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  1. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  2. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Richard A; Tambusso, P Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human-megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  3. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the coastal Monte Léon and Santa Cruz formations (Early Miocene) at Rincón del Buque, Southern Patagonia: A revisited locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigemborn, M. Sol; Matheos, Sergio D.; Krapovickas, Verónica; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Zapata, Luciano

    2015-07-01

    Sedimentological, ichnological and paleontological analyses of the Early Miocene uppermost Monte León Formation and the lower part of the Santa Cruz Formation were carried out in Rincón del Buque (RDB), a fossiliferous locality north of Río Coyle in Santa Cruz Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This locality is of special importance because it contains the basal contact between the Monte Léon (MLF) and the Santa Cruz (SCF) formations and because it preserves a rich fossil assemblage of marine invertebrates and marine trace fossils, and terrestrial vertebrates and plants, which has not been extensively studied. A ∼90 m-thick section of the MLF and the SCF that crops out at RDB was selected for this study. Eleven facies associations (FA) are described, which are, from base to top: subtidal-intertidal deposits with Crassotrea orbignyi and bioturbation of the Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies (FA1); tidal creek deposits with terrestrial fossil mammals and Ophiomorpha isp. burrows (FA2); tidal flat deposits with Glossifungites ichnofacies (FA3); deposits of tidal channels (FA4) and tidal sand flats (FA5) both with and impoverish Skolithos ichnofacies associated; marsh deposits (FA6); tidal point bar deposits recording a depauperate mixture of both the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies (FA7); fluvial channel deposits (FA8); fluvial point bar deposits (FA9); floodplain deposits (FA10); and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits of the floodplain where terrestrial fossil mammal remains occur (FA11). The transition of the MLF-SCF at RDB reflects a changing depositional environment from the outer part of an estuary (FA1) through the central (FA2-6) to inner part of a tide-dominated estuary (FA7). Finally a fluvial system occurs with single channels of relatively low energy and low sinuosity enclosed by a broad, low-energy floodplain dominated by partially edaphized ash-fall, sheet-flood, and overbank deposits (FA8-11). Pyroclastic and volcaniclastic materials throughout the succession must have been deposited as ash-fall distal facies in a fluvial setting and also were carried by fluvial streams and redeposited in both estuarine and fluvial settings. These materials preserve most of the analyzed terrestrial fossil mammals that characterize the Santacrucian age of the RDB's succession. Episodic sedimentation under volcanic influence, high sedimentation rates and a relatively warm and seasonal climate are inferred for the MLF and SCF section. Lateral continuity of the marker horizons at RDB serve for correlation with other coastal localities such as the lower part of the coastal SCF south of Río Coyle (∼17.6-17.4 Ma) belonging to the Estancia La Costa Member of the SCF.

  4. Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones

    PubMed Central

    Fariña, Richard A.; Tambusso, P. Sebastián; Varela, Luciano; Czerwonogora, Ada; Di Giacomo, Mariana; Musso, Marcos; Bracco, Roberto; Gascue, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human–megafauna interaction in the Americas has great scientific and ethical interest because of its implications on Pleistocene extinction. The Arroyo del Vizcaíno site near Sauce, Uruguay has already yielded over 1000 bones belonging to at least 27 individuals, mostly of the giant sloth Lestodon. The assemblage shows some taphonomic features suggestive of human presence, such as a mortality profile dominated by prime adults and little evidence of major fluvial transport. In addition, several bones present deep, asymmetrical, microstriated, sharp and shouldered marks similar to those produced by human stone tools. A few possible lithic elements have also been collected, one of which has the shape of a scraper and micropolish consistent with usage on dry hide. However, the radiocarbon age of the site is unexpectedly old (between 27 and 30 thousand years ago), and thus may be important for understanding the timing of the peopling of America. PMID:24258717

  5. Making COD statistics useful for public health at local level in the city of Cape Town: utilidad para la salud pública a nivel local en Ciudad del Cabo.

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Debbie; Groenewald, Pamela; Bourne, David E.; Mahomed, Hassan; Nojilana, Beatrice; Daniels, Johan; Nixon, Jo

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the quality of the coding of the cause of death (COD) statistics and assess the mortality information needs of the City of Cape Town. METHODS: Using an action research approach, a study was set up to investigate the quality of COD information, the accuracy of COD coding and consistency of coding practices in the larger health subdistricts. Mortality information needs and the best way of presenting the statistics to assist health managers were explored. FINDINGS: Useful information was contained in 75% of death certificates, but nearly 60% had only a single cause certified; 55% of forms were coded accurately. Disagreement was mainly because routine coders coded the immediate instead of the underlying COD. An abridged classification of COD, based on causes of public health importance, prevalent causes and selected combinations of diseases was implemented with training on underlying cause. Analysis of the 2001 data identified the leading causes of death and premature mortality and illustrated striking differences in the disease burden and profile between health subdistricts. CONCLUSION: Action research is particularly useful for improving information systems and revealed the need to standardize the coding practice to identify underlying cause. The specificity of the full ICD classification is beyond the level of detail on the death certificates currently available. An abridged classification for coding provides a practical tool appropriate for local level public health surveillance. Attention to the presentation of COD statistics is important to enable the data to inform decision-makers. PMID:16583080

  6. Local Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Yvonne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 23 local government publications that reflect the main issues confronting local communities, including AIDS, children at risk, homelessness, human rights, and environmental decline. The shift of local problem solving from the federal and state government levels to the local level is briefly discussed. (LRW)

  7. Local gravitomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1990-01-01

    In a simple two-body system, the gravitomagnetic components of the metric in the local quasi-inertial frame of one of the bodies is calculated. The local geometry in this frame which is freely falling along the geodesic but is directionally fixed with respect to distant stars is primarily defined by the gravitomagnetic components of the local metric. This metric serves to track down the various contributions from the local and distant source and thus provides further insight to the nature of gravitomagnetism. As a result it is shown that in the quasi-inertial frame geodetic precession is a gravitomagnetic phenomenon. Furthermore a connection between local gravitomagnetic effects and Einstein's principle of equivalence is established.

  8. Local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Yanagidate, F; Strichartz, G R

    2007-01-01

    Local anesthetics are used broadly to prevent or reverse acute pain and treat symptoms of chronic pain. This chapter, on the analgesic aspects of local anesthetics, reviews their broad actions that affect many different molecular targets and disrupt their functions in pain processing. Application of local anesthetics to peripheral nerve primarily results in the blockade of propagating action potentials, through their inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels. Such inhibition results from drug binding at a site in the channel's inner pore, accessible from the cytoplasmic opening. Binding of drug molecules to these channels depends on their conformation, with the drugs generally having a higher affinity for the open and inactivated channel states that are induced by membrane depolarization. As a result, the effective potency of these drugs for blocking impulses increases during high-frequency repetitive firing and also under slow depolarization, such as occurs at a region of nerve injury, which is often the locus for generation of abnormal, pain-related ectopic impulses. At distal and central terminals the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels by local anesthetics will suppress neurogenic inflammation and the release of neurotransmitters. Actions on receptors that contribute to nociceptive transduction, such as TRPV1 and the bradykinin B2 receptor, provide an independent mode of analgesia. In the spinal cord, where local anesthetics are present during epidural or intrathecal anesthesia, inhibition of inotropic receptors, such as those for glutamate, by local anesthetics further interferes with neuronal transmission. Activation of spinal cord mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, which are essential for the hyperalgesia following injury or incision and occur in both neurons and glia, is inhibited by spinal local anesthetics. Many G protein-coupled receptors are susceptible to local anesthetics, with particular sensitivity of those coupled via the Gq alpha-subunit. Local anesthetics are also infused intravenously to yield plasma concentrations far below those that block normal action potentials, yet that are frequently effective at reversing neuropathic pain. Thus, local anesthetics modify a variety of neuronal membrane channels and receptors, leading to what is probably a synergistic mixture of analgesic mechanisms to achieve effective clinical analgesia. PMID:17087121

  9. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  10. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  11. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePLUS

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps Action Day Highest 5: U.S. ... ataques cerebrales y contaminación del aire more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | ...

  12. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  13. Time to Go Local!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...

  14. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  15. Localized components analysis.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Dan; Carmichael, Owen; Delson, Eric; Harcourt-Smith, Will; Sterner, Kirsten; Frost, Stephen; Dutton, Rebecca; Thompson, Paul; Aizenstein, Howard; Lopez, Oscar; Becker, James; Amenta, Nina

    2007-01-01

    We introduce Localized Components Analysis (LoCA) for describing surface shape variation in an ensemble of biomedical objects using a linear subspace of spatially localized shape components. In contrast to earlier methods, LoCA optimizes explicitly for localized components and allows a flexible trade-off between localized and concise representations. Experiments comparing LoCA to a variety of competing shape representation methods on 2D and 3D shape ensembles establish the superior ability of LoCA to modulate the locality-conciseness tradeoff and generate shape components corresponding to intuitive modes of shape variation. Our formulation of locality in terms of compatibility between pairs of surface points is shown to be flexible enough to enable spatially-localized shape descriptions with attractive higher-order properties such as spatial symmetry. PMID:17633726

  16. Ácaros del mango

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  17. Preguntas y respuestas acerca del Estudio del

    Cancer.gov

    El Estudio del Tamoxifeno y Raloxifeno (STAR, por sus siglas en ingls) es un estudio clnico (un estudio de investigacin conducido con voluntarios) diseado para ver cómo el medicamento raloxifeno (Evista) se compara con el medicamento tamoxifeno (Nolvadex)

  18. Local anaesthetics: 10 essentials.

    PubMed

    Lirk, Philipp; Picardi, Susanne; Hollmann, Markus W

    2014-11-01

    This review seeks to address 10 essential questions regarding the clinical use of local anaesthetics. Each local anaesthetic has distinctive physicochemical properties but with the same mode of action; they block voltage-gated sodium channels in the axon. Sodium channel block is brought about by a conformational change and the creation of a positive charge in the channel pore. Different local anaesthetics can reach the local anaesthetic binding site in the axon from the cytoplasmic compartment (classic hydrophilic pathway), or directly via its lipid membrane (hydrophobic pathway), or can enter via large-pore channels (alternative hydrophilic pathway). Beyond the nervous system, local anaesthetics exert beneficial effects on pain and can affect the inflammatory response and the haemostatic system. There are problems with the efficacy of local anaesthetics in the presence of local inflammation, and with significant intravascular toxicity, which can be fatal. But when preventive measures are taken, the incidence of cardiac arrest is low. Intralipid has been proposed to treat systemic local anaesthetic overdose and has been enthusiastically adopted worldwide, even though the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. Intralipid is an aid to the management of local anaesthetic toxicity rather than an antidote and meticulous conduct of regional anaesthesia remains paramount. All local anaesthetics are toxic, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, on virtually all tissues, including nerves and muscles. The question of whether local anaesthetics protect against perioperative tumour progression cannot be answered at this moment, and results from clinical (retrospective) studies are equivocal. Future areas of interest will be the design of new subtype-specific sodium channel blockers, but as we look forward, older local anaesthetics such as 2-chloroprocaine are being reintroduced into the clinical setting. Multimodal perineural analgesia and liposomal bupivacaine may replace catheter techniques for some indications. PMID:25192265

  19. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  20. Local available quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundarain, Douglas F.; de Guevara, María L. Ladrón

    2015-12-01

    In this work, local available quantum correlations are studied. They are defined in terms of mutual information of bipartite local measurements done over an optimal local basis complementary to the local basis which defines the respective classical correlations. For two qubits, it is always possible to choose the basis of classical correlations as the set of eigenvectors of ? _z (the third Pauli matrix) and complementary bases become the sets of eigenvectors of the observables orthogonal to ? _z. It is shown that all states with zero local available quantum correlations are separable but not necessarily strictly classical; this fact puts this kind of correlations in the middle between discord and entanglement. Since in many cases it may suffice to know whether a given state has quantum correlations, the structure of the states with zero local available quantum correlations is presented. It is also shown that there is a close connection between local available quantum correlations and the protocol of entanglement activation developed by Piani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 106:220403, 2011). If a state satisfies the sufficient condition for the entanglement swapping associated with this protocol, this state has nonzero local available quantum correlations.

  1. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention. PMID:24758842

  2. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  4. Locality with staggered fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, B.; Della Morte, M.; Jansen, K.; Knechtli, F.

    2004-10-01

    We address the locality problem arising in simulations, which take the square root of the staggered fermion determinant as a Boltzmann weight to reduce the number of dynamical quark tastes. A definition of such a theory necessitates an underlying local fermion operator with the same determinant and the corresponding Green's functions to establish causality and unitarity. We illustrate this point by studying analytically and numerically the square root of the staggered fermion operator. Although it has the correct weight, this operator is non-local in the continuum limit. Our work serves as a warning that fundamental properties of field theories might be violated when employing blindly the square root trick. The question, whether a local operator reproducing the square root of the staggered fermion determinant exists, is left open.

  5. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Oikonomopoulos, Georgios M; Huber, Kathryn E; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer is palliative, based on chemotherapy and according to response, chemoradiotherapy can be applied. The authors summarize three abstracts (#LBA146, #256 and #303) presented on the 2013 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, which were focused on treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. A discussion is presented about the different chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy regimens, that move away from gemcitabine-based treatment, and the effort to find less toxic, but efficient therapeutic combinations. PMID:23474552

  6. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  7. Local relativistic exact decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-01

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation—called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)—provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N2 scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian—denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper—introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations for which ultimate accuracy is not the major concern.

  8. Local relativistic exact decoupling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-28

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation--called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)--provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N(2) scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian--denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper--introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations for which ultimate accuracy is not the major concern. PMID:22755566

  9. Monaural Sound Localization Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1997-01-01

    Research reported during the past few decades has revealed the importance for human sound localization of the so-called 'monaural spectral cues.' These cues are the result of the direction-dependent filtering of incoming sound waves accomplished by the pinnae. One point of view about how these cues are extracted places great emphasis on the spectrum of the received sound at each ear individually. This leads to the suggestion that an effective way of studying the influence of these cues is to measure the ability of listeners to localize sounds when one of their ears is plugged. Numerous studies have appeared using this monaural localization paradigm. Three experiments are described here which are intended to clarify the results of the previous monaural localization studies and provide new data on how monaural spectral cues might be processed. Virtual sound sources are used in the experiments in order to manipulate and control the stimuli independently at the two ears. Two of the experiments deal with the consequences of the incomplete monauralization that may have contaminated previous work. The results suggest that even very low sound levels in the occluded ear provide access to interaural localization cues. The presence of these cues complicates the interpretation of the results of nominally monaural localization studies. The third experiment concerns the role of prior knowledge of the source spectrum, which is required if monaural cues are to be useful. The results of this last experiment demonstrate that extraction of monaural spectral cues can be severely disrupted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in the source spectrum. The general conclusion of the experiments is that, while monaural spectral cues are important, the monaural localization paradigm may not be the most appropriate way to study their role.

  10. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Putko, Joseph; Dewberry, Janosz; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2012-05-10

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} at galaxy absolute magnitude U = -13 mag to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} at U = -20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2} locally to 10-100 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from {approx}0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} locally to {approx}1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  11. Gravitational Anderson localization.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Ira Z

    2013-01-01

    We present a higher dimensional model where gravity is bound to a brane due to Anderson localization. The extra dimensions are taken to be a disordered crystal of branes, with randomly distributed tensions of order the fundamental scale. Such geometries bind the graviton and thus allow for arbitrarily large extra dimensions even when the curvature is small. Thus this model is quite distinct from that of Randall and Sundrum where localization is a consequence of curvature effects in the bulk. The hierarchy problem can be solved by having the standard model brane live a distance away from the brane on which the graviton is localized. The statistical properties of the system are worked out and it is shown that the scenario leads to a continuum of four dimensional theories with differing strengths of gravitational interactions. We live on one particular brane whose gravitational constant is G(N). PMID:23383775

  12. Practical Local Magnitude Calculation for Local Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, B.; Tunc, S.; Caka, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed a Matlab application (Ml_Calc) to calculate local magnitude (Ml) for small institudes which has just one or more seismic stations. Ml_Calc algorithm suitable for velocity or acceleration sensors' data obtained by Güralp Systems digitizers. The selected earthquake data can be transferred from SCREAM software to Ml_Calc online or offline. The Ml_Calc algorithm provides two types of solutions for distance, one of them is P-S time differences and the other one is epicentre of earthquake and station coordinates, if earthquake is known. During Ml calculation, instrument correction has been removed and converted to real displacement in milimeter. The obtained displacement data converted to Wood Anderson Seismometer output by using Z=[0;0]; P=[-6.28+4.71j; -6.28-4.71j]; A0=[2080]. Obtained maximum displacement amplitude (A) and distances (dist) used in formula (1) for distances less than 200km and formula (2) for more than 200km. Ml=log10(A)-(-1.118-0.0647*dist+0.00071*dist2-3.39E-6*dist3+5.71e-9*dist4) (1) Ml=log10(A)+(2.1173+0.0082*dist-0.0000059628*dist2) (2) Ml_Calc is a software that easy to implement, can be used for educational purpose and user friendly. Due to this characteristics, Ml_Calc software offered a practical solution to individual users to Ml calculation.

  13. Instantánea del cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de próstata; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Instantánea del cáncer de riñón

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el cáncer de riñón; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Hojas informativas del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    La colección de hojas informativas del NCI trata de una variedad de temas relacionados con el cáncer. Las hojas informativas se revisan y ponen al día de acuerdo a las investigaciones más recientes sobre el cáncer.

  16. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePLUS

    ... knowing about the medical condition itself. Currently, 29 Go Local sites link nearly half the U.S. population. ... page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find specific local services. For example, ...

  17. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  18. Local Government Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    In developing nations, the decentralization of responsibilities relating to agriculture, irrigation, public health and sanitation, and small and large industry necessitates the training in public affairs for local government officials. They need training in policy forming and administrative roles as well as a reorientation of attitudes toward the…

  19. Developing Local Community Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Delwyn A.; Williams, Oscar M.

    The successful development of local leaders is the goal of leadership training and community development. Development involves defining and developing leadership. Although leader-centered leadership offers few chances of meeting the maintenance needs of the group as a whole, shared leadership allows the group to join in the decision-making…

  20. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

  1. Principle of relative locality

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-10-15

    We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.

  2. Theme: Local Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Professional Propagation" (Camp); "Managing Human Resources with Local Program Success (LPS)" (Daley); "Profit Sharing with LPS" (Moses); "Partners for Success" (Mecey- Smith); "Achieving LPS by Collaborating with Partners, Allies and Volunteers" (Oglesby); LPS...Just What Agricultural Education Needs, Another Acronym" (Rist); "The…

  3. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  4. Tackling a Local Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

  5. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  6. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"…

  7. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  8. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that these measures can provide novel insight to the model, featuring how symbolic local information transfer is related to the dynamical properties of the elements involved in a spatiotemporal dynamics.

