2000-01-01

    , gallstones, diabetes, and increased serum lipids and lipoproteins. (Gortmaker et al. 1990). The genesis of atherosclerosis occurs in childhood (Weihang and Srinivasan 1997) along with elevated serum total cholesterol and blood pressure (Must et al. 1992... et al. 1996). Pate also found that decreased physical activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, increase in television viewing, and a decrease in academic performance (Pate et al. 1996). Television and Physical Activity One...

  1. Comparative validity of the ASSO–Food Frequency Questionnaire for the web-based assessment of food and nutrients intake in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Filippi, Anna Rita; Breda, João; Censi, Laura; Amodio, Emanuele; Napoli, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Monèm; Firenze, Alberto; Mammina, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background A new web-based food frequency questionnaire (the ASSO–FFQ) was developed within the ASSO Project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the validity of the ASSO–FFQ at food groups, energy, and nutrients level. Design and subjects The validation study compared the ASSO–FFQ against a weighted food record (WFR) measuring foods, beverages and supplements intake, compiled during the week following the ASSO–FFQ administration. Ninety-two subjects aged 14–17, recruited from secondary schools in Palermo (Italy), completed the ASSO–FFQ and WFR. The intake of 24 food groups, energy, and 52 nutrients were taken as main outcomes. Tests for paired observations, Spearman and Pearson’s correlation coefficients (cc), kappa statistics and classification in quintiles, Bland–Altman plots and multiple regressions, on untransformed and transformed data were used for the statistical analysis. Results High cc (?0.40) were found for soft drinks, milk, tea/coffee, vegetables, and lactose; fair energy-adjusted cc (0.25–0.40) for water, alcoholic drinks, breakfast cereals, fishery products, savory food, fruit juice, eggs, and 19 nutrients. The subjects classified in the same or adjacent quintile for food groups ranged from 40% (alcoholic drinks) to 100% (dried fruit); for energy and nutrients from 43% (phosphorus, thiamin, niacin) to 77% (lactose). Mean differences were not significant for water, soft drinks, meat, sweets, animal fats, milk and white bread, and vitamin B12 and folate. Limits of Agreement were broad for all food groups and nutrients. School, gender, alcohol consumption and between meals mainly affected most food groups’ intake differences. Gender stratification showed females had increased Pearson’s cc for energy and 28 nutrients, such as almost all fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Conclusions The ASSO–FFQ could be applied in epidemiological studies for the assessment of dietary consumption in adolescents to adequately rank food, energy and nutrient intakes at a group level. PMID:25882537

  2. Web-Enabled and Improved Software Tools and Data Are Needed to Measure Nutrient Intakes and Physical Activity for Personalized Health Research123

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009. PMID:20980656

  3. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. PMID:25465561

  4. A meta-analysis of nutrient intake, feed efficiency and performance in cattle grazing on tropical grasslands.

    PubMed

    Boval, M; Edouard, N; Sauvant, D

    2015-06-01

    It is essential to quantify the potential of tropical grasslands to allow significant feed efficiency for grazing livestock in controlled conditions such as at pasture. We conducted a quantitative analysis of published studies reporting the experimental results of average daily gains (ADG) and diet characteristics obtained specifically under grazing conditions (17 publications and 41 experiments), which have been less studied compared with controlled conditions in stalls. The database was analyzed to determine the average and range of values obtained for ADG (g/kg BW), dry matter digestibility, intake (DMI) and digestible DMI (DDMI, g/kg BW) and feed conversion efficiencies (FCE), as well as to predict the response of these parameters to the main strategies investigated in the literature - that is, mainly the stocking rate (SR) and the concentrate intake (CI). The ADG reached 1.2 kg BW per day and was directly linked to DDMI (ADG=-1.63+0.42 DDMI -0.0084 DDMI2, n=90, r.m.s.e=0.584, R 2=0.93). The DDMI, which was representative of the nutrient input, was driven mainly by DMI rather than dry matter digestibility, whereas these two parameters did not correlate (r=0.068, P=0.56). The average global FCE (0.11 g ADG/g DDMI) showed a greater association with the metabolic FCE (0.17 g ADG/g DMI) than the digestive FCE (0.62). The CI (g DM/kg BW) increased ADG (ADG=2376+CI 56.1, n=16, r.m.s.e.=441, R 2=0.95). The SR expressed as kg BW/ha decreased the individual ADG by 1.19 g/kg BW per additional ton of BW/ha, whereas the global ADG calculated per ha increased by 0.57 per additional ton BW/ha. When the SR was expressed as kg BW/ton DM and per ha rather than as kg BW/ha, the impact on the individual ADG decreased by 0.18 or 0.86 g per additional ton BW/ha, depending on the initial BW of the cattle. These results provide a better view of the potential performance and feeding of cattle in tropical grasslands. The results provide an improved quantification of the relationships between diet and performance, as well as the overall quantitative impact of SR and supplementation. PMID:25602719

  5. TOTAL AND SATURATED FAT INTAKE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the macronutrient composition of intake and waist circumference. METHODS: Regression analysis evaluated the relationship between composition and waist circumference. SAMPLE: This study used data from the third National ...

  6. Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index Based on the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) Using National French and US Dietary Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Verger, Eric O.; Mariotti, François; Holmes, Bridget A.; Paineau, Damien; Huneau, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation. Objective To develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations. Material and Methods The PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet score and energy intake were investigated. We evaluated the construct validity of the index by comparing scores for population sub-groups with ‘a priori’ differences in diet quality, according to smoking status, energy density, food intakes, plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations. French and US implementations of the PANDiet were developed and evaluated using national nutritional recommendations and dietary surveys. Results The PANDiet was not correlated with energy for the French implementation (r?=??0.02, P>0.05) and correlated at a low level for the US implementation (r?=??0.11, P<0.0001). In both implementations, a higher PANDiet score (i.e. a better diet quality) was associated with not smoking, having a lower-energy-dense diet, consuming higher amounts of fruits, vegetables, fish, milk and other dairy products and lower amounts of cheese, pizza, eggs, meat and processed meat, and having higher plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations after controlling for appropriate factors (all P<0.05, carotenoid data for US not available). Conclusions The PANDiet provides a single score that measures the adequacy of nutrient intake and reflects diet quality. This index is adaptable for use in different countries and relevant at the individual and population levels. PMID:22870293

  7. Dietary and supplemental intake of one-carbon nutrients and the risk of type I and type II endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Uccella, S.; Mariani, A.; Wang, A. H.; Vierkant, R. A.; Robien, K.; Anderson, K. E.; Cerhan, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type I and II endometrial cancer are biologically and clinically distinct, with type II cancers having a high frequency of p53 mutations and an association with chromosomal instability. This raises the hypothesis that one-carbon nutrients (folate, methionine, and the enzymic cofactors vitamins B2, B6, and B12), which mediate chromosomal stability and DNA methylation, may be protective for type II but not type I endometrial cancer. Methods: Using a prospective cohort of 23 356 postmenopausal women followed 20 years, we estimated the relative risks (RRs) of type I (N?=?471) and II (N?=?71) endometrial cancers according to intake of one-carbon nutrients, adjusting for confounders. Results: No associations were observed between dietary or supplemental intake of any one-carbon nutrient and risk of type I cancer. For type II cancer, positive associations were due to supplemental, rather than dietary, intake of these nutrients: supplemental folate (RR?=?1.80 for >228.6 versus 0 ?g/day; P trend?=?0.027) and vitamins B2 (RR?=?1.94 for >1.70 versus 0 mg/day; P trend?=?0.011), B6 (RR?=?2.08 for >2.00 versus 0 mg/day; P trend?=?0.012), and B12 (RR?=?2.10 for >3.43 versus 0 ?g/day; P trend?=?0.0060). Conclusion: Contrary to our hypothesis, use of supplements containing folate and vitamins B2, B6, and B12 was associated with an increased risk of type II endometrial cancer. PMID:21324952

  8. Consumption of grapefruit is associated with higher nutrient intakes and diet quality among adults, and more favorable anthropometrics in women, NHANES 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary M.; Barraj, Leila M.; Rampersaud, Gail C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary guidance recommends consumption of a nutrient-dense diet containing a variety of fruits. The purpose of this study was to estimate usual nutrient intakes and adequacy of nutrient intakes among adult grapefruit consumers and non-consumers, and to examine associations between grapefruit consumption and select health parameters. Methods The analysis was conducted with data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2008. Respondents reporting consumption of any amount of grapefruit or 100% grapefruit juice at least once during the 2 days of dietary recall were classified as grapefruit consumers. Results Among adults aged 19+ years with 2 days of dietary recall (n=12,789), 2.5% of males and 2.7% of females reported consumption of 100% grapefruit juice or fresh, canned, or frozen grapefruit during the recalls. Grapefruit consumers were less likely to have usual intakes of vitamin C (males: 0% vs. 47%; females: 0% vs. 43%; P<0.001) and magnesium (P<0.05) below the estimated average requirement (EAR) compared to non-consumers, and they were more likely to meet adequate intake levels for dietary fiber (P<0.05). Potassium and ?-carotene intakes were significantly higher among grapefruit consumers (P<0.001). Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was higher in grapefruit consumers (males: 66.2 [95% CI: 61.0–71.5] vs. 55.4 [95% CI: 54.4–56.4]; females: 71.4 [95% CI: 65.1–77.6] vs. 61.2 [95% CI: 59.8–62.6]). Among women, grapefruit consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<0.05), However, risk of being overweight/obese was not associated with grapefruit consumption. Conclusion Consumption of grapefruit was associated with higher intakes of vitamin C, magnesium, potassium, dietary fiber, and improved diet quality. Grapefruit may provide a healthful option for adults striving to meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25006335

  9. Dietary B vitamin intakes and urinary total arsenic concentration in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Argos; Paul J. Rathouz; Brandon L. Pierce; Tara Kalra; Faruque Parvez; Vesna Slavkovich; Alauddin Ahmed; Yu Chen; Habibul Ahsan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the effects of dietary B vitamin intakes on creatinine-adjusted urinary total\\u000a arsenic concentration among individuals participating in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort in\\u000a Araihazar, Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where nearly 77 million people have\\u000a been chronically exposed to arsenic through the consumption

  10. Optimal foraging for specific nutrients in predatory beetles.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Clissold, Fiona J; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that animals should forage to maximize their fitness, which in predators is traditionally assumed equivalent to maximizing energy intake rather than balancing the intake of specific nutrients. We restricted female predatory ground beetles (Anchomenus dorsalis) to one of a range of diets varying in lipid and protein content, and showed that total egg production peaked at a target intake of both nutrients. Other beetles given a choice to feed from two diets differing only in protein and lipid composition selectively ingested nutrient combinations at this target intake. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced diets, beetles balanced the over- and under-ingestion of lipid and protein around a nutrient composition that maximized egg production under those constrained circumstances. Selective foraging for specific nutrients in this predator thus maximizes its reproductive performance. Our findings have implications for predator foraging behaviour and in the structuring of ecological communities. PMID:22237910

  11. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion. PMID:26074227

  12. Dietary fat and fibre intakes of Malaysian adults: issues and implications when 'western targets' are set as dietary goals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ng TKW

    This article examines the fat and fibre intakes of Malaysian adults and highlights discrepancies and practical limitations if these intakes are to match the levels for these nutrients advocated in the World Health Organisation (WHO) and American Heart Association (AHA) 'diet models'. Local data on food consumption showed that the total fat intakes amongst Malaysian adults, contrary to common perception,

  13. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, especially for studies involving both the female and male HH. PMID:22123043

  14. Predicting Average Feed Intake of Lactating Holstein Cows Fed Totally Mixed Rations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fuentes-Pila; M. Ibañez; J. M. De Miguel; D. K. Beede

    2003-01-01

    A dry matter intake (DMI) prediction equation was estimated by using a data file that contained 124 treat- ment means collected from published studies. Animal factors considered for inclusion in the prediction model were body weight (BW) and its natural logarithm, BW0.75, milk yield (MY) and its natural logarithm, milk fatandproteinyields,monthoflactationanditssquare, as well as its natural logarithm. The dietary factors

  15. EFFECTS OF FORAGE PARTICLE SIZE, LEVEL OF FEED INTAKE AND SUPPLEMENTAL PROTEIN DEGRADABILITY ON MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND SITE OF NUTRIENT DIGESTION IN STEERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Firkins; L. L. Berger; N. R. Merchen; G. C. Fahey

    2010-01-01

    A 2 s factorial arrangement of treatments was used to study main effects and interactions between particle size of prairie hay (chopped vs ground), two levels of feed intake (60 and 90% of ad libitum) and ruminal degradability of protein sources (dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) vs dry distillers grains (DDG)) on ruminal and total tract digestion in eight ruminai-

  16. Effect of carbohydrate and fat intake on nitrogen excretion during total intravenous feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Long, J M; Wilmore, D W; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1977-01-01

    Recent availability of intravenous soy bean oil emulsion for clinical trials in the United States prompted infusion of intravenous diets containing a constant nitrogen level (11.7 grams/m2/day) and 13 different combinations of carbohydrate (110-2300 kcal/m2/day) and fat (0-1100 kcal/m2/day) during 34 three-day studies in 5 patients who were clinically stable after injury or operation. Urea nitrogen excretion was inversely related to carbohydrate intake (P less than 0.01) and directly related to resting metabolic rate (P less than 0.01). Fat infusion did not affect nitrogen excretion at any level of carbohydrate intake. This study suggests that, when a primary clinical goal is nitrogen conservation, carbohydrate calories should be given in amounts approximating the resting metabolic rate. Additional calories and essential fatty acids now can be safely given as intravenous fat emulsion, but fat did not affect nitrogen conservation under the conditions of this study. PMID:402892

  17. Effects of prey macronutrient content on body composition and nutrient intake in a web-building spider.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Jesse; Simpson, Stephen J; Wilder, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional composition of diets can vary widely in nature and have large effects on the growth, reproduction and survival of animals. Many animals, especially herbivores, will tightly regulate the nutritional composition of their body, which has been referred to as nutritional homeostasis. We tested how experimental manipulation of the lipid and protein content of live prey affected the nutrient reserves and subsequent diet regulation of web-building spiders, Argiope keyserlingi. Live locusts were injected with experimental solutions containing specific amounts of lipid and protein and then fed to spiders. The nutrient composition of the spiders' bodies was directly related to the nutrient composition of the prey on which they fed. We then conducted an experiment where spiders were fed either high lipid or high protein prey and subsequently provided with two large unmanipulated locusts. Prior diet did not affect the amount or ratio of lipid and protein ingested by spiders when feeding on unmanipulated prey. Argiope keyserlingi were flexible in the storage of lipid and protein in their bodies and did not bias their extraction of nutrients from prey to compensate for previously biased diets. Some carnivores, especially those that experience frequent food limitation, may be less likely to strictly regulate their body composition than herbivores because food limitation may encourage opportunistic ingestion and assimilation of nutrients. PMID:24911958

  18. EFFECT OF INITIAL BODY CONDITION OF BOER X SPANISH YEARLING WETHERS AND LEVEL OF NUTRIENT INTAKE ON BODY COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers were used to assess effects of initial body condition and level of feed intake on body composition. Before the experiment, 27 wethers were fed to achieve high body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5, with 1 = extremely thin and 5 = extremely fat) and BW (I-F) and 27 were f...

  19. Valorization of rapeseed meal. 5. Effects of sinapine and other phenolic compounds on food intake and nutrient

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Valorization of rapeseed meal. 5. Effects of sinapine and other phenolic compounds on food intake of 10 growing rats each were fed ad libitum for 15 days one of six diets : diet A, rapeseed (3.80 g of sinapine/kg DM) ; diet B, ethanol/water-extracted rapeseed (0.48 g of sinapine) ; diet C, control diet

  20. Low Vitamin D Status and Inadequate Nutrient Intakes of Elementary School Children in a Highly Educated Pacific Northwest Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Are Extension healthy youth programs needed in highly educated U.S. communities? To answer this question, 175 children from four public elementary schools in Corvallis, Oregon, self-reported in a cross-sectional study their dietary intake, and 71 children provided a blood sample for measuring vitamin D concentrations. Most children had…

  1. Nutrient intake in an elderly population in Southern France (POLANUT): deficiency in some vitamins, minerals and 3 PUFA.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    combine the typical elements of the Mediterranean diet (high intake of olive oil, fruit and vegetables cohort from a French Mediterranean area. Design: Cross-sectional nutritional assessment in the framework) with those of the "wealthy" diet (high in fats and free sugars, low in complex carbohydrates). Since we have

  2. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on nutrient intake and weight gain of Red Sokoto goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Belewu; A. A. Yahaya

    2008-01-01

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% Aspergillus treated SBC), C (15% untreated SBC), D (7.5% Aspergillus treated SBC) and

  3. Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad; Maity, Subendu Bikas; Singh, Krishan Kunwar; Das, Nityanand

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207?±?9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22%). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20% less and 20% more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P?nutrient (CP and ME) conversion efficiency to produce a unit kilogram weight gain was identical among the dietary groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on the heifer's weight and age at puberty. The mean growth rate of heifers at 240 days was higher (P?>?0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results revealed that 20% higher or less protein than the ICAR requirement had no significant (P?>?0.05) on feed intake, nutrient conversion efficiency for weight gain, heifer growth, and puberty; however, 20% more protein increased urinary N loss. PMID:25407740

  4. Adiponectin gene SNP 276G --> T, nutrient intakes, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean type 2 DM patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, So Young; Ryu, Han Kyoung; Park, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in adiponectin gene has been associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was performed to investigate the association of SNP 276G-->T at adiponectin gene with CVD risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The subjects were 351 type 2 DM patients visited a DM clinic in Seoul, and the patients with known CVD were excluded. The adiponectin SNP 276G-->T was analyzed and dietary intakes were assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of G/G, G/T, and T/T genotype was 47.6%, 43.3%, and 9.1%, respectively. Male subjects with T/T genotype showed significantly lower level of adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol and significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level compared to G/G and G/T genotypes. In G/G genotype, protein intake was negatively correlated to body weight, BMI, and waist circumference, and there were positive correlation between carbohydrate intake and BMI, waist-hip ratio, and ApoB/apoA-1 ratio in G/T genotype. However, in T/T genotype, there was no significant association between macronutrient intakes and anthropometric and hematological values. In conclusion, CVD risk would be high in type 2 DM patients with T/T genotype, and the association of macronutrient intakes with anthropometric and hematologic factors was different among the three adiponectin genotypes. These results may imply the need for different dietary management regime according to adiponectin genotype to lower CVD complications in Korean type 2 DM patients. PMID:20368963

  5. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, ?-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P?nutrient profile of the total diet and is compatible with weight management and improvement in specific blood lipids. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937222 PMID:24450471

  6. The association of pre-sweetened(PS) or non-PS(NPS) ready to eat cereal(RTEC) or other breakfast(OB) with nutrient intake, diet quailty, and body weight measures of children and adolescents aged 9 to 18 years:NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of a PS or NPS RTEC or OB with nutrient intake, diet quality, and body weight measures of children aged 9-13 (y) (n=1790) and 14-18y (n=1826) NHANES, 1999-2002. Nutrient intakes, mean adequacy ratios (MAR) (average percentage of the Estimate...

  7. NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOADS FOR FIVE NORTH DAKOTA RESERVOIRS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five North Dakota reservoirs will be target for the development of a sediment nutrient TMDL. For each TMDL, a project specific QAPP will be developed. As part of each TMDL, field sampling will include tributary discharge and chemical sampling, lake sampling, and the development...

  8. A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...

  9. Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Oosting

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in vitro degradation if the ammonia-nitrogen concentration in the substrate was below 60-100 mg\\/l. No effect of

  10. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

  11. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687

  12. Do Adolescent Vitamin-Mineral Supplement Users Have Better Nutrient Intakes Than Nonusers? Observations from the CATCH Tracking Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHANNA T DWYER; ANNE O GARCEAU; MARGUERITE EVANS; DONGLIN LI; LESLIE LYTLE; DEANNA HOELSCHER; THERESA A NICKLAS; MICHELLE ZIVE

    2001-01-01

    Objective Describe whether users of vitamin-mineral supplements differed from nonusers in micronutrient intakes or in nutrition awareness.Design Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects One thousand five hundred thirty-two students now in grade 8, who participated in the Third Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health tracking study and who also provided a single 24-hour dietary recall.Statistical analyses performed Mixed-model analysis of covariance

  13. Comparison of Two Methods – Regression Predictive Model and Intake Shift Model – For Adjusting Self-Reported Dietary Recall of Total Energy Intake of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, Joanna; Perry, Sharon; Parsonnet, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Daily dietary intake data derived from self-reported dietary recall surveys are widely considered inaccurate. In this study, methods were developed for adjusting these dietary recalls to more plausible values. In a simulation model of two National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), NHANES I and NHANES 2007–2008, a predicted one-third of raw data fell outside a range of physiologically plausible bounds for dietary intake (designated a 33% failure rate baseline). To explore the nature and magnitude of this bias, primary data obtained from an observational study were used to derive models that predicted more plausible dietary intake. Two models were then applied for correcting dietary recall bias in the NHANES datasets: (a) a linear regression to model percent under-reporting as a function of subject characteristics and (b) a shift of dietary intake reports to align with experimental data on energy expenditure. After adjustment, the failure rates improved to <2% with the regression model and 4–9% with the intake shift model – both substantial improvements over the raw data. Both methods gave more reliable estimates of plausible dietary intake based on dietary recall and have the potential for more far-reaching application in correction of self-reported exposures. PMID:25506048

  14. Fish Intake and Risks of Total and Cause-specific Mortality in 2 Population-based Cohort Studies of 134,296 Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Yumie; Zhang, Xianglan; Li, Honglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yang, Gong; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Despite a proposed protective effect of fish intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease, epidemiologic evidence on fish intake and mortality is inconsistent. We investigated associations of fish intake, assessed through a validated food frequency questionnaire, with risks of total and cause-specific mortality in 2 prospective cohort studies of 134,296 Chinese men and women (1997–2009). Vital status and date and cause of death were ascertained through annual linkage to the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry database and biennial home visits. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. After excluding the first year of observation, the analysis included 3,666 deaths among women and 2,170 deaths among men. Fish intake was inversely associated with risks of total, ischemic stroke, and diabetes mortality; the corresponding hazard ratios for the highest quintiles of intake compared with the lowest were 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 0.92), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.94), and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.95), respectively. No associations with cancer or ischemic heart disease mortality were observed. Further analyses suggested that the inverse associations with total, ischemic stroke, and diabetes mortality were primarily related to consumption of saltwater fish and intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall, our findings support the postulated health benefits of fish consumption. PMID:23788668

  15. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  16. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. The objective was to examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with ...

  17. Vitamin D Addendum to USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0: Database developed for estimating vitamin D intakes from food and water in What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D has been identified as a nutrient of top public health concern because of its role in bone health and its link to other diseases and conditions. However, there are many knowledge gaps in the study of vitamin D, including lack of updated analytical data and accurate intake estimates from na...

  18. Effects of Frequency of Supplementation on Dry Matter Intake and Net Portal and Hepatic Flux of Nutrients in Mature Ewes That Consume Low-Quality Forage1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clint R. Krehbiel; Calvin L. Ferrell; Harvey C. Freetly; Roman L. Hruska

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of frequency of soybean meal (SBM) sup- plementation on forage intake and net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic flux of nutrients in ewes that consume low-quality forage. Six Polled Dorset ewes (BW ± SD = 82 ± 9 kg) fitted with hepatic venous, hepatic portal, abdominal aortic, and mesen- teric venous catheters were

  19. Presweetened and nonpresweetened ready-to-eat cereals at breakfast are associated with improved nutrient intake but not with increased body weight of children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared nutrient intake and body weight measures in children 4 to 8 (n = 1480) and 9 to 13 (n = 1790) and adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (n = 1826) participating in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and consuming a presweetened ready-to-eat cereal, a non-presw...

  20. US Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study: Dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarence William Murray; Sara Kathleen Egan; Henry Kim; Nega Beru; Philip Michael Bolger

    2008-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has conducted the Total Diet Study (TDS) since 1961, which designed to monitor the US food supply for chemical contaminants, nutritional elements, and toxic elements. Recently, perchlorate was analyzed in TDS samples. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket propellant, is found in other items (e.g., explosives, road flares, fireworks, and

  1. Total Fat Intake Modifies Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Humans1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Raatz; Douglas Bibus; William Thomas; Penny Kris-Etherton

    Plasma fatty acid composition reflects dietary fatty acids. Whether the total fat content of the diet alters the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol and free fatty acids is unknown. To evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diets on plasma fatty acids, a 12-wk, randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was conducted in healthy men and

  2. Nutrient intake and health status of vegans. Chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils-Georg Asp; Knud Berthelsen; Dowen Birkhed; Ingrid Dencker; Kurt Kolar; Baboo M. Nair; Peter Nilsson-Ehle; Ake Nord; Solvig Rassner; Sven Svensson; BjOrn Akesson; Per-Arne Ockerman

    A strict vegetarian diet (vegan diet (VD)l was investigated. Six middle-aged vegans (three men and three women) collected copies of 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition was determined in detail and compared with corresponding figures ofa normal mixed Swedish diet. In the VD 30% ofthe energy originated from fat compared with 40%

  3. Associations among total and food additive phosphorus intake and carotid intima-media thickness – a cross-sectional study in a middle-aged population in Southern Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary phosphorus (P) intake in Western countries is 2- to 3-fold higher than recommended, and phosphate is widely used as a food additive in eg. cola beverages and processed meat products. Elevated serum phosphate concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CVD itself in several studies in patients with renal dysfunction and in a few studies in the general population. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a CVD risk factor, thus the aim of the study was to determine if an association between dietary P, especially food additive phosphate (FAP), intake, and IMT exists. Methods Associations among total phosphorus (TP) and FAP intake and carotid IMT were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 37- to 47-year-old females (n?=?370) and males (n?=?176) in Finland. Associations among TP intake, FAP intake, and IMT were tested by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in quintiles (TP) and sextiles (FAP) using sex, age, low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, smoking status, and IMT sonographer as covariates. Results No significant associations were present between TP or FAP intake and IMT (p?>?0.05, ANCOVA), but in between-group comparisons some differences were found indicating higher IMT among subjects with higher P intake. When testing for a significant linear trend with contrast analysis, a positive trend was observed between energy-adjusted TP intake and IMT among all subjects (p?=?0.039), and among females a tendency for a trend existed (p?=?0.067). Among all subjects, a significant positive linear trend was also present between FAP intake and IMT (p?=?0.022); this trend was also seen in females (p?=?0.045). In males, no significant associations or trends were noted between TP or FAP intake and IMT (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Our results indicate that a significant linear trend exists between energy-adjusted TP intake and FAP intake, and IMT among all subjects. Based on these results, high dietary P intake should be further investigated due to its potential association with adverse cardiovascular health effects in the general population. PMID:23841978

  4. Pyridoxic acid excretion during low vitamin B-6 intake, total fasting, and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coburn, S. P.; Thampy, K. G.; Lane, H. W.; Conn, P. S.; Ziegler, P. J.; Costill, D. L.; Mahuren, J. D.; Fink, W. J.; Pearson, D. R.; Schaltenbrand, W. E.