  9. Localization and vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the following localization property for vector spherical harmonics: a wide class of non-local, vector-valued operators reduce to local, multiplication-type operations when applied to a vector spherical harmonic. As localization occurs in a very precise, quantifiable and explicitly computable fashion, the localization property provides a set of useful formulae for analyzing vector-valued fractional diffusion and non-local differential equations defined on S d - 1. As such analyses require a detailed understanding of operators for which localization occurs, we provide several applications of the result in the context of non-local differential equations.

  10. Local normal galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    In the near future, high energy (E greater than 20 MeV) gamma ray astronomy offers the promise of a new means of examining the closest galaxies. Two and possibly three local galaxies, the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds and M31, should be visible to the high energy gamma ray telescope on the Gamma Ray Observatory, and the first should be seen by GAMMA-1. With the assumptions of adequate cosmic ray production and reasonable magnetic field strengths, both of which should likely be satisfied, specific predictions of the gamma ray emission can be made separating the concepts of the galactic and universal nature of cosmic rays. A study of the synchrotron radiation from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) suggests that the cosmic ray density is similar to that in the local region of our galaxy, but not uniform. It is hoped the measurements will be able to verify this independent of assumptions about the magnetic fields in the LMC.

  11. Local quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity within a functional renormalization group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a nontrivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalization group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is nontrivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realized in the present setup.

  12. Temporal Bone Localized Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Hasan; Acio?lu, Engin; Durna, Yusuf Muhammed; Yi?it, Özgür; Bozkurt, Erol Rü?tü; Karagöz, Ye?im

    2015-11-01

    Chondroblastoma is a highly destructive tumor originating from immature cartilage cells. Although chondroblastoma is defined as a benign tumor, it may exhibit malign tumor behaviors such as invasion or metastasis on neighboring structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) image is a solid mass lesion, which included heterogeneous hypointense in T2A and heterogeneous minimal hyperintense in T1A with destructive expansile characteristics and millimetric calcifications. Temporal bone chondroblastomas may complicate the diagnosis because of their different histologic characteristics. Microscopically, chondroblastic cell nests and calcification of locally "chicken wire" type around the cells are observed. These tumors secrete s-100 and vimentin and are used for differential diagnosis. In this study, a temporal bone localized chondroblastoma case is presented. PMID:26517458

  13. The Local Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, H.L.

    2005-10-21

    The observations of the extended rotation curves of some galaxies provide important constraints upon the nature of the local dark matter present in the halos of these galaxies. Using these constraints, one can show that the halo dark matter cannot be some population of conventional astronomical objects and (most probably) cannot be a population of exotic non-interacting particles. We suggest that the halos can be regarded as large spatial fluctuations in a classic scalar field.

  14. Enhanced local tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.; Ramm, Alexander G.

    1996-01-01

    Local tomography is enhanced to determine the location and value of a discontinuity between a first internal density of an object and a second density of a region within the object. A beam of radiation is directed in a predetermined pattern through the region of the object containing the discontinuity. Relative attenuation data of the beam is determined within the predetermined pattern having a first data component that includes attenuation data through the region. In a first method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, the relative attenuation data is inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA. to define the location S of the density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA. is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA.. In a second method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, a gradient value for a mollified local tomography function .gradient..function..sub..LAMBDA..epsilon. (x.sub.ij) is determined along the discontinuity; and the value of the jump of the density across the discontinuity curve (or surface) S is estimated from the gradient values.

  15. Local Modal Regression.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weixin; Lindsay, Bruce G; Li, Runze

    2012-01-01

    A local modal estimation procedure is proposed for the regression function in a non-parametric regression model. A distinguishing characteristic of the proposed procedure is that it introduces an additional tuning parameter that is automatically selected using the observed data in order to achieve both robustness and efficiency of the resulting estimate. We demonstrate both theoretically and empirically that the resulting estimator is more efficient than the ordinary local polynomial regression estimator in the presence of outliers or heavy tail error distribution (such as t-distribution). Furthermore, we show that the proposed procedure is as asymptotically efficient as the local polynomial regression estimator when there are no outliers and the error distribution is a Gaussian distribution. We propose an EM type algorithm for the proposed estimation procedure. A Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed method. The simulation results confirm the theoretical findings. The proposed methodology is further illustrated via an analysis of a real data example. PMID:23049230

  16. Local Education: Community, Conversation, Praxis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark K.

    This book draws upon the experience of adult and community educators and youth and community workers to explore the nature and practice of local education. Chapter 1 examines the nature of local education and argues the benefits of setting aside "community education" in favor of "local education." In chapter 2, the local educator's role is…

  17. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  18. The Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlet, Roger

    Substantial progress in the field of the Local Interstellar Medium has been largely due to recent launches of space missions, mostly in the UV and X-ray domains, but also to ground-based observations, mainly in high resolution spectroscopy. However, a clear gap seems to remain between the wealth of new data and the theoretical understanding. This paper gives an overview of some observational aspects, with no attempt of completeness or doing justice to all the people involved in the field. As progress rarely evolves in straight paths, we can expect that our present picture of the solar system surroundings is not definitive.

  19. Wireless sensor node localization.

    PubMed

    Lédeczi, Ákos; Maróti, Miklós

    2012-01-13

    For most wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, the positions of the sensor nodes need to be known. Global positioning systems have not fitted into WSNs very well owing to their price, power consumption, accuracy and limitations in their operating environment. Hence, the last decade has brought about a large number of proposed methods for WSN node localization. They show tremendous variation in the physical phenomena they use, the signal properties they measure, the resources they consume, as well as in their accuracy, range, advantages and limitations. This paper provides a high-level, comprehensive overview of this very active research area. PMID:22124083

  20. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  1. Localized air dehumidification system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1991-06-04

    This patent describes a building air-conditioning system for effecting air temperature and moisture content changes in air distributed to, flowed through, and recirculated from multiple separate building occupancy zones. It comprises separate building occupancy zones which together source a system base sensible heat load and a system base latent heat load, and which has at least one building occupancy zone which sources a system intermittent local latent heat load which is in addition to the system base latent heat load; a refrigeration sub-system handling the system base sensible heat load and effecting temperature changes in recirculated air distributed to the separate building occupancy zones; a first dehumidification subsystem handling the system base and additional intermittent local latent heat loads, effecting moisture content changes in recirculated air distributed to the separate building occupancy zones, and comprising a first desiccant dehumidifier unit; a second desiccant dehumidification subsystem comprising a second desiccant dehumidifier unit located within the one building occupancy zone, a second concentrated desiccant solution supply cooperating with the second desiccant dehumidifier unit.

  2. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  3. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  4. LOCALITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    1980-02-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The, theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohr.' s pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed.

  5. Localized Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhe; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disease with clinical presentations that greatly mimic pancreatic cancer (PC). It is critical for clinicians to distinguish AIP from PC because their treatments and prognoses are entirely different. Typical images show characteristic features such as diffuse pancreatic swelling and strictures of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). However, AIP may present as a localized pancreatic mass, in which case it is very difficult to differentiate from PC. Here, we report a case of a 40-year-old man with computed tomography (CT) imaging studies confirming an area of low-density neoplasm in the uncinate process of the pancreas with dilation in the common biliary duct (CBD) and MPD. Increased uptake in the uncinate mass was observed by positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan, which strongly suggested PC. Further laboratory analyses showed a marked elevation of serum IgG4. Because there was not enough evidence to rule out a diagnosis of malignancy, a histopathological biopsy became the criterion standard. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided needle biopsy failed. As an alternative, a pancreaticoduodenectomy was conducted for the biopsy, and pathological analysis confirmed IgG4-related sclerotic chronic pancreatitis with moderate lymphoplasmacellular infiltration. We suggest that an accurate preoperative diagnosis for localized AIP with MPD and CBD obstructions mimicking PC is of great importance. Radiological imaging findings, particularly observations of diffused enlargement of the pancreas and delayed enhancement during the venous and portal phases, are essential for diagnosing AIP. Careful consideration should be given if serum IgG4 was taken as a special indicator for a differential diagnosis between AIP and PC. A history of IgG4-related diseases involving the biliary, lacrimal, salivary, retroperitoneal, renal, or pulmonary systems should also be highlighted. Thus, the pathology of extrapancreatic organs can be utilized as diagnostic evidence when the pathology for a pancreatic mass is not available, as in the case presented here. Furthermore, cautious use of hormone therapy is indicated for patients who cannot be ruled out as having PC. The results of future studies on localized AIP are eagerly awaited. PMID:26496272

  6. Local dynamic thermal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbus, S. A.

    1986-04-01

    A very simple but general criterion for local thermal instability in dynamical sytems is derived. The background flow may be time-dependent. The instability criterion is very similar to the classical Field result, except that the cooling function L is replace by L/T, whre T is the temperature. Previous results in the literature are special cases of our result. A third-order differential equation for the evolution of small-wavelength radial perturbations in spherical systems is derived. With self-gravity, it is the exact equation that would result for the evolution of perturbations in simple matter-dominated Friedmann cosmologies (or any homogeneous volume change) subject to external heating and cooling. The scale factor is determined by the unperturbed velocity flow. The equation is solved by WKBJ techniques, allowing acoustical and condensational modes to be treated on an equal footing. Transport processes are not considered here. Self-gravity and fragmentation are briefly discussed.

  7. Phototriggered Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changyou; Wang, Weiping; McAlvin, James B; Guo, Shutao; Timko, Brian P; Santamaria, Claudia; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-01-13

    We report a phototriggerable formulation enabling in vivo repeated and on-demand anesthesia with minimal toxicity. Gold nanorods (GNRs) that can convert near-infrared (NIR) light into heat were attached to liposomes (Lip-GNRs), enabling light-triggered phase transition of their lipid bilayers with a consequent release of payload. Lip-GNRs containing the site 1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin and the α2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine (Lip-GNR-TD) were injected subcutaneously in the rat footpad. Irradiation with an 808 nm continuous wave NIR laser produced on-demand and repeated infiltration anesthesia in the rat footpad in proportion to the irradiance, with minimal toxicity. The ability to achieve on-demand and repeated local anesthesia could be very beneficial in the management of pain. PMID:26654461

  8. The local minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.

    2002-01-01

    Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.

  9. Stable local oscillator microcircuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. The StaLO uses a comb generator followed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The comb generator creates a set of harmonic components of the 100MHz input signal. The SAW filters are narrow bandpass filters that are used to select the desired component and reject all others. The resulting circuit has very low sideband power levels and low phase noise (both less than -40dBc) that is limited primarily by the phase noise level of the input signal.

  10. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  11. Genomic analysis of RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Taliaferro, J Matthew; Wang, Eric T; Burge, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    The localization of mRNAs to specific subcellular sites is widespread, allowing cells to spatially restrict and regulate protein production, and playing important roles in development and cellular physiology. This process has been studied in mechanistic detail for several RNAs. However, the generality or specificity of RNA localization systems and mechanisms that impact the many thousands of localized mRNAs has been difficult to assess. In this review, we discuss the current state of the field in determining which RNAs localize, which RNA sequences mediate localization, the protein factors involved, and the biological implications of localization. For each question, we examine prominent systems and techniques that are used to study individual messages, highlight recent genome-wide studies of RNA localization, and discuss the potential for adapting other high-throughput approaches to the study of localization. PMID:25483039

  12. Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer: Antecedentes

    Cancer.gov

    El Atlas del Genoma del Cáncer es una iniciativa de los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH) para crear mapas multidimensionales completos de los cambios genómicos clave en los tipos y subtipos principales de cáncer.

  13. Local virial and tensor theorems.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Leon

    2011-11-17

    We show that for any wave function and potential the local virial theorem can always be satisfied 2K(r) = r·?V by choosing a particular expression for the local kinetic energy. In addition, we show that for each choice of local kinetic energy there are an infinite number of quasi-probability distributions which will generate the same expression. We also consider the local tensor virial theorem. PMID:21863837

  14. Localizador de Servicios de Apoyo - Instituto Nacional del Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    HealthCare.gov es el primer centro de datos de alternativas de cobertura médica del Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de EE. UU. que combina los programas públicos (ej. Medicare, Medicaid) con la información de más de 1 000 planes de seguros privados. El usuario puede buscar en Internet las opciones de cobertura médica específicas a su situación y a su comunidad local. Igualmente, Healthcare.gov tiene información sobre la reforma sanitaria Affordable Care Act.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A. J.; Kirov, Julia V.; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lloyd, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3’ UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Targeted Mouse Mutations Reveals the Topography of Local Changes in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    West, David B; Engelhard, Eric K; Adkisson, Michael; Nava, A J; Kirov, Julia V; Cipollone, Andreanna; Willis, Brandon; Rapp, Jared; de Jong, Pieter J; Lloyd, Kent C

    2016-02-01

    The unintended consequences of gene targeting in mouse models have not been thoroughly studied and a more systematic analysis is needed to understand the frequency and characteristics of off-target effects. Using RNA-seq, we evaluated targeted and neighboring gene expression in tissues from 44 homozygous mutants compared with C57BL/6N control mice. Two allele types were evaluated: 15 targeted trap mutations (TRAP); and 29 deletion alleles (DEL), usually a deletion between the translational start and the 3' UTR. Both targeting strategies insert a bacterial beta-galactosidase reporter (LacZ) and a neomycin resistance selection cassette. Evaluating transcription of genes in +/- 500 kb of flanking DNA around the targeted gene, we found up-regulated genes more frequently around DEL compared with TRAP alleles, however the frequency of alleles with local down-regulated genes flanking DEL and TRAP targets was similar. Down-regulated genes around both DEL and TRAP targets were found at a higher frequency than expected from a genome-wide survey. However, only around DEL targets were up-regulated genes found with a significantly higher frequency compared with genome-wide sampling. Transcriptome analysis confirms targeting in 97% of DEL alleles, but in only 47% of TRAP alleles probably due to non-functional splice variants, and some splicing around the gene trap. Local effects on gene expression are likely due to a number of factors including compensatory regulation, loss or disruption of intragenic regulatory elements, the exogenous promoter in the neo selection cassette, removal of insulating DNA in the DEL mutants, and local silencing due to disruption of normal chromatin organization or presence of exogenous DNA. An understanding of local position effects is important for understanding and interpreting any phenotype attributed to targeted gene mutations, or to spontaneous indels. PMID:26839965

  17. Control of Cell Migration Through Mrna Localization and Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guoning; Mingle, Lisa; Van De Water, Livingston; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many normal and pathological functions such as development, wound healing, immune defense and tumor metastasis. Polarized migrating cells exhibit asymmetric distribution of many cytoskeletal proteins which is believed to be critical for establishing and maintaining cell polarity and directional cell migration. To target these proteins to the site of function, cells use a variety of mechanisms such as protein transport and mRNA localization-mediated local protein synthesis. In contrast to the former which is intensively investigated and relatively well understood, the latter has been under-studied and relatively poorly understood. However, recent advances in the study of mRNA localization and local translation have demonstrated that mRNA localization and local translation are specific and effective ways for protein localization and are crucial for embryo development, neuronal function and many other cellular processes. There are excellent reviews on mRNA localization, transport and translation during development and other cellular processes. This review will focus on mRNA localization-mediated local protein biogenesis and its impact on somatic cell migration. PMID:25264217

  18. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  19. Impact of Local Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) wind tower network and the CCAFS (XMR) daily rawinsonde observations (RAOB) to issue and verify wind advisories and warnings for operations. These observations are also used by the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) in Houston, Texas and the NWS Melbourne, Florida (NWS MLB) to initialize their locally-run mesoscale models. In addition, SMG uses these observations to support shuttle landings at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Due to impending budget cuts, some or all of the KSC/CCAFS wind towers on the east-central Florida mainland and the XMR RAOBs may be eliminated. The locations of the mainland towers and XMR RAOB site are shown in Figure I. The loss of these data may impact the forecast capability of the 45 WS, SMG and NWS MLB. The AMU was tasked to conduct an objective independent modeling study to help determine how important these observations are to the accuracy of the model output used by the forecasters. To accomplish this, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) performed a sensitivity study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized with and without KSC/CCAFS wind tower and XMR RAOB data.

  20. Superconductivity and Mott localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagna, M.

    A new approach is developed to treat the Mott localization in strongly-correlated systems. It is based on a constrained perturbation theory of the Hubbard model as a function of the superexchange coupling J. The Hartree term which is proved to correspond to the Gutzwiller approximation constitutes the natural ground state around which the system fluctuates. We interpret it in terms of a resonance in complete analogy with the Abriskov-Suhl resonance of the Kondo problem. It is shown how superconductivity is induced by quantum fluctuations around this resonant state. Nous développons une nouvelle approche pour traiter la localisation de Mott dans les systèmes fortement corrélés. Celle-ci est basée sur une théorie de perturbations contrainte du modèle de Hubbard, en fonction du couplage de superéchange J. Le terme Hartree dont nous prouvons la correspondance avec l'approximation de Gutzwiller constitue l'état fondamental naturel autour duquel fluctue le système. Nous l'interprétons en termes de résonance en complète analogie avec la résonance Abriskov-Suhl du problème Kondo. Nous montrons comment la supraconductivité est induite par les fluctuations quantiques autour de cet état résonant.

  1. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  2. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  3. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  4. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  5. Locally finite dimensional Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Johanna

    We prove that in a locally finite dimensional Lie algebra L, any maximal, locally solvable subalgebra is the stabilizer of a maximal, generalized flag in an integrable, faithful module over L. Then we prove two structure theorems for simple, locally finite dimensional Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p which give sufficient conditions for the algebras to be of the form [K(R, *), K( R, *)] / (Z(R) ∩ [ K(R, *), K(R, *)]) for a simple, locally finite dimensional associative algebra R with involution *. Lastly, we explore the noncommutative geometry of locally simple representations of the diagonal locally finite Lie algebras sl(ninfinity), o( ninfinity), and sp(n infinity).

  6. Localized structure of Euglena bioconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Hiroshima University Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Bioconvection of a suspension of Euglena gracilis, a photosensitive flagellate whose body length is approximately 50 micrometers, was experimentally studied. Under strong light intensity, Euglena has a negative phototaxis; they tend to go away from the light source. When the bright illumination is given from the bottom, a large scale spatio-temporal pattern is generated as a result of interaction between Euglena and surrounding flow. Recently, localized convection pattern had been reported, however, the generation process and interaction of the localized convection cells has not been analyzed. We performed experimental study to understand the localization mechanism, in particular, the onset of bioconvection and lateral localization behavior due to phototaxis. Experiments started from different initial condition suggests a bistability near the onset of the convection as binary fluid convection that also shows localized convection cells. Dynamics of localized convections cells, which is similar to the binary fluid convection case although the basic equations are not the same, is also reported.

  7. Indoor localization using passive RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Segou, Olga E.; Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2011-06-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems based on passive tags are used successfully in a wide range of object identification applications. However, the increasing needs to meet new demands on applications of localization and tracking create a new field for evolution of the RFID technology. This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a cost-effective localization system for in-building usage that is able to localize objects that carry passive RFID tags. The RFID reading is performed by a single Reader and an array of directional antennas through multiplexing. Evaluation and experimental results from three localization algorithms based on RSSI are presented.

  8. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  9. Del(20q) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A therapy-related abnormality involving lymphoid or myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, C. Cameron; Tang, Guilin; Lu, Gary; Feng, Xiaoli; Keating, Michael J.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Abruzzo, Lynne V.

    2015-01-01

    Del(20q), a common cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms, is rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We report 64 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and del(20q), as the sole abnormality in 40, a stemline abnormality in 21, and a secondary abnormality in 3 cases. FISH analysis revealed an additional high-risk abnormality, del(11q) or del(17p), in 27/64 (42%) cases. In most cases, the leukemic cells showed atypical cytologic features, unmutated IGHV genes and ZAP70 positivity. The del(20q) was detected only after chemotherapy in all 27 cases with initial karyotypes available. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 30 patients (47%) died, most as a direct consequence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eight patients developed a therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, seven with a complex karyotype. Combined morphologic and FISH analysis for del(20q) performed in 12 cases without morphologic evidence of a myeloid neoplasm localized the del(20q) to the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in 5 (42%) cases, and to myeloid/erythroid cells in 7 (58)% cases. The del(20q) was detected in myeloid cells in all 4 cases of myelodysplastic syndrome. In aggregate, these data indicate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia with del(20q) acquired after therapy is heterogeneous. In cases with morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) likely resides in the myeloid lineage. However, in cases without morphologic evidence of dysplasia, the del(20q) may represent clonal evolution and disease progression. Combining morphologic analysis with FISH for del(20q) or performing FISH on immunomagnetically-selected subpopulations to localize the cell population with this abnormality may help guide patient management. PMID:25953391

  10. Horizontal plane localization in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshorn, Edward L.; Goshorn, Jennifer D.; Cone, E. Mary

    2003-10-01

    Recently, an ASHA (1996) task force on auditory processing disorders (APD) recommended the assessment of several psychoacoustic processes for identifying APD. One of the processes listed was localization. To date, little data exist on localization capabilities in children. Therefore, this project investigated the feasibility of assessing localization in children with the purpose of developing an APD screening test. Six children, age 6.5 to 7.5 years, have thus far been evaluated. This age range was chosen because it is an optimum age, for educational purposes, to identify APD. Three stimuli were used: a 500-Hz tone, a 4000-Hz tone, and NU-CHIPS monosyllabic words. Tone duration was 1 s; the average word duration was 469 ms. Right-left localization was evaluated at 45 and 315 deg azimuth and front-rear localization at 0 and 180 deg. Each source was presented 24 times in random order to each subject. Although the data were highly variable, results revealed significantly better localization for right-left (88.2%) than for front-rear (80.5%). Within the front-rear condition, performance was better for rear (84.7%) than for front (76.4%) localization. There was no significant difference between right versus left localizations. Across stimuli performance was best for 500 Hz and poorest for words.

  11. Volunteers Help Stretch Local Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Maureen Godsey

    1985-01-01

    Discusses use of volunteers to augment local government services such as libraries, parks, paralegal aid, elderly care, data processing. Outlines requirements of successful programs and steps toward initiating volunteer programs. Presents case studies of volunteer programs in two Maryland communities and 41 examples of how local governments can…

  12. Balancing State and Local Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    Describes rationale and attributes of local assessment program to augment statewide testing programs. Describes several steps to develop and implement a local assessment program, including setting priorities and goals, meeting with state officials, developing budgets and funding sources, forming development teams, providing professional…

  13. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…

  14. Statistics of local speckle contrast.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Donald D; Kirkpatrick, Sean J; Wang, Ruikang K

    2008-01-01

    In describing the first-order properties of laser speckle under polarized illumination conditions, it is almost an article of faith that the contrast is unity. In many processing schemes, however, the contrast defined as the quotient of the standard deviation and the mean is calculated over a localized spatial region. In such cases, this local contrast displays a distribution of values that can depart substantially from unity. Properties of this distribution depend on details of the data acquisition and on the size of the local neighborhood over which the contrast is calculated. We demonstrate that this local contrast can be characterized in terms of a log-normal distribution. Further, we show that the two defining parameters of this model can in turn be expressed in terms of the minimum speckle size and the extent of the local neighborhood. Performance of the model is illustrated with some typical optical coherence tomography data. PMID:18157206

  15. An Open Localization and Local Communication Embodied Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Campo, Alexandre; Dorigo, Marco; Amor, Daniel; Magdalena, Luis; Félix, Monasterio-Huelin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a localization and local communication system which allows situated agents to communicate locally, obtaining at the same time both the range and the bearing of the emitter without the need of any centralized control or any external reference. The system relies on infrared communications with frequency modulation and is composed of two interconnected modules for data and power measurement. Thanks to the open hardware license under which it is released, the research community can easily replicate the system at a low cost and/or adapt it for applications in sensor networks and in robotics.

  16. Local government and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis investigates the patterns and effects of energy policies adopted by local governments in the US in the 1970s. Local energy policies are placed in a taxonomy of three types of initiatives in which the dominant decision framework (markets vs. the State) is correlated with the basic decision criteria (economic growth vs. ecological sustainability). Among the empirical issues addressed are the effectiveness of local policies in constraining growth in electricity demand and the geographical correlates of energy policy adoption. Using data previously collected from 179 California cities, the analysis found that the adoption of local energy initiatives was generally independent of a variety of geographical, socioeconomic, and institutional variables. One exception to this finding, however, was that communities that adopted legislation requiring the use of solar technologies were significantly better off than non-adopters of this legislation. In the second empirical analysis, electricity consumption in 95 American cities served by municipal utilities is modeled as a function of policy and non-policy variables. Using regression and nonparametric methods, this analysis finds that the adoption of local energy policies had no apparent effect upon aggregate electricity use as of 1980. The arguments raised for a greater local role in energy policy formation reflect a broader debate on the appropriate role of local government.

  17. Infografía: beneficios y perjuicios de la prueba del PSA para la detección del cáncer de próstata

    Cancer.gov

    Infografía que muestra los beneficios y perjuicios de la prueba del PSA para la detección del cáncer de próstata, según estimaciones de dos estudios sobre exámenes de detección del cáncer de próstata.

  18. Localizing proteins by tissue printing.

    PubMed

    Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2009-01-01

    The simple technique of making tissue prints on appropriate substrate material has made possible the easy localization of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules in a tissue-specific mode. Plant tissues can be used to produce prints revealing a remarkable amount of anatomical detail, even without staining, which might be used to record developmental changes over time. In this chapter we will focus on the protocols for the localization of proteins and glycans using antibodies or lectins, probably the most frequently used application, but the localization of other molecules is reported and the sources indicated. PMID:19378047

  19. Localizing proteins by tissue printing.

    PubMed

    Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2015-01-01

    The simple technique of making tissue prints on appropriate substrate material has made possible the easy localization of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules in a tissue-specific mode. Plant tissues can be used to produce prints revealing a remarkable amount of anatomical detail, even without staining, which might be used to record developmental changes over time. In this chapter we will focus on the protocols for the localization of proteins and glycans using antibodies or lectins, probably the most frequently used application, but the localization of other molecules is reported and the sources indicated. PMID:26043994

  20. On locality, holography and unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, Evgeny; Taronna, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    We study the functional class and locality problems in the context of higher-spin theories and Vasiliev's equations. A locality criterion that is sufficient to make higher-spin theories well-defined as field theories on Anti-de-Sitter space is proposed. This criterion identifies admissible pseudo-local field redefinitions which preserve AdS/CFT correlation functions as we check in the 3d example. Implications of this analysis for known higher-spin theories are discussed. We also check that the cubic coupling coefficients previously fixed in 3d at the action level give the correct CFT correlation functions upon computing the corresponding Witten diagrams.

  1. a Local Explication of Causation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniolo, Giovanni; Faraldo, Rossella; Saggion, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a Generalized Explication of Causality (GEC) with an approach based both on an integral and on the local-causes point of view. The language of Newton based on dynamical point of view of fluents and fluxions is the basic formalism (borrowed by analogy from Newton) for visualisation and quantitative description of the local-causes account. We use the formalism of continuous media both from the Lagrangian and the Eulerian (local) point of view. The role of Observer in the definition of casual connection will be emphasized. The definition and the role of Extensive quantities in the GEC will be discussed.

  2. Speeding up local correlation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, Daniel

    2014-12-28

    We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.

  3. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  4. Local dimensions in Moran constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käenmäki, Antti; Li, Bing; Suomala, Ville

    2016-03-01

    We study the dimensional properties of Moran sets and Moran measures in doubling metric spaces. In particular, we consider local dimensions and L q -dimensions. We generalise and extend several existing results in this area.

  5. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  6. State and Local Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Yuri; Kopec, Karen

    1980-01-01

    Reviews trends in library programs for state and local government publications and documents the increased interest in microforms and databases. Discussion focuses on publication distribution and control, and efforts to support interstate networking. There are 28 references. (RAA)

  7. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  8. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  9. Spatial Localization in Dissipative Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, E.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial localization is a common feature of physical systems, occurring in both conservative and dissipative systems. This article reviews the theoretical foundations of our understanding of spatial localization in forced dissipative systems, from both a mathematical point of view and a physics perspective. It explains the origin of the large multiplicity of simultaneously stable spatially localized states present in a parameter region called the pinning region and its relation to the notion of homoclinic snaking. The localized states are described as bound states of fronts, and the notions of front pinning, self-pinning, and depinning are emphasized. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems are discussed, and the reasons behind the differences in behavior between dissipative systems with conserved and nonconserved dynamics are explained. The insights gained are specific to forced dissipative systems and are illustrated here using examples drawn from fluid mechanics (convection and shear flows) and a simple model of crystallization.

  10. Local reaction kinetics by imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the "kinetics by imaging" approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics.

  11. Local Systems: Design and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Cynthia I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that a less rigid traditional approach towards automating acquisitions functions might be more cost effective. Thorough investigation of available alternatives should precede a decision to adopt or maintain a local system. (Author/RAA)

  12. Local reaction kinetics by imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the “kinetics by imaging” approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics. PMID:26865736

  13. The history of local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2007-04-01

    For hundreds of years, mankind has struggled with the problem of controlling pain during surgical procedures without putting the patient to sleep. In 1884, cocaine was discovered to have local anesthetic properties and soon became widely used in many types of surgery. The many undesirable properties of cocaine led scientists to find a safer alternative. Since then, more effective local anesthetics have been and continue to be developed. PMID:17612366

  14. Local Realism of Macroscopic Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Paterek, T.; Kay, A.; Kurzy?ski, P.; Kaszlikowski, D.

    2011-08-01

    We identify conditions under which correlations resulting from quantum measurements performed on macroscopic systems (systems composed of a number of particles of the order of the Avogadro number) can be described by local realism. We argue that the emergence of local realism at the macroscopic level is caused by an interplay between the monogamous nature of quantum correlations and the fact that macroscopic measurements do not reveal properties of individual particles.

  15. Criterions for locally dense subgraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibély, Gergely

    2012-02-01

    Community detection is one of the most investigated problems in the field of complex networks. Although several methods were proposed, there is still no precise definition of communities. As a step toward a definition, I highlight two necessary properties of communities, separation and internal cohesion, the latter being a new concept. I propose a local method of community detection based on two-dimensional local optimization, which I tested on common benchmarks and on the word association database.

  16. Local-Area-Network Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Jim; Jordan, Joe; Grant, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) computer program provides method for simulating performance of high-speed local-area-network (LAN) technology. Developed as design and analysis software tool for networking computers on board proposed Space Station. Load, network, link, and physical layers of layered network architecture all modeled. Mathematically models according to different lower-layer protocols: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and Star*Bus. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  17. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  18. Promoting local management in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  19. Categorical local-shape perception.

    PubMed

    Mamassian, P; Kersten, D; Knill, D C

    1996-01-01

    How well do observers perceive the local shape of an object from its shaded image? This problem was addressed by first deriving a potential representation of local solid shape. The descriptor of local shape, called shape characteristic, provides a viewpoint-independent continuum between hyperbolic (saddle-shaped) and elliptic (egg-shaped) points. The ability of human observers to make categorical judgments of local solid shape was then studied. This question was investigated by using a smooth 'croissant', a simple object made of two connected regions of elliptic and hyperbolic points. Observers decided whether the surface was locally elliptic or hyperbolic at various points on the object. The task was natural, and the observers could reliably partition the shaded image of the object into two regions, one elliptic and one hyperbolic. The ability of observers to perform this partition shows that they can, at least implicitly, localize the parabolic curves on a surface. This ability to locate the parabolic curve could in turn be exploited for other purposes, for instance to segment an object into its parts. PMID:8861173

  20. DEL-1 restrains osteoclastogenesis and inhibits inflammatory bone loss in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jieun; Maekawa, Tomoki; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Hosur, Kavita; Pyaram, Kalyani; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hajishengallis, George

    2015-09-30

    DEL-1 (developmental endothelial locus-1) is an endothelial cell-secreted protein that regulates LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1) integrin-dependent leukocyte recruitment and inflammation in various tissues. We identified a novel regulatory mechanism of DEL-1 in osteoclast biology. Specifically, we showed that DEL-1 is expressed by human and mouse osteoclasts and regulates their differentiation and resorptive function. Mechanistically, DEL-1 inhibited the expression of NFATc1, a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, in a Mac-1 integrin-dependent manner. In vivo mechanistic analysis has dissociated the anti-inflammatory from the anti-bone-resorptive action of DEL-1 and identified structural components thereof mediating these distinct functions. Locally administered human DEL-1 blocked inflammatory periodontal bone loss in nonhuman primates-a relevant model of human periodontitis. The ability of DEL-1 to regulate both upstream (inflammatory cell recruitment) and downstream (osteoclastogenesis) events that lead to inflammatory bone loss paves the way to a new class of endogenous therapeutics for treating periodontitis and perhaps other inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424570

  1. Local cloning of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  2. Spatial localization without visual references.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Levi, D M; Aitsebaomo, A P

    1992-03-01

    To explain the veridical percept of the spatial ordering of objects and the generation of eye movements to peripheral targets, Lotze (1885 Microcosmos. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark) proposed that there is a position label (local sign) for each retinal element. To estimate the precision of local sign information, we measured absolute localization thresholds at various eccentricities in the nasal visual field, in the complete absence of visual references. To eliminate perception of the visual surround, observers viewed a large display screen through a neutral density filter (2.0 log unit) in a dark room. The fixation target was extinguished at various times (interstimulus intervals or ISIs) prior to the onset of the test stimulus. In general, our results show that localization thresholds are proportional to the target eccentricity at all ISIs. At each eccentricity, localization thresholds are elevated after the extinction of the visual reference compared to thresholds when the reference is present. However, relative to the referenced threshold, unreferenced thresholds are elevated by a greater proportion at smaller eccentricities than at larger eccentricities. Our threshold vs ISI data can be adequately modeled on the basis of an intrinsic positional uncertainty, which increases with eccentricity, and additive and multiplicative sources of noise. The additive noise appears to reflect primarily the increasing scatter in eye position when the fixation target is extinguished. Our model's estimate of intrinsic positional uncertainty in the isoeccentric direction appears to reflect primarily the intrinsic positional uncertainty of the peripheral retina (the local sign), being very similar to cumulative cone position uncertainty and to the spacing between ON-P beta ganglion cells. In the isoeccentric direction, the estimated precision of the local sign mechanism across eccentricities is slightly better than the precision of saccadic endpoints, suggesting that noise in the motor system must also contribute to the scatter of saccadic endpoints in the isoeccentric direction. Interestingly, in the radial direction, we find a surprising similarity in our observers' positional uncertainty and the precision of saccadic endpoints. PMID:1604838

  3. Locally-referenced ultrasonic--LPS for localization and navigation.

    PubMed

    Gualda, David; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan C; Lindo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible deployment of ultrasonic position sensors and a novel positioning algorithm suitable for the navigation of mobile robots (MRs) in extensive indoor environments. Our proposal uses several independently-referenced local positioning systems (LPS), which means that each one of them operates within its own local reference system. In a typical layout, an indoor extensive area can be covered using just a reduced set of globally-referenced LPS (GRLPS), whose beacon positions are known to the global reference system, while the rest of the space can be covered using locally-referenced LPSs (LRLPS) that can be distributed arbitrarily. The number of LRLPS and their position can be also changed at any moment. The algorithm is composed of several Bayesian filters running in parallel, so that when an MR is under the GRLPS coverage area, its position is updated by a global filter, whereas when the MR is inside the LRLPS area, its position is updated using position increments within a local filter. The navigation algorithm has been tested by simulation and with actual data obtained using a real set of ultrasonic LPSs. PMID:25412215

  4. Red light for Anderson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipetrov, S. E.; Page, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    During the last 30 years, the search for Anderson localization of light in three-dimensional (3D) disordered samples yielded a number of experimental observations that were first considered successful, then disputed by opponents, and later refuted by their authors. This includes recent results for light in TiO2 powders that Sperling et al now show to be due to fluorescence and not to Anderson localization (2016 New J. Phys. 18 013039). The difficulty of observing Anderson localization of light in 3D may be due to a number of factors: insufficient optical contrast between the components of the disordered material, near-field effects, etc. The way to overcome these difficulties may consist in using partially ordered materials, complex structured scatterers, or clouds of cold atoms in magnetic fields.

  5. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  6. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition. PMID:26353319

  7. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  8. Locally anisotropic gravity and strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vacaru, S.I.

    1997-05-01

    We shall present an introduction to the theory of gravity on locally anisotropic spaces modelled as vector bundles provided with compatible nonlinear and distinguished linear connection and metric structures (such spaces are obtained by a nonlinear connection reduction or compactification from higher dimensional spaces to lower dimensional ones and contain as particular cases various generalizations of Kaluza{endash}Klein and Finsler geometry). We shall analyze the conditions for consistent propagation of closed strings in locally anisotropic background spaces. The connection between conformal invariance, the vanishing of the renormalization group {beta}-function of the generalized {sigma}-model, and field equations of locally anisotropic gravity will be studied in detail. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  9. Local Nature of Coset Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, S.