    1995-01-01

    Vitamin B-6 metabolism in 10 volunteers during 21 d of total fasting was compared with results from 10 men consuming a diet low only in vitamin B-6 (1.76 mumol/d) and with men consuming a normal diet during bed rest. At the end of the fast mean plasma concentrations of vitamin B-6 metabolites and urinary excretion of 4-pyridoxic acid tended to be higher in the fasting subjects than in the low-vitamin B-6 group. The fasting subjects lost approximately 10% of their total vitamin B-6 pool and approximately 13% of their body weight. The low-vitamin B-6 group lost only approximately 4% of their vitamin B-6 pool. Compared with baseline, urinary excretion of pyridoxic acid was significantly increased during 17 wk of bed rest. There was no increase in pyridoxic acid excretion during a second 15-d bed rest study. These data suggest the possibility of complex interactions between diet and muscle metabolism that may influence indexes that are frequently used to assess vitamin B-6 status.

  5. Effects of Calcium Carbonate on Ruminal Fermentation, Nutrient Digestibility, and Cow Performance1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Clark; A. W. Plegge; C. L. Davis; G. C. McCoy

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (four replicates) to investigate the effect of feeding calcium carbonate on feed intake, ruminal fermentation, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield, and milk compo- sition. Supplementation of calcium car- bonate to diets that contained 60% concentrate and 40% corn silage (DM basis) decreased DM intake and

  6. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. RESULTS Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. CONCLUSIONS As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention. PMID:25489407

  7. Relationship between wheat characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers: comparison between total collection and marker (titanium dioxide) technique.

    PubMed

    Smeets, N; Nuyens, F; Van Campenhout, L; Delezie, E; Pannecoucque, J; Niewold, T

    2015-07-01

    Three wheat cultivars (Orpheus, Rustic, and Viscount) were used to formulate 3 test feeds (62.4% wheat) in a broiler digestibility trial. The diets were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The wheat cultivars mainly differed in their amount of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSP: ). The cultivar Orpheus was chosen to represent a high amount of NSP (102 g/kg DM), whereas the cultivars Rustic and Viscount represented low amounts of NSP (83.4?g/kg DM and 73.9 g/kg DM, respectively). Furthermore, the cultivars Orpheus and Viscount were feed quality wheat, whereas Rustic was a milling quality wheat. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn contents of the diets were measured from 18 to 22-days-old by total excreta collection, or with the use of the indigestible marker titanium dioxide. In addition, the ileal viscosity was measured when the broilers were 25-days-old. Wheat cultivar affected N retention, DM digestibility, and AMEn. In general, the feed formulated with the high NSP wheat cultivar Orpheus resulted in the least favorable nutrient digestibilities and AMEn, whereas the results were better when the feed was formulated with the low NSP cultivars Viscount and Rustic. Feeding the Rustic cultivar caused the highest intestinal viscosity, although this was not reflected in the animal responses. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn content of the diets were lower when calculated with the titanium dioxide marker than with the total excreta collection procedure. Moreover, the P-values of the effect of wheat cultivar on DM digestibility, N retention, crude fat digestibility and AMEn were lower with the use of the titanium dioxide marker. It can be concluded that wheat cultivar affected nutrient digestibility and AMEn, and that the observed differences were related to the amount of NSP. Furthermore, both the titanium dioxide marker and the total excreta collection methods showed the same trends despite the different values obtained. The titanium dioxide marker method was the simplest to use and produced valid results. PMID:25971947

  8. Major nutrient patterns and bone mineral density among postmenopausal Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Karamati, Mohsen; Yousefian-Sanni, Mahboobeh; Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the influence of overall nutrient intake on bone mineral density (BMD) is limited because most studies to date have focused on the intakes of calcium, vitamin D, or a few isolated nutrients. Therefore, we examined the association of major nutrient patterns with BMD in a sample of postmenopausal Iranian women. In this cross-sectional study, 160 women aged 50-85 years were studied and their lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168-item food frequency questionnaire, and daily intakes of 30 nutrients were calculated. All nutrient intakes were energy adjusted by the residual method and were submitted to principal component factor analysis to identify major nutrient patterns. Overall, three major nutrient patterns were identified, among which only the first pattern, which was high in folate, total fiber, vitamin B6, potassium, vitamin A (as retinol activity equivalent), vitamin C, ?-carotene, vitamin K, magnesium, copper, and manganese, had a significant association with BMD. After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate adjusted mean of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertile of the first pattern scores was significantly higher than those in the lowest tertile (mean difference 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.15; P = 0.01). A nutrient pattern similar to pattern 1, which is associated with high intakes of fruits and vegetables, may be beneficial for bone health in postmenopausal Iranian women. PMID:24687522

  9. Effect of Different Feeding Frequency Employing Total Mixed Ration (TMR) on Dry Matter Intake and Milk Yield in Dairy Cows during the Winter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. KUDRNA

    Kudrna V.: Effect of Different Feeding Frequency Employing Total Mixed Ration (TMR) on Dry Matter Intake and Milk Yield in Dairy Cows during the Winter . Acta Vet. Brno 2003, 72: 533-539. The aim of the study was to study the effects of changes in feeding frequency of TMR (2 - 1 - 2 times a day) on milk yield

  10. Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture - A 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15 to 17-y follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. 366 men and 59...

  11. CALORIC INTAKE AND DIETARY FAT TO CARBOHYDRATE RATIO INFLUENCE BODY WEIGHT ACCRETION AND ADIPOSITY IN RATS FED BY TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of high energy high-fat diets leads to weight gain and adiposity in rodents. However the relative roles of higher caloric intake vs. increased dietary fat remain unclear. Low carbohydrate high fat diets, like the Atkins diet, claim to promote weight loss. We employed a total enteral nutr...

  12. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    PubMed

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen synthesis. Of cardinal importance may be the lower intake of calcium in the keloid patients that may contribute to abnormal cell signal transduction in fibroblasts and consequent collagen overproduction, and the lower copper intake that may influence the immune system, or perhaps even the high magnesium intake that stimulates metabolic activity. Micronutrient deficiencies also occurred in the diets of the normal black South Africans that served as a control group. In the case of plasma TPLs, deficiency of the omega-3 EFA series (ALA, EPA and DHA) occurred, and this is in accordance with the apparent lower omega-3 EFA intake in the diets of these patients. In the case of the red blood cell TPLs, as a true and reliable source of dietary fatty acid intake and metabolism, sufficient EFAs of the omega-6 series (LA and AA) and the omega-3 series (ALA, EPA and DHA) occurred. For this study group a relative deficiency of nutritional omega-3 EFA intake apparently did occur, but was probably compensated for by blood fatty acid metabolism. PMID:11090250

  13. Effect of feeding sorghum straw based complete rations with different roughage to concentrate ratio on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs.

    PubMed

    Malisetty, Venkateswarlu; Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Devanaboina, Nagalakshmi; Mallam, Mahender; Mitta, Pavani

    2014-06-01

    An experiment was conducted by feeding sorghum straw (Sorghum bicolor) based complete rations at roughage concentrate ratio 70:30 (CR-I), 60:40 (CR-II), 50:50 (CR-III), and 40:60 (CR-IV) for 180 days to find out suitable ratio of sorghum straw in the complete ration (mash form) on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in Nellore ram lambs. The DMI (g/day) increased significantly (P?nutrients. However, CP digestibility was higher either significantly or nonsignificantly by 2.12, 5.50, and 9.36 %, respectively, in lambs fed with CR-II (P?>?0.05), CR-III (P?>?0.05), and CR-IV (P??0.05) ration. The average CWC digestibility coefficients were comparable among four rations. The N intake (g/day) was significantly (P??0.05), 133.46 (P?nutrients barring crude protein in Nellore ram lambs. PMID:24585217

  14. Inclusion of Pork Meat in the Diets of Young Women Reduces Their Intakes of Energy-Dense, Nutrient-Poor Foods: Results from a Randomized Controlled Tria

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Jennifer O.; Gough, Natalie M.; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Adherence of young women to dietary recommendations has been examined predominantly by surveys. This study aimed to determine the quality of women’s diets relative to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE); and to evaluate dietary changes during an intervention trial with pork meat or an iron supplement. A 12-week randomized trial was conducted in young women who were assigned to one of three groups. They maintained three, seven-day food diaries while continuing their routine diet (CG); taking an iron supplement (SG); or incorporating into their diets 500 g/week of pork (PG). Participants (n = 58) provided dietary information on 1218 diary-days. The serves consumed from the vegetable, fruit and dairy groups were lower (p < 0.001), and from the meat and alternatives group greater (p < 0.001) than the recommended serves. PG consumed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) serves of “extra” foods, and ate fruit more frequently (p < 0.001) than CG and SG. The participants’ dietary self-assessment showed poor agreement with the AGHE description of “serve”. The inclusion of pork in the diets of young women is associated with the reduced consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor “extra” foods and increased frequency of fruit intake. The effect may be explained by diverse factors such as increased food knowledge, cooking skills and the effect of pork on satiety. PMID:24949547

  15. Influence of feeding diets with and without fish meal by hand and by self-feeders on feed intake, growth and nutrient utilization of juvenile rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Yamamoto; Takao Shima; Hirofumi Furuita; Nobuhiro Suzuki

    2002-01-01

    Feed intake, growth performance and nutrient utilization by juvenile rainbow trout fed diets with and without fish meal were compared between two feeding regimes: manual feeding and self-feeding. A fish meal-based diet and two non-fish meal diets, fortified with and without essential amino acids (EAA) to simulate the EAA composition of the fish meal diet, were prepared. The two non-fish

  16. Differences in Energy, Nutrient, and Food Intakes in a US Sample of Mexican American Women and Men: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Beth Dixon; Jan Sundquist; Marilyn Winkleby

    As Mexican-American women and men migrate to the United States and\\/or become more acculturated, their diets may become less healthy, increasing their risk of cardiovascular disease. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to compare whether energy, nutrient, and food intakes differed among three groups of Mexican-American women (n = 1,449) and men (n

  17. Implementation of food frequency questionnaire for the assessment of total dietary arsenic intake in Bangladesh: part B, preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasreen Islam; Bruce, David; Naidu, Ravi; Owens, Gary

    2009-04-01

    Dietary intake of water and food has been identified as one of the major pathways for arsenic (As) exposure in the rural population of Bangladesh. Therefore, realistic assessment and measurement of dietary intake patterns are important for the development of an accurate estimate of As exposure and human health risk assessment. One important consideration is to identify an appropriate tool for measuring dietary intake. In this study an interviewer-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was implemented to determine age and gender specific dietary intake. The developed FFQ was unique because it developed a synergy between field dietary assessment and As concentration measurements in various environmental media. The resulting integrated database provided an accurate framework for the process of As exposure and human health risk assessment. The preliminary results reported here from the FFQ demonstrated that this technique could be used in rural areas as a tool to assess As exposure and the associated human health risk. PMID:19123054

  18. Association between dietary intake and seasonal variations in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence supports that increasing number of postmenopausal women are suffering from one or more chronic diseases. Dietary patterns have a pivotal role in maintaining human health. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutrients and energy intake in postmenopausal women, with the special focus on seasonal variation effect in their food intake. Methods The study population consisted of 30 postmenopausal women referred to Dr. Shariati Hospital, Tehran (Iran). Socio-demographic characteristics and BMI were registered. Dietary assessment was performed by a 3 day food records in each season through one year, allowing the estimation of energy, protein, carbohydrate, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake. The mean of nutrient intake in each season was adjusted for energy intake. The effect of season on energy and nutrients intake was assessed based on the General linear model (GLM). Results The mean of daily intake of vitamin C, B, B2, B12, iron, zinc, phosphorus and chromium was significantly higher than Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs ) (p?intake was not different between seasons. However, the mean intake of fat, vitamin C, vitamin K and folate was significantly different between seasons. Conclusion These findings highlight some nutrients deficiency in postmenopausal women and therefore suggest nutritional education with emphasis on seasonal variation effect. PMID:24855630

  19. Feed intake pattern, behaviour, rumen characteristics and blood metabolites of finishing beef steers offered total mixed rations constituted at feeding or ensiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Cummins; P. O' Kiely; M. G. Keane; D. A. Kenny

    Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, behaviour, intake pattern and blood metabolites, were recorded for steers offered total mixed rations (TMR) based on grass silage and concentrates, and constituted either at ensiling (E-TMR) or feed- out (F-TMR). Fourteen continental crossbred steers (mean starting weight 505 (s.d. 41.5) kg) were assigned to each of the following eight treatments: grass silage

  20. A review of interventions based on dietary diversification or modification strategies with the potential to enhance intakes of total and absorbable zinc.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Anderson, Victoria P

    2009-03-01

    Dietary diversification or modification has the potential to prevent deficiencies of zinc and other coexisting limiting micronutrients simultaneously, without risk of antagonistic interactions. In this review, we have addressed the following. The first section focuses on strategies with the potential to enhance intake and/or bioavailability of zinc, and includes interventions (with and without nutrition education) based on agriculture, production or promotion of animal-source foods through animal husbandry or aquaculture, and commercial and household processing strategies to enhance zinc absorption. Outcome indicators include intakes of foods or nutrients (although rarely zinc) and, in some cases, zinc status, or zinc-related functional responses. The next two sections address whether dietary diversification or modification can achieve increases in absorbable zinc that are sufficient to enhance zinc status or zinc-related functional responses in breastfed infants and toddlers and in older children and women of reproductive age. Evidence for the impact of dietary diversification or modification on behavior change and on nutritional status in the short and long term, and the possible role of modifying factors (e.g., baseline nutritional status, socioeconomic status, infection, sex, age, and life-stage group) is the emphasis of the next section. The following section highlights the evidence for three potential adverse effects of dietary diversification or modification: aflatoxin contamination from germinated cereals, loss of water-soluble nutrients, and displacement of breastmilk. Finally, an example of a dietary diversification or modification program (Homestead Food Production) developed and implemented by Helen Keller International is given, together with the critical steps needed to scale up dietary diversification or modification for programs and future research needs. PMID:19472604

  1. Ruminal degradability and summative models evaluation for total digestible nutrients prediction of some forages and byproducts in goats.

    PubMed

    Rosendo, Oswaldo; Freitez, Luis; López, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    In in vitro true dry matter degradability (IVTDMD), in situ dry matter degradability, and neutral detergent fiber degradability, both in vitro (IVNDFD) and in situ (ISNDFD) techniques were used with crossbred goats to determine dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ruminal degradability in eight forages and four industrial byproducts. Total digestible nutrients (TDN) content obtained with five different summative models (summative equations) were studied to compare the precision of estimates. All these models included digestible fractions of crude protein, ether extract, and nonfiber carbohydrates that were calculated from chemical composition, but digestible NDF (dNDF) was obtained from IVNDFD (IVdNDF), ISNDFD (ISdNDF), or by using the Surface Law approach. On the basis of the coefficient of determination (R (2)) of the simple lineal regression of predicted TDN (y-axes) and observed IVTDMD (x-axes), the precision of models was tested. The predicted TDN by the National Research Council model exclusively based on chemical composition only explains up to 41% of observed IVTDMD values, whereas the model based on IVdNDF had a high precision (96%) to predict TDN from forage and byproducts fiber when used in goats. PMID:23762592

  2. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Methods Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Results Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 ?g L-1) compared to non-chewers (0.62 ?g L-1). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg-1 (range 26 -518 mg kg-1). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg-1 (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. Conclusion We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:21299859

  3. Nutritional status of infants aged 4 to 18 months on macrobiotic diets and matched omnivorous control infants: a population-based mixed-longitudinal study. I. Weaning pattern, energy and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Dagnelie, P C; van Staveren, W A; Verschuren, S A; Hautvast, J G

    1989-05-01

    Information on food intake during weaning was collected as part of a mixed-longitudinal study on the nutritional status and growth of the 1985 Dutch birth cohort of infants on macrobiotic diets (n = 53) and a matched control group on omnivorous diets (m = 57). Weighed food records over 3d, including breast-milk, were obtained on 49 macrobiotic and 57 control infants at 2-monthly intervals between the ages of 6 and 16 months. Intake of energy and nutrients was calculated using the Dutch food composition table which was supplemented by our own analyses of 50 macrobiotic foods. Ninety-six per cent of the macrobiotic infants and 74 per cent of the control infants had been breast-fed, but breast-feeding continued longer in the macrobiotic group (13.6 vs 6.6 months, P less than 0.001). In the macrobiotic group, complementary feeding started at 4.8 months with water-based cereal porridges, followed later by vegetables, sesame seeds and pulses. Fruits were rarely given and products of animal origin were avoided. For all age groups combined, the intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin B12 was significantly lower in the macrobiotic infants, whereas their intake of polysaccharides, fibre, iron and thiamin was higher than that of the control infants. The macrobiotic weaning diet tended to be bulky with a low energy density (2.4 kJ/g, controls: 3.4 kJ/g, P less than 0.05) and a high fibre content. Protein intake of the macrobiotic infants was only 80 per cent of the Dutch recommended daily intakes at the age of 6-8 months, and at 8 months, 69 per cent of this was derived from plant sources. Calcium intake was 280 mg/d; correction for calcium derived from hard tap-water raised the calcium intake to 308 mg in the macrobiotic age group of 14 months. The evidence of biochemical deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium is discussed. It is suggested that the macrobiotic diet should be supplemented with fat, fatty fish and dairy products. PMID:2544417

  4. A comparison of nutrient density scores for orange vegetables: A Call for Inter- and Intra-group Variety When Recommending Vegetable Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare inter- and intra-group nutrient density (ND) scores of orange vegetables based on type and preparation. ND scores of carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and 3 varieties of winter squash were calculated using 6 methods. Nutrient profiles/100 g of food was calc...

  5. Low Energy Density Diets Are Associated with Favorable Nutrient Intake Profile and Adequacy in Free-Living Elderly Men and Women1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Schroder; Joan Vila; Jaume Marrugat; Maria-Isabel Covas; CIBER de Epidemiologia

    Nutrient adequacy in the diet is of paramount importance to physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to characterize the dietary pattern associated with a low energy density diet and determine its nutrient adequacy in elderly men and women. The subjects were men (n ¼ 1150) and women (n ¼ 1094) .65 y, examined in 2 population-based

  6. The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interaction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Physiology, Metabolism, and Nutrient-Nutrient Interaction Dietary Salen,3 Franc¸ois Laporte,4 Chiara Tonelli,5 and Michel de Lorgeril3 * 3 Laboratoire Coeur et Nutrition with constant intakes of plant and marine (n-3) PUFA for 8 wk (Expt. 1). Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC

  7. Effect of feeding forest foliages, rice straw and concentrate-based total mixed ration on nutrient utilization and growth in mithun ( Bos frontalis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Prakash; A. Dhali; A. Mech; K. Khate; H. Moaakum; C. Rajkhowa

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding Borrena hirticulata (BH), Ficus hirta (FH), rice straw (RS) and concentrate-based total mixed ration (TMR) on nutrient utilization, rumen fermentation and growth in mithun. Growing male mithun calves were randomly allotted to 2 feeding groups (6 in each), TMR1 and TMR2. The TMRs consisted of RS 300 g kg?1, concentrate 400 g kg?1

  8. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. SUBJECTS/METHODS Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. RESULTS For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P < 0.05) and most nutrients (P < 0.05) and highest proportions that did not meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes. For all food groups, except milk and dairy products, all age groups had mean intakes below the recommended servings. Compared to middle and high income groups, low income preschoolers had the lowest mean intake of fruits (0.07 serving), meat/poultry (0.78 serving) and milk/dairy products (1.14 serving) while low income toddlers and school children had the least mean intake of fruits (0.09 serving) and milk/dairy products (0.54 serving), respectively. CONCLUSION Low socioeconomic status, as indicated by low household income, could limit access to adequate diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children. PMID:26060540

  9. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 ?g/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 ?g/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 ?g/kg/day). PMID:26042983

  10. Water intake: validity of population assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gandy, Joan

    2015-06-01

    Good hydration is vital for good health and well-being. Until recently, there was little interest in collecting data on water and drink and beverage intake. However, there is increasing evidence that a low water intake or mild dehydration may be linked with the risk of chronic diseases. Accurate estimates of intake in populations are essential to explore these relationships. This will enable the identification of specific populations at the risk of low water intake and allow exposure assessment of potential contaminates and specific nutrients present in drinks and beverages. In addition, data from these population studies are used as the basis of national and international recommendations on water intake and to set and evaluate national health policies. For example, EFSA based their recommendations on data from population studies from 13 European countries. The range of intakes varied from 720 to 2621 mL/day; this diversity cannot be explained by environmental differences alone. However, this variability may, at least partially, be explained by the inconsistency in methodologies used as none of surveys used a dietary assessment tool validated for total water intake or beverage and drink intake. It is reasonable to suggest that this may result in incomplete data collection and it raises questions on the validity of the recommendations. The relationship between water consumption and health warrants further investigation, and robust methodologies are essential to ensure that these data are accurate and useful for setting public health priorities and policies. PMID:26048039

  11. Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

  12. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. Ninety-nine parent–child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. C...

  13. Energy and nutrient intake of patients with mild-to-moderate chronic renal failure compared with healthy children: An Italian multicentre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Riitsch; C. Catassi; E. Verrina; R. Gusmano; A. Appiani; A. Bettinelli; S. Picca; G. Rizzoni; C. Fabian-Bach; A. M. Wingen; O. Mehls; P. L. Giorgi

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional counselling is important in the management of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). In 1988, a controlled European multicentre study was started to evaluate the effects of a low-protein diet on the progression of CRF in children. To assess the energy, macro- and micronutrient intake, 4-day weighed dietary records were obtained from 50 children with low to moderate CRF

  14. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-beta(2) genes in breast tumors and dietary intake of nutrients important in one-carbon metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylat...

  15. Total tract and ileal nutrient digestibility of a diet fed as mash or crumbled pellets to two laying hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annsofie Wahlström; Klas Elwinger; Sigvard Thomke

    1999-01-01

    Two diets, one fed as mash and the other as crumbled pellets, with the same composition and calculated nutrient content, were studied. Two hybrids were used, Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and SLU-1329 (a cross bred of Leghorn×Rhode Island Red-line). Chromium oxide was used as a digesta flow marker at the ileal level. Feed consumption was recorded during 5 days and

  16. Changes in the nutrient content of american diets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo S; Huang, Sophia Wu

    2011-01-01

    As obesity and being overweight continue to increase in the United States, public concern is growing about the quality of American diets. We compare the changes in nutrients contributed by major food groups in the periods 1953-1980 and 1981-2008 and find that there is reduced cholesterol intake and increased calcium intake, but the levels of food energy and total fats increase substantially. To understand how economic factors affect the overall nutritional quality of American diets, we estimate a complete food demand system and conduct a nutrient demand analysis. Among our findings, we conclude that some price manipulations such as subsidizing fruits and vegetables could be effective to increase produce consumption, but the effects of taxing fats to reduce the consumption of fats could be limited. Increasing income would improve intakes of nutrients such as calcium and various vitamins (likely now insufficient), but intakes of nutrients such as energy, saturated fats, and cholesterol (likely now excessive) would also rise with increased income. PMID:22828122

  17. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 ?g/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  18. A total diet study to estimate PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs intake from food in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Sheng Hsu; Kuang-Yi Hsu; Shih-Min Wang; Ukai Chou; Shih-Yun Chen; Nai-Chun Huang; Chia-Yi Liao; Tsae-Pyng Yu; Yong-Chien Ling

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins\\/dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in total diet study samples of 14 food groups of animal origin from 11 locations in Taiwan, collected in 2003. Pork meat possessed the lowest background concentration level of 0.058pgWHO-TEQPCDD\\/Fs+dl-PCBs\\/g fresh weight. The dl-PCBs contribution were 31%, 59%, 36%, 46%, and 13% for meat and meat products,

  19. Perinatal nutrient restriction induces long-lasting alterations in the circadian expression pattern of genes regulating food intake and energy metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Orozco-Solís; R J B Matos; S Lopes de Souza; I Grit; B Kaeffer; R Manhães de Castro; F Bolaños-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Several lines of evidence indicate that nutrient restriction during perinatal development sensitizes the offspring to the development of obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in adulthood via the programming of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. Given the link between the circadian clock and energy metabolism, and the resetting action of food on the circadian clock, in this study, we have

  20. Recommended Amounts of Total dairy

    Cancer.gov

    Recommended Amounts of Total dairy Table B15. Total dairy: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

  1. Recommended Amounts of Total seafood

    Cancer.gov

    Recommended Amounts of Total seafood Table B12. Total seafood: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake

  2. Recommended Amounts of Total grains

    Cancer.gov

    Recommended Amounts of Total grains Table B8. Total grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

  3. Effect of Corn Silage Hybrid on Dry Matter Yield, Nutrient Composition, In Vitro Digestion, Intake by Dairy Heifers, and Milk Production by Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Ballard; E. D. Thomas; D. S. Tsang; P. Mandebvu; C. J. Sniffen; M. I. Endres; M. P. Carter

    2001-01-01

    Three corn hybrids, Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337 (which contains a brown midrib trait), and Pioneer 3861 were compared in a plot trial, an intake trial, and a lactation trial. In the plot trial, the three corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2 × 385-m plots. Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337 had lower yields of dry matter (DM), higher concentrations of

  4. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

  5. Nutrient, suspended-sediment, and total suspended-solids data for surface water in the Great Salt Lake basins study unit, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, Heidi K.