    The local algebras of the maximal Coset model Cmax associated with a chiral conformal subtheory A ? B are shown to coincide with the local relative commutants of A in ?, provided A possesses a stress-energy tensor. Making the same assumption, the adjoint action of the unique inner-implementing representation UA associated with A ? B on the local observables in ? is found to define net-endomorphisms of ?. This property is exploited for constructing from ? a conformally covariant holographic image in (1+1) dimensions which proves useful as a geometric picture for the joint inclusion A vee Cmax ? B. Immediate applications to the analysis of current subalgebras are given and the relation to normal canonical tensor product subfactors is clarified. A natural converse of Borchers' theorem on half-sided translations is made accessible.

  10. LULUs: locally unwanted land uses

    SciTech Connect

    Popper, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    A LULU is a locally unwanted land use. It may be an old-age home or a nuclear-waste-disposal site. People need it but do not want to live next to it. Some characteristics LULUs have in common are: opposition (more or less organized), costs to the neighborhood (real or perceived), support from conservatives for LULUs of the right, support from liberals for LULUs of the left, and some local support. Today's LULU may be tomorrow's prize; witness the 1982 competition for a state prison by 21 towns in depressed Illinois. Regional and national LULUs, while offering (or appearing to offer) a regional or national benefit, put financial and environmental costs and social stresses on a locality. Governmental and legal questions confront the decision-makers who must untangle these conflicts.

  11. Electron localization in polyaniline derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.H.; Javadi, H.H.S. ); Ray, A.; MacDiarmid, A.G. ); Epstein, A.J. Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH )

    1990-09-15

    Electron localization in the methyl-ring-substituted derivative of polyaniline (PAN), poly({ital o}-toluidine) (POT), has been investigated by transport and magnetic measurements. The HCl salt of POT shows greater electron localization than that of PAN due to decreased interchain diffusion rate caused by increased interchain separation and decreased interchain coherence. Each of these is attributed to the addition of one CH{sub 3} to each C{sub 5} ring. The general implications for control of dimensionality and conductivity are discussed.

  12. The Louisiana Go Local Experience.

    PubMed

    Fahrmann, Melissa; Pesch, Wendy T; Interiano, Luis F

    2011-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two health sciences librarians at Baton Rouge General Medical Center created and launched the Louisiana segment of the National Library of Medicine's Go Local program, whose ultimate goal was to improve the health information-seeking experience of the general public. Louisiana Go Local was successfully launched in October 2009, but in spring 2010, the national umbrella project was cancelled by the National Library of Medicine. This article describes the three-year development of a statewide database of health services descriptions and contact information to assist non-expert health information seekers in finding those health care providers located geographically closest to them. PMID:22347810

  13. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  14. The Louisiana Go Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Melissa; Pesch, Wendy T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two health sciences librarians at Baton Rouge General Medical Center created and launched the Louisiana segment of the National Library of Medicine’s Go Local program, whose ultimate goal was to improve the health information-seeking experience of the general public. Louisiana Go Local was successfully launched in October 2009, but in spring 2010, the national umbrella project was cancelled by the National Library of Medicine. This article describes the three-year development of a statewide database of health services descriptions and contact information to assist non-expert health information seekers in finding those health care providers located geographically closest to them. PMID:22347810

  15. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  16. Think Globally and Act Locally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Chadwick F.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways teachers can involve themselves and their students in local action as a means of furthering effective and practical global education. Considers possible barriers related to the ideology of the state system, and current breakthroughs, e.g., the nuclear freeze movement, anti-apartheid activism, and the sanctuary movement for Salvadoran…

  17. Locally Contingent Categorization in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigates creation and interpretation of nonlexicalized categories within discourse, as indicated by the use of general extenders. Shows that such categories are locally contingent, depend on contextually salient features for identifying similarity among members, can be created through contrast or contiguity, and clearly depend on assumptions…

  18. Local Decisions and Global Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Impact of economic and urban planning on the natural environment can be studied through local situations: California conservation students realized the detrimental effects of a seemingly beneficial dam project. Students were inspired to initiate community-state action to correct damage to wildlife, sanitation, and farming. (AV)

  19. Localized gravity in string theory.

    PubMed

    Karch, A; Randall, L

    2001-08-01

    We propose a string realization of the AdS4 brane in AdS5 that is known to localize gravity. Our theory is M D5 branes in the near horizon geometry of N D3 branes, where M and N are appropriately tuned. PMID:11497820

  20. Actin Automata: Phenomenology and Localizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Mayne, Richard

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, whose roles in cell function include structural support, contractile activity to intracellular signaling. We model actin filaments as two chains of one-dimensional binary-state semi-totalistic automaton arrays to describe hypothetical signaling events therein. Each node of the actin automaton takes state "0" (resting) or "1" (excited) and updates its state in discrete time depending on its neighbor's states. We analyze the complete rule space of actin automata using integral characteristics of space-time configurations generated by these rules and compute state transition rules that support traveling and mobile localizations. Approaches towards selection of the localization supporting rules using the global characteristics are outlined. We find that some properties of actin automata rules may be predicted using Shannon entropy, activity and incoherence of excitation between the polymer chains. We also show that it is possible to infer whether a given rule supports traveling or stationary localizations by looking at ratios of excited neighbors that are essential for generations of the localizations. We conclude by applying biomolecular hypotheses to this model and discuss the significance of our findings in context with cell signaling and emergent behavior in cellular computation.

  1. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  2. Local magnitude scale in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajc, J.; Zaplotnik, Ž.; Živ?i?, M.; ?arman, M.

    2013-04-01

    In the paper a calibration study of the local magnitude scale in Slovenia is presented. The Seismology and Geology Office of the Slovenian Environment Agency routinely reports the magnitudes MLV of the earthquakes recorded by the Slovenian seismic stations. The magnitudes are computed from the maximum vertical component of the ground velocity with the magnitude equation that was derived some thirty years ago by regression analysis of the magnitudes recorded by a Wood-Anderson seismograph in Trieste and a short period seismograph in Ljubljana. In the study the present single magnitude MLV equation is replaced by a general form of the Richter local magnitude MWA equation. The attenuation function and station-component corrections that compensate the local effects near seismic stations are determined from the synthetic Wood-Anderson seismograms of a large data set by iterative least-square method. The data set used consists of approximately 18 000 earthquakes during a period of 14 yr, each digitally recorded on up to 29 stations. The derived magnitude equation is used to make the final comparison between the new MWA magnitudes and the routinely calculated MLV magnitudes. The results show good overall accordance between both magnitude equations. The main advantage of the introduction of station-component corrections is the reduced uncertainty of the local magnitude that is assigned to a certain earthquake.

  3. Locally Contingent Categorization in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigates creation and interpretation of nonlexicalized categories within discourse, as indicated by the use of general extenders. Shows that such categories are locally contingent, depend on contextually salient features for identifying similarity among members, can be created through contrast or contiguity, and clearly depend on assumptions…

  4. Local Evaluation of Chemistry Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Joseph R.; Hansen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of local usage statistics of a specific set of chemistry journals at the University of Denver in Colorado, USA. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that commercial publishers in chemistry charge considerably more for their journals than those from the non-commercial sector. There are three variables…

  5. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  6. Research for Locally Relevant Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program--where Canadian universities establish knowledge partnerships with Southern universities--projects with a well-developed research dimension have proven to be the strongest projects, with broader and deeper contributions to the local institutions and larger community.…

  7. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  8. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  9. Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

  10. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  11. Think Globally and Act Locally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Chadwick F.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways teachers can involve themselves and their students in local action as a means of furthering effective and practical global education. Considers possible barriers related to the ideology of the state system, and current breakthroughs, e.g., the nuclear freeze movement, anti-apartheid activism, and the sanctuary movement for Salvadoran…

  12. Quantum Strategies and Local Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutoski, Gus

    2010-02-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I we introduce a new formalism for quantum strategies, which specify the actions of one party in any multi-party interaction involving the exchange of multiple quantum messages among the parties. This formalism associates with each strategy a single positive semidefinite operator acting only upon the tensor product of the input and output message spaces for the strategy. We establish three fundamental properties of this new representation for quantum strategies and we list several applications, including a quantum version of von Neumann's celebrated 1928 Min-Max Theorem for zero-sum games and an efficient algorithm for computing the value of such a game. In Part II we establish several properties of a class of quantum operations that can be implemented locally with shared quantum entanglement or classical randomness. In particular, we establish the existence of a ball of local operations with shared randomness lying within the space spanned by the no-signaling operations and centred at the completely noisy channel. The existence of this ball is employed to prove that the weak membership problem for local operations with shared entanglement is strongly NP-hard. We also provide characterizations of local operations in terms of linear functionals that are positive and "completely" positive on a certain cone of Hermitian operators, under a natural notion of complete positivity appropriate to that cone. We end the thesis with a discussion of the properties of no-signaling quantum operations.

  13. Philippine Programme Initiates Local Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Describes a public health program for mothers and children developed by UNICEF workers in the Philippines that incorporates literacy and environmental awareness along with the usual focus on immunizations, nutrition, and clean water. The program contained an organic gardening project intended to empower women at the local level. (LZ)

  14. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed information about…

  15. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  16. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  17. [Methods of recording local ERG].

    PubMed

    Shamshinova, A M; Govardovski?, V I; Golubtsov, K V

    1989-01-01

    Two methods for recording the retinal local biopotential with the gaze fixation control and without this control are described, to be used for the assessment of the status of any retinal or macular site, among other things. A ring-shaped sucker electrode is employed in both methods; this electrode is supplied with a transparent anterior window and infrared-illuminated mirror in one method and in the other the electrode incorporates a light-emitting diode and an optic system that helps create a 6-20 degrees stimulus. Theoretical analysis and experimental findings evidence that the minimal area on the retina from which a local response may be obtained, fit for clinical purposes, conforms to 10-15 degrees with a stimulus 5 times brighter than semisaturating brightness. The local response share in this case is 70% and the number of possible blendings 50. The results explaining the choice of the conditions for the retinal local biopotential recording are presented. The suggested methods help assess the function of the macular area, distinguish between the functions of the cone and rod systems, record the total and Hanz-Feld electroretinograms without electrode substitution, record the macular biopotential in babies and in patients with nystagmus or with cataracts of various origins. PMID:2617751

  18. Supplementary routes to local anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meechan, J G

    2002-11-01

    The satisfactory provision of many dental treatments, particularly endodontics, relies on achieving excellent pain control. Unfortunately, the administration of a local anaesthetic solution does not always produce satisfactory anaesthesia of the dental pulp. This may be distressing for both patient and operator. Fortunately, failure of local anaesthetic injections can be overcome. This is often achieved by using alternative routes of approach for subsequent injections. Nerves such as the inferior alveolar nerve can be anaesthetized by a variety of block methods. However, techniques of anaesthesia other than the standard infiltration and regional block injections may be employed successfully when these former methods have failed to produce adequate pain control. This paper describes some supplementary local anaesthetic techniques that may be used to achieve pulpal anaesthesia for endodontic procedures when conventional approaches have failed. Although some of these techniques can be used as the primary form of anaesthesia, these are normally employed as 'back-up'. The methods described are intraligamentary (periodontal ligament) injections, intraosseous anaesthesia and the intrapulpal approach. The factors that influence the success of these methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed. The advent of new instrumentation, which permits the slow delivery of local anaesthetic solution has led to the development of novel methods of anaesthesia in dentistry. These new approaches are discussed. PMID:12453016

  19. Student Politics: The New Localism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Arthur; Cureton, Jeanette S.

    1998-01-01

    Substantial changes in the nature of undergraduate student politics are reported, based on a 1993 survey and focus group interviews, a 1995 survey of student leaders, and two surveys of student affairs officers. As a generation, current students are critical, optimistic, and activist. Activism is local in orientation, peaceful, and rooted in…

  20. Local flicker stimulation evokes local retinal blood velocity changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhangyi; Huang, Gang; Chui, Toco Yuen Ping; Petrig, Benno L.; Burns, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of localized visual stimulation on human retinal blood velocity using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To measure the blood velocity response, the AOSLO scanning raster was moved over the target arteries and red blood cell velocity was measured. Localized visual stimuli were delivered by projecting flicker patterns inside or outside the target artery's downstream region. The blood velocity increased in the presence of a flicker stimulus in the downstream region but not when outside the downstream region. The blood velocity increased more with larger area of stimulation. This increase was significant even when the stimulus was smaller than 600 ?m × 600 ?m. These findings suggest that when the retina regulates its blood flow to metabolic demands, it regulates blood velocity in the vascular system selectively, according to activity of neurons within its field of influence. PMID:22661609

  1. Dynamical localization and eigenstate localization in trap models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flegel, Franziska; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2014-07-01

    The one-dimensional random trap model with a power-law distribution of mean sojourn times exhibits a phenomenon of dynamical localization in the case where diffusion is anomalous: the probability to find two independent walkers at the same site, as given by the participation ratio, stays constant and high in a broad domain of intermediate times. This phenomenon is absent in dimensions two and higher. In finite lattices of all dimensions the participation ratio finally equilibrates to a different final value. We numerically investigate two-particle properties in a random trap model in one and in three dimensions, using a method based on spectral decomposition of the transition rate matrix. The method delivers a very effective computational scheme producing numerically exact results for the averages over thermal histories and initial conditions in a given landscape realization. Only a single averaging procedure over disorder realizations is necessary. The behavior of the participation ratio is compared to other measures of localization, as for example to the states' gyration radius, according to which the dynamically localized states are extended. This means that although the particles are found at the same site with a high probability, the typical distance between them grows. Moreover the final equilibrium state is extended both with respect to its gyration radius and to its Lyapunov exponent. In addition, we show that the phenomenon of dynamical localization is only marginally connected with the spectrum of the transition rate matrix, and is dominated by the properties of its eigenfunctions which differ significantly in dimensions one and three.

  2. Sacroplasty for Local or Massive Localization of Multiple Myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Cavalli, Maide; Fiumara, Paolo; Raimondo, Francesco Di; Coppolino, Francesco; Coppolino, Carmelo; Mundo, Elena; Desiderio, Carla; Granata, Antonio; Patti, Maria Teresa

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cementoplasty in the treatment of sacral multiple myelomas. We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients (four women and four men; age range 47-68 years; mean age 57.8) who underwent cementoplasty for painful osteolytic localization of multiple myeloma between April 2007 and May 2009. The patients had difficulty walking because of increasing pain. Six patients had persistent pain despite other cementoplasties for vertebral and femoral localization, whereas two patients referred at the time of diagnosis had only sacral lesions. The clinical indication for treatment was (1) a pain intensity score {>=}5 on visual analogue scale (VAS) and (2) pain totally or partially refractory to analgesic treatment in patients with a life expectancy >3 months. Technical planning was based on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Six patients had previously undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy and were receiving varying doses of analgesics, whereas sacroplasty represented the first treatment for two patients. Five patients had monolateral local involvement, and the other patients had massive involvement of the sacrum; Technical success was achieved in all cases. We had only one small and asymptomatic foraminal leak. All patients experienced improvement in symptoms after the procedure, as demonstrated by improved VAS scores and performance status (PS) and decreased analgesic dose constant during follow-up. In our experience, percutaneous stabilization can be used effectively and safely in patients with focal or extensive involvement of the sacrum by multiple myeloma.

  3. Fractal superconductivity near localization threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Ioffe, L.B.; Kravtsov, V.E.; Cuevas, E.

    2010-07-15

    We develop a semi-quantitative theory of electron pairing and resulting superconductivity in bulk 'poor conductors' in which Fermi energy E{sub F} is located in the region of localized states not so far from the Anderson mobility edge E{sub c}. We assume attractive interaction between electrons near the Fermi surface. We review the existing theories and experimental data and argue that a large class of disordered films is described by this model. Our theoretical analysis is based on analytical treatment of pairing correlations, described in the basis of the exact single-particle eigenstates of the 3D Anderson model, which we combine with numerical data on eigenfunction correlations. Fractal nature of critical wavefunction's correlations is shown to be crucial for the physics of these systems. We identify three distinct phases: 'critical' superconductive state formed at E{sub F} = E{sub c}, superconducting state with a strong pseudo-gap, realized due to pairing of weakly localized electrons and insulating state realized at E{sub F} still deeper inside a localized band. The 'critical' superconducting phase is characterized by the enhancement of the transition temperature with respect to BCS result, by the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of superconductive order parameter and local density of states. The major new feature of the pseudo-gapped state is the presence of two independent energy scales: superconducting gap {Delta}, that is due to many-body correlations and a new 'pseudo-gap' energy scale {Delta}{sub P} which characterizes typical binding energy of localized electron pairs and leads to the insulating behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature above superconductive T{sub c}. Two gap nature of the pseudo-gapped superconductor is shown to lead to specific features seen in scanning tunneling spectroscopy and point-contact Andreev spectroscopy. We predict that pseudo-gapped superconducting state demonstrates anomalous behavior of the optical spectral weight. The insulating state is realized due to the presence of local pairing gap but without superconducting correlations; it is characterized by a hard insulating gap in the density of single electrons and by purely activated low-temperature resistivity ln R(T) {approx} 1/T. Based on these results we propose a new 'pseudo-spin' scenario of superconductor-insulator transition and argue that it is realized in a particular class of disordered superconducting films. We conclude by the discussion of the experimental predictions of the theory and the theoretical issues that remain unsolved.

  4. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  5. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results obtained from this photolysis study demonstrate that the local ground level ozone formation is not only influenced by the strong solar radiation and changing aerosol makeup, but also by other heterogeneous factors and reactions. In addition, this research provided good evidence that the ground level ozone precursor regime in El Paso during the ozone episode of June 2006 was mostly VOC-limited. Much of this estimation was derived from measurements of local ambient VOC/NOx ratios. This finding shows that at least during June 2006, the non-linear surface ozone production increased during weekends compared to workdays in a habitually VOC-limited regime. The seasonal variations of columnar ozone as measured by a Multi-filter Rotating Shadowband instrument installed at the UTEP campus are analyzed for the first time for this region and results are presented. This investigation has addressed the problem of ground-level ozone formation in the Paso del Norte region. Urban ozone is a complex problem with many aspects that are not fully understood. In this investigation, a range of techniques has been used to address the study of local surface ozone episodes with the purpose of acquiring new insights and knowledge that will help understand and remediate the diverse atmospheric pollution events that affect this bi-national region recurrently. Innovative techniques were developed and used, ranging from the use of local ambient atmospheric pollution data to the utilization of complex modeling techniques to achieve the best possible computer results. Finally, the influence of ground level ozone concentrations in admissions to hospitals for this region due to respiratory diseases is analyzed. The comprehensive results obtained in this work will help to better understand ozone formation in the Paso del Norte Region for future policy regulation implementations.

  6. Localization and centrality in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Travis; Zhang, Xiao; Newman, M. E. J.

    2014-11-01

    Eigenvector centrality is a common measure of the importance of nodes in a network. Here we show that under common conditions the eigenvector centrality displays a localization transition that causes most of the weight of the centrality to concentrate on a small number of nodes in the network. In this regime the measure is no longer useful for distinguishing among the remaining nodes and its efficacy as a network metric is impaired. As a remedy, we propose an alternative centrality measure based on the nonbacktracking matrix, which gives results closely similar to the standard eigenvector centrality in dense networks where the latter is well behaved but avoids localization and gives useful results in regimes where the standard centrality fails.

  7. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  8. Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akduman, Bulent; Crawford, E. David

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of treatment of localized prostate cancer, which was discussed in detail in the second scientific session of the 16th International Prostate Cancer Update. The role of radical prostatectomy in localized disease was presented by Bob Djavan, MD. Benefits and risks of radical prostatectomy were addressed by Gerald Chodak, MD. Robert E. Donohue, MD, presented the role of radical prostatectomy in Gleason grade 8, 9, and 10 tumors. Impact of positive margins on outcomes after radical prostatectomy was presented by James A. Eastham, MD. E. David Crawford, MD, provided an overview of the role of targeted therapy. Indications and results of brachytherapy were presented by Mack Roach, III, MD. Finally, Michael J. Manyak, MD, described the evolution of radioimmunoscintigraphy and clinical outcomes data. PMID:17021637

  9. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  10. Local cloning of entangled qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sujit K.; Kunkri, Samir; Rahaman, Ramij; Roy, Anirban

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the exact cloning of orthogonal but entangled qubits under local operations and classical communication. The amount of entanglement necessary in a blank copy is obtained for various cases. Surprisingly, this amount is more than 1 ebit for certain sets of two nonmaximal but equally entangled states of two qubits. To clone any three Bell states, at least log{sub 2} 3 ebit is necessary.

  11. Electron localization in metallic quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Pierce, F S; Poon, S J; Guo, Q

    1993-08-01

    Bulk icosahedral-quasicrystalline aluminum-palladium-rhenium alloys of high structural quality and thermal stability are found to exhibit low-temperature electrical resistivities that are four orders of magnitude larger than those found in disordered metals and metallic glasses. Experiments suggest that these quasiperiodic alloys, which have a semimetallic electron density, are insulators at low temperature. The findings are discussed in light of theories on electron localization and band-gap formation in ordered metallic systems. PMID:17757209

  12. Combining global and local approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    A method based on a linear approximation to a scaling factor, designated the 'global-local approximation' (GLA) method, is presented and shown capable of extending the range of usefulness of derivative-based approximations to a more refined model. The GLA approach refines the conventional scaling factor by means of a linearly varying, rather than constant, scaling factor. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated for a simple beam example with a crude and more refined FEM model.

  13. Multivariate Ensemble Sensitivity with Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacker, Joshua; Lei, Lili

    2014-05-01

    So far in the literature, covariance localization (tapering) has not been applied when performing ensemble sensitivity analysis. Sampling error in computing the sensitivities via lagged covariances leads to an over-estimation of the impact of a perturbation. Most commonly when computing sensitivities, the analysis covariance is approximated with the corresponding diagonal matrix. Two consequences follow: (1) the multi-variate sensitivity is approximated by a univariate sensitivity, and (2) sampling error in off-diagonal elements are obviated. It is unknown, however, how much information is lost by ignoring the off-diagonal elements in the full covariance. When forecasts depend on many details of the previous analysis, it is reasonable to expect that the diagonal approximation is too severe. The purpose of this presentation is to clarify the effects of the diagonal approximation, and investigate the need for localization when off-diagonal elements are considered. Motivated by examples arising from sensitivities estimated within a cycling mesoscale ensemble data assimilation system, for easier interpretation we turn to the two-scale model first presented by Lorenz in 2005. We show that for most problems, an efficient matrix inversion is possible by finding a minimum-norm solution, and employing appropriate matrix factorization. Comparing the full inversion with off-diagonal elements, the fine-scale sensitivity estimates can be substantially different from those arising when the diagonal approximation is used. Localization on the sensitivity can be handled by an off-line empirical or Bayesian estimation technique. Because the sensitivity estimated from the full inversion is subject to sampling error, it is sensitive to the localization. The results show that compared to typical practices, more complete ensemble sensitivity formulations may be needed to draw robust inferences in general.

  14. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  15. Localization in optics - Quasiperiodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, Mahito; Sutherland, Bill; Iguchi, K.

    1987-06-01

    An experiment to probe the (quasi)localization of the photon is proposed, in which optical layers are constructed following the Fibonacci sequence. The transmission coefficient has a rich structure as a function of the wavelength of light and, in fact, is multifractal. For particular wavelengths for which the resonance conditions is satisfied, the light propagation has scaling with respect to the number of layers, as well as an interesting fluctuation.

  16. Non-local Optical Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  17. Local friction in polyolefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2005-07-01

    Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. The friction experienced by a short chain segment depends on both small-scale chain properties and on the local environment of the segment. As a consequence, the (monomeric) friction coefficients of the two components of a binary polymer blend will, in general, differ from each other and from the friction coefficients of the corresponding melts. In this work, we investigate local friction in polyolefin blends with the aid of a small-scale simulation approach. The polymer chains, in united atom representation, are assumed to occupy the sites of a partially filled simple cubic lattice. The simulation focuses on short chain sections with straight backbones and enumerates all possible binary contacts and relative movements of such sections. By evaluating the exact enumeration results in conjunction with equations of state for the blends, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficients with local chain architecture and thermodynamic state (temperature, pressure, and composition). We calculate relative values of friction coefficients at temperatures well above the glass transition for blends of PEP, an alternating copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene, with polyethylene and polyisobutylene and for blends of polyethylene and atactic polypropylene. We also investigate a blend of PEP with head-to-head polypropylene and compare our results with experimental data.

  18. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-01

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements. PMID:18768821

  19. Local Group Proper Motion Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2015-04-01

    Our knowledge of the dynamics and masses of galaxies in the Local Group has long been limited by the fact that only line-of-sight velocities were observationally accessible. This introduces significant degeneracies in dynamical models, which can only be resolved by measuring also the velocity components perpendicular to the line of sight. However, beyond the solar neighborhood, the corresponding proper motions have generally been too small to measure. This has changed dramatically over the past decade, especially due to the angular resolution and stability available on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions can now be reliably measured throughout the Local Group, as illustrated by, e.g., the work of the HSTPROMO collaboration. In this review, I summarize the importance of proper motions for Local Group science, and I describe the current and future observational approaches and facilities available to measure proper motions. I highlight recent results on various Milky Way populations (globular clusters, the bulge, the metal-poor halo, hypervelocity stars, and tidal streams), dwarf satellite galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda System.

  20. Sound localization and occupational noise

    PubMed Central

    de Lemos Menezes, Pedro; de Andrade, Kelly Cristina Lira; Tenório Lins Carnaúba, Aline; Cabral, Frantänia B.; de Carvalho Leal, Mariana; Desgualdo Pereira, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01) than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source. PMID:24519197

  1. Local superfield Lagrangian BRST quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitman, D. M.; Moshin, P. Yu.; Reshetnyak, A. A.

    2005-07-01

    A θ-local formulation of superfield Lagrangian quantization in non-Abelian hypergauges is proposed on the basis of an extension of general reducible gauge theories to special superfield models with a Grassmann parameter θ. We solve the problem of describing the quantum action and the gauge algebra of an L-stage-reducible superfield model in terms of a BRST charge for a formal dynamical system with first-class constraints of (L+1)-stage reducibility. Starting from θ-local functions of the quantum and gauge-fixing actions, with an essential use of Darboux coordinates on the antisymplectic manifold, we construct a superfield generating functionals of Green's functions, including the effective action. We present two superfield forms of BRST transformations, considered as θ-shifts along vector fields defined by Hamiltonian-like systems constructed in terms of the quantum and gauge-fixing actions and an arbitrary θ-local boson function, as well as in terms of corresponding fermion functionals, through Poisson brackets with opposite Grassmann parities. The gauge independence of the S-matrix is proved. The Ward identities are derived. Connection is established with the BV method, the multilevel Batalin-Tyutin formalism, as well as with the superfield quantization scheme of Lavrov, Moshin, and Reshetnyak, extended to the case of general coordinates.

  2. Bayesian Constrained Local Models Revisited.

    PubMed

    Martins, Pedro; Henriques, Jo Ao F; Caseiro, Rui; Batista, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel Bayesian formulation for aligning faces in unseen images. Our approach revisits the Constrained Local Models (CLM) formulation where an ensemble of local feature detectors are constrained to lie within the subspace spanned by a Point Distribution Model (PDM). Fitting such a model to an image typically involves two main steps: a local search using a detector, obtaining response maps for each landmark (likelihood term) and a global optimization that finds the PDM parameters that jointly maximize all the detections at once. The so-called global optimization can be posed as a Bayesian inference problem, where the posterior distribution of the shape (and pose) parameters can be inferred in a maximum a posteriori (MAP) sense. This work introduces an extended Bayesian global optimization strategy that includes two novel additions: (1) to perform second order updates of the PDM parameters (accounting for their covariance) and (2) to model the underlying dynamics of the shape variations, encoded in the prior term, by using recursive Bayesian estimation. Extensive evaluations were performed against state-of-the-art methods on several standard datasets (IMM, BioID, XM2VTS, LFW and FGNET Talking Face). Results show that the proposed approach significantly increases the fitting performance. PMID:26959675

  3. Local-scale dynamics and local drivers of bushmeat trade.

    PubMed

    Nyaki, Angela; Gray, Steven A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Skibins, Jeffrey C; Rentsch, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Bushmeat management policies are often developed outside the communities in which they are to be implemented. These policies are also routinely designed to be applied uniformly across communities with little regard for variation in social or ecological conditions. We used fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping, a form of participatory modeling, to compare the assumptions driving externally generated bushmeat management policies with perceptions of bushmeat trade dynamics collected from local community members who admitted to being recently engaged in bushmeat trading (e.g., hunters, sellers, consumers). Data were collected during 9 workshops in 4 Tanzanian villages bordering Serengeti National Park. Specifically, we evaluated 9 community-generated models for the presence of the central factors that comprise and drive the bushmeat trade and whether or not models included the same core concepts, relationships, and logical chains of reasoning on which bushmeat conservation policies are commonly based. Across local communities, there was agreement about the most central factors important to understanding the bushmeat trade (e.g., animal recruitment, low income, and scarcity of food crops). These matched policy assumptions. However, the factors perceived to drive social-ecological bushmeat trade dynamics were more diverse and varied considerably across communities (e.g., presence or absence of collaborative law enforcement, increasing human population, market demand, cultural preference). Sensitive conservation issues, such as the bushmeat trade, that require cooperation between communities and outside conservation organizations can benefit from participatory modeling approaches that make local-scale dynamics and conservation policy assumptions explicit. Further, communities' and conservation organizations' perceptions need to be aligned. This can improve success by allowing context appropriate policies to be developed, monitored, and appropriately adapted as new evidence is generated. PMID:24975683

  4. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing hallways with different kinds of pillars, doors and elevators. All in all, this dissertation contributes the following: 1) provides a framework for understanding the presence of ambient magnetic fields indoors and utilizing them to solve the indoor localization problem; 2) develops an application that is independent of the user and the smart phones and 3) requires no other infrastructure since it is deployed on a device that encapsulates the sensing, computing and inferring functionalities, thereby making it a novel contribution to the mobile and pervasive computing domain.

  5. Dynamical Localization in Molecular Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xidi

    In the first four chapters of this thesis we concentrate on the Davydov model which describes the vibrational energy quanta of Amide I bonds (C=O bonds on the alpha -helix) coupled to the acoustic phonon modes of the alpha-helix backbone in the form of a Frohlich Hamiltonian. Following a brief introduction in chapter one, in chapter two we formulate the dynamics of vibrational quanta at finite temperature by using coherent state products. The fluctuation-dissipation relation is derived. At zero temperature, in the continuum limit, we recover the original results of Davydov. We also achieve good agreement with numerical simulations. In chapter three, the net contraction of the lattice is calculated exactly at any temperature, and its relation to the so -call "topological stability" of the Davydov soliton is discussed. In the second section of the chapter three we calculate the overtone spectra of crystalline acetanilide (according to some opinions ACN provides experimental evidence for the existence of Davydov solitons). Good agreement with experimental data has been obtained. In chapter four we study the self-trapped vibrational excitations by the Quantum Monte Carlo technique. For a single excitation, the temperature dependence of different physical observables is calculated. The quasi-particle which resembles the Davydov soliton has been found to be fairly narrow using the most commonly used data for the alpha -helix; at temperatures above a few Kelvin, the quasi-particle reaches its smallest limit (extends over three sites), which implies diffusive motion of the small polaron-like quasi-particle at high temperatures. For the multi-excitation case, bound pairs and clusters of excitations are found at low temperatures; they gradually dissociate when the temperature of the system is increased as calculated from the density-density correlation function. In the last chapter of this thesis, we study a more general model of dynamical local modes in molecular systems. In particular, we study in detail the quadratic Takeno model, where the number of vibrational excitations is no longer conserved. We study the general dynamics of the system by probing the nonlinear dispersion relation with special local mode trial solutions. Our results show that, in general, the total energy favors energy localization, i.e. as time evolves, the excitations evolve into local modes, and the amplitudes of the local modes grow in time (contrary to the linear phonon picture). There is a maximum energy lowering of the excitations before the phenomenon of "bond breaking" occurs. This maximum energy lowering is about 5 percent of the bare vibron energy for the quadratic Takeno model. Our results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  6. Computational methods for global/local analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.

  7. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  8. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look.

    PubMed

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-04-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  9. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-01-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  10. [Symptoms. Localizations: knee, hip, hands, spine, other localizations].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of osteoarthritis vary widely from patient to patient, depending especially on the localization on the disease. There is a poor correlation between radiological involvement and pain. In general, symptom onset is gradual and symptoms increase slowly but progressively. The most commonly affected joints are the knees, hips, hands, and spine. The main signs and symptoms are pain, stiffness, joint deformity, and crepitus. Pain is mechanical and its causes are multifactorial; in the initial phases, pain usually manifests in self-limiting episodes but may subsequently be almost constant. The criteria of the American college of Rheumatology for the classification of osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hands are an aid to classification and standardization but are not useful for diagnosis. Hip osteoarthritis usually produces inguinal pain in the internal and anterior sections of the muscle extending to the knee and, with progression, tends to limit mobility. Knee osteoarthritis is more frequent in women and is usually associated with hand osteoarthritis and obesity. In hand osteoarthritis, the most commonly affected joints are the distal interphalangeal joints, followed by the proximal interphalangeal joints and the trapeziometacarpal joints; the development of Heberden and Bouchard nodes is common; involvement of the trapeziometacarpal joint is called rhizarthrosis and is one of the forms of osteoarthritis that produces the greatest limitation on hand function. Osteoarthritis of the spine affects the facet joints and the vertebral bodies. Other, less frequent, localizations are the foot, elbow and shoulder, which are generally secondary forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:24467955

  11. Constrained Local UniversE Simulations: A Local Group Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Sorce, Jenny G.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Libeskind, Noam I.; Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Tully, R. Brent; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Near field cosmology is practiced by studying the Local Group (LG) and its neighbourhood. The present paper describes a framework for simulating the "near field" on the computer. Assuming the ΛCDM model as a prior and applying the Bayesian tools of the Wiener filter (WF) and constrained realizations of Gaussian fields to the Cosmicflows-2 (CF2) survey of peculiar velocities, constrained simulations of our cosmic environment are performed. The aim of these simulations is to reproduce the LG and its local environment. Our main result is that the LG is likely a robust outcome of the LCDM scenario when subjected to the constraint derived from CF2 data, emerging in an environment akin to the observed one. Three levels of criteria are used to define the simulated LGs. At the base level, pairs of halos must obey specific isolation, mass and separation criteria. At the second level the orbital angular momentum and energy are constrained and on the third one the phase of the orbit is constrained. Out of the 300 constrained simulations 146 LGs obey the first set of criteria, 51 the second and 6 the third. The robustness of our LG `factory' enables the construction of a large ensemble of simulated LGs. Suitable candidates for high resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the LG can be drawn from this ensemble, which can be used to perform comprehensive studies of the formation of the nature of the LG.

  12. Localized qubits in curved spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Takahashi, Maki; Westman, Hans F.

    2012-04-01

    We provide a systematic and self-contained exposition of the subject of localized qubits in curved spacetimes. This research was motivated by a simple experimental question: if we move a spatially localized qubit, initially in a state |?1>, along some spacetime path ? from a spacetime point x1 to another point x2, what will the final quantum state |?2> be at point x2? This paper addresses this question for two physical realizations of the qubit: spin of a massive fermion and polarization of a photon. Our starting point is the Dirac and Maxwell equations that describe respectively the one-particle states of localized massive fermions and photons. In the WKB limit we show how one can isolate a two-dimensional quantum state which evolves unitarily along ?. The quantum states for these two realizations are represented by a left-handed 2-spinor in the case of massive fermions and a four-component complex polarization vector in the case of photons. In addition we show how to obtain from this WKB approach a fully general relativistic description of gravitationally induced phases. We use this formalism to describe the gravitational shift in the Colella-Overhauser-Werner 1975 experiment. In the non-relativistic weak field limit our result reduces to the standard formula in the original paper. We provide a concrete physical model for a Stern-Gerlach measurement of spin and obtain a unique spin operator which can be determined given the orientation and velocity of the Stern-Gerlach device and velocity of the massive fermion. Finally, we consider multipartite states and generalize the formalism to incorporate basic elements from quantum information theory such as quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and identical particles. The resulting formalism provides a basis for exploring precision quantum measurements of the gravitational field using techniques from quantum information theory.