    2000-01-01

    Selected nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrient), suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids surface-water data were compiled from January 1980 through December 1995 within the Great Salt Lake Basins National Water-Quality Assessment study unit, which extends from southeastern Idaho to west-central Utah and from Great Salt Lake to the Wasatch and western Uinta Mountains. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality database. The Division of Water Quality database includes data that are submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency STOrage and RETrieval system. Water-quality data included in this report were selected for surface-water sites (rivers, streams, and canals) that had three or more nutrient, suspended-sediment, or total suspended-solids analyses. Also, 33 percent or more of the measurements at a site had to include discharge, and, for non-U.S. Geological Survey sites, there had to be 2 or more years of data. Ancillary data for parameters such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance, streamflow (discharge), dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, and turbidity also were compiled, as available. The compiled nutrient database contains 13,511 samples from 191 selected sites. The compiled suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database contains 11,642 samples from 142 selected sites. For the nutrient database, the median (50th percentile) sample period for individual sites is 6 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 52 and the 75th percentile is 110 samples. For the suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids database, the median sample period for individual sites is 9 years, and the 75th percentile is 14 years. The median number of samples per site is 76 and the 75th percentile is 120 samples. The compiled historical data are being used in the basinwide sampling strategy to characterize the broad-scale geographic and seasonal water-quality conditions in relation to major contaminant sources and background conditions. Data for this report are stored on a compact disc.

  6. Polyethylene glycol compared with ytterbium oxide as a total faecal output marker to predict organic matter intake of dairy ewes fed indoors or at pasture.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, P; Bastianelli, D; Autran, P; Bocquier, F

    2014-09-01

    Several external markers can be used for estimating total faecal output in view of assessing ruminant intake at pasture. Among them, ytterbium (Yb) has been used for many years in various conditions. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a promising external marker because it can be rapidly determined using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The study consisted of 24 adult lactating dairy ewes over three periods (P1, P2 and P3), fed with three different diets: P1, total mixed ration (TMR); P2, Italian ryegrass (IRG); and P3, pasture. After an adaptation period, the ewes were administered a daily dose of ytterbium oxide (0.35 g/day) and PEG (20 g/day) for 2 weeks. During the last week, the daily organic matter intake (OMIOBS) was measured. Faecal samples were collected at milking time (0800 and 1600 h) to determine marker content, using only samples collected in the morning (PEGm) or by averaging samples (Yb, PEGma). Faecal marker content made it possible to assess total faecal output, either using the two recovery rates for PEG (0.98 or 0.87) or not. The OMIOBS was assessed on the basis of total faeces estimated with Yb (OMIYb) or PEG (OMIPEG), and the digestibility was calculated on the basis of feed analysis. With total TMR (P1), the OMIPEG, corrected with recovery rate (OMIPEGm98) or not corrected (OMIPEGm) was 2.40 kg/day and 2.50 kg/day, respectively, and was not different (P>0.05) from OMIOBS (2.51 kg/day), whereas OMIYb was lower (2.14 kg/day) (P<0.001). With IRG (P2), OMIPEGm98 (1.67 kg/day), OMIPEGm87 (1.51 kg/day) and OMIYb (1.59 kg/day) were not different (P>0.05) from OMIOBS (1.57 kg/day). With pasture (P3), the OMIPEGm (1.54 kg/day) and OMIPEGm98 (1.48 kg/day) were not different (P>0.05) from the OMI assessed from the biomass measurement (1.52 kg/day). The OMIYb (1.36 kg/day) was lower (P<0.05) but not different from OMIPEGm98 and OMIPEGm87. Spearman's rank correlation between OMIOBS and other OMIs (predicted with Yb or PEG P1 and P2) showed that it is possible to rank animals using PEG when there is a sufficiently wide range of OMIOBS (1.65 to 2.8 kg/day in P1) but not within a narrower range (1.47 to 1.72 kg/day in P2). In conclusion, the present study confirms that PEG is a valuable external faecal marker, easy to prepare (solution), administer and determine (NIRS). It can be used to assess intake with numerous animals at pasture, but only for groups, and not to quantitatively estimate individual OMI. PMID:24923355

  7. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity. PMID:20662963

  8. Effect of Boron as an Antidote on Dry Matter Intake, Nutrient Utilization and Fluorine Balance in Buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) Exposed to High Fluoride Ration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay K. Bharti; Meenakshi Gupta; D. Lall

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely\\u000a damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient\\u000a utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups

  9. Energy and macronutrient intakes in preschool children in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieu TT Huynh; Michael J Dibley; David W Sibbritt; Hanh TM Tran

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has been documented in preschool children in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. However, little is known about what preschool children in HCMC eat or how well their nutrient intake meets nutrient recommendations. This study aims to describe the energy and macronutrient intake and compare these nutrient intakes with the recommendations for

  10. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  11. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (? = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health. PMID:23429440

  12. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by menopausal and estrogen receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Holford, Theodore R.; Zhang, Yawei; Boyle, Peter; Mayne, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the hypothesis that relation of breast cancer associated with dietary fiber intakes varies by type of fiber, menopausal, and the tumor’s hormone receptor status. Methods A case-control study of female breast cancer was conducted in Connecticut. A total of 557 incident breast cancer cases and 536 age frequency-matched controls were included in the analysis. Information on dietary intakes was collected through in-person interviews with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and was converted into nutrient intakes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results Among pre-menopausal women, higher intake of soluble fiber (highest versus lowest quartile of intake) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.15–0.97, Ptrend = 0.08). When further restricted to pre-menopausal women with ER? tumors, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile of intake was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.03–0.69, Ptrend = 0.02) for soluble fiber intake. Among post-menopausal women, no reduced risk of breast cancer was observed for either soluble or insoluble fiber intakes or among ER+ or ER? tumor groups. Conclusions The results from this study show that dietary soluble fiber intake is associated with a significantly reduced risk of ER? breast cancer among pre-menopausal women. Additional studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22350922

  13. Influences of variation in total energy intake and dietary composition on regulation of fat cell lipolysis in ideal-weight subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Kather, H; Wieland, E; Scheurer, A; Vogel, G; Wildenberg, U; Joost, C

    1987-01-01

    Weight-maintaining fat-rich, "prudent," carbohydrate-rich, as well as energy-restricted diets (300 kcal/d) were fed in succession for 7 d to 12 healthy males of ideal body weight under metabolic ward conditions. At the end of each period isolated fat cells were prepared from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and incubated in vitro in the absence or presence of adenosine deaminase, either alone or in combination with various lipolytic or antilipolytic hormones and agents. Variations in total energy intake and dietary composition had characteristic and specific effects on fat cell lipolysis in vitro. High carbohydrate and prudent diets resulted in low rates of nonstimulated glycerol release and impaired insulin action in the presence of adenosine deaminase (320 mU/ml). High-fat and energy restricted diets were characterized by high rates of nonstimulated glycerol release. Sensitivity of antilipolysis to insulin and prostaglandin E2 was 10 to 200 times lower respectively on energy-restricted than on fat-rich diets. The effects of alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic catecholamines and of N6-phenylisopropyladenosine were not affected by the preceding diets. PMID:3301902

  14. Relationships Between Concentrations of Phytoplankton Chlorophyll a and Total Nitrogen in Estuaries: Implications for Development of Nutrient Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regression relationships between summer surface concentrations of phytoplankton chlorophyll a and total (inorganic + organic) nitrogen have been developed for four estuarine embayments and six riverine estuaries on the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. All systems show spa...

  15. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P < 0.05) MAFbx mRNA by 30 and 50% in the resting and exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P < 0.05) in the exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P < 0.05) only in the placebo condition. Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) increased to a larger extent (?2-fold; P < 0.05) in the early recovery period with BCAA supplementation, whereas the expression of genes regulating mTOR activity was not influenced by BCAA. Muscle levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were reduced (13-17%) throughout recovery (P < 0.05) in the placebo condition and to a greater extent (32-43%; P < 0.05) following BCAA supplementation in both resting and exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases. PMID:22127230

  16. Usual Intake of Total seafood

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  17. Usual Intake of Total grains

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  18. Feeding lactating dairy cattle long hay separate from the total mixed ration can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of low rumen pH.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of offering dry hay of different quality and length on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (104 ± 34 d in milk, body weight of 601 ± 116 kg, and parity of 2.38 ± 1.69; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period encompassed 21 d divided into 5 phases: adaptation (d 1 to 14), with ad libitum total mixed ration (TMR); baseline (d 15 to 17), with ad libitum TMR; restricted feeding (d 18), with cows fed for 75% of baseline dry matter intake; challenge (d 19), with 4 kg (as-fed) of finely ground wheat mixed into the digesta of each cow via rumen cannula before feeding; and recovery (d 20 to 21), with ad libitum TMR. Cows were assigned to squares by parity and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments were 5.2% low-quality hay TMR (CL), 5.2% high-quality hay TMR (CH; both hays were chopped and included in TMR), TMR with 5.2% supplemental long low-quality hay (TMR+L), and TMR with 5.2% supplemental long high-quality hay (TMR+H; both hays were unprocessed and fed separate from TMR).Low-quality hay contained 8.6% crude protein and 67.1% neutral detergent fiber, whereas high-quality hay contained 14.4% crude protein and 56.2% neutral detergent fiber. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Subacute ruminal acidosis challenge decreased weighted average rumen pH from 5.72 to 5.51. Cows fed TMR+L had higher rumen pH compared with CL and TMR+H on d 19. During d 20, cows fed chopped hay had higher rumen pH than cows fed supplemental long hay. Cows fed supplemental long hay had greater dry matter intake during baseline and challenge days compared with when hay was chopped and included in the TMR. Minimal differences among diets were found for TMR particle size selection during the challenge day; however, cows had a greater preference for high-quality long hay during recovery days. Milk production averaged 38.3 kg/d and did not differ among treatments. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were also not different among treatments. Milk fatty acid profile was altered by treatment. The TMR+L and CH treatments increased production of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Results of this study indicate that feeding TMR plus supplemental long hay can maintain dry matter intake during incidents of and recovery from periods of low ruminal pH. PMID:25200785

  19. Influence of fresh forage-based diets and ?s?-casein (CSN1S1) genotype on nutrient intake and productive, metabolic, and hormonal responses in milking goats.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Di Trana, A; Di Gregorio, P; Tornambè, G; Bellina, V; Claps, S; Maggio, G; Todaro, M

    2013-04-01

    Polymorphism at the ?S1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high ?S1-casein (?S1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low ?S1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for ?S2-CN, ?-CN, and ?-CN but a different genotype for ?S1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3×3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF goats. Significant diet × genotype interactions indicated how AA goats, compared with AF goats, showed higher DM digestibility and milk yield when fed the SFB diet, which had more energy. A reduction in free triiodothyronine hormone occurred in AF goats fed the MHB diet, whereas no differences were observed in AA goats. These results demonstrate how goats with a higher capacity for ?S1-CN synthesis exhibit more efficient energy and protein utilization, evident at the digestive level, and better productive responses to high-nutrition diets. PMID:23403186

  20. The nutrient, total petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents in the seawater of Bohai Bay, China: Temporal-spatial variations, sources, pollution statuses, and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shitao

    2015-06-15

    Seawater samples collected between 2007 and 2012 were determined the concentrations of nutrient (DIN and DIP), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and six different heavy metals (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg). The DIN, DIP, TPH, Pb, and Cd concentrations decreased from 2007 to 2009 or 2010 and increased after 2010. However, the Hg and Cu concentrations increased from 2007 to 2012. In contrast, the As and Zn gradually decreased during the study period. All of the pollutant concentrations gradually decreased from the shoreline to the offshore sites. PCA result showed that urban and port areas, agriculture, and atmospheric deposition were the main sources of pollutants in the bay. Although most of the pollutants were present at concentrations bellow the highest seawater quality standards in China, eutrophication was a risk in Bohai Bay. In addition, DIN was the main pollutant and was responsible for the eutrophication risk in Bohai Bay. PMID:25840871

  1. Dietary intake of carbohydrates and risk of type 2 diabetes: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Luben, Robert N; Powell, Natasha; Bhaniani, Amit; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-28

    In the present study, we investigated the association between dietary intake of carbohydrates and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Incident cases of diabetes (n 749) were identified and compared with a randomly selected subcohort of 3496 participants aged 40-79 years. For dietary assessment, we used 7 d food diaries administered at baseline. We carried out modified Cox proportional hazards regression analyses and compared results obtained from the different methods of adjustment for total energy intake. Dietary intakes of total carbohydrates, starch, sucrose, lactose or maltose were not significantly related to diabetes risk after adjustment for confounders. However, in the residual method for energy adjustment, intakes of fructose and glucose were inversely related to diabetes risk. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of diabetes comparing the extreme quintiles of intake were 0·79 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·07; P for trend = 0·03) for glucose and 0·62 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·83; P for trend = 0·01) for fructose. In the nutrient density method, only fructose was inversely related to diabetes risk (HR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·88). The replacement of 5 % energy intake from SFA with an isoenergetic amount of fructose was associated with a 30 % lower diabetes risk (HR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·96). Results of the standard and energy partition methods were similar to those of the residual method. These prospective findings suggest that the intakes of starch and sucrose are not associated, but that those of fructose and glucose are inversely associated with diabetes risk. Whether the inverse associations with fructose and glucose reflect the effect of substitution of these carbohydrate subtypes with other nutrients (i.e. SFA), their net higher intake or other nutrients associated with their intake remains to be established through further investigation. PMID:23880355

  2. Nutrient estimation from an FFQ developed for a black Zimbabwean population

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Anwar T; Dehghan, Mahshid; Chifamba, Jephat; Terera, Getrude; Yusuf, Salim

    2005-01-01

    Background There is little information in the literature on methods of food composition database development to calculate nutrient intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data. The aim of this study is to describe the development of an FFQ and a food composition table to calculate nutrient intake in a Black Zimbabwean population. Methods Trained interviewers collected 24-hour dietary recalls (24 hr DR) from high and low income families in urban and rural Zimbabwe. Based on these data and input from local experts we developed an FFQ, containing a list of frequently consumed foods, standard portion sizes, and categories of consumption frequency. We created a food composition table of the foods found in the FFQ so that we could compute nutrient intake. We used the USDA nutrient database as the main resource because it is relatively complete, updated, and easily accessible. To choose the food item in the USDA nutrient database that most closely matched the nutrient content of the local food we referred to a local food composition table. Results Almost all the participants ate sadza (maize porridge) at least 5 times a week, and about half had matemba (fish) and caterpillar more than once a month. Nutrient estimates obtained from the FFQ data by using the USDA and Zimbabwean food composition tables were similar for total energy intake intra class correlation (ICC) = 0.99, and carbohydrate (ICC = 0.99), but different for vitamin A (ICC = 0.53), and total folate (ICC = 0.68). Conclusion We have described a standardized process of FFQ and food composition database development for a Black Zimbabwean population. PMID:16351722

  3. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  4. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  5. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension. PMID:25767289

  6. Laying performance of broiler breeder chickens fed various millets or broken rice as a source of energy at a constant nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Rao, S V; Reddy, M R; Prarharaj, N K; Sunder, G S

    2000-10-01

    Laying performance, egg quality and carcase traits were recorded in broiler breeders (29-48 weeks of age) fed diets in which pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica) or broken rice fully replaced yellow maize (50% of the diet) from the reference diet. Constant ratios of metabolizable energy to other nutrients were maintained in all the diets. Each diet provided 1.38 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/bird per day to 8 replicate groups of 10 layers each, maintained in deep litter pens. The hen-day egg production and the ME required to produce 12 eggs in birds fed pearl millet or broken rice were similar (p > 0.05) to those fed on the maize diet, while birds fed foxtail millet or finger millet required more energy to produce the same number of eggs. The egg production and the efficiency of energy utilization were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the birds fed these two cereals. Egg quality was not affected by replacing maize with the different cereals. However, the yolk colour index was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the cereal-fed groups in comparison to the maize-fed birds. The gizzard and giblet weights were heavier (p < 0.05) in the birds fed foxtail millet or finger millet than in those fed broken rice. Deposition of abdominal fat and the liver fat content were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the birds fed pearl millet than in the other groups. Depending on the local prices, the cost of feeding may be reduced considerably by using any of the cereals tested as the principal energy source in place of maize in broiler breeder diets. PMID:11059041

  7. Breed and Nutritional Effects and Interactions on Energy Intake, Production and Efficiency of Nutrient Utilization in Young Bulls, Heifers and Lactating Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Hohenboken; John Foldager; Just Jensen; Per Madsen; Bernt Bech Andersen

    1995-01-01

    Red Danish (RD), Danish Friesian (DF), Danish Red and White (RW) and Danish Jersey (DJ) heifers had ad libitum access to total mixed rations designed to promote low (L), medium (M) or high (H) growth rate from 6 weeks of age to approximately the time of puberty. Heifers then were managed uniformly through 250 days of their first lactation. Paternal

  8. The Effects of Chemical Treatment of Whole Canola Seed on Intake, Nutrient Digestibilities, Milk Production, and Milk Fatty Acids of Holstein Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Aldrich; N. R. Merchen; J. K. Drackley; G. C. Fahey; L. L. Berger

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment of whole canola seed on milk fatty acid composition, 12 multiparous lactating Holstein cows (618 kg, 47 d in milk) were fed total mixed rations in a replicated ( 3 ) 4 × 4 Latin square designed experiment. The control diet contained no supplemental fat source. Canola seed (11.2%), either crushed

  9. Total Annual Application Should not exceed the maximum annual or biennial rates per field as stated in Appendix 5 of the Texas Nutrient Management Standard (590) or Table 2 or 2a of the 590 Organic Nutrient

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    as stated in Appendix 5 of the Texas Nutrient Management Standard (590) or Table 2 or 2a of the 590 Organic Nutrient Management Plan. Maximum Hourly Application Rate - The maximum hourly application rate field should be used. The AWC of the upper 24 inches of the profile may be calculated from AWC data

  10. Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Thompson, Frances E

    2015-07-10

    Eating more fruits and vegetables adds nutrients to diets, reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and some cancers, and helps manage body weight when consumed in place of more energy-dense foods. Adults who engage in <30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily should consume 1.5-2.0 cup equivalents of fruit and 2-3 cups of vegetables daily.* However, during 2007-2010, half of the total U.S. population consumed <1 cup of fruit and <1.5 cups of vegetables daily; 76% did not meet fruit intake recommendations, and 87% did not meet vegetable intake recommendations. Although national estimates indicate low fruit and vegetable consumption, substantial variation by state has been observed (3). Fruit and vegetable intake information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the sole source of dietary surveillance information for most states, but frequency of intake captured by BRFSS is not directly comparable to federal intake recommendations, which are expressed in cup equivalents. CDC analyzed median daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake based on 2013 BRFSS data for the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and applied newly developed prediction equations to BRFSS to calculate the percentage of each state's population meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations. Overall, 13.1% of respondents met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 7.5% in Tennessee to 17.7% in California, and 8.9% met vegetable recommendations, ranging from 5.5% in Mississippi to 13.0% in California. Substantial new efforts are needed to build consumer demand for fruits and vegetables through competitive pricing, placement, and promotion in child care, schools, grocery stores, communities, and worksites. PMID:26158351

  11. Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

  12. Effects of High Protein Intakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Axelsson

    2006-01-01

    Among other nutrients of breast milk, the amino acid pattern is considered normative throughout infancy. Exclusive breastfeeding by a healthy mother should be the standard from birth to 6 months. During the breastfeeding period the protein intake is low in the human being compared too many other animals. The protein content in breast milk is about 1 g\\/100 ml and

  13. Food patterns, flour fortification, and intakes of calcium and vitamin D: a longitudinal study of Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Osler, M.; Heitmann, B. L.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D intakes are involved in the aetiology of osteoporosis, and health authorities recommend that the population consume a diet providing sufficient calcium and vitamin D. However, in 1987 the Danish Government withdrew a mandatory fortification of flour with calcium. This study examines intakes of calcium and vitamin D over time, in relation to food patterns, recommendations, and legislation. DESIGN: Food and nutrient intakes were measured by a short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a thorough diet history interview, in 1987/88, and again six years later. SETTING: Copenhagen County, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 329 men and women, aged 35-65 years at first examination in 1987/88. RESULTS: At both examinations the non-enriched median intakes of calcium in men as well as women were above the recommended 600 mg/day. However, apparently the fortification of flour supplied up to 30% of the total calcium intake, and without the mandatory fortification, the percentage of adults with intakes below this recommendation increased from 6% to 22%. This group of subjects consumed cheese, milk, and oatmeal less often than those who had calcium intakes over 600 mg/day. During the study period the median intakes of vitamin D, which were well below the recommended 5 micrograms/day, did not change significantly. Associations between foods and vitamin D intakes were, in general, weak and insignificant, except for a positive association with fish intake. CONCLUSIONS: Data on calcium intakes suggest that the decision to stop the mandatory fortification of flour with calcium may have been premature. The short FFQ may be used for a rough classification of people in relation to their calcium intake, while this method seems insufficient for ranking vitamin D intakes.   PMID:9616420

  14. Learn More about Usual Dietary Intake | Dietary Assessment Primer

    Cancer.gov

    Usual dietary intake refers to the long-run average or habitual daily intake of a nutrient or food. This concept is relevant to many nutrition studies because dietary recommendations are intended to be met over time, diet-health hypotheses are based on dietary intakes over the long term, and interventions are intended to affect habitual diet.

  15. Nutrient Depletion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students observe nutrient depletion as they germinate and grow nutrient-demanding seedlings. They will discover that all plants require nutrients to grow and thrive and that these nutrients are found in the soil and absorbed through the plants' root systems. They will also learn that nutrients are dissolved in water and are distributed throughout the plant via its circulatory system; when the plants are harvested, they take the nutrients with them, depleting the soil of these essential components.

  16. Validation of mothers' reports of dietary intake by four to seven year-old children.

    PubMed

    Basch, C E; Shea, S; Arliss, R; Contento, I R; Rips, J; Gutin, B; Irigoyen, M; Zybert, P

    1990-11-01

    The validity of mothers' recall of four to seven year-old children's diet was assessed among 46 first generation Latino immigrant families from the Dominican Republic by comparing intake recalled by the mother to unobtrusive home observations of children. Correlations were moderate to high for calories and for most nutrients. There were no differences in mean intake of total calories or in intake of most macronutrients and micronutrients assessed. At least two-thirds of the children in the lowest (or highest) quintile based on home observations were correctly classified into the lowest or second lowest (or highest) quintiles based on mother's reports for calories and most nutrients. For all food items that were both observed and reported, 51 percent of reported portion sizes were equivalent to observed portion sizes, 15.5 percent were smaller, and 33.5 percent were larger. There was fair to good agreement on the number of food items eaten, with the exception of vegetables. Mothers' recall appears to be useful for classifying children by intake of calories, macronutrients and micronutrients, but provides a somewhat less accurate measure of actual foods eaten, portion sizes, and nutrient levels consumed. PMID:2240296

  17. Validation of mothers' reports of dietary intake by four to seven year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Basch, C E; Shea, S; Arliss, R; Contento, I R; Rips, J; Gutin, B; Irigoyen, M; Zybert, P

    1990-01-01

    The validity of mothers' recall of four to seven year-old children's diet was assessed among 46 first generation Latino immigrant families from the Dominican Republic by comparing intake recalled by the mother to unobtrusive home observations of children. Correlations were moderate to high for calories and for most nutrients. There were no differences in mean intake of total calories or in intake of most macronutrients and micronutrients assessed. At least two-thirds of the children in the lowest (or highest) quintile based on home observations were correctly classified into the lowest or second lowest (or highest) quintiles based on mother's reports for calories and most nutrients. For all food items that were both observed and reported, 51 percent of reported portion sizes were equivalent to observed portion sizes, 15.5 percent were smaller, and 33.5 percent were larger. There was fair to good agreement on the number of food items eaten, with the exception of vegetables. Mothers' recall appears to be useful for classifying children by intake of calories, macronutrients and micronutrients, but provides a somewhat less accurate measure of actual foods eaten, portion sizes, and nutrient levels consumed. PMID:2240296

  18. Nutrition survey of schoolchildren in greater Winnipeg. II. Dietary intake and biochemical assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Ellestad-Sayed, J.; Haworth, J. C.; Medovy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The total dietary intake of energy and of individual nutrients of 99 grades 3 and 6 children from 10 greater Winnipeg shcools were generally comparable to those reported by Nutrition Canada for the Manitoba and national samples, although the percentile distributions of total caloric intake and dietary intake of vitamin A for the Winnipeg children tended to be lower. The median daily intake of protein was 212% of the Canadian Dietary Standard and most came from animal sources. Dietary fat was largely from animal sources as well. Hemoglobin concentrations were marginally low in four children, and urinary riboflavin:creatinine ratios were low in six children. There was no biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency. The results suggest a need for change in dietary patterns and for education in nutrition, including relative nutrient/cost benefits. A well planned school snack program with an education component is a medium by which change could be introduced. This should preferable be part of a total school health program. PMID:837315

  19. Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Nuotio-Antar, Alli M; Ma, Xiaojun; Liu, Feng; Fiorotto, Marta L; Sun, Yuxiang

    2014-09-01

    Aging is often associated with overweight and obesity. There exists a long-standing debate about whether meal pattern also contributes to the development of obesity. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin regulates appetite and satiety by activating its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). In mice, circulating ghrelin concentrations and brain GHS-R expression were shown to increase with aging. To assess whether GHS-R regulates feeding pattern during aging, we studied meal patterns for the following cohorts of male mice fed a normal unpurified diet: 1) 3-4 mo, young wild-type (WT) mice; 2) 3-4 mo, young Ghsr-null (Ghsr(-/-)) mice; 3) 12-14 mo, middle-aged WT (WT-M) mice; 4) 12-14 mo, middle-aged Ghsr(-/-) (Ghsr(-/-)-M) mice; 5) 24-26 mo, old WT (WT-O) mice; and 6) 24-26 mo, old Ghsr(-/-) (Ghsr(-/-)-O) mice. Although the total daily food intake of Ghsr(-/-) mice was similar to that of WT controls, Ghsr(-/-)-M and Ghsr(-/-)-O mice had 9% (P = 0.07) and 16% (P < 0.05) less body weight compared with WT-M and WT-O mice, respectively, primarily due to reduced fat mass (P < 0.05, WT-M vs. Ghsr(-/-)-M and WT-O vs. Ghsr(-/-)-O). Intriguingly, Ghsr(-/-)-M mice ate larger meals (on average, Ghsr(-/-)-M mice ate 0.117 g/meal and WT-M mice ate 0.080 g/meal; P < 0.01) and took a longer time to eat (Ghsr(-/-)-M, 196.0 s and WT-M, 128.9 s; P < 0.01), but ate less frequently (Ghsr(-/-)-M, 31.0 times/d and WT-M, 42.3 times/d; P < 0.05) than WT-M controls. In addition, we found that expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), was relatively lower in aged WT mice (P = 0.09 for NPY and P = 0.06 for AgRP), but anorexic peptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression remained unchanged between the WT age groups. Interestingly, old Ghsr(-/-) mice had greater hypothalamic NPY expression (102% higher; P < 0.05) and AgRP expression (P = 0.07) but significantly lower POMC expression (P < 0.05) when compared with age-matched WT-O controls. Thus, our results indicate that GHS-R plays an important role in the regulation of meal pattern and that GHS-R ablation may modulate feeding behavior through the regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Our results collectively suggest that ghrelin receptor antagonism may have a beneficial effect on metabolism during aging. PMID:24991043

  20. Ingestion of nutrition bars high in protein or carbohydrate does not impact 24-h energy intakes in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Trier, Catherine M; Johnston, Carol S

    2012-12-01

    Sales of nutrition bars increased almost 10-fold to $1.7billion over the past decade yet few studies have examined the impact of bar ingestion on dietary parameters. In this crossover trial, 24-h energy intakes were assessed in free-living college students ingesting a high-protein (HP, 280kcal) or a high-carbohydrate (HC, 260kcal) nutrition bar upon waking. Fifty-four students entered the trial, and 37 participants completed the three test days. Daily energy intakes ranged from 1752±99kcal for the non-intervention day to 1846±75 and 1891±110kcal for the days the HP and HC bars were consumed respectively (p=0.591). However, for individuals who reported high levels of physically activity (n=11), daily energy intakes increased significantly compared to the control day for the HC bar day (+45%; p=0.030) and HP bar day (+22%; p=0.038). Macro- and micro-nutrient intakes differed significantly across test days in the total sample mirroring the nutrient profile of the specific bars. These data suggest that young adults adjust caloric intakes appropriately following the ingestion of energy-dense nutrition bars over a 24-h period. Moreover, nutrition bars may represent a unique opportunity to favorably influence nutrient status of young adults. PMID:22918177

  1. 5-A-DAY: dietary behavior and the fruit and vegetable intake of Latino children.