  13. Robust multiplatform RF emitter localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, position based services has increase. Thus, recent developments in communications and RF technology have enabled system concept formulations and designs for low-cost radar systems using state-of-the-art software radio modules. This research is done to investigate a novel multi-platform RF emitter localization technique denoted as Position-Adaptive RF Direction Finding (PADF). The formulation is based on the investigation of iterative path-loss (i.e., Path Loss Exponent, or PLE) metrics estimates that are measured across multiple platforms in order to autonomously adapt (i.e. self-adjust) of the location of each distributed/cooperative platform. Experiments conducted at the Air-Force Research laboratory (AFRL) indicate that this position-adaptive approach exhibits potential for accurate emitter localization in challenging embedded multipath environments such as in urban environments. The focus of this paper is on the robustness of the distributed approach to RF-based location tracking. In order to localize the transmitter, we use the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) data to approximate distance from the transmitter to the revolving receivers. We provide an algorithm for on-line estimation of the Path Loss Exponent (PLE) that is used in modeling the distance based on Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements. The emitter position estimation is calculated based on surrounding sensors RSS values using Least-Square Estimation (LSE). The PADF has been tested on a number of different configurations in the laboratory via the design and implementation of four IRIS wireless sensor nodes as receivers and one hidden sensor as a transmitter during the localization phase. The robustness of detecting the transmitters position is initiated by getting the RSSI data through experiments and then data manipulation in MATLAB will determine the robustness of each node and ultimately that of each configuration. The parameters that are used in the functions are the median values of RSSI and rms values. From the result it is determined which configurations possess high robustness. High values obtained from the robustness function indicate high robustness, while low values indicate lower robustness.

  14. Nevada local government revenues analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-01

    This report analyzes the major sources of revenue for Nevada local government for purposes of estimating the impacts associated with the siting of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Each major revenue source is analyzed separately to identify relationships between the economic or demographic base, the revenue base and the revenues generated. Trends and changes in the rates and/or base are highlighted. A model is developed for each component to allow impact estimation. This report is a companion to the report Nevada State Revenues Analysis.

  15. The very local Hubble flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Sharina, M. E.; Makarov, D. I.; Dolphin, A. E.; Grebel, E. K.; Geisler, D.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hodge, P. W.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Sarajedini, A.; Seitzer, P.

    2002-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of eighteen galaxies situated in the vicinity of the Local Group (LG) as part of an ongoing snapshot survey of nearby galaxies. Their distances derived from the magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch are 1.92±0.10 Mpc (ESO 294-010), 3.06±0.37 (NGC 404), 3.15±0.32 (UGCA 105), 1.36±0.07 (Sex B), 1.33±0.08 (NGC 3109), 2.64±0.21 (UGC 6817), 2.86±0.14 (KDG 90), 2.27±0.19 (IC 3104), 2.54±0.17 (UGC 7577), 2.56±0.15 (UGC 8508), 3.01±0.29 (UGC 8651), 2.61±0.16 (KKH 86), 2.79±0.26 (UGC 9240), 1.11±0.07 (SagDIG), 0.94±0.04 (DDO 210), 2.07±0.18 (IC 5152), 2.23±0.15 (UGCA 438), and 2.45±0.13 (KKH 98). Based on the velocity-distance data for 36 nearest galaxies around the LG, we find the radius of the zero-velocity surface of the LG to be R0 = (0.94±0.10) Mpc, which yields a total mass MLG = (1.3±0.3) × 1012 Msolar. The galaxy distribution around the LG reveals a Local Minivoid which does not contain any galaxy brighter than MV=-11 mag within a volume of ~100 Mpc3. The local Hubble flow seems to be very cold, having a one-dimensional mean random motion of ~30 km s-1. The best-fit value of the local Hubble parameter is 73±15 km s-1 Mpc-1. The luminosity function for the nearby field galaxies is far less steep than one for members of the nearest groups. Figure 2 is only available in the electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. Localized transmission of electromagnetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, R.W.

    1989-02-15

    Novel electromagnetic directed-energy pulse train (EDEPT) solutions of Maxwell's equations have been obtained. One particular solution, the modified-power-spectrum (MPS) pulse, will be described in detail. EDEPT's such as the MPS pulses, can be tailored to give localized energy transmission along a specified direction in space that is significantly improved over conventional diffraction-limited beams. Moreover, they represent fields that recover their initial amplitudes along the direction of propagation at extremely large distances from their initial location. These EDEPT solutions are not physically pathological and can be reconstructed from causal Green's functions. In fact, these fields appear to be launchable from finite-aperture antennas.

  17. Outreach for Local Singularity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mulder, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    Local Singularity Analysis (LSA) is a statistical method to emphasize the relative importance of very small or very high concentrations of target materials in geological sampling campaigns. Through LSA such occurrences and their spatial distributions are specifically highlighted in geological concentration maps and thus assist exploration geoscientists in identifying new resources. However, very few geoscientists apply LSA today. This paper explores the potentials of applying LSA for exploration geoscientists and for practitioners in other scientific fields on the one hand and the reasons why Earth scientists are hesitant to apply this technique on the other. Some recommendations will be presented at the end of this paper.

  18. A Localized Ensemble Kalman Smoother

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butala, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous geophysical inverse problems prove difficult because the available measurements are indirectly related to the underlying unknown dynamic state and the physics governing the system may involve imperfect models or unobserved parameters. Data assimilation addresses these difficulties by combining the measurements and physical knowledge. The main challenge in such problems usually involves their high dimensionality and the standard statistical methods prove computationally intractable. This paper develops and addresses the theoretical convergence of a new high-dimensional Monte-Carlo approach called the localized ensemble Kalman smoother.

  19. Genetic Algorithms and Local Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Darrell

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this presentation is a tutorial level introduction to the principles of genetic search and models of simple genetic algorithms. The second half covers the combination of genetic algorithms with local search methods to produce hybrid genetic algorithms. Hybrid algorithms can be modeled within the existing theoretical framework developed for simple genetic algorithms. An application of a hybrid to geometric model matching is given. The hybrid algorithm yields results that improve on the current state-of-the-art for this problem.

  20. A localization model to localize multiple sources using Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Joshua Rolv

    Accurate localization of a sound source in a room setting is important in both psychoacoustics and architectural acoustics. Binaural models have been proposed to explain how the brain processes and utilizes the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) of sound waves arriving at the ears of a listener in determining source location. Recent work shows that applying Bayesian methods to this problem is proving fruitful. In this thesis, pink noise samples are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) and compared to combinations of one and two anechoic speech signals convolved with different HRTFs or binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) to simulate room positions. Through exhaustive calculation of Bayesian posterior probabilities and using a maximal likelihood approach, model selection will determine the number of sources present, and parameter estimation will result in azimuthal direction of the source(s).

  1. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  2. Developing Photo Activated Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Photo Activated Localization Microscopy, PALM, acquires super-resolution images by activating a subset of activatable fluorescent labels and estimating the center of the each molecular label to sub-diffractive accuracy. When this process is repeated thousands of times for different subsets of molecules, then an image can be rendered from all the center coordinates of the molecules. I will describe the circuitous story of its development that began with another super-resolution technique, NSOM, developed by my colleague Eric Betzig, who imaged single molecules at room temperature, and later we spectrally resolved individual luminescent centers of quantum wells. These two observations inspired a generalized path to localization microscopy, but that path was abandoned because no really useful fluorescent labels were available. After a decade of nonacademic industrial pursuits and the subsequent freedom of unemployment, we came across a class of genetically expressible fluorescent proteins that were switchable or convertible that enabled the concept to be implemented and be biologically promising. The past ten years have been very active with many groups exploring applications and enhancements of this concept. Demonstrating significant biological relevance will be the metric if its success.

  3. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  4. Office laparoscopy under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zacherl, A; Love, B; McCorvey, R

    1997-01-01

    It is no secret that health care has changed, and we must change with it. As equipment and drugs become more sophisticated, surgical procedures are becoming less complicated to perform, and patients are experiencing less morbidity and mortality. Industry is continually addressing the product needs of surgeons who are or will be performing office laparoscopy under local anesthesia so that it can be done with the greatest of ease and safety. Therefore, the environment in which surgical procedures are performed should become less technically complicated as well. As hospitals are downsizing and more and more procedures are moving into outpatient and office settings, there is a tremendous opportunity for nurses to assume the challenge of OLULA and expand their horizons in a new direction. There is no better time for nurses to use the professional skills they were educated for, that is, to provide continuous bedside nursing care for patients undergoing office laparoscopy under local anesthesia while maintaining the perioperative skills that they have grown to love. For more information about office laparoscopy, contact the American Association of Office Endoscopy, 3088 Rosa Parks Avenue, Montgomery, AL, 36105. Telephone: (334) 262-0259. PMID:9384166

  5. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  6. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  7. Control del cáncer y salud mundial: noticia del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    En combinación con una reunión de alto nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre enfermedades no transmisibles en países en vías de desarrollo, el doctor Harold Varmus, director del NCI, y el doctor Ted L. Trimble, del NCI, han publicado un comentario en Science

  8. Tracer localization in intracerebral gliosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D.A.; Franceshi, D.; Ivanovic, M.

    1994-05-01

    The comparative localization properties of 5 radiopharmaceuticals which have been used to image primary brain tumors were investigated in a transplanted gliosarcoma in the Fisher 344 rat. Planar and SPECT images using pinhole collimation were used to investigate localization 2-4 times between 13d and 28d after transplant Imaging studies of intravenously administered Tl-201 Cl, Tc-99m-HMPAO, -MIBI, and -DTPA, and I-123 IMT were made in 70 rats. Localization properties were measured in unirradiated (n=39) and irradiated (n=31, 22.5 Gy to brain, 14 days after transplant) control and tumor-bearing rats. Ex vivo imaging and well cup measurements were made at sacrifice. MRI was used to define tumor border ROIs. Major observations include: (1) Tl, IMT, DTPA, and MIBI show increased uptake in tumor, with tumor-to-nontumor uptake ratios (tnt) from planar pinhole ROIs ranging from 1.3{plus_minus}.1 to 2.9{plus_minus}.7 between 13 and 28 d after transplant; HMPAO shows decreased activity in tumor with tnt ranging from 0.4-0.6{plus_minus}.1; (2) high resolution SPECT provides significantly greater discrimination between tumor and nontumor uptake: SPECT tnt=10.3{plus_minus}2{sub DTPA}, 3.0{plus_minus}.3{sub IMT}, 10.5{plus_minus}2{sub MIBI}, 5.6{plus_minus}2{sub TL} and 0.4{plus_minus}.1{sub HMPAO}; planar tnt=2.2{plus_minus}.4{sub DTPA}, 1.4{plus_minus}.1{sub IMT}, 1.9{plus_minus}.4{sub MIBI}, 2.1{plus_minus}.7{sub TL}, and 0.5{plus_minus}.1{sub HMPAO}; and (3) no significant differences in uptake are seen between irradiated, more slowly growing tumors and the unirradiated tumors, and maximum tnt contrast is observed at 21 d with all radiopharmaceuticals. The study shows Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m MIBI to have the highest selective uptake in irradiated and unirradiated growing tumor.

  9. Unusual localizations of hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Cöl, C; Cöl, M; Lafçi, H

    2003-01-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in several Mediterranean countries, posing an important health problem for these countries. The hydatid cyst is characterized by cystic lesions with clear boundaries, which can be observed in all parts of the body. Approximately 70 % of hydatid cysts are situated in the liver, followed by the lung (25 %). The kidneys, spleen, bile ducts, mesentery, soft tissue and brain are less frequent sites. We investigated patients who were treated for hydatid disease in our departments in the last 5 years with respect to localization of the disease, symptoms, surgical intervention, length of hospitalization, diameters of the cyst, and classification by Gharbi. In this retrospective and descriptive study, 176 patients are evaluated who were treated for hydatid disease between 1995 and 1999 in our departments. Of these patients, 14 were included with localization other than in the liver and lungs. Fourteen of the patients diagnosed with unusually located hydatid disease were men, six were women. Their mean age was 41.6 +/- 20.8 years; the length of hospital stay was 7.07 +/- 0.4 days. Overall, 28.6 % of patients with unusually located hydatid cyst had recurrent disease. The time period since last cyst operation was 5.25 +/- 3.5 years. The mean cyst diameter was 96.5 +/- 54.5 mm. According to Gharbi's classification, three cases (21.4 %) of the unusually located hydatid cysts were type I, two (14.3 %) type II, and eight (57.1 %) type III. There was only one case of type IV and no cases of type V. Spleen and kidneys are the organs where hydatid disease is most frequently observed after the liver and lung. It can be observed in all parts of the body including the brain, peritoneum, mesenterium, choledochus, pancreas, bone and muscles. The type of treatment is determined by the localization and type of hydatid disease. Surgical treatment for splenic hydatid cysts is splenectomy. The functional kidney should be saved in non-communicable hydatid disease. Total excision is almost never possible; endocystectomy and drainage procedure should be preferred for hydatid disease of the brain, pancreas and choledochus. Chemotherapy is usually given because of the risk of recurrence; this medical treatment consists in albendazole and mebendazole administration for 3-6 months in the postoperative period. PMID:12752092

  10. Exploring Mars using local resources

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, S.; McKay, C.; Kaplan, D.; Rapp, D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper takes the reader on a {ital second} human expedition to Mars. Following confirmation that life once existed on Mars during the first human mission launched in 2018, crew members of our subsequent mission, assisted by robotic devices, spend two years on Mars pursuing three goals: (1) continue the search for further evidence of ancient life and what may still exist, (2) safely endure their extended stay on Mars, and (3) lay the foundation for the eventual human settlement of the planet. A cornerstone in achieving these three goals, as discussed in the paper, will be the utilization of local resources as we further learn to {open_quote}{open_quote}live off the land{close_quote}{close_quote}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. String fluid in local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.

  12. Local intensity adaptive image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of preprocessing for machine vision is to extract intrinsic target properties. The most important properties ordinarily are structure and reflectance. Illumination in space, however, is a significant problem as the extreme range of light intensity, stretching from deep shadow to highly reflective surfaces in direct sunlight, impairs the effectiveness of standard approaches to machine vision. To overcome this critical constraint, an image coding scheme is being investigated which combines local intensity adaptivity, image enhancement, and data compression. It is very effective under the highly variant illumination that can exist within a single frame or field of view, and it is very robust to noise at low illuminations. Some of the theory and salient features of the coding scheme are reviewed. Its performance is characterized in a simulated space application, the research and development activities are described.

  13. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with ?-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  14. Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Julia Yu Fong; Kessler, Harvey P; Wright, John M

    2008-09-01

    We report 52 cases of a unique and pathologically distinctive form of inflammatory gingival hyperplasia in young patients. Clinically, the average age of patients in this study was 11.8 years, with a 2.3:1 female predominance. Caucasians comprised 77% of the cases, and nearly all of the lesions were located on the anterior gingiva, with 81% affecting maxillary gingiva. The most classic clinical presentation was a papillary, often pedunculated, red and easily bleeding gingival overgrowth in young patients. Histopathologically, the lesions exhibited a subtle papillary epithelial hyperplasia with prominent intercellular edema and neutrophilic exocytosis of the hyperplastic surface squamous epithelium. Based on the characteristic clinical and histologic features, we conclude that this lesion is a distinct subtype of gingival hyperplasia. Although previously described as juvenile spongiotic gingivitis, we propose the term localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia as a more accurate designation. PMID:18602289

  15. Anticipation of Local Epidemics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivy, Ivan

    2008-10-01

    Local epidemics are systems where temporary elements (infected ones) are distributed over a hexagonal or rectangular network of permanent elements (humans). Their relation of being neighbors is considered to be constant. The systems of this type can occur in rest homes, institutes of social care, nursery schools, summer camps, prisons, etc. The process of the infection propagation depends on the neighborhood relation and on the actual distance of the neighbors. It is influenced by delays during the transitive affecting the people and by random effects, the size of which can be diminished by the intervention of health care service. The anticipation of the health care intervention effects was supported by simulation models implemented by means of the object-oriented programming.

  16. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  17. Geometric localization of STEREO CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, V. J.; Biesecker, D. A.

    2004-11-01

    We describe a straightforward methodology for determining the location and other gross properties of CMEs within the coronagraph field of view in the upcoming STEREO mission observations. We use geometric triangulation upon a series of lines-of-sight taken from two spacecraft views that are locally tangent to the apparent edges of a CME. From the intersections of these lines-of-sight, we construct a set of stacked quadrilaterals that fully bound the structure and convey something of its location, shape, and size; a time sequence of such determinations can be used to determine the velocity. The technique is relatively robust and promises a substantial improvement in our capability to locate and characterize CMEs for research as well as forecasting purposes.

  18. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  19. SLE and Virasoro Representations: Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubédat, Julien

    2015-06-01

    We consider some probabilistic and analytic realizations of Virasoro highest-weight representations. Specifically, we consider measures on paths connecting points marked on the boundary of a (bordered) Riemann surface. These Schramm-Loewner evolution-type measures are constructed by the method of localization in path space. Their partition function (total mass) is the highest-weight vector of a Virasoro representation, and the action is given by Virasoro uniformization. We review the formalism of Virasoro uniformization, which allows to define a canonical action of Virasoro generators on functions (or sections) on a—suitably extended—Teichmüller space. Then we describe the construction of families of measures on paths indexed by marked bordered Riemann surfaces. Finally we relate these two notions by showing that the partition functions of the latter generate a highest-weight representation—the quotient of a reducible Verma module—for the former.

  20. Localization and real Jacobi forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Doroud, Nima; Troost, Jan

    2014-04-01

    We calculate the elliptic genus of two dimensional abelian gauged linear sigma models with (2, 2) supersymmetry using supersymmetric localization. The matter sector contains charged chiral multiplets as well as Stückelberg fields coupled to the vector multiplets. These models include theories that flow in the infrared to non-linear sigma models with target spaces that are non-compact Kähler manifolds with U( N) isometry and with an asymptotically linear dilaton direction. The elliptic genera are the modular completions of mock Jacobi forms that have been proposed recently using complementary arguments. We also compute the elliptic genera of models that contain multiple Stückelberg fields from first principles.