    PubMed Central

    Basch, C E; Zybert, P; Shea, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to examine children's intake of fruits and vegetables in relation to the recent national "5-A-DAY" campaign. METHODS. Four 24-hour dietary recalls per child collected from 205 mothers of 4- to 5-year-old urban Latino children were used to analyze average 5-A-DAY fruit and vegetable consumption and examine associations between 5-A-DAY consumption, nutrient intakes, and eating patterns. RESULTS. The reported mean servings per day of fruits and vegetables, as defined by 5-A-DAY criteria, were 1.8 and 1.0, respectively, with only 6.8% (n = 14) of the children averaging five or more servings per day. Fruit juice accounted for 36% of 5-A-DAY servings. There were significant linear trends in intake of vitamins A and C, potassium, iron, cholesterol, protein, and fiber across quintiles of 5-A-DAY intake. There were no differences among quintiles in intake of saturated or total fat or in servings from most non-5-A-DAY food groups. CONCLUSIONS. Latino children's intake of fruits and vegetables falls far short of current recommendations. Fruit juice accounted for a disproportionate amount of 5-A-DAY intake in this population. Sensible 5-A-DAY interventions should take into consideration the existing eating patterns of the target population. PMID:8179054

  2. High Intake of Energy and Fat in Southwest Chinese Women with PCOS: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhou, Lingling; Tang, Liulin; Zhuang, Jing; Guo, Wenqi; Hu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinological disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Obesity contributes to the increased prevalence and severity of PCOS. Whether the intakes of major nutrients are higher in Chinese PCOS patients is still unknown. Objectives To study the intakes of total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Methods 1854 women were included in the cross-sectional study. A population-based case-control study was conducted. The dietary habits and nutrients intake status of 169 PCOS patients and 338 age-matched controls were investigated by the method of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results The actual intake of total energy (P = 0.01) and fat (P = 0.01) were higher, but carbohydrate was lower (P = 0.01) in PCOS patients as compared with the controls. The energy percentage supplied by protein (12.33%±2.27% vs. 19.26%±5.91%, P<0.001) and carbohydrate (48.72%±6.41% vs. 68.31%±8.37%, P<0.001) were lower in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients than those of control, however, the energy percentage supplied by fat was higher (38.95%±5.71% vs. 12.42%±5.13%, P<0.001) in PCOS. Conclusions Limit the intake of total energy and fat shall be recommended to the Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Women with PCOS in Southwest China shall consult with the nutritionist for improving the dietary structure. PMID:25993656

  3. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, US Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI method provides the capability, for the first time, to estimate the distribution of usual intake of a nutrient expressed as a ratio of usual energy intake in the US population. This greatly enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to those recommendations that are expressed as ratios of energy intake and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses in these cases.

  4. COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVE MANURE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT, TOTAL ENERGY REQUIREMENT, NUTRIENT CONSERVATION, CONTRIBUTION TO CORN SILAGE PRODUCTION AND ECONOMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compares alternative dairy manure management systems operated under full scale commercial conditions. The study investigates weight of manure handled per cow per year, labor and energy requirements, effect on the environment, nutrient conservation, corn silage producti...

  5. Physical activity, energy requirements, and adequacy of dietary intakes of older persons in a rural Filipino community

    PubMed Central

    Risonar, Maria Grace D; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Cabalda, Aegina B; Tengco, Lorena W; Solon, Florentino S

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging is a process associated with physiological changes such as in body composition, energy expenditure and physical activity. Data on energy and nutrient intake adequacy among elderly is important for disease prevention, health maintenance and program development. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the energy requirements and adequacy of energy and nutrient intakes of older persons living in private households in a rural Filipino community. Study participants were generally-healthy, ambulatory, and community living elderly aged 60–100 y (n = 98), 88 of whom provided dietary information in three nonconsecutive 24-hour food-recall interviews. Results There was a decrease in both physical activity and food intake with increasing years. Based on total energy expenditure and controlling for age, gender and socio-economic status, the average energy requirement for near-old (? 60 to < 65 y) males was 2074 kcal/d, with lower requirements, 1919 and 1699 kcal/d for the young-old (? 65 to < 75 y) and the old-old (? 75 y), respectively. Among females, the average energy requirements for the 3 age categories were 1712, 1662, and 1398 kcal/d, respectively. Actual energy intakes, however, were only ~65% adequate for all subjects as compared to energy expenditure. Protein, fat, and micronutrients (vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, iron and calcium) intakes were only ~24–51% of the recommended daily intake. Among this population, there was a weight decrease of 100 g (p = 0.012) and a BMI decrease of 0.04 kg/m2 (p = 0.003) for every 1% decrease in total caloric intake as percentage of the total energy expenditure requirements. Conclusion These community living elderly suffer from lack of both macronutrient intake as compared with energy requirements, and micronutrient intake as compared with the standard dietary recommendations. Their energy intakes are ~65% of the amounts required based on their total energy expenditure. Though their intakes decrease with increasing age, so do their energy expenditure, making their relative insufficiency of food intake stable with age. PMID:19409110

  6. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M Salamoun; A S Kizirian; R I Tannous; M M Nabulsi; M K Choucair; M E Deeb; G A El-Hajj Fuleihan

    2005-01-01

    Background: Optimal dietary calcium and possibly vitamin D intake throughout childhood and adolescence may enhance bone mineral accrual. Little data on the intake of these nutrients in Mediterranean countries exist, and predictors of their suboptimal intake are not well defined.Objective: To evaluate systematically the effect of gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status on mean calcium and vitamin D intake in

  7. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-03-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers. PMID:23478398

  8. Socioeconomic Status is Significantly Associated with Dietary Salt Intakes and Blood Pressure in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = ?0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = ?0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers. PMID:23478398

  9. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  10. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  11. Voluntary intake and digestibility in horses: effect of forage quality with emphasis on individual variability.

    PubMed

    Edouard, N; Fleurance, G; Martin-Rosset, W; Duncan, P; Dulphy, J P; Grange, S; Baumont, R; Dubroeucq, H; Pérez-Barbería, F J; Gordon, I J

    2008-10-01

    Food intake is a key biological process in animals, as it determines the energy and nutrients available for the physiological and behavioural processes. In herbivores, the abundance, structure and quality of plant resources are known to influence intake strongly. In ruminants, as the forage quality declines, digestibility and total intake decline. Equids are believed to be adapted to consume high-fibre low-quality forages. As hindgut fermenters, it has been suggested that their response to a reduction in food quality is to increase intake to maintain rates of energy and nutrient absorption. All reviews of horse nutrition show that digestibility declines with forage quality; for intake, however, most studies have found no significant relationship with forage quality, and it has even been suggested that horses may eat less with declining forage quality similarly to ruminants. A weakness of these reviews is to combine data from different studies in meta-analyses without allowing the differences between animals and diets to be controlled for. In this study, we analysed a set of 45 trials where intake and digestibility were measured in 21 saddle horses. The dataset was analysed both at the group (to allow comparisons with the literature) and at the individual levels (to control for individual variability). As expected, dry matter digestibility declined with forage quality in both analyses. Intake declined slightly with increasing fibre contents at the group level, and there were no effects of crude protein or dry matter digestibility on intake. Overall, the analysis for individual horses showed a different pattern: intake increased as digestibility and crude protein declined, and increased with increasing fibre. Our analysis at the group level confirms previous reviews and shows that forage quality explains little of the variance in food intake in horses. For the first time, using mixed models, we show that the variable 'individual' clarifies the picture, as the horses showed different responses to a decrease in forage quality: some compensated for the low nutritional value of the forages by increasing intake, few others responded by decreasing intake with declining forage quality, but not enough to cause any deficit in their energy and protein supplies. On the whole, all the animals managed to meet their maintenance requirements. The individual variability may be a by-product of artificial selection for performance in competition in saddle horses. PMID:22443911

  12. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes. PMID:22695968

  13. Relation between dietary fat and energy and micronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    Tonstad, S; Sivertsen, M

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 28 January 1997? Concern has been raised about the energy and nutrient adequacy of low fat diets for children that aim to prevent cardiovascular disease in Western populations. The diets of 174 randomly chosen schoolchildren aged 8-12 years from middle and high socioeconomic groups were analysed to determine their nutrient composition in relation to fat intake. The mean percentages of energy intake from fat and saturated fat were 31 and 13%, respectively, and 44% of all children reported consuming <30% of their energy from fat. The energy intake did not change across the spectrum of fat intake. A decreased fat intake was associated with an increased sugar intake, but also with increased nutrient densities of thiamin, niacin, folate, vitamin C, magnesium, and iron, reflecting an increased intake of fruit, vegetables, and grains. Parental educational level was the most important determinant of fat intake (inverse relation). It is concluded that a self selected low fat intake among children from average to high socioeconomic backgrounds does not compromise their intake of major nutrients or energy.?? PMID:9196356

  14. An exploratory study of dietary intake patterns among adults diagnosed with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Archontia; Galitsianos, Ioannis; Fotiou, Maria; Menexes, Georgios; Tsakoumaki, Foteini; Tsitlakidou, Petra; Psirropoulos, Dimitrios; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present exploratory study was to assess compliance with the nutrient recommendations among a convenience sample of adults diagnosed with cardiovascular risk factors in northern Greece and evaluate their dietary intake patterns. Ninety-two people participated in this cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were adopted to obtain dietary patterns and classify individuals with similar dietary behaviour. HCA, performed on the factorial scores obtained from PCA, revealed a 4-group interpretable and statistically significant clustering of participants. For all clusters, the mean daily intake for saturated fatty acids was more than 10% of total calories, while the mean sodium intake was above 1500?mg; additionally, a relatively low mean Mediterranean diet score was recorded. Dietary interventions should be considered to raise awareness and expand knowledge on the nutritional and functional benefits of heart-healthy foods. PMID:26037078

  15. Adequacy of usual dietary intake and nutritional status among pregnant women in the context of nutrition transition: the DEPOSIT Study.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S

    2012-11-28

    Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity. PMID:22264559

  16. Environmental effects on nutrient and energy metabolism in pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wenk

    1998-01-01

    Besides the genetic predisposition and the dietary supply of nutrients, environmental factors affect the performance of the pig. Environment can affect the nutrient composition and availability of the feed. It can also influence appetite and therefore the feed intake. Furthermore, nutrient and energy utilization on the level of digestion and intermediate metabolism can depend on environmental factors. Especially the energy

  17. Influence of supplemental high molecular weight pullulan or ?-cyclodextrin on ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and microbial populations in the dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie K. Spears; Lisa K. Karr-Lilienthal; George C. Fahey Jr

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if supplemental pullulan and ?-cyclodextrin affect canine nutrient digestibility, microbial populations, and fecal characteristics. Ileal cannulated dogs were fed a commercial diet, and treatments were administered daily in a 5×5 Latin square design: (i) no supplement; (ii) 2 g pullulan; (iii) 4 g pullulan; (iv) 2 g ?-cyclodextrin; (v) 4 g ?-cyclodextrin. Ileal and

  18. Folate and Nutrients Involved in the 1-Carbon Cycle in the Pretreatment of Patients for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions. PMID:26043032

  19. Folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in the pretreatment of patients for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions. PMID:26043032

  20. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-L. Cao; C. Perez-Locas; G. Dufresne; G. Clement; S. Popovic; F. Beraldin; R. W. Dabeka; M. Feeley

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in

  1. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  2. Mycorrhizae and phosphorus fertilization effects on survival, growth, total biomass and leaf nutrient levels of two-year old Leucaena leucocephala 

    E-print Network

    Mbugua, David Kahuria

    1985-01-01

    high P fixation rates. Tinker (1975) has pointed out that both mycorrhizal and non-mycort hizal plants utilize the P from soil solution. This observation has therefore disputed the idea that mycorrhizae fungi can extract soil P sources... the effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) inoculation and phosphorus (P) fertilizer application rates on growth, survival snd leaf element content. Growth data was collected over two growing seasons, while leaf nutrient content was monitored...

  3. Nutrient transport in the Humber rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. House; D. Leach; M. S. Warwick; B. A. Whitton; S. N. Pattinson; G. Ryland; A. Pinder; J. Ingram; J. P. Lishman; S. M. Smith; E. Rigg; F. H. Denison

    1997-01-01

    The results of the weekly and storm sample measurement of the nutrient concentrations in ten Humber rivers over one annual cycle are presented. The nutrients include soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate and silicon (soluble reactive silicon). These data are combined with the river discharge data to calculate the nutrient loads discharged into the

  4. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  5. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  6. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6?×?6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P <0.01) when total dietary fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P <0.01). The digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of diets decreased (P <0.01) as the total dietary fiber increased. PMID:23587355

  7. Dietary Intake and Rural-Urban Migration in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Liza; Ebrahim, Shah; De Stavola, Bianca; Ness, Andy; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A.V.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    Background Migration from rural areas of India contributes to urbanisation and lifestyle change, and dietary changes may increase the risk of obesity and chronic diseases. We tested the hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have different macronutrient and food group intake to rural non-migrants, and that migrants have a diet more similar to urban non-migrants. Methods and findings The diets of migrants of rural origin, their rural dwelling sibs, and those of urban origin together with their urban dwelling sibs were assessed by an interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 6,509 participants were included. Median energy intake in the rural, migrant and urban groups was 2731, 3078, and 3224 kcal respectively for men, and 2153, 2504, and 2644 kcal for women (p<0.001). A similar trend was seen for overall intake of fat, protein and carbohydrates (p<0.001), though differences in the proportion of energy from these nutrients were <2%. Migrant and urban participants reported up to 80% higher fruit and vegetable intake than rural participants (p<0.001), and up to 35% higher sugar intake (p<0.001). Meat and dairy intake were higher in migrant and urban participants than rural participants (p<0.001), but varied by region. Sibling-pair analyses confirmed these results. There was no evidence of associations with time in urban area. Conclusions Rural to urban migration appears to be associated with both positive (higher fruit and vegetables intake) and negative (higher energy and fat intake) dietary changes. These changes may be of relevance to cardiovascular health and warrant public health interventions. PMID:21731604

  8. Original article Isotopic estimation of milk intake in sucking lambs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of available nutrients between milk output and other requirements (body reserves and/or wool growth) in the eweOriginal article Isotopic estimation of milk intake in sucking lambs with deuterium oxide space: effects of milk concentration and level of milk intake F Bocquier M Thériez, JP Brun INRA, Laboratoire de

  9. Gut Peptide Signaling in the Controls of Food Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy H. Moran

    2006-01-01

    During a meal and after a meal, ingested nutrients alter the release of a variety of gut peptides that have the potential to modulate food intake. Such feedback peptide signaling can be conceptualized as having three outcomes: meal termination, inhibitory modulation of intake in subsequent meals, and orexigenic modulation. Cholecystokinin, pancreatic glucagons, and amylin are examples of peptides involved in

  10. Engine intake system

    SciTech Connect

    Kanesaka, H.

    1989-02-07

    An intake system is described for an internal combustion engine, the system comprising: an intake passage having an intake port and an inertial supercharging intake pipe leading to the intake port; an intake valve mounted in the intake port and operatively connected to the engine for alternately opening and closing the intake port; a rotary valve operatively connected to the engine and disposed in the intake passage intermediate the inertial supercharging intake pipe and the intake port. The rotary valve is rotatable for opening and closing the intake passage, and timing adjusting means operatively connected to the engine and to the rotary valve for retarding the opening of the rotary valve relative to the opening of the intake valve at low engine speeds, and for advancing the opening of the rotary valve at high engine speeds, whereby the retarding and advancing of the opening of the rotary valve enables inertial supercharging in the intake pipe at both low and high engine speeds.

  11. Association between dietary protein intake and the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural western China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruru; Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao; Zhao, Yaling; Li, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoning

    2013-11-01

    Evidence for an association between dietary proteins and the risk of hypertension in rural Chinese adults, whose diets are protein-poor and unbalanced, is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary proteins on hypertension among adults of rural western China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hanzhong, China, and 2241 residents were included in the analysis. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether dietary proteins (total, plant and animal protein) were independently correlated with hypertension. The total protein intake was inadequate (51.7 g per day for male and 40.1 g per day for female), accounting for 56-71% of the Chinese recommended nutrient intakes or adequate intakes. Nearly 80% of protein intake derived from plants, especially grains, and the proportion derived from plants was higher in females than in males. The daily animal protein intake was 12.1 g for males and 8.3 g for females. For females, no significant association was found between hypertension and total protein or plant protein intake. However, animal protein intake was significantly and negatively associated with the risk of hypertension after controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, body mass index and other dietary nutrients. In addition, the odds ratio for the upper quartile compared with the bottom quartile was 0.64 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.43-0.95, P for trend <0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease of 1.082 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.189-1.975) in systolic blood pressure and 0.668 mm Hg (95%CI: 0.105-1.232) in diastolic blood pressure was observed per s.d. increase of animal protein intake in females. For males, we did not observe a significant association between dietary proteins and hypertension or blood pressure. In conclusion, for the western rural Chinese population, especially women, whose dietary protein intake is low and largely derived from plants, the intake of animal protein may be related to a decreased risk of hypertension. PMID:23842622

  12. Understanding Forage Intake in Range Animals 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.; Forbes, T. D. A.

    1999-02-08

    Forage quality influences the performance of range livestock and wildlife, and it is often assumed that, if forage quality meets animal nutrient requirements, animal performance will meet expectations. However, forage intake can be at least... production potential. ? Forage quality. ? Supplemental feed. ? Forage availability. ? Environmental factors. Considering these factors can help you better understand the relationship between rangeland resources and herbivore production. Herbivore Species...

  13. Nutrient content of products served by leading Australian fast food chains.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqui; Barzi, Federica; Neal, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    With more consumers purchasing meals outside the home, fast food products contribute substantially to daily energy intakes. Improving the nutrient composition of fast food would have significant health benefits. Nutrient content data for menu items provided by nine companies representing >90% of the fast food market in Australia were collected. Mean nutrient levels were compared between product categories and compared to currently accepted criteria for healthy foods. The majority of fast food products did not meet criteria for healthy options. Breakfast items had the highest mean sugar content (7.8 g/100 g) and saturated fat (5.5 g/100 g), and chicken items the highest total fat (13.2 g/100 g) and sodium (586 mg/100 g). There was marked variation in nutrient levels between similar products. There was a 10-fold variation in the total fat, saturated fat and sugar content of sandwiches, an 8-fold variation in saturated fat in burgers and >20-fold variation in the sugar and total fat content of salads. Differences were even greater per serve. The considerable variation in the nutrient content of comparable products suggests significant potential for reformulation. Even small improvements in composition could produce important health gains if implemented across all product categories by all companies in unison. PMID:20816711

  14. A Comparison of Eye-Health Nutrients, Lutein (L)/Zeaxanthin (Z) Intakes and L/Z Rich Food Choices between College Students Living in Los Angeles and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li Hui; Tam, Chick F.; Yang, Hsin Ling; Chen, Yin Chang; Davis, Rebecca; Schwartz, Miriam E.

    2008-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin (L/Z) were related to macular health. With respect to increasing life expectancy, age-related macular disease (AMD) has become a concern on public health. The objective was to investigate dietary L/Z intake and its related food preference in populations living in different areas. A three-day dietary record and a supplement…

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Intakes Are Associated with Lower Risk of Bladder Cancer among Women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study12

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Yi; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Woolcott, Christy G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2013-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been examined for their possible effects on the risk of bladder cancer, as they contain numerous nutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidants with potentially anticarcinogenic properties. In a prospective analysis of 185,885 older adults participating in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we examined whether the consumption of fruits and vegetables, or of nutrients concentrated in fruits and vegetables, was associated with bladder cancer risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for bladder cancer in relation to dietary intakes. A total of 581 invasive bladder cancer cases (429 men and 152 women) were diagnosed over a mean follow-up period of 12.5 y. In women, total fruits and vegetables [HR = 0.35 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.56); highest vs. lowest quartile], total vegetables [HR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.83)], yellow-orange vegetables [HR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.77)], total fruits [HR = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.85)], and citrus fruits [HR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.90)] were inversely associated with the risk of invasive bladder cancer in risk factor-adjusted models. In addition, women with the highest intakes of vitamins A, C, and E; the carotenoids ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and ?-cryptoxanthin; and folate had a lower risk of bladder cancer. For men, no associations for fruits, vegetables, or nutrients were found overall, although inverse associations were observed for vegetable intake among current smokers, and in ethnic-specific analyses, for fruit and vegetable intake among Latinos specifically. Our findings suggest that greater consumption of fruits and vegetables may lower the risk of invasive bladder cancer among women and highlight the need for specific subgroup analyses in future studies. PMID:23739308

  16. The presence of friends increases food intake in youth123

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Marlana; Read, Margaret; Mele, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Background: Friendship may be uniquely relevant and influential to youths' eating behavior. Objective: This study examined how overweight and nonoverweight youths adjust their level of eating as a function of their familiarity with their eating partner. Design: Twenty-three overweight and 42 nonoverweight youths had the opportunity to play and eat with a friend (n = 26) or with an unfamiliar peer (n = 39). The dependent variables of interest were the amount of nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods children consumed and their total energy intake. Results: Participants eating with a friend ate substantially more than did participants eating with an unfamiliar peer. Furthermore, overweight youth, but not nonoverweight youth, who ate with an overweight partner (friend or unfamiliar peer) consumed more food than did overweight participants who ate with a nonoverweight eating partner. Matching of intake was greater between friends than between unfamiliar peers. Conclusions: These results extend previous research by suggesting that the effect of the partners' weight statuses may add to the facilitative effect of familiarity and result in greater energy intake in overweight youth and their friends. Behavioral similarity among overweight youth may increase the difficulty of promoting long-term changes because the youths' social network is likely to reinforce overeating. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00874055. PMID:19535431

  17. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption. PMID:21569807

  18. Use and impact of usual intake models on dietary exposure estimate and risk assessment of chemical substances: a practical example for cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Sirot, Véronique; Busani, Luca; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    To estimate of food and nutrient intakes, 24-h recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment. However intake data collected for a short period are a limited estimator of long-term usual intake. An important limitation of such data is that the within-person variability tends to inflate the intake distribution leading to a biased estimation of extreme percentiles. Statistical models, named usual-intake models, that separate the within-person variability from the between-persons variability, have lately been implemented. The main objectives of this study were to highlight the potential impact that usual-intake models can have on exposure estimate and risk assessment and to point out which are the key aspects to be considered in order to run these models properly and be sure to interpret the output correctly. To achieve the goal we used the consumption data obtained by the French dietary survey INCA2 and the concentration data collected during the French TDS2, using Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software, release 8.0. For the three substances included in this study (cadmium, acrylamide and sulphites), the exposure of the upper percentiles was significantly reduced when using usual-intake models in comparison with the results obtained in the observed individual mean models, even if in terms of risk assessment the impact of using usual-intake models was limited. From the results it appears that the key aspects to consider when using usual-intake models are: (1) the normality of the log-transformed intake distribution, (2) the contribution per single food group to the total exposure, and (3) the independency of food consumption data on multiple days. In conclusion, usual-intake models may have an impact on exposure estimates although, referring to the results, it did not bring any changes in terms of risk assessment, but further investigations are needed. PMID:25905683

  19. 9 CFR 381.463 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...shall contain 10 percent or more of the Reference Daily Intake or Daily Reference Value as defined in § 381.409 for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber per reference amount customarily consumed prior to any nutrient...

  20. 9 CFR 381.463 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...shall contain 10 percent or more of the Reference Daily Intake or Daily Reference Value as defined in § 381.409 for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber per reference amount customarily consumed prior to any nutrient...

  1. 9 CFR 381.463 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...shall contain 10 percent or more of the Reference Daily Intake or Daily Reference Value as defined in § 381.409 for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber per reference amount customarily consumed prior to any nutrient...

  2. 9 CFR 317.363 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...shall contain 10 percent or more of the Reference Daily Intake or Daily Reference Value as defined in § 317.309 for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber per reference amount customarily consumed prior to any nutrient...

  3. 9 CFR 317.363 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...shall contain 10 percent or more of the Reference Daily Intake or Daily Reference Value as defined in § 317.309 for vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, protein, or fiber per reference amount customarily consumed prior to any nutrient...

  4. Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coefficients for reported versus true intakes for energy, protein, and protein density were 0.21, 0.29, and 0.41, respectively. Using a single 24-hour recall, the coefficients were 0.26, 0.40, and 0.36, respectively, for the same nutrients and rose to 0.31, 0.49, and 0.46 when three 24-hour recalls were averaged. The average rate of under-reporting of energy intake was 28% with a FFQ and 15% with a single 24-hour recall, but the percentages were lower for protein. Personal characteristics related to under-reporting were body mass index, educational level, and age. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction. This project establishes that FFQs have stronger correlations with truth for protein density than for absolute protein intake, that the use of multiple 24-hour recalls substantially increases the correlations when compared with a single 24-hour recall, and that body mass index strongly predicts under-reporting of energy and protein intakes. PMID:24918187

  5. Total nutrient and sediment loads, trends, yields, and nontidal water-quality indicators for selected nontidal stations, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 1985–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 1985–2011 and for 32 stations in the years 2002–2011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 2006–2011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as “improving water-quality trend and a low yield” than “degrading water-quality trend and a high yield” for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.

  6. Diet and nutrients are contributing factors that influence blood cadmium levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Madeddu; Giuliana Solinas; Giovanni Forte; Beatrice Bocca; Yolande Asara; Paola Tolu; Lucia Gemma Delogu; Elena Muresu; Andrea Montella; Paolo Castiglia

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggested the intake of Cd from diet can be approximately equivalent to that from smoking. Moreover, a mutual metabolic influence between Cd and nutrients has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between blood cadmium concentration (BCdC) and food consumption, nutrients intake (Ca, Fe, Zn, vitamin C, and vitamin D), tobacco smoking, and some

  7. The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 5.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 5.0 is used to code foods and portion sizes and to calculate nutrients for national food surveys. This version of the FNDDS was used to process food intakes from What We Eat In America (WWEIA), the dietary intake component of the Natio...

  8. A Simple Tool for Diet Evaluation in Primary Health Care: Validation of a 16-Item Food Intake Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hemiö, Katri; Pölönen, Auli; Ahonen, Kirsti; Kosola, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lindström, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients’ nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g), vitamin C (mg), iron (mg), and vitamin D (?g) intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care. PMID:24599042

  9. A simple tool for diet evaluation in primary health care: validation of a 16-item food intake questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hemiö, Katri; Pölönen, Auli; Ahonen, Kirsti; Kosola, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Lindström, Jaana

    2014-03-01

    Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ) and create an easy to use method to estimate patients' nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women) completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g), vitamin C (mg), iron (mg), and vitamin D (?g) intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care. PMID:24599042

  10. Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article The effect of feed enzymes on nutrient and energy retention in young racing. No difference in body weight was observed between groups. Despite feed restriction, intake was higher for enzyme-sup- plemented diet. When related to feed intake, excreta were lower by 11% for enzyme-supplemented diet. Enzyme

  11. MACRO NUTRIENT Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    -Feeding Experiments and Protein Intake 22 8 Theoretical Implications of Failures to Self-Select 23 9 Learning, protein, fat, calcium, and oxygen, as well as internal effectors capable of redressing any detectedNEURAL and METABOLIC CONTROL of MACRO NUTRIENT INTAKE Edited by Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Ph.D. Randy J

  12. Estimation of daily intake of food preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Massey

    1997-01-01

    The techniques that are available for estimating the intake of food preservatives are reviewed. These include per-capita, duplicate diet, diary records, food frequency, Total Diet and biomarker-based methods. Each approach has its merits and disadvantages and selection will depend upon a number of factors such as the reasons why the intake information is required, resource availability and the nature and

  13. Endogenous variables and weak instruments in cross-sectional nutrient demand and health information analysis: a comparison of solutions 

    E-print Network

    Bakhtavoryan, Rafael Gagik

    2004-09-30

    In recent years, increasing attention has turned toward the effect of health information or health knowledge on nutrient intake. In determining the effect of health information on nutrient demand, researchers face the estimation problem of dealing...

  14. Dietary intake at competition in elite Olympic combat sports.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Berg, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate elite female (n = 21) and male (n = 47) combat sports athletes' (n = 68; mean age (± SD) 21.3 ± 3.8 years; mean height 177 ± 10.2 cm) dietary intake between weigh-in and the first bout in Olympic combat sports. The data were collected at 6 separate tournaments and measurements included estimated food records, time for recovery, and body weight (BW) at weigh-in and first match. In total, 33 athletes participated in wrestling and taekwondo, sports with extended recovery times, and 35 athletes in judo and boxing, sports with limited recovery time. The results displayed that despite a mean consumption of food and drinks corresponding to 4.2 kg, the athletes only regained an average of 1.9 kg BW during recovery. Water accounted for 86% of the total intake. For each liter of water consumed, athletes gained 0.57 kg BW, when excluding heavy weight athletes (n = 5). Carbohydrate consumption was 5.5 g/kg BW, compared with the recommended 8-10 g/kg BW. In total, one-quarter of the consumed water originated from carbohydrate-rich drinks. Given the average recovery time of 18 (wrestling, taekwondo) versus 8 hr (judo, boxing), the former group consumed twice the amount of water, carbohydrates, protein, and fat as the latter group. In conclusion, a large proportion of the participants did not meet the recovery nutrition guidelines for carbohydrates. In addition, the discrepancy between nutrient intake and weight gain points to the physiological barriers to retaining fluids during a limited recovery time after engaging in weight making practices. PMID:23980253

  15. Socio-Economic Variables and Nutrient Adequacy of Women in the Vaal Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Kruger, Rozanne; Egal, Abdulkadir A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional, observational baseline survey was to examine the association between nutrient intakes and selected socio-economic variables in 722 women, aged 19 to 90 years living in peri-urban settlements. Measurements included socio-demographic data and 24-hour recall dietary intake data. The results showed poor nutrient intakes with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) not met for the mean intakes of all nutrients except carbohydrates, phosphorus, and vitamin B12. The inadequate energy intakes were significantly higher among the women who had lower education (p = .015), lower income (p = .028), and were unemployed (p = .015). The epidemiological value of the study findings is in the contribution to the rationale of appropriate interventions such as income-generating projects as well as household agricultural projects to improve food and nutrient intakes. PMID:25105862

  16. Cohabitational effect of grandparents on dietary intake among young Japanese women and their mothers living together. A multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Asakura, Keiko; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    We examined the cohabitational effect of the grandparents on dietary intakes among young Japanese women and their mothers, using data from a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 35 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Among a total of 2032 three-generation families, 1336 female dietetic students (18-20 years), 1336 of their mothers (36-59 years), and 1560 of their paternal or maternal grandmothers (59-94 years) were included. Intake of foods and nutrients was assessed with self-administered diet history questionnaires. The prevalence of students and their mothers living with the grandparents (GP) was 36%. Students living with GP had a higher intake of fruits, vegetables, total dietary fiber, ?-carotene, vitamin C and potassium and lower intake of meats than those living without GP. For mothers, fish and shellfish and vitamin C intakes were higher and meat intake was lower among participants living with GP. The median correlation coefficients of food and nutrient intakes in the students-grandmothers living together was higher than in those living apart for both paternal grandmothers (PGM) and maternal grandmothers (MGM) (all P?<0.01). The median values of mothers-PGM living together were also significantly higher than in those living apart (P?<0.01). However, the values of mothers-MGM did not significantly differ between those living with and without MGM. These results may suggest that family members who live together tend to share similar dietary habits. Further, the mother's dietary habits might affect those of their children even after they live apart. PMID:25916625

  17. Palatability and foraging cost interact to control caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, K; Sclafani, A

    1999-01-01

    The combined effects of meal cost and food flavor on meal size were studied with a method that avoided the covariation of nutrient composition and caloric density with palatability. As rats (Rattus norvegicus) drank flavored fluids (unpalatable 0.05% sucrose octaacetate [SOA], neutral 0.05% saccharin, and palatable 2% Polycose + 0.2% saccharin [P + S]), liquid diet was infused intragastrically. Relative to saccharin, rats with free access ate 10% more calories in larger meals while consuming P + S and initially ate fewer calories in smaller but more frequent meals while drinking SOA. Other rats lever-pressed to begin meals, which halved meal number and doubled meal size relative to the free-access group. Although foraging rats also ate larger P + S meals and smaller SOA meals, the changes did not affect total intake. Without the usual differential postingestive effects of foods that differ in palatability, making food more costly blunts rats' response to its flavor. PMID:9987856

  18. Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Non Vegetarian Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and non vegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that may contribute to the development of disease. Objective To compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. Design Cross-sectional study of 71751 subjects (mean age 59 years) from the Adventist-Health-Study-2. Data was collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were: non vegetarian, semi vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian and strict vegetarian. ANCOVA was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and were adjusted for age, and sex and race. BMI and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using chi-square tests and ANOVA. Results Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Non vegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, ?-Carotene, and Mg than those following vegetarian dietary patterns and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2000 kcal/d with the exception of semi vegetarians that had an intake of 1713 kcal/d. Mean BMI was highest in non-vegetarians (mean; standard deviation [SD]) (28.7; [6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (24.0; [4.8]). Conclusions Nutrient profiles varied markedly between dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences can be of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. PMID:23988511

  19. Differences in Nutrient Adequacy among Poor and Non-Poor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, John T.; Martin, Katie S.

    This study compared the proportion of 1- to 5-year-olds in poor and non-poor households whose intakes of key nutrients were inadequate. Data were obtained from the 1986 United States Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. An intake below 70 percent of the Recommended Daily…

  20. Usual Energy Intake from Total Fat

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  1. Nutrient effects on the calcium economy: emphasizing the potassium controversy.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Karen; Heaney, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The calcium economy is a dynamic state influenced by fluxes in dietary calcium intake, intestinal calcium absorption, and renal calcium conservation. The relationship of selected bone-related nutrients to these calcium fluxes exhibits both constructive and destructive interactions that affect the overall state of calcium balance. The basis of the calcium requirement and the impact of vitamin D, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and caffeine on the calcium economy are reviewed. Against this background, emerging data on potassium are presented. Data from balance studies of healthy white women at midlife were reviewed to assess the effect of diet potassium on the calcium economy under steady-state conditions. Potassium was inversely associated with both urinary calcium excretion and intestinal calcium absorption, yielding no significant net change in calcium balance. In the population reported on here, dairy, meat, and cereal grains together contributed 56%, and fruits and vegetables 44%, of total dietary potassium. To the extent that fruit and vegetable potassium is a surrogate for high bicarbonate, this cohort did not have a dietary intake pattern allowing for measurement or interpretation of the potential effect of a high-bicarbonate-containing diet on long-term steady-state calcium balance. Potassium itself is uniformly well absorbed regardless of the dietary source. Mean 24-h urinary potassium averaged 92% of dietary intake. According to nationwide food consumption surveys, milk is the number 1 single food source of potassium in all age groups in the United States. PMID:18156419

  2. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Knekt; Jorma Kumpulainen; Ritva Järvinen; Harri Rissanen; Markku Heliövaara; Antti Reunanen; Timo Hakulinen; Arpo Aromaa

    Background: Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and may pro- tect against several chronic diseases. Objective: The association between flavonoid intake and risk of several chronic diseases was studied. Design: The total dietary intakes of 10 054 men and women dur- ing the year preceding the baseline examination were determined with a dietary history method. Flavonoid intakes were estimated, mainly on the

  3. Nutrient Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Iowa Department of Natural Resources PowerPoint presentation educates the public about sources of excess nutrients in the Mississippi River and outlines preventative steps to stop the influx. It is directed toward Iowa citizens, but may be applied to other states as well. This presentation features color photographs and diagrams.

  4. Relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Spronk, Inge; Kullen, Charina; Burdon, Catriona; O'Connor, Helen

    2014-05-28

    The present systematic review examined the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake in adults (mean age ? 18 years). Relevant databases were searched from the earliest record until November 2012. Search terms included: nutrition; diet or food knowledge and energy intake; feeding behaviour; diet; eating; nutrient or food intake or consumption. Included studies were original research articles that used instruments providing quantitative assessment of both nutrition knowledge and dietary intake and their statistical association. The initial search netted 1,193,393 potentially relevant articles, of which twenty-nine were eligible for inclusion. Most of them were conducted in community populations (n 22) with fewer (n 7) in athletic populations. Due to the heterogeneity of methods used to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, a meta-analysis was not possible. The majority of the studies (65·5%: community 63·6%; athletic 71·4%) reported significant, positive, but weak (r< 0·5) associations between higher nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, most often a higher intake of fruit and vegetables. However, study quality ranged widely and participant representation from lower socio-economic status was limited, with most participants being tertiary educated and female. Well-designed studies using validated methodologies are needed to clarify the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Diet quality scores or indices that aim to evaluate compliance to dietary guidelines may be particularly valuable for assessing the relationship between nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. Nutrition knowledge is an integral component of health literacy and as low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes, contemporary, high-quality research is needed to inform community nutrition education and public health policy. PMID:24621991

  5. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Flávia dos Santos; Sichieri, Rosely; Junger, Washington Leite

    2013-02-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR), in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal) and fruit (g) intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey. PMID:23703261

  6. Body composition, metabolic rate and utilization of milk nutrients in suckling piglets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Body composition, metabolic rate and utilization of milk nutrients in suckling piglets J. NOBLET, M dioxide (C02) production, heat production (HP) and milk nutrient intake of 22 litters of suckling piglets on the relationship between chemical composition at weaning and changes in milk nutrient supply or intensity of growth

  7. Dietary intake of pesticide residues: cadmium, mercury, and lead.

    PubMed

    Galal-Gorchev, H

    1991-01-01

    Information on the dietary intake of chemical contaminants has been obtained from institutions participating in GEMS/Food. Contaminants studied include certain organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, PCBs, cadmium, mercury, and lead. The intakes are compared with toxicologically acceptable intake levels established by international expert groups. In most cases, dietary intakes of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides are well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of the respective pesticide. Of some 21 countries providing information on the average dietary intake of cadmium, only in one case is the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) exceeded. Several countries identified cereals and cereal products and root and tuber vegetables as the main contributors to the dietary intake of cadmium. For mercury, all reported intakes are below the PTWI of methylmercury. The contribution of fish to the total intake of mercury varied from 20% to 85%, depending on the country. Therefore, the general assumption that fish is the main contributor to the total dietary intake of mercury may, at times, not be justified. Average dietary intake of lead exceeding or approaching the PTWI are reported for adults and infants and children in some countries. Foodstuffs which contribute most to the intake of lead vary from country to country, and have been identified as being alternately drinking water, beverages, cereals, vegetables and fruit. PMID:1812026

  8. Growth and Nutrient Uptake by Soybean Plants in Nutrient Solutions of Graded Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, James E.; Frere, Maurice H.

    1971-01-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max L. Merr. var. Hawkeye), grown in nutrient solutions maintained at graded concentrations showed a large response in both shoot dry weight and total ion uptake. Growth rate was dependent upon nutrient concentration, even when quantity of nutrient was not limiting. Peak periods for absorption of specific ions at certain growth stages were not exhibited. Rates of ion uptake by soybeans were generally proportional to the growth rate during the period of major growth. It is suggested that a dilute nutrient solution could provide sufficient nutrients for adequate root growth prior to major shoot growth, at which time a more concentrated nutrient solution is needed. PMID:16657819

  9. Assessment of dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Pieczy?ska, Joanna; Ilow, Rafa?; Poreba, Joanna; Neubauer, Katarzyna; Smereka, Adam; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga; Paradowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    The dietary intake of patients with irritable bowel syndrome was assessed using 24-h dietary recall. The energy value and nutrient contents in the daily food rations were calculated by Nutritionist IV computer program with the Polish database. Differentiations in the Polish RDA coverage for energy and nutrients were observed in the studied group. Fat, saturated fatty acid, phosphorus and also vitamin A, E and C contents were above the RDA in the patients' daily food ration. The majority of IBS individuals did not meet recommendations for carbohydrate intake. Calcium and cooper intake was below the Polish RDA. The insufficient vitamin B2 intake and excessive Fe supply have been shown in the male patients. PMID:19803452

  10. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. PMID:20176064

  11. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yue; Dibley, Michael J; Zhang, Xueli; Zeng, Lingxia; Yan, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR). The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97%) and zinc (91%). Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194. PMID:19589154

  12. Tolerance for Nutrient Imbalance in an Intermittently Feeding Herbivorous Cricket, the Wellington Tree Weta

    PubMed Central

    Wehi, Priscilla M.; Raubenheimer, David; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that regulate nutrient intake have an advantage over those that do not, given that the nutrient composition of any one resource rarely matches optimal nutrient requirements. We used nutritional geometry to model protein and carbohydrate intake and identify an intake target for a sexually dimorphic species, the Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens). Despite pronounced sexual dimorphism in this large generalist herbivorous insect, intake targets did not differ by sex. In a series of laboratory experiments, we then investigated whether tree weta demonstrate compensatory responses for enforced periods of imbalanced nutrient intake. Weta pre-fed high or low carbohydrate: protein diets showed large variation in compensatory nutrient intake over short (<48 h) time periods when provided with a choice. Individuals did not strongly defend nutrient targets, although there was some evidence for weak regulation. Many weta tended to select high and low protein foods in a ratio similar to their previously identified nutrient optimum. These results suggest that weta have a wide tolerance to nutritional imbalance, and that the time scale of weta nutrient balancing could lie outside of the short time span tested here. A wide tolerance to imbalance is consistent with the intermittent feeding displayed in the wild by weta and may be important in understanding weta foraging patterns in New Zealand forests. PMID:24358369

  13. Assessing the micronutrient and macronutrient intakes in female students and comparing them with the set standard values

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaeian, Soheila; Ghiasvand, Reza; Sadeghian, Fatemeh; Sheikhi, Mahdieh; Khosravi, Zahra S.; Askari, Gholamreza; Shiranian, Afshin; Yadegarfar, Ghasem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy nutrition particularly the energy intake and the essential nutrients in female students is very important. This study aims to assess micro- and macronutrient intakes in female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 100 female students aged between 18 and 25 years in 2008–2009. Anthropometrics measures were performed and two 24-hours food recalls were used to collect the dietary information and were analyzed using food processor 2 and compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) 2008. Findings: As many as 61.1% of subjects resided in dormitories; 12.7% were married. Prevalence of overweight or obesity and abdominal obesity in the subjects studied were 6.9% and 46.1%, respectively. The mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure was 105.2 ± 15.6 mmHg and the diastolic was 62.2 ± 10.4 mmHg. Totally, 3.9% of the subjects had hypertension. Food intake analysis indicated that B12, folate, magnesium, potassium, and calcium were below the recommended level, and vitamin C, E, pantothenic acid, B1, B3, phosphate, and zinc were above, and energy intake, macronutrient, vitamin A, pyridoxine, iron, and selenium were, in general, adequate. Conclusion: The findings of the study indicated that macronutrients intake was appropriate, but the problem mainly existed in the consumption of micronutrients. It is recommended to increase the intakes of important food groups such as dairy, vegetable, and fruit that are proper sources of micronutrients, and it is also suggested to improve strategies and the competence in this area of nutrition. PMID:24083251

  14. Association between dietary calcium intake and arterial stiffness according to dietary vitamin D intake in men.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Nakamoto, Mariko; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2014-10-28

    Studies on the associations of dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes with arterial stiffness are scarce. In the present study, these associations were evaluated in Japanese men. Data from a total of 535 eligible men, aged 35-69 years, who participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, and underwent brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) measurements were analysed. ba-PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and is recognised as a marker of atherosclerotic vascular damage. Information regarding the cohort's lifestyle characteristics including dietary behaviour over the past year was obtained from a structured self-administered questionnaire. Dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes were adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method and divided into quartiles; the highest quartile was used as the reference. General linear models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes and ba-PWV values adjusted for probable covariates. The association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was further evaluated using similar general linear models stratified by dietary vitamin D intake (median or below/above median). Dietary Ca intake was found to be significantly inversely associated with ba-PWV after adjusting for probable covariates (P for trend = 0·020). However, no such association was observed between dietary vitamin D intake and ba-PWV. The inverse association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was striking in subjects with higher dietary vitamin D intake. However, no association was found in subjects with lower dietary vitamin D intake. These results indicate that adequate dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes may be protective against the development of arterial stiffness in Japanese men. PMID:25192171

  15. Prognosis of breast cancer is associated with one-carbon metabolism related nutrients among Korean women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 5-year survival rate for breast cancer among Korean women has increased steadily; however, breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality among women. One-carbon metabolism, which requires an adequate supply of methyl group donors and B vitamins, may affect the prognosis of breast cancer. This aim of this study was to investigate the associations of dietary intake of vitamin B2, vitamin B6 and folate before diagnosis on the prognosis of breast cancer. Methods We assessed the dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire with 980 women who were newly diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed to have primary breast cancer from hospitals in Korea, and 141 disease progression events occurred. Cox’s proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) adjusting for age, education, recruitment sites, TNM stage, hormone status, nuclear grade and total calorie. Results There was no significant association between any one-carbon metabolism related nutrients (vitamin B2, B6 and folate) and the progression of breast cancer overall. However, one-carbon metabolism related nutrients were associated with disease progression in breast cancer patients stratified by subtypes. In ER?+?and/or PR?+?breast cancers, no association was observed; however, in ER–/PR– breast cancers, a high intake of vitamin B2 and folate statistically elevated the HR of breast cancer progression (HR?=?2.28; 95% CI, 1.20-4.35, HR?=?1.84; 95% CI, 1.02-3.32, respectively) compared to a low intake. This positive association between the ER/PR status and progression of the disease was profound when the nutrient intakes were categorized in a combined score (Pinteraction?=?0.018). In ER–/PR– breast cancers, high combined scores were associated with a significantly poor DFS compared to those belonging to the low score group (HR?=?3.84; 95% CI, 1.70-8.71). Conclusions In conclusion, our results suggest that one-carbon related nutrients have a role in the prognosis of breast cancer depending on the ER/PR status. PMID:22929014

  16. Association of dietary intake with joint space narrowing and osteophytosis at the knee in Japanese men and women: the ROAD study.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Shigeyuki; Akune, Toru; En-Yo, Yoshio; Yoshida, Munehito; Tanaka, Sakae; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-03-16

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to identify dietary nutrients associated with joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytosis at the knee in a population-based cohort of the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. METHODS: From the baseline survey of the ROAD study, 827 participants (305 men and 522 women) in a rural cohort were analyzed. Dietary nutrient intakes for the last month were assessed by a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte area (OPA) in the medial compartment of the knee were measured using a knee osteoarthritis (OA) computer-aided diagnostic system. RESULTS: In men, there were no associations of dietary nutrient intakes with mJSW or OPA. In women, vitamins K, B1, B2, B6, and C were associated with mJSW after adjustment for age, body mass index, and total energy (p < 0.05). Vitamins E, K, B1, B2, niacin, and B6 were significantly associated with OPA (p < 0.05) in women. Vitamins K, B and C may have a protective role against knee OA in women and might lead to disease-modifying treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that low dietary intake of vitamins K, B, and C are associated with JSN and osteophytosis in women. PMID:23504456

  17. Nutrients for the aging eye

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Helen M; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, ?-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old), vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. PMID:23818772

  18. Trends in intakes and sources of solid fats and added sugars among US children and adolescents: 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are increasing global concerns about improving the dietary intakes of children and adolescents. In the United States (U.S.) the focus is on reducing energy from foods and beverages that provide empty calories from solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). We examine trends in intakes and sources of solid fat and added sugars among U.S. 2- to 18- year olds from 1994-2010. Methods Data from five nationally representative surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals Surveys (1994-1996) and the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to examine key food sources and energy from solid fats and added sugars. Sample sizes ranged from 2,594 to 8,259 per survey period, for a total of 17,268 observations across the five surveys. Food files were linked over time to create comparable food groups and nutrient values. Differences were examined by age, race/ethnicity and family income. Results Daily intake of energy from SoFAS among U.S. 2-18 year olds decreased from 1994-2010, with declines primarily detected in the recent time periods. Solid fats accounted for a greater proportion of total energy intake than did added sugars. Conclusions Although the consumption of solid fats and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States decreased between 1994–1998 and 2009–2010, mean intakes continue to exceed recommended limits. PMID:23554397

  19. Nutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Edward; Karl, J Philip

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery, and in particular, gastric bypass, is an increasingly utilized and successful approach for long-term treatment of obesity and amelioration of comorbidities. Nutrient deficiencies after surgery are common and have multiple causes. Preoperative factors include obesity, which appears to be associated with risk for several nutrient deficiencies, and preoperative weight loss. Postoperatively, reduced food intake, suboptimal dietary quality, altered digestion and absorption, and nonadherence with supplementation regimens contribute to risk of deficiency. The most common clinically relevant micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass include thiamine, vitamin B??, vitamin D, iron, and copper. Reports of deficiencies of many other nutrients, some with severe clinical manifestations, are relatively sporadic. Diet and multivitamin use are unlikely to consistently prevent deficiency, thus supplementation with additional specific nutrients is often needed. Though optimal supplement regimens are not yet defined, most micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass currently can be prevented or treated by appropriate supplementation. PMID:23642197

  20. Macronutrient, Vitamin, and Mineral Intakes in the EPIC-Germany Cohorts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias B. Schulze; Jakob Linseisen; Anja Kroke; Heiner Boeing

    2001-01-01

    This article presents intakes of nutrients in the EPIC-Heidelberg and the EPIC-Potsdam (European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) studies. Estimates are based on standardized 24-hour dietary recalls. Recalls from 1,013 men and 1,078 women in Heidelberg and from 1,032 men and 898 women in Potsdam were included in the analysis. The estimated nutrient intake was based on the German Food

  1. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. PMID:23340318

  2. Calcium deprivation increases salt intake.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, M G; Ulrich, P M; Schulkin, J