  1. Biomarkers in localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Matteo; Buonerba, Carlo; Terracciano, Daniela; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Bottero, Danilo; Deliu, Victor M; Ditonno, Pasquale; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Coman, Ioman; De Placido, Sabino; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; De Cobelli, Ottavio

    2016-02-01

    Biomarkers can improve prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment. Accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early diagnosis of prostate cancer is not satisfactory, as it is an organ- but not cancer-specific biomarker, and it can be improved by using models that incorporate PSA along with other test results, such as prostate cancer antigen 3, the molecular forms of PSA (proPSA, benign PSA and intact PSA), as well as kallikreins. Recent reports suggest that new tools may be provided by metabolomic studies as shown by preliminary data on sarcosine. Additional molecular biomarkers have been identified by the use of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We review the most relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and management of localized prostate cancer. PMID:26768791

  2. Multi-directional local search

    PubMed Central

    Tricoire, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces multi-directional local search, a metaheuristic for multi-objective optimization. We first motivate the method and present an algorithmic framework for it. We then apply it to several known multi-objective problems such as the multi-objective multi-dimensional knapsack problem, the bi-objective set packing problem and the bi-objective orienteering problem. Experimental results show that our method systematically provides solution sets of comparable quality with state-of-the-art methods applied to benchmark instances of these problems, within reasonable CPU effort. We conclude that the proposed algorithmic framework is a viable option when solving multi-objective optimization problems. PMID:25140071

  3. Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong

    2013-10-15

    The family (?{sub k},?{sub k}{sup *}){sub k?0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k?0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (?{sub k},?{sub k}{sup *}){sub k?0}, where ?{sub k}=?{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given ?-field ?(Z{sub j}; 0 ?j?k). We show that ?{sub k} (resp. ?{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ?{sub k} (resp. creation operator ?{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (?{sub k},?{sub k}{sup *}){sub k?0} and prove, among other things, that ?{sub k} and ?{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (?{sub k}{sup *}){sub k?0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ?{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series ?{sub k=0}{sup ?}?{sub k}{sup *}X?{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series ?{sub k=0}{sup ?}?{sub k}{sup *}?{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on ?{sub k=0}{sup ?}?{sub k}{sup *}X?{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.

  4. Local geometry of isoscalar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dopazo, César; Martín, Jesús; Hierro, Juan

    2007-11-01

    An inert dynamically passive scalar in a constant density fluid forced by a statistically homogeneous field of turbulence has been investigated using the results of a 256(3) grid direct numerical simulation. Mixing characteristics are characterized in terms of either principal curvatures or mean and Gauss curvatures. The most probable small-scale scalar geometries are flat and tilelike isosurfaces. Preliminary correlations between flow and scalar small-scale structures associate highly curved saddle points with large-strain regions and elliptic points with vorticity-dominated zones. The concavity of the scalar profiles along the isosurface normal coordinate xn correlates well with negative mean curvatures, Gauss curvatures displaying any sign, which correspond to scalar minima, tiles, or saddle points; on the other hand, convexity along xn is associated with positive mean curvatures, Gauss curvatures ranging from negative to positive signs, featuring maxima, tiles, or saddle points; inflection points along xn correlate well with small values of the mean curvature and zero or negative values of kg, corresponding to plane isosurfaces or saddle points with curvatures of equal and opposite signs. Small values of the scalar gradient are associated with elliptic points, either concave or convex (kg>0) , for both concave and convex scalar profiles along xn. Large values of the scalar gradient (or, equivalently, scalar fluctuation dissipation rates) are generally connected with small values of the Gauss curvature (either flat or moderate-curvature tilelike local geometries), with both concave and convex scalar profiles along xn equally probable. Vortical local flow structures correlate well with small and moderate values of the scalar gradient, while strain-dominated regions are associated with large values. PMID:18233765

  5. Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong

    2013-10-01

    The family lbrace partial _k, partial _k^{ast }rbrace _{kge 0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z = (Zk)k⩾0 can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family lbrace ell _k, ell _k^{ast }rbrace _{kge 0}, where ell _k=partial _k{E}_k with {E}_k being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Zj; 0 ⩽ j ⩽ k). We show that ℓk (resp. ell _k^{ast }) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂k (resp. creation operator partial _k^{ast }). We examine properties of the family lbrace ell _k, ell _k^{ast }rbrace _{kge 0} and prove, among other things, that ℓk and ell _k^{ast } satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ell _k^{ast })_{kge 0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓk is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series sum _{k=0}^{infty } ell _k^{ast }Xell _k converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series sum _{k=0}^{infty } ell _k^{ast }ell _k. A useful norm estimate on sum _{k=0}^{infty } ell _k^{ast }Xell _k is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.

  6. Localized Spectroscopy of Anisotropic Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, Jeff M.

    Both the experimental and theoretical aspects of high-temperature superconductivity have challenged condensed matter physics. In order to find the mechanism behind the pairing interaction responsible for superconductivity in the cuprates, one of the most useful pieces of information is the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. To date the determination of this vital piece of information has not reached any clear consensus despite much effort. One means of probing the order parameter symmetry of a superconductor is through the energy gap that quasiparticles experience near the Fermi surface. By obtaining information on how the the gap varies as a function of momentum, one acquires the ability to compare the different proposed mechanisms. This dissertation offers a new perspective on probing the anisotropy of the superconducting gap via localized tunneling spectroscopy. The advent of scanning tunneling microscopy/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM/STS) and nanofabrication has opened up new possibilities for directly exploring the physics of systems at short length scales and doing so with sub-meV energy resolution typical of tunneling experiments. STM imaging of a superconducting surface does not probe the superconducting gap anisotropy but rather the angle-averaged gap, however, if translational symmetry is broken by an impurity or nanofabricated object then the spatial correlations around the site are shown to reveal the anisotropy of the superconducting gap. The basic theory for localized tunneling spectroscopy of a superconductor both in and out of equilibrium is presented via the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function technique. Numerical calculations are done for the case of spatial correlations around an impurity on the surface of a superconductor with an anisotropic gap. A detailed calculation is presented for the transport and interference effects between two nanofabricated point contacts on the surface of a grounded anisotropic superconductor.

  7. Implementation of tsunami disaster prevention measures in the municipality of San Rafael del Sur, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, W.; Talavera, E.; Acosta, N.; Sanchez, M.; Mejia, E.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicaraguan Pacific coast presents considerable tsunami risk. On September 1, 1992, a tsunami caused enormous damage in the infrastructure and killed more than 170 people. A pilot project was conducted between 2006 and 2007 in the municipality of San Rafel del Sur, area of Masachapa, The project included multiple topics of tsunami prevention measures and considering the direct participation of the local population, as: -General education on disaster prevention, participative events; -Investigation of awareness level and information needs for different population groups; -Specific educational measures in the schools; -Publication of brochures, calendars, news paper articles, radio programs, TV spots -Development of local tsunami hazard maps, 1:5,000 scale; (based on previous regional tsunami hazard mapping projects and local participation) -Development of a tsunami warning plan; -Improvements of the national tsunami warning system. -Installation of sirens for tsunami warning -Installation of tsunami signs, indicating hazardous areas, evacuation routes, safe places; -Realization of evacuation drills in schools. Based on the experiences gained in Masachapa it is planned to run similar projects in other areas along the Nicaraguan Pacific coast. In the project participated the local municipality and local stakeholders of San Rafael del Sur, Ministry of Education, National Police, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Tourism, Nicaraguan Geosciences Institute (INETER), National System for Disaster Prevention (SINAPRED), Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). It was financed by SDC and INETER.

  8. The Local Group: Our Galactic Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the properties and largest spirals of the Local Group galaxies. Explains the three categories of galaxies, identifies the brightest members of the Local Group, and discusses recent discoveries within the group. (ML)

  9. Molecular insights into intracellular RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Blower, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Localization of mRNAs to specific destinations within a cell or an embryo is important for local control of protein expression. mRNA localization is well-known to function in very large and polarized cells such as neurons, and to facilitate embryonic patterning during early development. However, recent genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA localization is more widely utilized than previously thought to control gene expression. Not only can transcripts be localized asymmetrically within the cytoplasm, they are often also localized to symmetrically-distributed organelles. Recent genetic, cytological, and biochemical studies have begun to provide molecular insight into how cells select RNAs for transport, move them to specific destinations, and control their translation. This review will summarize recent insights into the mechanisms and function of RNA localization with a specific emphasis on molecular insights into each step in the mRNA localization process. PMID:23351709

  10. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  11. Localized shrinkage factors and minimax results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    A condition is derived under which a localized shrinkage factor estimator will be minimax. A specific localized shrinkage factor estimator is described. The nonapplicability of the derived condition to some estimators is shown. Several comments concerning these results are made.

  12. PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is developing an Internet web site and associated community linkages to provide relevant-time air quality and local traffic and transit information, in English and Spanish, to the international communities of El Paso, Texas, Sunland Park, New Mexico and Ciud...

  13. The sound of two hands clapping: could homeopathy work locally and non-locally?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, L R

    2005-04-01

    Homeopathy might require both local and non-local mechanisms to describe fully its mode of action. The increased prevalence of self-prescribing does not necessarily refute the possibility of non-local mechanisms. PMID:15892491

  14. Localization of Surface-exciton Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Song; Cheng, Ze

    2002-07-01

    We develop a numerical model to investigate the localization of surface-exciton polaritons in the presence of random roughness and spatial dispersion. It is found that the localization occurs in a limited frequency range near the maximum frequency of surface-exciton polaritons. The decaying length in the extended region is much larger than that in the localized region. The localization of surface-exciton polaritons is due to the destructive interference between waves scattered from the rough surface.

  15. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Libro sobre el control del dolor en pacientes con cáncer. Cubre los métodos y medicinas, así como los efectos físicos y emocionales del dolor. Es una adaptación cultural para el público de habla hispana del libro en inglés Pain Control.

  16. Líneas Vitales: Programas y servicios del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    Artículos y videos sobre los programas y servicios del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de la serie educativa Líneas Vitales del NCI, la cual está dirigida especialmente a poblaciones multiculturales.

  17. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  18. Instantánea del linfoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el linfoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Instantánea del sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el sarcoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  20. Instantánea del melanoma

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  1. Diverse Local Literacies and Standardizing Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomer, Randy; Maloch, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The authors challenge educators to speculate on how to address local issues in a world that is increasingly diverse and global. This Research and Policy section emphasizes the seemingly paradoxical importance of both local and global literacy, illuminating the tension between the preservation of local literacy and a global standardization of…

  2. Colleges Chew on Local-Food Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Nationally, students have pushed hard for local-food programs, and the amount of local produce in the dining hall is sometimes used as a litmus test for a college's overall commitment to sustainability. Local food has been a hot topic in popular culture in recent years, thanks in part to books by Michael Pollan and Barbara Kingsolver, movies like…

  3. Local History: Folklore or Documented Fact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, R. Craig

    A syllabus and teaching methods for a community college local history course which focuses on primary sources about southern New Jersey are provided. Emphasis of the course is on how national issues affect local actions. Primary sources dating back to the 17th century are found in documentary collections of local and state archives. The course,…

  4. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  5. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  6. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  7. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  8. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... monthly access minutes for such service to compute the monthly credit to such a carrier. (d) If all local... required to access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Price... access end offices equipped with analog switches) on the trunk side of the local switch. Non-price...

  9. Colleges Chew on Local-Food Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Nationally, students have pushed hard for local-food programs, and the amount of local produce in the dining hall is sometimes used as a litmus test for a college's overall commitment to sustainability. Local food has been a hot topic in popular culture in recent years, thanks in part to books by Michael Pollan and Barbara Kingsolver, movies like…

  10. Diverse Local Literacies and Standardizing Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomer, Randy; Maloch, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The authors challenge educators to speculate on how to address local issues in a world that is increasingly diverse and global. This Research and Policy section emphasizes the seemingly paradoxical importance of both local and global literacy, illuminating the tension between the preservation of local literacy and a global standardization of…

  11. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  12. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  13. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means a: (a... district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of governments, whether or...

  14. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  15. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  16. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  17. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  18. Local Government Uses of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The local government cable access channel is essentially a television station completely controlled by the local government. It differs from a local broadcast television station by being able to reach only those places which are connected to the cable system, having much less programming distribution costs, and having the capacity to deliver…

  19. The local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    I review current efforts to measure the mean density of dark matter near the Sun. This encodes valuable dynamical information about our Galaxy and is also of great importance for ‘direct detection’ dark matter experiments. I discuss theoretical expectations in our current cosmology; the theory behind mass modelling of the Galaxy; and I show how combining local and global measures probes the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo and the possible presence of a ‘dark disc’. I stress the strengths and weaknesses of different methodologies and highlight the continuing need for detailed tests on mock data—particularly in the light of recently discovered evidence for disequilibria in the Milky Way disc. I collate the latest measurements of ?dm and show that, once the baryonic surface density contribution ?b is normalized across different groups, there is remarkably good agreement. Compiling data from the literature, I estimate ?b = 54.2 ± 4.9?M?pc-2, where the dominant source of uncertainty is in the H i gas contribution. Assuming this contribution from the baryons, I highlight several recent measurements of ?dm in order of increasing data complexity and prior, and, correspondingly, decreasing formal error bars. Comparing these measurements with spherical extrapolations from the Milky Way’s rotation curve, I show that the Milky Way is consistent with having a spherical dark matter halo at R0 ˜ 8 kpc. The very latest measures of ?dm based on ˜10 000 stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey appear to favour little halo flattening at R0, suggesting that the Galaxy has a rather weak dark matter disc, with a correspondingly quiescent merger history. I caution, however, that this result hinges on there being no large systematics that remain to be uncovered in the SDSS data, and on the local baryonic surface density being ?b ˜ 55?M?pc-2. I conclude by discussing how the new Gaia satellite will be transformative. We will obtain much tighter constraints on both ?b and ?dm by having accurate 6D phase space data for millions of stars near the Sun. These data will drive us towards fully three dimensional models of our Galactic potential, moving us into the realm of precision measurements of ?dm.

  20. Atom localization with double-cascade configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, Maksim Yu; Efremova, Ekaterina A.; Rozhdestvensky, Yuri V.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) atom localization of a four-level system in a double-cascade configuration. We demonstrate the possibility of 1D localization in the field of a standing wave, 2D localization in the field of two standing waves and 2D localization only in the field of running waves by using different configurations of driven waves on transitions. In addition, for each configuration we reached a high-precision atom localization in one of the states at scales much smaller than the wavelength of the incident optical radiation.

  1. Increased localization precision by interference fringe analysis.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Carl G; Meiri, Amihai; Martineau, Jason; Zalevsky, Zeev; Gerton, Jordan M; Menon, Rajesh

    2015-06-21

    We report a novel optical single-emitter-localization methodology that uses the phase induced by path length differences in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to improve localization precision. Using information theory, we demonstrate that the localization capability of a modified Fourier domain signal generated by photon interference enables a more precise localization compared to a standard Gaussian intensity distribution of the corresponding point-spread function. The calculations were verified by numerical simulations and an exemplary experiment, where the centers of metal nanoparticles were localized to a precision of 3 nm. PMID:25999093

  2. [Genetic structure of local Ukrainian cattle breeds].

    PubMed

    Glazko, V I; Zvezhkhovski, L; Oblap, R V; Tarasiuk, S I

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 6 cattle breeds (5 local Ukrainian breeds and the Holstain breed) on the 9 polymorphous molecular-genetic markers (transferrin, ceruloplasmin, amylase-1, posttransferrin, receptor to vitamin D, haemoglobin, leptin, kapa-casein) was carried out. The rare allele of transferrin was revealed in two local breeds and the rare allele of leptin--in two another local breeds. Associations between syntenic loci (transferrin, ceruloplasmin, kappa-casein, receptor to vitamin D) were observed only in the local breeds but not in the Holstain one. Locus-specific conservation of the ancestor allelic variants in the local breeds and effect of selection on interloci associations are discussed. PMID:11589051

  3. Global versus local adsorption selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzat, Françoise; Marloie, Gael; Markovits, Alexis; Ellinger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the enantiomeric excess found in the amino acids present in the organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites is still unclear. Selective adsorption of one of the two enantiomers existing after a racemic formation could be part of the answer. Hereafter we report a comparative study of the adsorption of the R and S enantiomers of ?-alanine and lactic acid on the hydroxylated { } chiral surface of ?-quartz using numerical simulation techniques. Structurally different adsorption sites were found with opposite R versus S selectivity for the same molecule-surface couple, raising the problem of whether to consider adsorption as a local property or as a global response characteristic of the whole surface. To deal with the second term of this alternative, a statistical approach was designed, based on the occurrence of each adsorption site whose energy was calculated using first principle periodic density functional theory. It was found that R-alanine and S-lactic acid are the enantiomers preferentially adsorbed, even if the adsorption process on the quartz { } surface stays with a disappointingly poor enantio-selectivity. Nevertheless, it highlighted the important point that considering adsorption as a global property changes perspectives in the search for more efficient enantio-selective supports and more generally changes the way to apprehend adsorption processes in astro-chemistry/biology.

  4. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. )

    1990-03-01

    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  5. Active localization of virtual sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Hebert, C.; Cicinelli, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a virtual sound display built around a 12 MHz 80286 microcomputer and special purpose analog hardware. The display implements most of the primary cues for sound localization in the ear-level plane. Static information about direction is conveyed by interaural time differences and, for frequencies above 1800 Hz, by head sound shadow (interaural intensity differences) and pinna sound shadow. Static information about distance is conveyed by variation in sound pressure (first power law) for all frequencies, by additional attenuation in the higher frequencies (simulating atmospheric absorption), and by the proportion of direct to reverberant sound. When the user actively locomotes, the changing angular position of the source occasioned by head rotations provides further information about direction and the changing angular velocity produced by head translations (motion parallax) provides further information about distance. Judging both from informal observations by users and from objective data obtained in an experiment on homing to virtual and real sounds, we conclude that simple displays such as this are effective in creating the perception of external sounds to which subjects can home with accuracy and ease.

  6. Study of PTEN subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Bononi, Angela; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key regulator of a plethora of cellular processes that are crucial in cancer development. Through its lipid phosphatase activity PTEN suppresses the PI3K/AKT pathway to govern cell proliferation, growth, migration, energy metabolism and death. The repertoire of roles fulfilled by PTEN has recently been expanded to include crucial functions in the nucleus, where it favors genomic stability and restrains cell cycle progression, as well as protein phosphatase dependent activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), where PTEN interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and regulates Ca(2+) release from the ER and sensitivity to apoptosis. Indeed, PTEN is present in definite subcellular locations where it performs distinct functions acting on specific effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advantages in methods to study PTEN subcellular localization and the distinct biological functions of PTEN in different cellular compartments. A deeper understanding of PTEN's compartmentalized-functions will guide the rational design of novel therapies. PMID:25312582

  7. Black hole complementarity versus locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, David A.; Polchinski, Joseph; Susskind, Leonard; Thorlacius, Lárus; Uglum, John

    1995-12-01

    The evaporation of a large mass black hole can be described throughout most of its lifetime by a low-energy effective theory defined on a suitably chosen set of smooth spacelike hypersurfaces. The conventional argument for information loss rests on the assumption that the effective theory is a local quantum field theory. We present evidence that this assumption fails in the context of string theory. The commutator of operators in light-front string theory, corresponding to certain low-energy observers on opposite sides of the event horizon, remains large even when these observers are spacelike separated by a macroscopic distance. This suggests that degrees of freedom inside a black hole should not be viewed as independent from those outside the event horizon. These nonlocal effects are only significant under extreme kinematic circumstances, such as in the high-redshift geometry of a black hole. Commutators of spacelike separated operators corresponding to ordinary low-energy observers in Minkowski space are strongly suppressed in string theory.