    1990-09-01

    Relative to rats fed chow or semisynthetic control diet, rats fed Ca2(+)-deficient diet increased daily "spontaneous" intake of 0.3 M NaCl solution by as much as eightfold. Intake of 0.3 M NaCl increased in monotonic relationship to the severity of Ca2+ deficiency, which was manipulated by both duration of depletion (0-32 days) and dietary Ca2+ content (0-50 mmol/kg Ca2+). The increased intake was specific to either Na+ or saltiness; relative to controls, Ca2(+)-deprived rats drank more of a wide range of NaCl solutions (0.05-0.50 M) but the same volume of 0.37 mM sucrose octaacetate (bitter), slightly more 2.5 mM citrate (sour), and significantly less 2.5 mM saccharin (sweet). Although urine volume of Ca2(+)-deprived rats was increased, total Na+ excretion was slightly decreased. Adrenal weights, hematocrit, and plasma concentrations of Na+, aldosterone, and angiotensin I were all normal. These results reveal that Ca2+ deficiency increases NaCl intake and thus challenge the notion that salt appetite is a specific response to perturbed Na+ homeostasis. PMID:2396702

  3. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  4. Inhibition of food intake in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Blavet; F. V. DeFeudis

    1982-01-01

    The effects of single oral administrations of tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine and desipramine), an atypical antidepressant (nomifensine), known anorexic agents, haloperidol, and diazepam on food intake were compared in Sprague-Dawley rats over a 4-day test period. The tricyclic antidepressants produced decreases in food intake during the total 4-day test period following their administration. In contrast, the anorexic agents (d-amphetamine, cocaine, mazindol,

  5. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein?×?Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  6. Dietary assessment and estimation of intake Michael J. Daniels1 2

    E-print Network

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    Dietary assessment and estimation of intake densities Michael J. Daniels1 2 Alicia Carriquiry3 4 1 to design food assistance programs, guide food and nutrition policy, and monitor the dietary status to estimating the distribution of usual intakes of a nutrient in a population. Starting with a sample of dietary

  7. Cassava Intake and Vitamin A Status among Women and Preschool Children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    De Moura, Fabiana F.; Moursi, Mourad; Lubowa, Abdelrahman; Ha, Barbara; Boy, Erick; Oguntona, Babatunde; Sanusi, Rasaki A.; Maziya-Dixon, Busie

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of the HarvestPlus provitamin A-biofortified cassava program in Nigeria we conducted a survey to determine the cassava intake and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months and women of childbearing age in the state of Akwa Ibom. Methods A cluster-randomized cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. The usual food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a multi-pass 24-hour recall with repeated recall on a subsample. Blood samples of children and women were collected to analyze for serum retinol, serum ferritin, and acute phase proteins as indicators of infection. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 ?mol/L adjusted for infection. Results A total of 587 households of a mother-child dyad participated in the dietary intake assessment. Cassava was very widely consumed in Akwa Ibom, mainly as gari or foofoo. Daily cassava consumption frequency was 92% and 95% among children and women, respectively. Mean (±SD) cassava intake (expressed as raw fresh weight) was 348 ± 317 grams/day among children and 940 ± 777 grams/day among women. Intakes of most micronutrients appeared to be adequate with the exception of calcium. Median vitamin A intake was very high both for children (1038 ?g RAE/day) and women (2441 ?g RAE/day). Red palm oil and dark green leafy vegetables were the main sources of vitamin A in the diet, with red palm oil alone contributing almost 60% of vitamin A intake in women and children. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from moderate (16.9 %) among children to virtually non-existent (3.4 %) among women. Conclusion Consumption of cassava and vitamin A intake was high among women and children in Akwa Ibom with a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranging from moderate in children to non-existent among women. The provitamin A biofortified cassava and other vitamin A interventions should focus dissemination in states where red palm oil is not widely consumed. PMID:26083382

  8. The impact of a physician and patient intervention program on dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Yancy, William S.; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Dolor, Rowena J.; Marcello, Jennifer; Samsa, Gregory P.; Batch, Bryan C.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient dietary interventions for hypertensive patients in clinical settings are needed. Objective To assess the separate and combined impact of a physician intervention (MD-I) and a patient intervention (PT-I) on dietary intakes of patients with hypertension. Design A nested 2 x 2 design, randomized controlled trial over 18-months. Participants/setting A total of 32 physicians and 574 outpatients with hypertension. Intervention MD-I included training modules addressing the JNC-7 hypertension management guidelines and lifestyle modification. PT-I included lifestyle coaching to adopt the DASH eating pattern, reduce sodium intake, manage weight, increase exercise, and moderate alcohol intake. Main outcome measures Dietary intakes measured by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Concordance to the DASH dietary pattern was estimated by a DASH score. Statistical analyses The main effects of MD-I and PT-I, and their interaction, were evaluated using ANCOVA. Results After six months of intervention, MD-I significantly increased intakes of potassium, fruits, juices and carbohydrate; decreased intake of fat; and improved overall dietary quality by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). PT-I resulted in increased intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fiber, calcium, potassium, fruits and fruit juices, vegetables, dairy and HEI, and decreased intakes in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, sweets, added fats/oils/sweets, and glycemic index. In addition, PT-I improved overall DASH concordance score. The change in DASH score was significantly associated with the changes in Blood pressure and weight at six month. At 18 months, most changes reversed back toward the baseline levels including the DASH score. Conclusions Both MD-I and PT-I improved eating patterns at six months with some sustained effects at 18 months. Even though all dietary changes observed were consistent with the DASH nutrient targets or food group guidelines, only the PT-I was effective in improving the overall DASH concordance score. This finding affirms the role of medical nutrition therapy in long-term intensive interventions for hypertension risk reduction and weight management and underlines the need for development of maintenance strategies. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of collaborations among physicians, dietitians and trained nutritionists, and lay health advisors while assisting patients to make healthy behavior changes. PMID:23999279

  9. The impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in eventing horses.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A A; Azevedo, J F; Martins, J A; Barreto, M P; Silva, V P; Julliand, V; Almeida, F Q

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of dietary protein levels on nutrient digestibility and water and nitrogen balances in conditioning eventing horses. Twenty-four Brazilian Sport Horses, male and female (8.0 to 15.0 yr; 488 ± 32 kg BW), were used in a randomized design with 4 levels of CP diets: 7.5%, 9.0%, 11.0%, and 13.0%. A digestion assay was performed with partial feces collection over 4 d, followed by 1 d of total urine collection. Data were submitted to regression analysis and adjusted to linear and quadratic models (P < 0.05). No differences were observed in the intake of DM, OM, EE, ADF, and NDF as a function of dietary protein levels. Dry matter intake average was 1.7% of BW. CP and N intake showed a linear increase as a function of increasing protein level in diets. A quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed on the CP and NDF digestibility coefficients, with the maximum estimated level of digestibility at 11.6% and 11.4% CP in the diet, respectively. There was a linear effect on ADF digestibility coefficients, digestible DM and protein intake, and CP/DE ratio according to dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on daily water intake, total water intake, or fecal water excretion. Urinary excretion values showed a linear increase in response to increased dietary protein levels, but no impact was observed on water balance, with an average of 8.4 L/d. Nitrogen intake (NI), N absorption (NA), and urinary N increased linearly as a function of increasing dietary protein levels. There was no impact of dietary protein levels on N retention (NR), with an average of 7.5 g N/d. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of NI or NA showed no significant changes in the function of dietary protein levels. There was an impact of dietary protein levels on the digestibility coefficient of CP, NDF, ADF, and digestible protein intake on conditioning eventing horses. The 11.6% CP level in the diet provided an intake of 2.25 g CP/kg BW and 0.37 g N/kg BW, and this intake was the most appropriate for the conditioning of intensely exercised horses, considering the responses related to NI, NA, and the estimated NR to NA ratio. The NDF and ADF responses indicated that dietary fiber was more digested with an increased amount of N in the digestive tract. PMID:25568371

  10. Factors influencing the intake and plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in southern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Mataix; Pilar Aranda; María López-Jurado; Cristina Sánchez; Elena Planells; Juan Llopis

    2006-01-01

    Objective  The aim of the study was to assess factors influencing the intake and plasma levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium\\u000a (Mg) in an adult population from southern Spain, in order to identify patterns of intake and groups at risk for deficiency.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Andalusia, a western Mediterranean region in southern Spain. Nutrient intakes

  11. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the establishment of dietary treatment. Design: Women, aged 19 to 30 years, with both restricting and binge purge types of AN, participating in an ecological momentary assessment study, completed three nonc...

  12. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  13. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, S A; Kumar, N S; St Hilaire, R J; Nutting, D F; Mansbach, C M

    2000-03-01

    Some key advances occurred last year in understanding mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption. A novel "prechylomicron transport vesicle" was identified; its movement to the Golgi is the rate-limiting step for triacylglycerol absorption. A scavenger receptor (type BI) in the brush border membrane appears to facilitate cholesterol uptake. Several studies define mechanisms for gastrointestinal peptide hormone stimulation of glucose uptake. An oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, is transcriptionally upregulated by certain dietary amino acids and dipeptides. Surprisingly, both insulin and fasting double the maximum velocity for dipeptide uptake (via PepT1), but they act by different mechanisms. Three transporters, SMVT (sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter for biotin and pantothenate), SVCT (for vitamin C), and CaT1 (for Ca uptake from the lumen) have been cloned and are active when expressed in various cells. Additional studies provide insights on Ca absorption and vitamin D action in aging, estrogen deficiency, and adaptation to a low Ca diet. Nramp2, also called DMT1 (divalent metal ion transporter), seems to be a major regulator of transferrin-independent, nonheme iron uptake. Finally, the protein HFE associates with the transferrin receptor and is part of an iron-sensing mechanism that regulates iron absorption. It is defective in hereditary hemochromatosis. HFE and Nramp2 (DMT1) genes are reciprocally regulated. PMID:17024033

  14. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Commins, John M; Moler, James E; Willett, Walter; Tinker, Lesley F; Subar, Amy F; Spiegelman, Donna; Rhodes, Donna; Potischman, Nancy; Neuhouser, Marian L; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Kipnis, Victor; Arab, Lenore; Prentice, Ross L

    2015-04-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies (1999-2009) of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents, to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls (24HRs). Here we report on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were similar by sex but were heterogeneous across studies. For potassium, potassium density, sodium, sodium density, and sodium:potassium ratio, average correlation coefficients for the correlation of reported intake with true intake on the FFQs were 0.37, 0.47, 0.16, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. For the same nutrients measured with a single 24HR, they were 0.47, 0.46, 0.32, 0.31, and 0.46, respectively, rising to 0.56, 0.53, 0.41, 0.38, and 0.60 for the average of three 24HRs. Average underreporting was 5%-6% with an FFQ and 0%-4% with a single 24HR for potassium but was 28%-39% and 4%-13%, respectively, for sodium. Higher body mass index was related to underreporting of sodium. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction, except for sodium density. In summary, self-reports capture potassium intake quite well but sodium intake less well. Using densities improves the measurement of potassium and sodium on an FFQ. Sodium:potassium ratio is measured much better than sodium itself on both FFQs and 24HRs. PMID:25787264

  15. Effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on the intake, performance, and methane emissions of feedlot Nellore steers.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, G; Carvalho, I P C; Messana, J D; Castagnino, P S; Berndt, A; Canesin, R C; Frighetto, R T S; Berchielli, T T

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lipids with different fatty acid profiles on the intake, performance, and enteric CH4 emission of Nellore steers. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial BW of 419 ± 11 kg (at 15 ± 2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a DM basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without additional fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The lipid source significantly affected (P < 0.05) nutrient intake. The greatest intakes of DM, OM, and CP were observed in the animals that were fed the WF or PF diets, and the lowest intakes were observed in the animals that were fed the PO diet. Intake of NDF decreased (P < 0.05) with the addition of PO. Enteric methane emission (g/kg DMI) was reduced by an average of 30% when the animals were fed diets containing WS, LO, and PO (P < 0.05), and these diets caused a larger reduction in the energy loss in the form of methane compared to those without added fat and with added PF (3.3 vs. 4.7%). The different fatty acid profiles did not affect the backfat thickness or the loin eye area of the animals (P > 0.05). However, animals fed PO displayed lower daily weight gain (0.36 kg/d), feed efficiency (0.08 kg ADG/kg DM), HCW (245 kg), and hot yield percentage (52.6%) compared to animals that were fed the other diets. Therefore, PO compared to the other lipid sources used in this study reduces intake, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass yield. Therefore, PO is not suggested for feedlot-finished animals. PMID:24492580

  16. Evaluation of energy and dietary intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using independent energy expenditure measurement and weighed food records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica H Carlsen; Inger TL Lillegaard; Anette Karlsen; Rune Blomhoff; Christian A Drevon; Lene F Andersen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet, with special focus on the intake of fruit, vegetables and other antioxidant-rich foods and beverages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative validity of the intakes of energy, food and nutrients from the FFQ. METHODS: Energy intake was evaluated against independent

  17. Dietary bioactives: establishing a scientific framework for recommended intakes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Shao, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, dietary reference intakes describe the relations between nutrient intakes and indicators of adequacy, prevention of disease, and avoidance of excessive intakes among healthy populations for essential nutrients but not dietary bioactive components (DBCs), whose absence from the diet is presumably not deleterious to health (i.e., does not cause a deficiency syndrome). An appropriate framework is needed for establishing recommended intakes for which public health messages and food labeling for DBCs can be derived, because their putative health benefits may not be readily defined in the context of nutritional essentiality. In addition, a myriad of factors make determining their intake and status and investigating their discrete contributions to health particularly challenging. Therefore, the ASN Dietary Bioactive Components Research Interest Section felt it worthwhile to convene a special "hot topic" session at the 2014 Experimental Biology meeting to discuss this issue and serve as a call for future scientific dialogue on establishing a framework for recommended intakes of DBCs. This session summary captures the discussions and presentations that transpired during this session. PMID:25593139

  18. Dietary intake and blood lipid profile survey of fighter pilots at Tyndall Air Force Base.

    PubMed

    Copp, E K; Green, N R

    1991-09-01

    A 24-hour dietary recall, a food frequency checklist, and a blood lipid profile were collected from 30 USAF fighter pilots. Sample mean intakes of nutrients studied met U.S. military recommended dietary allowances, except for folic acid, which was 78%. Mean percentages of energy derived from carbohydrate, protein and fat were 48.3, 16.1 and 34.2%, respectively. Of the pilot sample, 63% reported they did not eat breakfast daily. Sample mean blood lipid profile values were: total cholesterol = 218 mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol = 45 mg/dl, triglycerides = 109 mg/dl. Based on total cholesterol level, 40% of the pilot sample should have follow-up according to the National Cholesterol Education Program. A significant negative relationship was found between reported exercise frequency and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. Some fighter pilots could benefit from counseling with a dietitian regarding dietary intake patterns, decreasing dietary fats, and the advantages of regular exercise. PMID:1930071

  19. Usual Intake of Poultry

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Poultry Table A26. Poultry: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.9 (0.03) 0.3 (0.05) 0.4

  20. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public. PMID:25884659

  1. A prospective cohort study of Vitamins B, C, E, and multivitamin intake and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Anne Marie; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Malspeis, Susan; Harris, Holly R.; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Diet is a potentially modifiable risk factor for endometriosis. It has been hypothesized that vitamins C, E, and the B vitamins may influence factors involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, such as oxidative stress and steroid hormone metabolism. In this large, prospective cohort study, we examined the relation between intake of vitamins C, E, the B vitamins, and the use of multivitamin supplements and diagnosis of endometriosis. Methods Data were collected from women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1991 and 2005. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models. Results A total of 1383 incident cases of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis were observed among 70,617 women during 735,286 person years of follow-up. Intakes of thiamine (B1) (RR = 0.84, CI = 0.72–0.99; P-value, test for linear trend [P] = 0.04), folate (B9) (RR = 0.79, CI = 0.66–0.93; P = 0.003), vitamin C (RR = 0.81, CI = 0.68–0.95; P = 0.02), and vitamin E (RR = 0.70, CI = 0.59–0.83; P<0.0001) solely from food sources were inversely related to endometriosis diagnosis. However, intakes of these nutrients from supplements alone were unrelated to endometriosis. Conclusion Thiamine, folate, vitamin C, and vitamin E from food sources are inversely related to endometriosis risk. Our results suggest that the protective mechanism may not be related to the nutrients themselves but rather other components of foods rich in these micronutrients or factors correlated with diets high in these vitamin-rich foods. PMID:24511373

  2. Nutrient-specific feeding and endocrine effects of jejunal infusions in obese animals.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Megan J; Moghadam, Alexander A; Moran, Timothy H

    2014-03-15

    Intestinal nutrient infusions result in variable decreases in food intake and body weight based on the nutrient type and the specific intestinal infusion site. We previously found that intrajejunal infusions of a fatty acid and glucose, but not casein hydrolysate, decreases food intake and body weight in lean chow-fed laboratory rats. To test whether obese, high fat-fed animals would show similar decreases in food intake and body weight in response to intrajejunal infusions of the same nutrients, equal kilocalorie loads of these nutrients (11.4 kcal) or vehicle were infused into the jejunum of obese, high fat-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats over 7 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Food intake was continuously monitored, and body weight was measured daily. After the infusion on the final day, rats were killed and plasma was collected. Similar to lean chow-fed rats, intrajejunal infusions of linoleic acid (LA) and glucose (Glu), but not casein hydrolysate (Cas), suppressed food intake with no compensatory increase in food intake after the infusion period. In contrast to lean chow-fed rats, only the LA, and not the Glu or Cas, produced decreases in body weight in the obese high fat-fed rat. There also were no differences in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in any of the nutrient infusion groups compared with saline infusion. These results suggest that there is a differential response to the same nutrients in lean vs. obese animals. PMID:24452547

  3. Effect of feed intake and method of feeding and digestibility of nitrogen, amino acids and energy at the distal end of the small intestine and over the total tract in growing-finishing swine

    E-print Network

    Haydon, Keith Dale

    1980-01-01

    to diet on the restricted feeding regimes. Six pigs (25. 5 kg initially) surgically fitted with a simple T- cannula approximately 15 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve were used in a replicated 3x3 Latin Square digestion trial. Each experimental period... consisted of a 5-day adjustment period, 4-day fecal and urine collection and 3-day ileal digests collection. Ad Iibifnm fed pigs consumed an av- erage of 7. 5, 6. 2 and 4. 8X of their body weight/day for periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Feed intake, gain...

  4. Increased protein intake in military special operations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A

    2013-11-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20-25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ? 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent. PMID:24027188

  5. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    PubMed

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; K?osiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons. PMID:17711128

  6. Nutrient profiles in retail cuts of bison meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Galbraith; G. Hauer; L. Helbig; Z. Wang; M. J. Marchello; L. A. Goonewardene

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the nutrient composition and variation in eight cuts of bison meat in bulls and heifers and identify nutrient relationships in the clod and sirloin by principal component analysis. The nutrients analyzed were: energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, transfat, cholesterol, vitamin A, Ca, Fe, Na and moisture. Differences were observed in

  7. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  8. Nutrient analysis methodology: a review of the DINE developmental literature.

    PubMed

    Dennison, D; Dennison, K F

    1989-12-01

    In 1986, a collaborative effort among professional associations resulted in the publication of Worksite Nutrition: A Decision Maker's Guide (The American Diabetic Association, 1986). The booklet describes nutrient analysis methodology as a good "promotional gimmick". The development of DINE was an effort to move nutrient analysis from the gimmick level to a viable educational component level. A few examples of the innovative effects of this methodology are (1) individuals' using their own data can learn energy balance by monitoring their food intake and physical activity, (2) individuals can learn the Dietary Goals for the United States (U. S. Senate Select Subcommittee on Nutrition and Human Needs, 1977) and are able graphically to compare how their diet approximates or is different from these goals, and (3) individuals can also learn, from verifications of their own food records, which of their food selections were high in calories, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol, and low in complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber. Alternative healthful food choices are identified and the effects of reducing or increasing portion sizes is described. The DINE development team has been working for the past eight years to decrease nutrient analysis variability so that the procedure can be used as an effective independent measure to improve nutritional behavior. Research has been conducted related to database validity and reliability. Formative and process evaluations have been conducted to improve interactive aspects of the software and related manuals and books. DINE procedures have been modified for ease of use, in general, and specifically for elementary students and university students. PMID:2516071

  9. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Have a Nutritionally Significant Impact on Micronutrient Intakes of Older Adults Attending Senior Centers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, though the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. Despite possible improvements in dietary intake, concern remains over potential excessive nutrient consumption from VM supplement us...

  10. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    PubMed Central

    Adamsson, Viola; Reumark, Anna; Cederholm, Tommy; Vessby, Bengt; Risérus, Ulf; Johansson, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Background A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality. PMID:22761599

  11. Nutrient dynamics in marsh sediments contaminated by an oil spill following a flood 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Benjamin Cord

    1997-01-01

    the event. Nutrients monitored include ammonium (plus ammonia), nitrate (plus nitrite), available phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total Kjeldahl phosphorus. Available nutrient concentrations were initially high and then declined to presumed...

  12. Effect of dietary intake on immune function in athletes.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Jaya T; Pendergast, David R

    2002-01-01

    Athletes are exposed to acute and chronic stress that may lead to suppression of the immune system and increased oxidative species generation. In addition, the tendency to consume fewer calories than expended and to avoid fats may further compromise the immune system and antioxidant mechanisms. The exercise stress is proportional to the intensity and duration of the exercise, relative to the maximal capacity of the athlete. Muscle glycogen depletion compromises exercise performance and it also increases the stress. Glycogen stores can be protected by increased fat oxidation (glycogen sparing). The diets of athletes should be balanced so that total caloric intake equals expenditure, and so that the carbohydrates and fats utilised in exercise are replenished. Many athletes do not meet these criteria and have compromised glycogen or fat stores, have deficits in essential fats, and do not take in sufficient micronutrients to support exercise performance, immune competence and antioxidant defence. Either overtraining or under nutrition may lead to an increased risk of infections. Exercise stress leads to a proportional increase in stress hormone levels and concomitant changes in several aspects of immunity, including the following: high cortisol; neutrophilia; lymphopenia; decreases in granulocyte oxidative burst, nasal mucociliary clearance, natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, the delayed-type sensitivity response, the production of cytokines in response to mitogens, and nasal and salivary immunoglobulin A levels; blunted major histocompatibility complex II expression in macrophages; and increases in blood granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition to providing fuel for exercise, glycolysis, glutaminlysis, fat oxidation and protein degradation participate in metabolism and synthesis of the immune components. Compromising, or overusing, any of these components may lead to immunosuppression. In some cases, supplementation with micronutrients may facilitate the immune system and compensate for deficits in essential nutrients. In summary, athletes should eat adequate calories and nutrients to balance expenditure of all nutrients. Dietary insufficiencies should be compensated for by supplementation with nutrients, with care not to over compensate. By following these rules, and regulating training to avoid overtraining, the immune system can be maintained to minimise the risk of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:11929359

  13. Micronutrient Intakes among Women of Reproductive Age in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Nguyen, Hieu; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Copeland, Erika; Strizich, Garrett; Lowe, Alyssa; Pham, Hoa; Truong, Truong V.; Nguyen, Son; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are a public health concern worldwide negatively affecting maternal and child health outcomes. The primary underlying causes of micronutrient deficiencies are insufficient intake and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. However, reliable data on micronutrient intakes are sparse. The objectives of this study were to identify the key local food sources providing the majority of micronutrients and assess the adequacy and determinants of micronutrient intakes. Methods The study used data from a survey of 4,983 rural women of reproductive age (WRA) participating in a preconception micronutrient supplementation trial in Vietnam. Micronutrient intakes were assessed using a validated 107-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between socioeconomic status and micronutrient intakes. Results Starchy staples were the main source of iron and zinc (37% and 54%, respectively) with only a small proportion from meat (10% and 18%, respectively). The primary source of folate and vitamin A were vegetables; vitamin B12 came from meat and eggs. The proportion of the population with intakes below the estimated average requirement was 25% for iron, 16% for zinc, 54% for folate, 64% for vitamin B12 and 27% for vitamin A. Socioeconomic status was the main determinant of micronutrient intakes. WRA in the highest quintile consumed 26% more iron, 19% more zinc, 36% more folate, 82% more vitamin B12 and 47% more vitamin A compared to those in the lowest quintile. Women in the upper quintiles of SES were more likely to obtain nutrients from more nutritious and higher bioavailable foods than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusions Underprivileged women were at increased risk for insufficient micronutrient intakes due to poor diet quality. Targeted efforts to promote the consumption of local nutrient rich foods along with educational programs and social development are needed. PMID:24586831

  14. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  15. THE USDA FOOD AND NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR DIETARY STUDIES, 2.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 2.0 is used to code foods and calculate nutrient values for national food surveys. This version of the FNDDS was used to process food intakes from What We Eat in America/NHANES 2003-2004, and it can also be used in other dietary studie...

  16. ABSORPTION OF NUTRIENTS AND PLANT GROWTH IN RELATION TO HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Arrhenius

    1922-01-01

    During the last few years studies on the effect of hydrogen ion con- centration upon growth have given a clue to many hitherto unsolved problems. It would appear that this factor also plays an important rble in the absorption of nutrient substances. Hoagland (6), in a brilliant investigation has shown that the intake of nutrients depends to a great extent

  17. DOES DIAGNOSIS OF OSTEOPOROSIS INCREASE MUSCULOSKELETAL NUTRIENT INDEX SCORES IN OLDER ADULTS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Surgeon General’s report on osteoporosis among Americans emphasizes prevention through better nutrition. The Dietary Reference Intakes began with nutrients associated with bone health. calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, Vitamin D, and fluoride. A musculoskeletal nutrient index (MNI) using four bon...

  18. DOES DIETARY INTAKE INFLUENCE NUTRIENT UTILIZATION IN DEVELOPING HEIFERS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major production expenses for cow/calf enterprises is associated with the development of replacement heifers. The present constraints are such that heifers need to obtain 60 to 65% of their mature weight and be pubertal by 14 months of age in order to have their first offspring as 2-year ...

  19. Validity of Electronic Diet Recording Nutrient Estimates Compared to Dietitian Analysis of Diet Records: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheett, Angela J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jahns, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary intake assessment with diet records (DR) is a standard research and practice tool in nutrition. Manual entry and analysis of DR is time-consuming and expensive. New electronic tools for diet entry by clients and research participants may reduce the cost and effort of nutrient intake estimation. Objective To determine the validity of electronic diet recording, we compared responses to 3-day DR kept by Tap & Track software for the Apple iPod Touch and records kept on the Nutrihand website to DR coded and analyzed by a research dietitian into a customized US Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrient analysis program, entitled GRAND (Grand Forks Research Analysis of Nutrient Data). Methods Adult participants (n=19) enrolled in a crossover-designed clinical trial. During each of two washout periods, participants kept a written 3-day DR. In addition, they were randomly assigned to enter their DR in a Web-based dietary analysis program (Nutrihand) or a handheld electronic device (Tap & Track). They completed an additional 3-day DR and the alternate electronic diet recording methods during the second washout. Entries resulted in 228 daily diet records or 12 for each of 19 participants. Means of nutrient intake were calculated for each method. Concordance of the intake estimates were determined by Bland-Altman plots. Coefficients of determination (R 2) were calculated for each comparison to assess the strength of the linear relationship between methods. Results No significant differences were observed between the mean nutrient values for energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, saturated fatty acids, total fiber, or sodium between the recorded DR analyzed in GRAND and either Nutrihand or Tap & Track, or for total sugars comparing GRAND and Tap & Track. Reported values for total sugars were significantly reduced (P<.05) comparing Nutrihand to GRAND. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for Nutrihand and Tap & Track compared to DR entries into GRAND, respectively, were energy .56, .01; carbohydrate .58, .08; total fiber .65, .37; sugar .78, .41; protein .44, .03; fat .36, .03; saturated fatty acids .23, .03; sodium .20, .00; and for Nutrihand only for cholesterol .88; vitamin A .02; vitamin C .37; calcium .05; and iron .77. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrates high variability in individual responses for both electronic capture programs with higher 95% limits of agreement for dietary intake recorded on Tap & Track. Conclusions In comparison to dietitian-entered 3-day DR, electronic methods resulted in no significant difference in mean nutrient estimates but exhibited larger variability, particularly the Tap & Track program. However, electronic DR provided mean estimates of energy, macronutrients, and some micronutrients, which approximated those of the dietitian-analyzed DR and may be appropriate for dietary monitoring of groups. Electronic diet assessment methods have the potential to reduce the cost and burden of DR analysis for nutrition research and clinical practice. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01183520; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01183520 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VSdYznKX). PMID:25604640

  20. Changes in total carbon and nutrients in soil profiles and accumulation in biomass after a 30-year rotation of Pinus radiata on podzolized sands: Impacts of intensive harvesting on soil resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hopmans; Stephen R. Elms

    2009-01-01

    A large proportion of plantations of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) in southern Australia have been established on podzolized coastal sands with low nutrient reserves. Inter-rotational management of the forest floor and harvesting residues has been shown to be critical to maintain the productive capacity of these soils. In 1974 a study was initiated at the end of the

  1. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  2. South CarolinaSouth Carolina Nutrient Management Rules,Nutrient Management Rules,

    E-print Network

    Confined Animals Approx. 1,100 total confined animal facilities 153 large CAFO's 121 poultry 31 swine 1 dairy 566 medium CAFO's 85% poultry 8% swine 6% dairy #12;Swine Beef Dairy Broiler Turkey Layer Manure ProductionManure Production Poultry ­ 40% Cow ­ 48% Swine ­ 12% #12;Nutrient Management ofNutrient Management of Confined

  3. Hoover Dam Intake Towers

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead and provides drinking water and hydroelectric power to the surrounding area. It was constructed between 1931 and 1936. The Intake Towers are where water enters to generate electricity....

  4. Neural predictors of chocolate intake following chocolate exposure.

    PubMed

    Frankort, Astrid; Roefs, Anne; Siep, Nicolette; Roebroeck, Alard; Havermans, Remco; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that one's brain response to high-calorie food cues can predict long-term weight gain or weight loss. The neural correlates that predict food intake in the short term have, however, hardly been investigated. This study examined which brain regions' activation predicts chocolate intake after participants had been either exposed to real chocolate or to control stimuli during approximately one hour, with interruptions for fMRI measurements. Further we investigated whether the variance in chocolate intake could be better explained by activated brain regions than by self-reported craving. In total, five brain regions correlated with subsequent chocolate intake. The activation of two reward regions (the right caudate and the left frontopolar cortex) correlated positively with intake in the exposure group. The activation of two regions associated with cognitive control (the left dorsolateral and left mid-dorsolateral PFC) correlated negatively with intake in the control group. When the regression analysis was conducted with the exposure and the control group together, an additional region's activation (the right anterior PFC) correlated positively with chocolate intake. In all analyses, the intake variance explained by neural correlates was above and beyond the variance explained by self-reported craving. These results are in line with neuroimaging research showing that brain responses are a better predictor of subsequent intake than self-reported craving. Therefore, our findings might provide for a missing link by associating brain activation, previously shown to predict weight change, with short-term intake. PMID:25528694

  5. Avoidance of dairy products: Implications for nutrient adequacy and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy products are an important contributor of many essential nutrients often lacking in the typical North American diet, including calcium, potassium, and vitamin D, and limiting dairy intake may adversely affect health. Dairy exclusion diets may exacerbate the risk of osteoporosis and negatively i...

  6. Cholecystokinin decreases food intake in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Gibbs; Robert C. Young; Gerard P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Tested the effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on a total of 120 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Partially purified CCK was injected intraperitoneally into fasted Ss prior to food presentation. The hormone produced a large dose-related suppression of intake of solid and liquid diets. Identical doses of the synthetic terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produced identical results. An effective dose of CCK did

  7. Dietary Flavonoids: Intake, Health Effects and Bioavailability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. H. Hollman; M. B. Katan

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal studies. An estimation of the total flavonoid intake is difficult, because only limited data on food contents are

  8. Dietary intake of organophosphate pesticides in Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wajih N Sawaya; Fawzia A Al-Awadhi; Talat Saeed; Ali Al-Omair; Adnan Husain; Nissar Ahmad; Husam Al-Omirah; Sameer Al-Zenki; Sherif Khalafawi; Jamla Al-Otaibi; Hanan Al-Amiri

    2000-01-01

    The State of Kuwait, in cooperation with the U.S. FDA, conducted a total diet study (TDS) to estimate pesticide intake by the population. The organophosphate (OP) pesticide levels in 139 food items, constituting the TDS core list, are reported here. The TDS core food list was established through a nationwide food consumption survey. All foods were prepared as eaten, and

  9. Usual Intake of Meat

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Meat Table A24. Meat: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 oz equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.5 (0.04) 0.1 (0.03) 0.2 (0.03) 0.3

  10. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachel K; Appel, Lawrence J; Brands, Michael; Howard, Barbara V; Lefevre, Michael; Lustig, Robert H; Sacks, Frank; Steffen, Lyn M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2009-09-15

    High intakes of dietary sugars in the setting of a worldwide pandemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease have heightened concerns about the adverse effects of excessive consumption of sugars. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day (355 calories per day). Between 1970 and 2005, average annual availability of sugars/added sugars increased by 19%, which added 76 calories to Americans' average daily energy intake. Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in Americans' diets. Excessive consumption of sugars has been linked with several metabolic abnormalities and adverse health conditions, as well as shortfalls of essential nutrients. Although trial data are limited, evidence from observational studies indicates that a higher intake of soft drinks is associated with greater energy intake, higher body weight, and lower intake of essential nutrients. National survey data also indicate that excessive consumption of added sugars is contributing to overconsumption of discretionary calories by Americans. On the basis of the 2005 US Dietary Guidelines, intake of added sugars greatly exceeds discretionary calorie allowances, regardless of energy needs. In view of these considerations, the American Heart Association recommends reductions in the intake of added sugars. A prudent upper limit of intake is half of the discretionary calorie allowance, which for most American women is no more than 100 calories per day and for most American men is no more than 150 calories per day from added sugars. PMID:19704096

  11. Effects of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent of nutrient digestion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

    1999-02-01

    Four lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of grain source and fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion in the rumen and in the intestine, and milk production. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used; two grains (barley and hull-less barley) were combined with and without enzyme. The enzyme supplement (Pro-Mote; Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE) contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities and was applied daily to the total mixed diet. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet, but starch intake was greatest when hull-less barley was fed. Starch from hull-less barley was more digestible in the rumen and in the total tract than was starch from barley, but opposite results occurred for fiber digestion, indicating that hull-less barley depressed fiber digestion. As a result, cows fed the hull-less barley diets tended to produce more milk with a higher milk lactose content than did cows fed the barley diets. Enzyme supplementation had minimal effects on ruminal digestion but increased nutrient digestibility in the total tract and the proportion of microbial N in nonammonia N. Consequently, cows fed diets supplemented with enzyme had a higher milk protein content and tended to produce more 4% fat-corrected milk than did control cows. These results indicate that the use of hull-less barley rather than barley increased the digestible energy intake of dairy cows, resulting in higher milk production. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme mixture enhanced feed digestibility and milk production. PMID:10068959

  12. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  13. Correlation of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and dietary intakes with markers of atherosclerosis in patients with myocardial infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsoon Park; Jeehyun Lim; Yongju Kwon; Jaeung Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that erythrocytes that are low in n-3 fatty acids and high in trans-fatty acids and nutrient intakes are associated with the risk of atherosclerosis. Fifty patients with acute nonfatal myocardial infarction were recruited to measure their dietary intake, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, intima medial thickness (IMT), and the Gensini score,

  14. I. Savary-Auzeloux et al.Intake on whole body amino acid kinetics insheep Original article

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    across a wide range of intakes. The current study examined the responses in whole body protein flux (Pr to changes in the nutrient supply, or both. Whole body protein metabolism in larger animals, including humansI. Savary-Auzeloux et al.Intake on whole body amino acid kinetics insheep Original article Effect

  15. LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN INTAKE AND FOOD SOURCES OF CALCIUM FROM CHILDHOOD TO YOUNG ADULTHOOD: THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective is to examine changes in calcium intake and food sources of calcium from childhood to young adulthood in a longitudinal sample. Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from a single 24-hour dietary recall collected on children who participated in a cross-sectional survey at ag...

  16. The impact of dairy product consumption on nutrient adequacy and weight of Head Start mothers

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Franklin, Frank A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of dairy product consumption on diet quality and weight of low-income women. Setting Head Start centres in Texas and Alabama, USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Women were divided into dairy consumption groups: ?1, >1 to ?2 and >2 servings/d. Nutrient intake/diet quality was determined by calculating the percentage meeting the Estimated Average Requirement, guidelines for fat and added sugar, and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR). Mean BMI was compared for the dairy consumption groups. Subjects Mothers with children in Head Start; 609 African-Americans (43 %), Hispanic-Americans (32 %) and European-Americans (24 %). Results Fifteen per cent of participants consumed >2 servings of dairy products and 57% consumed ?1 serving of dairy daily. Intakes of protein, vitamin D, riboflavin, P, Ca, K, Mg and Zn were significantly higher in those consuming >2 servings/d. Total SFA were higher and added sugars were lower in those consuming >2 servings of dairy products daily compared with those consuming ?2 servings/d. Forty-one per cent of women consuming >2 servings of dairy daily had MAR scores under 85 compared with 94% consuming ?1 serving/d. Mean BMI was 30·36 kg/m2; there was no association between BMI and dairy product consumption. Conclusions Consumption of dairy products was low and was not associated with BMI in this low-income population. Higher levels of dairy product consumption were associated with higher MAR scores and improved intakes of Ca, K and Mg, which have been identified as shortfall nutrients in the diets of adults. PMID:19000345

  17. Folate-related nutrients, genetic polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk: the fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Makiko; Yin, Guang; Yoshimitsu, Shin-ichiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2013-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Meta-analyses have suggested protective associations of folate and vitamin B6 intakes with colorectal cancer primarily based on studies in Caucasians, and genetic polymorphisms pertaining to the folate metabolism have been a matter of interest. Less investigated are the roles of methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthetase (TS) polymorphisms in colorectal carcinogenesis. In a study of 816 cases and 815 community controls in Japan, we investigated associations of dietary intakes of folate, methionine, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with colorectal cancer risk. The associations with MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, and TSER repeat polymorphism were examined in 685 cases and 778 controls. Methionine and vitamin B12 intakes were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but the associations were totally confounded by dietary calcium and n-3 fatty acids. The other nutrients showed no association with the risk even without adjustment for calcium and n-3 fatty acids. The TSER 2R allele was dose-dependently associated with an increased risk. The MTR and MTRR polymorphisms were unrelated to colorectal cancer risk. There was no measurable gene-gene or gene-nutrient interaction, but increased risk associated with the TSER 2R allele seemed to be confined to individuals with high folate status. This study does not support protective associations for folate and vitamin B6. The TSER 2R allele may confer an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The role of the TSER polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis may differ by ethnicity. PMID:24377513

  18. Carnitine as an essential nutrient.

    PubMed

    Borum, P R; Bennett, S G

    1986-01-01

    Carnitine performs a critically important role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the healthy adult predominantly in the liver and kidney. The typical well balanced American diet contains significant amounts of carnitine as well as the essential amino acids and micronutrients needed for carnitine biosynthesis. Thus carnitine is an infrequent problem in the healthy, well nourished adult population in the United States. However, carnitine can be a conditionally essential nutrient for several different types of individuals. Preterm infants require carnitine for life-sustaining metabolic processes but have a carnitine biosynthetic capability that is not fully developed. There is an increasing number of documented problems with carnitine metabolism in preterm infants not receiving an exogenous source of carnitine indicating that endogenous biosynthesis of carnitine is not adequate to meet the infant's need. Children with different forms of organic aciduria appear to have a greatly increased need for carnitine to function in the excretion of the accumulating organic acids. This need exceeds their dietary carnitine intake and carnitine biosynthetic capability. Renal patients treated with chronic hemodialysis appear to lose carnitine via the hemodialysis treatment, and this loss cannot be repleted simply by endogenous biosynthesis and dietary intake. Treatment with drugs such as valproic acid and metabolic stresses such as trauma, sepsis, organ failure, etc, can also result in a requirement for exogenous carnitine. Accurate assessment of the carnitine status of patients at risk for carnitine deficiency is fundamental to the identification of those patients who require carnitine as the result of altered metabolism. PMID:3088084

  19. Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass (EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides L.) will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of dry matter (DM) ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The objective of this research was to determine whether the fibrous nature of this perennial warm-season grass could be effective in reducing the caloric density and DMI of corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets for replacement dairy heifers. A total of 120 Holstein dairy heifers were blocked by body weight (heavy, 424 ± 15.9 kg; medium, 369 ± 11.8 kg; light, 324 ± 22.4 kg), and then assigned to 15 individual pens containing 8heifers each. Eastern gamagrass forage was harvested, ensiled, and subsequently incorporated into blended corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of the total dietary DM (EGG0, EGG9, EGG18, and EGG27, respectively). These diets were offered during a 105-d evaluation period for ad libitum intake; however, the EGG0 diet also was offered on a limit-fed basis (LF), which was set at 85% of the voluntary intake of EGG0. Serial additions of EGG increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber in blended diets from 39.6 (EGG0) to 48.7% (EGG27), and simultaneously reduced corresponding estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) from 68.2 to 61.3%, and net energy for gain from 1.07 to 0.83 Mcal/kg. Dry matter intakes for all diets offered ad libitum were greater than observed for LF (9.06 vs. 8.07 kg/d); however, DM intakes for diets containing EGG were reduced relative to EGG0 (9.40 vs. 8.94 kg/d). Similarly, intakes of TDN were greater for diets offered for ad libitum intake than for LF (5.84 vs. 5.50 kg/d); however, inclusion of EGG reduced TDN intakes relative to EGG0 (6.41 vs. 5.65 kg/d). This reduction was explained by both linear and quadratic effects of the inclusion rate of EGG in the diet. Over the 105-d trial, total weight gains ranged from 89 kg (0.85 kg/d) for heifers offered EGG27 up to 114 kg (1.09 kg/d) for those offered EGG0. Performance was similar between heifers offered EGG27 and LF diets (0.85 vs. 0.88 kg/d). Eastern gamagrass haylage proved to be a completely nonsortable additive within corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets. It also was effective in limiting the caloric density and DM intake of these diets, as well as undesirable weight gains by dairy heifers. PMID:22901472

  20. NATIONAL NUTRIENTS DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: The Nutrient Criteria Program has initiated development of a National relational database application that will be used to store and analyze nutrient data. The ultimate use of these data will be to derive ecoregion- and waterbody-specific numeric nutrient...

  1. A risk-benefit analysis approach to seafood intake to determine optimal consumption.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2012-06-01

    Seafood provides n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC-PUFA), vitamins and minerals, which are essential to maintain good health. Moreover, seafood is a source of contaminants such as methylmercury, arsenic and persistent organic pollutants that may affect health. The aim of the present study was to determine in what quantities seafood consumption would provide nutritional benefits, while minimising the risks linked to food contaminants. Seafood was grouped into clusters using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Those nutrients and contaminants were selected for which it is known that seafood is a major source. The risk-benefit analysis consisted in using an optimisation model with constraints to calculate optimum seafood cluster consumption levels. The goal was to optimise nutrient intakes as well as to limit contaminant exposure with the condition being to attain recommended nutritional intakes without exceeding tolerable upper intakes for contaminants and nutrients, while taking into account background intakes. An optimum consumption level was calculated for adults that minimises inorganic arsenic exposure and increases vitamin D intake in the general population. This consumption level guarantees that the consumer reaches the recommended intake for n-3 LC-PUFA, Se and I, while remaining below the tolerable upper intakes for methylmercury, Cd, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, Zn, Ca and Cu. This consumption level, which is approximately 200 g/week of certain fatty fish species and approximately 50 g/week of lean fish, molluscs and crustaceans, has to be considered in order to determine food consumption recommendations in a public health perspective. PMID:22017804

  2. The Association of Dietary Intake of Purine-Rich Vegetables, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Dairy with Plasma Urate, in a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zgaga, Lina; Theodoratou, Evropi; Kyle, Janet; Farrington, Susan M.; Agakov, Felix; Tenesa, Albert; Walker, Marion; McNeill, Geraldine; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Campbell, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a) food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and purine-rich vegetables; b) related nutrients: lactose, calcium and fructose. Methods A total of 2,076 healthy participants (44% female) from a population-based case-control study in Scotland (1999–2006) were included in this study. Dietary data was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient intake was calculated using FFQ and composition of foods information. Urate concentration was measured in plasma. Results Mean urate concentration was 283.8±72.1 mmol/dL (females: 260.1±68.9 mmol/dL and males: 302.3±69.2 mmol/dL). Using multivariate regression analysis we found that dairy, calcium and lactose intakes were inversely associated with urate (p?=?0.008, p?=?0.003, p?=?0.0007, respectively). Overall SSB consumption was positively associated with urate (p?=?0.008), however, energy-adjusted fructose intake was not associated with urate (p?=?0.66). The intake of purine-rich vegetables was not associated to plasma urate (p?=?0.38). Conclusions Our results suggest that limiting purine-rich vegetables intake for lowering plasma urate may be ineffectual, despite current recommendations. Although a positive association between plasma urate and SSB consumption was found, there was no association with fructose intake, suggesting that fructose is not the causal agent underlying the SSB-urate association. The abundant evidence supporting the inverse association between plasma urate concentration and dairy consumption should be reflected in dietary guidelines for hyperuricemic individuals and gout patients. Further research is needed to establish which nutrients and food products influence plasma urate concentration, to inform the development of evidence-based dietary guidelines. PMID:22701608

  3. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  4. Flavonoid Intake in European Adults (18 to 64 Years)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Luben, Robert N.; Spencer, Jeremy P. E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Flavonoids are a group of phenolic secondary plant metabolites that are ubiquitous in plant-based diets. Data from anthropological, observational and intervention studies have shown that many flavonoids are bioactive. For this reason, there is an increasing interest in investigating the potential health effects of these compounds. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the habitual intake and main sources of anthocyanidins, flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins and thearubigins in the European Union. Design We use food consumption data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the FLAVIOLA Food Composition Database to estimate intake of flavonoids. Results Mean (±SEM) intake of total flavonoids in Europe was 428±49 mg/d, of which 136±14 mg/d were monomeric compounds. Gallated flavan-3-ols (53±12 mg/d) were the main contributor. The lowest flavonoid intake was observed in Mediterranean countries (monomeric compounds: 95±11 mg/d). The distribution of intake was skewed in many countries, especially in Germany (monomeric flavonoids; mean intake: 181 mg/d; median intake: 3 mg/d). Conclusions The habitual intake of flavonoids in Europe is below the amounts found to have a significant health effect. PMID:26010916

  5. Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness in healthy men: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Christian; Sansone, Roberto; Karimi, Hakima; Krabbe, Moritz; Schuler, Dominik; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kraemer, Thomas; Cortese-Krott, Miriam Margherita; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte

    2015-06-01

    Increased vascular stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, and isolated systolic hypertension are hallmarks of vascular aging. Regular cocoa flavanol (CF) intake can improve vascular function in healthy young and elderly at-risk individuals. However, the mechanisms underlying CF bioactivity remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of CF intake on cardiovascular function in healthy young and elderly individuals without history, signs, or symptoms of cardiovascular disease by applying particular focus on functional endpoints relevant to cardiovascular aging. In a randomized, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial, 22 young (<35 years) and 20 elderly (50-80 year) healthy, male non-smokers consumed either a CF-containing drink (450 mg CF) or nutrient-matched, CF-free control drink bi-daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint was endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Secondary endpoints included cardiac output, vascular stiffness, conductance of conduit and resistance arteries, and perfusion in the microcirculation. Following 2 weeks of CF intake, FMD improved in young (6.1?±?0.7 vs. 7.6?±?0.7 %, p?intake decreased pulse wave velocity and lowered total peripheral resistance, and increased arteriolar and microvascular vasodilator capacity, red cell deformability, and diastolic blood pressure, while cardiac output remained affected. In the elderly, baseline systolic blood pressure was elevated, driven by an arterial-stiffness-related augmentation. CF intake decreased aortic augmentation index (-9 %) and thus systolic blood pressure (-7 mmHg; Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01639781). CF intake reverses age-related burden of cardiovascular risk in healthy elderly, highlighting the potential of dietary flavanols to maintain cardiovascular health. PMID:26013912

  6. A comparison of food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: USDA's MyPyramid, NHLBI's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard's Healthy Eating Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare food-based recommendations and nutrient values of three food guides: the US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Eating Plan, and Harvard University's Healthy Eating Pyramid. Estimates of nutrient values associated with following each of the food guides at the 2,000-calorie level were made using a composite approach. This approach calculates population-weighted nutrient composites for each food group and subgroup, assuming average choices within food groups. Nutrient estimates were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and other goals and limits. Recommendations were similar regarding almost all food groups for both the type and amount of foods. Primary differences were seen in the types of vegetables and protein sources recommended and the amount of dairy products and total oil recommended. Overall nutrient values were also similar for most nutrients, except vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium. These food guides were derived from different types of nutrition research, yet they share consistent messages: eat more fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; eat less added sugar and saturated fat; and emphasize plant oils. PMID:18313434

  7. Updated estimate of trans fat intake by the US population.

    PubMed

    Doell, D; Folmer, D; Lee, H; Honigfort, M; Carberry, S

    2012-01-01

    The dietary intake of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) was estimated for the US population (aged 2 years or more), children (aged 2-5 years) and teenage boys (aged 13-18 years) using the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food consumption database, market share information and trans fat levels based on label survey data and analytical data for packaged and in-store purchased foods. For fast foods, a Monte Carlo model was used to estimate IP-TFA intake. Further, the intake of trans fat was also estimated using trans fat levels reported in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22 (SR 22, 2009) and the 2003-2006 NHANES food consumption database. The cumulative intake of IP-TFA was estimated to be 1.3 g per person per day (g/p/d) at the mean for the US population. Based on this estimate, the mean dietary intake of IP-TFA has decreased significantly from that cited in the 2003 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) final rule that established labelling requirements for trans fat (4.6 g/p/d for adults). Although the overall intake of IP-TFA has decreased as a result of the implementation of labelling requirements, individuals with certain dietary habits may still consume high levels of IP-TFA if certain brands or types of food products are frequently chosen. PMID:22439632

  8. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine. PMID:19655100

  9. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) crude oils (EuO) supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW) of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS) without EuO (T1) and with EuO (T2) supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) without EuO (T3) and with EuO (T4) supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p<0.01) by UTRS. There was no effect of EuO supplementation on feed intake and nutrient digestibility. Ruminal pH and temperature were not (p>0.05) affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01) by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention) was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was similar in all treatments. Findings of present study suggested that EuO could be used as a feed additive to modify the rumen fermentation in reducing methane production both in RS and UTRS. Feeding UTRS could improve feed intake and efficiency of rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes. However, more research is warranted to determine the effect of EuO supplementation in production animals. PMID:25049925

  10. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  11. Simulated adaptations to an adult dietary self-report tool to accommodate children: Impact on nutrient estimates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to simulate the effect of child-friendly (CF) adaptations of the National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24) on estimates of nutrient intake. One hundred twenty children, 8–13 years old, entered their previous day’s intake using the ASA24 ...