  8. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  9. Image compression in local helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löptien, B.; Birch, A. C.; Gizon, L.; Schou, J.

    2014-11-01

    Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims: We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods: We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results: The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still possible. We achieve the best results by applying JPEG compression on spatially subsampled data. However, our conclusions are only valid for supergranulation flows at disk center and may not be valid for all helioseismology applications.

  10. Study of PTEN subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Bononi, Angela; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key regulator of a plethora of cellular processes that are crucial in cancer development. Through its lipid phosphatase activity PTEN suppresses the PI3K/AKT pathway to govern cell proliferation, growth, migration, energy metabolism and death. The repertoire of roles fulfilled by PTEN has recently been expanded to include crucial functions in the nucleus, where it favors genomic stability and restrains cell cycle progression, as well as protein phosphatase dependent activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), where PTEN interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and regulates Ca2+ release from the ER and sensitivity to apoptosis. Indeed, PTEN is present in definite subcellular locations where it performs distinct functions acting on specific effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advantages in methods to study PTEN subcellular localization and the distinct biological functions of PTEN in different cellular compartments. A deeper understanding of PTEN’s compartmentalized-functions will guide the rational design of novel therapies. PMID:25312582

  11. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid ?/? protein at 300?K and at 380?K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380?K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  12. Local Economic Development in an Age of Devolution: The Question of Rural Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Sarah; Lobao, Linda; Swanson, Louis E.

    2003-01-01

    There is limited recent research on the strategies that rural local governments are employing in the face of changing intergovernmental relationships, especially in relation to local economic development. This paper draws on data from a survey of local governments in the Ohio River Valley Region that includes a mix of localities on the urban-rural…

  13. Local Economic Development in an Age of Devolution: The Question of Rural Localities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Sarah; Lobao, Linda; Swanson, Louis E.

    2003-01-01

    There is limited recent research on the strategies that rural local governments are employing in the face of changing intergovernmental relationships, especially in relation to local economic development. This paper draws on data from a survey of local governments in the Ohio River Valley Region that includes a mix of localities on the urban-rural…

  14. Local conservation laws and the structure of the many-body localized states.

    PubMed

    Serbyn, Maksym; Papi?, Z; Abanin, Dmitry A

    2013-09-20

    We construct a complete set of local integrals of motion that characterize the many-body localized (MBL) phase. Our approach relies on the assumption that local perturbations act locally on the eigenstates in the MBL phase, which is supported by numerical simulations of the random-field XXZ spin chain. We describe the structure of the eigenstates in the MBL phase and discuss the implications of local conservation laws for its nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. We argue that the many-body localization can be used to protect coherence in the system by suppressing relaxation between eigenstates with different local integrals of motion. PMID:24093294

  15. Local hardness equalization: Exploiting the ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Paul W.; Parr, Robert G.

    2008-05-01

    In the density-functional theory of chemical reactivity, the local hardness is known to be an ambiguous concept. The mathematical structure associated with this problematic situation is elaborated and three common definitions for the local hardness are critically examined: the frontier local hardness [S. K. Ghosh, Chem. Phys. Lett. 172, 77 (1990)], the total local hardness [S. K. Ghosh and M. Berkowitz, J. Chem. Phys. 83, 2976 (1985)], and the unconstrained local hardness [P. W. Ayers and R. G. Parr, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 2010 (2000)]. The frontier local hardness has particularly nice properties: (a) it has smaller norm than most, if not all, other choices of the local hardness and (b) it is "unbiased" in an information-theoretic sense. For the ground electronic state of a molecular system, the frontier local hardness is equal to the global hardness. For an electronic system in its ground state, both the chemical potential and the frontier local hardness are equalized. The frontier local hardness equalization principle provides a computational approach for designing reagents with desirable chemical reactivity profiles.

  16. A local approach for focussed Bayesian fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Jennifer; Heizmann, Michael; Goussev, Igor; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    Local Bayesian fusion approaches aim to reduce high storage and computational costs of Bayesian fusion which is separated from fixed modeling assumptions. Using the small world formalism, we argue why this proceeding is conform with Bayesian theory. Then, we concentrate on the realization of local Bayesian fusion by focussing the fusion process solely on local regions that are task relevant with a high probability. The resulting local models correspond then to restricted versions of the original one. In a previous publication, we used bounds for the probability of misleading evidence to show the validity of the pre-evaluation of task specific knowledge and prior information which we perform to build local models. In this paper, we prove the validity of this proceeding using information theoretic arguments. For additional efficiency, local Bayesian fusion can be realized in a distributed manner. Here, several local Bayesian fusion tasks are evaluated and unified after the actual fusion process. For the practical realization of distributed local Bayesian fusion, software agents are predestinated. There is a natural analogy between the resulting agent based architecture and criminal investigations in real life. We show how this analogy can be used to improve the efficiency of distributed local Bayesian fusion additionally. Using a landscape model, we present an experimental study of distributed local Bayesian fusion in the field of reconnaissance, which highlights its high potential.

  17. Local Estimators for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Nabi, Marzieh

    2011-01-01

    A formation estimation architecture for formation flying builds upon the local information exchange among multiple local estimators. Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are needed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms should rely on a local information-exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. In this research, it was shown that only local observability is required to design a formation estimator and control law. The approach relies on breaking up the overall information-exchange network into sequence of local subnetworks, and invoking an agreement-type filter to reach consensus among local estimators within each local network. State estimates were obtained by a set of local measurements that were passed through a set of communicating Kalman filters to reach an overall state estimation for the formation. An optimization approach was also presented by means of which diffused estimates over the network can be incorporated in the local estimates obtained by each estimator via local measurements. This approach compares favorably with that obtained by a centralized Kalman filter, which requires complete knowledge of the raw measurement available to each estimator.

  18. On the concept of Bell’s local causality in local classical and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory. This framework, based on the axioms of algebraic field theory, is broad enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will arise as the classical case of our definition. Classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality, a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Finally, comparing local causality with the common cause principles and relating both to the Bell inequalities we find a nice parallelism: Bell inequalities cannot be derived neither from local causality nor from a common cause unless the local physical theory is classical or the common cause is commuting, respectively.

  19. Identifying the local conserved quantities in Many-Body-Localized matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekker, David; Tian, Binbin; Yu, Xiongji; Clark, Bryan; Oganesyan, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    Typically, many-body systems with interactions tend to thermalize. However, adding sufficient disorder (or possibly via other mechanisms) one can induce many-body localization. The localization occurs by the spontaneous appearance of local conserved quantities. We describe how to identify these conserved quantities and explore their localization properties. We also comment on how these conserved quantities are reflected in cold atom experiments on localized matter.

  20. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  1. Mobile Sensor Network Localization in Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenji, Harsha; Stoleru, Radu

    The node localization problem in mobile sensor networks has recently received significant attention. Particle filters, adapted from robotics, have produced good localization accuracies in conventional settings, but suffer significantly when used in challenging indoor and mobile environments characterized by a high degree of radio irregularity. We propose FuzLoc, a fuzzy logic-based approach for mobile node localization in challenging environments and formulate the localization problem as a fuzzy multilateration problem, with a fuzzy grid-prediction scheme for sparse networks. We demonstrate the performance and feasibility of our localization scheme through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept implementation on hardware, respectively. Simulation results augmented by data gathered from our 42 node indoor testbed demonstrate improvements in the localization accuracy from 20%-40% when the radio irregularity is high.

  2. Localization of atomic ensembles via superfluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Macovei, Mihai; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-03-15

    The subwavelength localization of an ensemble of atoms concentrated to a small volume in space is investigated. The localization relies on the interaction of the ensemble with a standing wave laser field. The light scattered in the interaction of the standing wave field and the atom ensemble depends on the position of the ensemble relative to the standing wave nodes. This relation can be described by a fluorescence intensity profile, which depends on the standing wave field parameters and the ensemble properties and which is modified due to collective effects in the ensemble of nearby particles. We demonstrate that the intensity profile can be tailored to suit different localization setups. Finally, we apply these results to two localization schemes. First, we show how to localize an ensemble fixed at a certain position in the standing wave field. Second, we discuss localization of an ensemble passing through the standing wave field.

  3. Characterization of local wave energy propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, Arnida L.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the local wave energy propagation is essential, especially for tracing the propagation of large energy. This paper focuses on characterizing the local wave energy propagation of slowly varying surface water waves. The wave is assumed to be unidirectional above flat bottom. We investigated the local features of waves such as wave energy, wave number, wave frequency, and local group velocity through complexification signal. From the analysis the local group velocity plays an important role as the double characteristic lines of the wave energy and the wave number. Therefore the local wave energy was successfully traced as energy trajectory by these characteristic lines. The energy trajectory was then numerically computed by finite difference scheme. In the application, we investigated the slowly varying waves; Gaussian waves, Trichromatic waves, and Peregrine soliton, in which the converging and diverging energy of these cases have been observed well from the energy trajectories.

  4. How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?

    PubMed

    Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

    2010-08-26

    The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467

  5. Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jianke

    2010-11-15

    We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

  6. Methods and strategies of object localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Lejun; Volz, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An important property of an intelligent robot is to be able to determine the location of an object in 3-D space. A general object localization system structure is proposed, some important issues on localization discussed, and an overview given for current available object localization algorithms and systems. The algorithms reviewed are characterized by their feature extracting and matching strategies; the range finding methods; the types of locatable objects; and the mathematical formulating methods.

  7. Local quanta, unitary inequivalence, and vacuum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez, Matías R. Rey, Marco del Westman, Hans León, Juan

    2014-12-15

    In this work we develop a formalism for describing localised quanta for a real-valued Klein–Gordon field in a one-dimensional box [0,R]. We quantise the field using non-stationary local modes which, at some arbitrarily chosen initial time, are completely localised within the left or the right side of the box. In this concrete set-up we directly face the problems inherent to a notion of local field excitations, usually thought of as elementary particles. Specifically, by computing the Bogoliubov coefficients relating local and standard (global) quantisations, we show that the local quantisation yields a Fock representation of the Canonical Commutation Relations (CCR) which is unitarily inequivalent to the standard one. In spite of this, we find that the local creators and annihilators remain well defined in the global Fock space F{sup G}, and so do the local number operators associated to the left and right partitions of the box. We end up with a useful mathematical toolbox to analyse and characterise local features of quantum states in F{sup G}. Specifically, an analysis of the global vacuum state |0{sub G}??F{sup G} in terms of local number operators shows, as expected, the existence of entanglement between the left and right regions of the box. The local vacuum |0{sub L}??F{sup L}, on the contrary, has a very different character. It is neither cyclic (with respect to any local algebra of operators) nor separating and displays no entanglement between left and right partitions. Further analysis shows that the global vacuum also exhibits a distribution of local excitations reminiscent, in some respects, of a thermal bath. We discuss how the mathematical tools developed herein may open new ways for the analysis of fundamental problems in local quantum field theory.

  8. The Galaxies of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergh, Sidney

    2007-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Local group membership; 3. The Andromeda galaxy (M31); 4. The Milky Way system; 5. The Triangulum galaxy (M33); 6. The Large Magellanic Cloud; 7. The Small Magellanic Cloud; 8. The elliptical galaxy M32 (= NGC 221); 9. The irregular dwarf galaxy NGC 6822; 10. The starburst galaxy IC 10; 11. Faint dwarf irregular galaxies; 12. Spheroidal galaxies; 13. The most luminous dwarf spheroidal galaxies; 14. Dwarf spheroidals in the Andromeda subgroup; 15. Faint dwarf spheroidals; 16. The outer fringes of the Local Group; 17. Intergalactic matter in the Local Group; 18. Dynamical and physical evolution; 19. Properties of the Local Group; 20. Conclusions; Glossary; Bibliography; Object index.

  9. The Galaxies of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergh, Sidney

    2000-05-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Local group membership; 3. The Andromeda galaxy (M31); 4. The Milky Way system; 5. The Triangulum galaxy (M33); 6. The Large Magellanic Cloud; 7. The Small Magellanic Cloud; 8. The elliptical galaxy M32 (= NGC 221); 9. The irregular dwarf galaxy NGC 6822; 10. The starburst galaxy IC 10; 11. Faint dwarf irregular galaxies; 12. Spheroidal galaxies; 13. The most luminous dwarf spheroidal galaxies; 14. Dwarf spheroidals in the Andromeda subgroup; 15. Faint dwarf spheroidals; 16. The outer fringes of the Local Group; 17. Intergalactic matter in the Local Group; 18. Dynamical and physical evolution; 19. Properties of the Local Group; 20. Conclusions; Glossary; Bibliography; Object index.

  10. Optical urethrotomy under local urethral anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Greenland, J E; Lynch, T H; Wallace, D M

    1991-04-01

    A series of 46 patients underwent 76 optical urethrotomies under local urethral anaesthesia in the out-patient clinic; in 70% of patients the strictures were controlled by local anaesthetic urethrotomy alone; 61% felt either no pain or mild pain during the procedure; 72% expressed a preference for local anaesthesia should the procedure have to be repeated and 82% were happy with the result of their treatment. Optical urethrotomy under local urethral anaesthesia produces results comparable to those reported by others using general anaesthesia. If large numbers of patients are to be treated, possibly repeatedly, then out-patient urethrotomy may result in more efficient use of resources. PMID:2032078

  11. Locality in quantum gravity and string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-11-15

    Breakdown of local physics in string theory at distances longer than the string scale is investigated. Such nonlocality would be expected to be visible in ultrahigh-energy scattering. The results of various approaches to such scattering are collected and examined. No evidence is found for nonlocality from strings whose length grows linearly with the energy. However, local quantum field theory does apparently fail at scales determined by gravitational physics, particularly strong gravitational dynamics. This amplifies locality bound arguments that such failure of locality is a fundamental aspect of physics. This kind of nonlocality could be a central element of a possible loophole in the argument for information loss in black holes.

  12. Functional Localization of Genetic Network Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Shinji; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu

    According to the knowledge of brain science, it is suggested that there exists cerebral functional localization, which means that a specific part of the cerebrum is activated depending on various kinds of information human receives. The aim of this paper is to build an artificial model to realize functional localization based on Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a new evolutionary computation method recently developed. GNP has a directed graph structure suitable for realizing functional localization. We studied the basic characteristics of the proposed system by making GNP work in a functionally localized way.

  13. Transient localization in the kicked Rydberg atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Emil; Fürthauer, S.; Wimberger, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the long-time limit of quantum localization of the kicked Rydberg atom. The kicked Rydberg atom is shown to possess in addition to the quantum localization time ?L a second crossover time tD where quantum dynamics diverges from classical dynamics towards increased instability. The quantum localization is shown to vanish as either the strength of the kicks at fixed principal quantum number or the quantum number at fixed kick strength increases. The survival probability as a function of frequency in the transient localization regime ?L

  14. When local isn't best

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain circumstances under which local may be or may not be best. Natural selection may lead to local adaptation (LA), or it may be constrained by gene flow, founder effects, small population size, genetic drift, and archetype. ‘Specialist’ species display greater LA than ‘generalist’ species. Local genotypes are to a certain extent transient, being a consequence of past historical genetic patterns. Two recent meta-analyses found that while local performance exceeded the performance of a randomly chosen nonlocal population in 71% of comparisons, general adaptation across environments was as frequent as LA. Genotypes for restoration are most likely to be effective if they are adapted to current site conditions. As environmental change accelerates, both globally and locally, exceptions to ‘local is best’ may increase. For these reasons, ‘local is best’ may be better thought of as a testable hypothesis rather than as a general assumption. While either local or nonlocal plant material may be most effective for restoration practice depending on individual circumstances, local material will continue to be the first choice for restoration practitioners whenever this option is feasible and effective. PMID:24187591

  15. Resonant Anderson localization in segmented wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estarellas, Cristian; Serra, Llorenç

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a model of random segmented wire, with linear segments of two-dimensional wires joined by circular bends. The joining vertices act as scatterers on the propagating electron waves. The model leads to resonant Anderson localization when all segments are of similar length. The resonant behavior is present with one and also with several propagating modes. The probability distributions evolve from diffusive to localized regimes when increasing the number of segments in a similar way for long and short localization lengths. As a function of the energy, a finite segmented wire typically evolves from localized to diffusive to ballistic behavior in each conductance plateau.

  16. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... available locally: (1) Utilities, including fuel for heating and cooking, waste disposal and trash..., or incurred in the cooperating country, e.g., vehicle maintenance, hotel accommodations, etc....

  17. Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2014-03-01

    Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.

  18. Detection of edges using local geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Manohar, M.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers described a new representation, the local geometry, for early visual processing which is motivated by results from biological vision. This representation is richer than is often used in image processing. It extracts more of the local structure available at each pixel in the image by using receptive fields that can be continuously rotated and that go to third order spatial variation. Early visual processing algorithms such as edge detectors and ridge detectors can be written in terms of various local geometries and are computationally tractable. For example, Canny's edge detector has been implemented in terms of a local geometry of order two, and a ridge detector in terms of a local geometry of order three. The edge detector in local geometry was applied to synthetic and real images and it was shown using simple interpolation schemes that sufficient information is available to locate edges with sub-pixel accuracy (to a resolution increase of at least a factor of five). This is reasonable even for noisy images because the local geometry fits a smooth surface - the Taylor series - to the discrete image data. Only local processing was used in the implementation so it can readily be implemented on parallel mesh machines such as the MPP. Researchers expect that other early visual algorithms, such as region growing, inflection point detection, and segmentation can also be implemented in terms of the local geometry and will provide sufficiently rich and robust representations for subsequent visual processing.

  19. Calculation of optical transport and localization quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Economou, E.N. Corporate Research Science Laboratory, Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011); Soukoulis, C.M.

    1989-10-15

    By combining a coherent-potential approximation with our previous work on localization, we calculate the mean free path {ital l}, the diffusion coefficient {ital D}, the localization parameter {ital kl}, where {bold k} is the renormalized wave vector, the localization length {ital L}{sub {ital c}}, and other related quantities. Our results for {ital D} near the critical regime are in surprisingly impressive agreement with recent experimental data by Drake and Genack in a sample of titania spheres in air. Our calculations indicate that optical localization can be experimentally realized by either lowering the concentration of the titania spheres or lowering the standard deviation of the radii distribution.

  20. The Conjecture that Local Realism is Possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, E.

    2007-09-01

    It is argued that local realism is a fundamental principle, which might be rejected only if experiments clearly show that it is untenable. Forty years after Bell's work no experiment has provided a valid, loophole-free, violation of local realism which, in my opinion, is thus