  12. Effects of live yeast on the performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal microbiota and concentration of volatile fatty acids in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieyun; Li, Defa; Gong, Limin; Ma, Yongxi; He, Yonghui; Zhai, Hengxiao

    2006-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, enteric microbial populations and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration of weanling pigs, receiving diets supplemented with aureomycin and elevated doses of CuSO4. In experiment 1, 90 crossbred pigs (7.20 +/- 0.44 kg, 28 d of age) were randomly allotted to one of five dietary treatments containing either 0, 4.0 x 10(6), 9.0 x 10(6), 2.6 x 10(7), or 5.1 x 10(7) cfu Saccharomyces cerevisiae per gram with six replicate pens per treatment and three pigs per pen. BWG and feed intake increased quadratically during days 1-14 and days 1-28 as live yeast levels increased (p < 0.01). Pigs fed the diet containing 2.6 x 10(7) cfu yeast per gram had the highest BWG and feed intake among the treatments. In experiment 2, 48 crossbred pigs (7.64 +/- 0.72 kg, 28 d of age) were fed diets containing live yeast at 0 or 3.2 x 10(7) cfu of S. cerevisiae per g with six replicate pens per treatment and four pigs per pen. The yeast supplementation improved BWG and feed intake during days 1-14 (p < 0.01) and days 1-28 (p < 0.05). Treatment differences were not observed in any of the bacterial populations, yeast numbers or VFA concentrations, at any of the sites of the gastrointestinal tract tested. Total tract nutrient digestibility was also not different between treatments. Overall, dietary supplementation of live yeast had a positive effect on BWG and feed intake of weanling pigs, receiving diets supplemented with aureomycin and elevated doses of CuSO4. The improvement in BWG appears to be partly related to an increase in feed intake. The mechanism of yeast improving feed intake of piglets needs to be explored. PMID:16921925

  13. Dietary intake in male and female smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers: The INTERMAP Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AR Dyer; P Elliott; J Stamler; Q Chan; H Ueshima; BF Zhou

    2003-01-01

    This report examines dietary intakes in smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers in INTERMAP. The 4680 participants aged 40–59 years—from 17 population samples in four countries (China, Japan, UK, USA)—provided four 24-h recalls to assess nutrient intakes and two 24-h urine collections to assess excretion of urea, sodium (Na), potassium (K), etc. Compared to never smokers, current smokers generally consumed more

  14. Grantee Research Highlight: Making the Most of Mobile Technologies to Estimate Dietary Intake

    Cancer.gov

    To accurately monitor food and nutrient intakes and identify those at risk as well as those who are meeting recommendations, it is necessary to precisely estimate intakes. That has consistently posed a challenge because people do not always report accurately and because dietary assessment instruments contain some degree of error. In addition, completing and analyzing self-report instruments can be burdensome for respondents and researchers.

  15. Parental history of hypertension and dietary intakes in early adolescent offspring: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, B; Louie, J C Y; Flood, V M; Rochtchina, E; Baur, L A; Mitchell, P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the cross-sectional association between parental history of hypertension and dietary intakes among early adolescent schoolchildren. A total of 1845 participants aged 12 years had complete data on diet and parental medical history, and thus they were included in the final analyses. Dietary data were assessed from validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions. Cases where the biological mother and/or father had hypertension were classified as positive parental history of hypertension. After multivariable adjustment, participants with positive versus negative parental history of hypertension had 33% greater likelihood of consuming soft drinks ?1 per week. Boys with a parental history versus boys without a parental history of hypertension consumed more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods: 379.4?g per day and 318.0?g per day, respectively, P=0.02. Girls with a positive versus a negative parental history consumed more vegetables: 164.1 versus 142.6?g per day, P=0.01. Significant associations were not observed between those with and those without a positive parental history in mean dietary intakes of carbohydrates, fats, sugars and sodium. Children with a positive parental history of hypertension were 67% more likely to simultaneously engage in three unhealthy lifestyle behaviors (excessive recreational screen viewing, high consumption of snacks and and high consumption of soft drinks). Parental hypertension was associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors among offspring, including higher consumption of soft drinks and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods. PMID:24573132

  16. Young adults and eating away from home: associations with dietary intake patterns and weight status differ by choice of restaurant

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Background Young adults report frequent away-from-home eating; however, little is known regarding what types of restaurants are patronized or if associations with dietary intake and weight status differ according to restaurant type. Objective This cross-sectional study in a diverse sample of young adults examines sociodemographic differences in the frequency of eating at different types of fast-food and full-service (server brings food to table) restaurants. Additionally, this study examines whether associations between away-from-home eating, dietary intake, and weight status differ according to restaurant type. Design There were 1030 men and 1257 women (mean age=25.3) who participated in Project EAT-III. Participants were members of a longitudinal cohort who completed baseline surveys at schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and completed the EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Main outcome measures Height, weight, and usual dietary intake were self-reported. Statistical analyses performed Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were used to examine associations between frequency of restaurant use, dietary intake, and weight status. Results More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served burgers and fries was associated with higher risk for overweight/obesity; higher intake of total energy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fat; and with lower intake of healthful foods and key nutrients. For example, those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on three or more occasions/week consumed nearly one additional sugar-sweetened beverage per day compared to those who reported burger-and-fries restaurant use on less than one occasion/week. More frequent use of fast-food restaurants that primarily served sandwiches/subs was related to a few markers of poorer diet quality, but unrelated to weight status. More frequent use of full-service restaurants was also unrelated to weight status and to higher intake of vegetables. Conclusions There may be a need for interventions to promote healthier food choices among young adults who report frequent burger-and-fries restaurant use. PMID:22027052

  17. Nutrient selection in the absence of taste receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Zhou, Ligang; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; Yeckel, Catherine W; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2010-06-01

    When allowed to choose between different macronutrients, most animals display a strong attraction toward carbohydrates compared with proteins. It remains uncertain, however, whether this food selection pattern depends primarily on the sensory properties intrinsic to each nutrient or, alternatively, metabolic signals can act independently of the hedonic value of sweetness to stimulate elevated sugar intake. Here we show that Trpm5(-/-) mice, which lack the cellular mechanisms required for sweet and several forms of l-amino acid taste transduction, develop a robust preference for d-glucose compared with isocaloric l-serine independently of the perception of sweetness. Moreover, a close relationship was found between glucose oxidation and taste-independent nutrient intake levels, with animals increasing intake as a function of glucose oxidation rates. Furthermore, microdialysis measurements revealed nutrient-specific dopaminergic responses in accumbens and dorsal striatum during intragastric infusions of glucose or serine. Specifically, intragastric infusions of glucose induced significantly higher levels of dopamine release compared with isocaloric serine in both ventral and dorsal striatum. Intragastric stimulation of dopamine release seemed to depend on glucose utilization, because administration of an anti-metabolic glucose analog resulted in lower dopamine levels in striatum, an effect that was reversed by intravenous glucose infusions. Together, our findings suggest that carbohydrate-specific preferences can develop independently of taste quality or caloric load, an effect associated with the ability of a given nutrient to regulate glucose metabolism and stimulate brain dopamine centers. PMID:20534849

  18. Daily polyphenol intake from fresh fruits in Portugal: contribution from berry fruits.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Paula; Cardoso, Susana; Pimpão, Rui Carlos; Tavares, Lucélia; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Santos, Cláudia Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Fresh fruits, particularly berries, are rich in polyphenols. These bioactive compounds are important in the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to assess polyphenol intake from fresh fruit in Portugal and the relative contribution of berries to overall intake, using an online semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of processed berry products was also studied. Mean fresh fruit consumption was 365.6?±?8.2?g/day. Berries accounted for 9% of total fresh fruit intake, from which 80% were due to strawberries. Total polyphenol intake from fresh fruits was 783.9?±?31.7?mg of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) per day, from which 14% were from berries. Within berries, strawberries accounted for 11% of total polyphenol intake, with the other consumed berries accounting for 3% of the total polyphenol intake per day. Main reasons reported for relative low consumption of berries were market availability and price. The most consumed processed berry product was yogurt. PMID:23862729

  19. [Vitamins and minerals intake in hyperlipidemic outpatients].

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Pachocka, Lucyna; K?osiewicz-Latoszek, Longina

    2005-01-01

    Dietary modification is the first line treatment in cardiovascular disease. The dietary recommendations focus on the consumption of total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, additionally the adequate intake of some vitamins and minerals is also important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vitamins and minerals intake in hyperlipidemic outpatients. The studied group comprised 103 women, with BMI 28.4 +/- 6.77 men with BMI 29 +/- 4.8, aged 20-60 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d food records. The energy intake in women was 1824.1 +/- 576 kcal/d, in men 2246.6 +/- 679 kcal/d. The average intake above the RDA was for vitamin A (147.5 +/- 94% of the RDA in women, 143.2 +/- 138% in men) vitamin E (119.8 +/- 58.7%, 130.2 +/- 76%), very close for vitamin B in women (98.9 +/- 33.1%) and in men additionally for iron (134.8 +/- 56%), niacin (110 +/- 38%) and vitamin B6 (101.7 +/- 36.2%). The lowest percentage of the RDA was for calcium (62.2 +/- 38%, 69.8 +/- 40.7%) and magnesium (76.2 +/- 25%, 78.6 +/- 24.6%) in women as well as in men and for vitamin B1 in women (76.2 +/- 28%) and for vitamin B2 in men (78.4 +/- 36.6%). The percentage of the RDA for vitamin C was 85.1 +/- 49% in women and 85.2 +/- 61.8% in men. In this studied group the low intake of certain vitamins and minerals was found. The nutritional education is required, which is aimed not only at lower intake of fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but also at adequate consumption of vitamins and minerals. PMID:16602424

  20. Estimating nutrient surplus and nutrient use efficiency from farm characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. A. Langeveld; G. B. Overbosch

    1995-01-01

    Research on nutrient losses from agricultural systems should try to relate these losses to farm characteristics. This was done for private farms in two districts in Poland. Using data from a farm survey, nutrient surpluses and Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE, defined as the ratio of outgoing and incoming nutrients) were calculated for nitrogen and phosphorus. Both nutrient surplus and NUE

  1. Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although Iran is a high-risk region for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), dietary factors that may contribute to this high incidence have not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals on the risk of ESCC. Methods In this hospital-based case-control study, 47 cases with incident ESCC and 96 controls were interviewed and usual dietary intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Data were modeled through unconditional multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, gastrointestinal reflux, body mass index, smoking history (status, intensity and duration), physical activity, and education. Results ESCC cases consumed significantly more hot foods and beverages and fried and barbecued meals, compared to the controls (p < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of ESCC increased significantly in the highest tertiles of saturated fat [OR:2.88,95%CI:1.15-3.08], cholesterol [OR:1.53, 95%CI: 1.41-4.13], discretionary calorie [OR:1.51, 95%CI: 1.06-3.84], sodium [OR:1.49,95%CI:1.12-2.89] and total fat intakes [OR:1.48, 95%CI:1.09-3.04]. In contrast, being in the highest tertile of carbohydrate, dietary fiber and (n-3) fatty acid intake reduced the ESCC risk by 78%, 71% and 68%, respectively. The most cancer-protective effect was observed for the combination of high folate and vitamin E intakes (OR: 0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.87; p < 0.001). Controls consumed 623.5 times higher selenium, 5.48 times as much ?-carotene and 1.98 times as much ?-tocopherol as the amount ESCC cases consumed. Conclusion This study suggests that high intake of nutrients primarily found in plant-based foods is associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk. Some nutrients such as folate, vitamin E and selenium might play major roles in the etiology of ESCC and their status may eventually be used as an epidemiological marker for esophageal cancer in Iran, and perhaps other high-risk regions. PMID:22185224

  2. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing K2CO3 increased the overall ruminal turnover rate. Ruminal ammonia concentrations declined linearly and pH increased linearly as K supplementation increased. As a molar percentage of total volatile fatty acids, acetate increased linearly as dietary K increased, though propionate declined. Increasing dietary K2CO3 and total K in the diets of lactating dairy cows increased water consumption and modified ruminal measures in ways suggesting that both liquid and total ruminal turnover were increased as both water and K intake increased. PMID:25747833

  3. Intake of Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, and Fiber and Risk of Stroke Among US Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ascherio; E. B. Rimm; M. A. Hernan; E. L. Giovannucci; I. Kawachi; M. J. Stampfer; W. C. Willett

    Background—Animal experiments and epidemiological studies have suggested that high potassium intake may reduce the risk of stroke, but the evidence is inconclusive, and the role of other nutrients in potassium-rich foods remains unknown. Methods and Results—We examined the association of potassium and related nutrients with risk of stroke among 43 738 US men, 40 to 75 years old, without diagnosed

  4. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats

    E-print Network

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01

    -term effects of suboptimal amounts of these nutrients. Growth is a period during which additional nutrients are required. If diet- or disease-related complications occur, growth may be impaired. In the pregnancy state, the nutritional condition of one... signs and biochemical parameters. They take into account the inf luence of protein intake on vitamin B6 needs and the apparent uncertainty of availability of this vitamin in the diet (6). The present RDAs for pregnancy are based upon data regarded...

  5. NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN CROP PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. D. Fageria

    2001-01-01

    Balanced supply of of essential nutrients is one of the most important factors in increasing crop yields. The objective of this review is to discuss interactions among major and minor nutrients in crop plants. In crop plants, the nutrient interactions are generaly measured in terms of growth response and change in concentration of nutrients. Upon addition of two nutrients, a

  6. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  7. Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS): a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro; Rozana Mesquita Ciconelli; Gabriela Villaça Chaves; Luana Aquino; Ridel Claudia Juzwiak; Patrícia de Souza Genaro; Marcos Bosi Ferraz

    2011-01-01

    Background  Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult\\u000a Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The sample comprised

  8. Cross-Sectional Study of 24-Hour Urinary Electrolyte Excretion and Associated Health Outcomes in a Convenience Sample of Australian Primary Schoolchildren: The Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Janet R; Campbell, Karen J; Riddell, Lynn J; Rigo, Manuela; Liem, Djin Gie; Keast, Russell S; He, Feng J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary sodium and potassium are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Data exploring the cardiovascular outcomes associated with these electrolytes within Australian children is sparse. Furthermore, an objective measure of sodium and potassium intake within this group is lacking. Objective The primary aim of the Salt and Other Nutrient Intakes in Children (“SONIC”) study was to measure sodium and potassium intakes in a sample of primary schoolchildren located in Victoria, Australia, using 24-hour urine collections. Secondary aims were to identify the dietary sources of sodium and potassium, examine the association between these electrolytes and cardiovascular risk factors, and assess children’s taste preferences and saltiness perception of manufactured foods. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of schoolchildren attending primary schools in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed one 24-hour urine collection, which was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Completeness of collections was assessed using collection time, total volume, and urinary creatinine. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed to assess dietary intake. Other data collected included blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumference. Children were also presented with high and low sodium variants of food products and asked to discriminate salt level and choose their preferred variant. Parents provided demographic information and information on use of discretionary salt. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sodium and potassium intakes. Linear and logistic regression models with clustered robust standard errors will be used to assess the association between electrolyte intake and health outcomes (blood pressure and body mass index/BMI z-score and waist circumference) and to assess differences in taste preference and discrimination between high and low sodium foods, and correlations between preference, sodium intake, and covariates. Results A total of 780 children across 43 schools participated. The results from this study are expected at the end of 2015. Conclusions This study will provide the first objective measure of sodium and potassium intake in Australian schoolchildren and improve our understanding of the relationship of these electrolytes to cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, this study will provide insight into child taste preferences and explore related factors. Given the cardiovascular implications of consuming too much sodium and too little potassium, monitoring of these nutrients during childhood is an important public health initiative. PMID:25592666

  9. Soy Food Intake and Breast Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Ying; Cai, Hui; Gu, Kai; Chen, Zhi; Zheng, Wei; Lu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Context Soy foods are rich in isoflavones, a major group of phytoestrogens that have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, the estrogen-like effect of isoflavones and the potential interaction between isoflavones and tamoxifen have led to concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer patients. Objective To evaluate the association of soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer with total mortality and cancer recurrence. Design, Setting, and Participants The Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a large, population-based cohort study of 5,042 female breast cancer survivors. Study participants were recruited between March 2002 and April 2006 and followed through June 2009. Information on cancer diagnosis and treatment, lifestyle exposures after cancer diagnosis, and disease progression was collected at approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis and was reassessed at three follow-up interviews conducted at 18, 36, and 60 months after diagnosis. Annual record linkage with the Shanghai Vital Statistics Registry database was carried out to obtain survival information for participants who were lost to follow-up. Medical charts were reviewed to verify disease and treatment information. Main Outcome Measures Any death and recurrence or breast cancer-related death. Cox regression analysis was carried out with adjustment for known clinical predictors and other lifestyle factors. Soy food intake was treated as a time-dependent variable. Results During the median follow-up of 3.9 years (range: 0.5-6.2), 444 deaths and 534 recurrences or breast cancer-related deaths were documented in 5,033 surgically-treated breast cancer patients. Soy food intake, as measured either by soy protein or soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with highest quartile of soy protein intake was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.51-0.88) for total mortality and 0.66 (95%CI=0.52-0.84) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake. The multivariate adjusted 5-year mortality rates were 13.1% and 9.2% and 5-year recurrence rates were 13.0% and 8.9%, respectively, for women in the lowest and highest quartiles of soy protein intake. The inverse association was evident among women with either ER?positive or ER-negative breast cancer and was present in both users and non-users of tamoxifen. Conclusion Among women with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with decreased risk of death and recurrence. PMID:19996398

  10. Contribution of tap water to chlorate and perchlorate intake: a market basket study.

    PubMed

    Asami, Mari; Yoshida, Nobue; Kosaka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of water to total levels of chlorate and perchlorate intake were determined using food and water samples from a market basket study from 10 locations in Japan between 2008 and 2009. Foods were categorized into 13 groups and analyzed along with tap water. The average total chlorate intake was 333 (min. 193-max. 486) ?g/day for samples cooked with tap water. The contribution of tap water to total chlorate intake was as high as 47%-58%, although total chlorate intake was less than 32% of the tolerable daily intake, 1500 ?g/day for body weight of 50 kg. For perchlorate, daily intake from water was 0.7 (0.1-4.4) ?g/day, which is not high compared to the average total intake of 14 (2.5-84) ?g/day, while the reference dose (RfD) is 35 ?g/day and the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) is 500 ?g/day for body weight of 50 kg. The highest intake of perchlorate was 84 ?g/day, where concentrations in foods were high, but not in water. The contribution of water to total perchlorate intake ranged from 0.5% to 22%, while the ratio of highest daily intake to RfD was 240% and that to PMTDI was 17%. Eight baby formulas were also tested--total chlorate and perchlorate intakes were 147 (42-332) ?g/day and 1.11 (0.05-4.5) ?g/day, respectively, for an ingestion volume of 1 L/day if prepared with tap water. PMID:23807022

  11. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. A. M. Hulshof; MA van Erp-Baart; M. Antttolainen; W. Becker; S. M. Church; C. Couet; E Hermann-Kunz; H Kesteloot; T Leth; I Martins; O Moreiras; J Moschandreas; L Pizzoferrato; AH Rimestad; H Thorgeirsdottir; JMN van Amelsvoort; A Aro; AG Kafatos; D Lanzmann-Petithory; G van Poppel; KFAM Hulshof

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries.Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fatty acids and total fat in adults and\\/or the total population using the

  12. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (Ptrend < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (Ptrend = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (Ptrend = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  13. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (Ptrend  < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (Ptrend  = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (Ptrend  = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  14. FORAGE INTAKE OF ALPACAS GRAZING ANDEAN RANGELAND IN PERU 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Reiner; F. C. Bryant; R. D. Farfan; B. F. Craddock

    This study estimated forage intake of free-ranging alpacas grazing an Andean Festuca\\/Muhlen- bergia pasture during the dry and wet seasons. The ratio of fecal output to diet indigestibility was used to estimate intake. Total fecal output from six adult castrated male alpacas was collected for 5 d during each season. Average body weight was 62.0 kg during the wet season

  15. A Better Diet Quality is Attributable to Adequate Energy Intake in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyerang; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is one of strong predictors of subsequent increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. To determine diet quality and to define major problems contributing to poor diet quality in hemodialysis patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and October 2010. Sixty-three hemodialysis patients (31 men, 32 women; aged 55.3 ± 11.9 years) in stable condition were recruited from the Artificial Kidney Center in Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Three-day diet records were obtained for dietary assessment. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR) is the average of the ratio of intakes to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for 12 nutrients. Index of nutritional quality (INQ) was determined as the nutritional density per 1,000 kcal of calories. Overall diet quality was evaluated using the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Statistics were used to determine diet quality, comparing dietary intake to DRI. Dietary calories (21.9 ± 6.7 kcal/kg/day) and protein (0.9 ± 0.3 g/kg/day) were found insufficient in the participants. The overall intake of 12 nutrients appeared to be also inadequate (0.66 ± 0.15), but INQs of overall nutrients, except for folate (0.6) and calcium (0.8), were found relatively adequate (INQ ? 1). As a result of diet quality assessment using DQI-I, dietary imbalance and inadequacy were found to be the most problematic in hemodialysis patients. This study suggests that the main reason for insufficient intake of essential nutrients is insufficient calorie intake. Hemodialysis patients should be encouraged to use various food sources to meet their energy requirements as well as satisfy overall balance and nutrient adequacy. PMID:25713792

  16. Food price policy can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Popkin, B M; Mroz, T A; Zhai, F

    1999-05-01

    The rapid change in diets, physical activity and body composition in low income countries has led to the coexistence of large pockets of undernutrition and overnutrition. Public health strategies for addressing this situation may be necessary, and price policy options are examined for China. Longitudinal dietary data collected in China in 1989-1993 on a sample of 5625 adults aged 20-45 y were examined. Three-day averages of food group consumption and nutrient intake were used in longitudinal statistical models to examine separately the effects of food prices on the decision to consume each food group and then the amount consumed. The effects of changes in six food prices on the consumption of each of six food groups, not just the food group whose price had changed, and on three macronutrients were estimated. The effects show large and significant price effects. If the joint effects of the nutrition transition are to be considered, then there are clear tradeoffs among which foods to tax and which to subsidize. Most important is the effect of prices in reducing fat intake of the rich but not adversely affecting protein intake for the poor. Increases in the prices of pork, eggs and edible oils are predicted to lower fat intake. Only increases in pork prices led to reduced protein intakes. This raises questions about earlier policy changes being implemented in China and provides insight into an important and controversial area for public health policy. PMID:10222391

  17. The gastrointestinal tract as a nutrient-balancing organ

    PubMed Central

    Clissold, Fiona J.; Tedder, Benjamin J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Failure to provision tissues with an appropriate balance of nutrients engenders fitness costs. Maintaining nutrient balance can be achieved by adjusting the selection and consumption of foods, but this may not be possible when the nutritional environment is limiting. Under such circumstances, rebalancing of an imbalanced nutrient intake requires post-ingestive mechanisms. The first stage at which such post-ingestive rebalancing might occur is within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), by differential release of digestive enzymes—releasing less of those enzymes for nutrients present in excess while maintaining or boosting levels of enzymes for nutrients in deficit. Here, we use an insect herbivore, the locust, to show for the first time that such compensatory responses occur within the GIT. Furthermore, we show that differential release of proteases and carbohydrases in response to nutritional state translate into differential extraction of macronutrients from host plants. The prevailing view is that physiological and structural plasticity in the GIT serves to maximize the rate of nutrient gain in relation to costs of maintaining the GIT; our findings show that GIT plasticity is integral to the maintenance of nutrient balance. PMID:20129973

  18. Nutritional intake and dietary patterns in pregnancy: a longitudinal study of women with lifetime eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Micali, Nadia; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Naumann, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet L

    2012-12-14

    There is limited knowledge about dietary patterns and nutrient/food intake during pregnancy in women with lifetime eating disorders (ED). The objective of the present study was to determine patterns of food and nutrient intake in women with lifetime ED as part of an existing longitudinal population-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Women with singleton pregnancies and no lifetime psychiatric disorders other than ED (n 9723) were compared with women who reported lifetime (ever) ED: (anorexia nervosa (AN, n 151), bulimia nervosa (BN, n 186) or both (AN+BN, n 77)). Women reported usual food consumption using a FFQ at 32 weeks of gestation. Nutrient intakes, frequency of consumption of food groups and overall dietary patterns were examined. Women with lifetime ED were compared with control women using linear regression and logistic regression (as appropriate) after adjustment for relevant covariates, and for multiple comparisons. Women with lifetime ED scored higher on the 'vegetarian' dietary pattern; they had a lower intake of meat, which was compensated by a higher consumption of soya products and pulses compared with the controls. Lifetime AN increased the risk for a high ( ? 2500 g/week) caffeine consumption in pregnancy. No deficiencies in mineral and vitamin intake were evident across the groups, although small differences were observed in macronutrient intakes. In conclusion, despite some differences in food group consumption, women with lifetime ED had similar patterns of nutrient intake to healthy controls. Important differences in relation to meat eating and vegetarianism were highlighted, as well as high caffeine consumption. These differences might have an important impact on fetal development. PMID:22784642

  19. A Rapid Beverage Intake Questionnaire Can Detect Changes in Beverage Intake

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Ferguson, Katherine E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Dietrich, Andrea M.; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Attention on beverage intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), has increased in recent years. A brief valid, reliable and sensitive assessment tool for quantifying beverage consumption and determining its influence on weight status could help to advance research on this topic. The valid and reliable 15-item beverage questionnaire (BEVQ-15) estimates mean daily intake of water, SSB and total beverages (g, kcal) across multiple beverage categories. Objective: to determine the ability of the BEVQ-15 to detect changes in beverage intake over time. Participants (n=70; age=37±2 yrs; BMI=24.5±0.4 kg/m2) underwent two randomly assigned 30-day periods (Intervention, increased water and fruit juice consumption; Control, increased solid fruit consumption), with a 30-day washout phase between feeding periods. The BEVQ-15 was administered at the beginning and end of each period. Reliability was assessed by Pearson's correlations, paired sample t tests and Cronbach's Alpha. Paired sample t tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to evaluate sensitivity to change. Sixty-nine participants completed all study sessions. Reliability was acceptable for most beverages (range: R2=0.52–0.95, P<0.001), but not for energy drinks. Increases in water (g), juice (kcal, g) and total beverage (g) were detected during the intervention period (P<0.001); no changes in these variables were detected in the control period. The BEVQ-15 demonstrates the ability to detect changes in beverage intake over time. This brief (~ 2 min), self-administered, valid, reliable and sensitive beverage intake assessment tool may be used by researchers and practitioners who evaluate and intervene upon beverage intake patterns in adults. PMID:23265410

  20. Effects of Feeding Prepubertal Heifers a High-Energy Diet for Three, Six, or Twelve Weeks on Feed Intake, Body Growth, and Fat Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Davis Rincker; M. S. Weber Nielsen; L. T. Chapin; J. S. Liesman; M. J. VandeHaar

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of feeding prepubertal dairy heifers a high-energy diet for a dura- tion of 0, 3, 6, or 12 wk on feed intake, growth, and fat deposition. We also used feed composition, daily intake, and body growth data to evaluate the nutritional model of the 2001 National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy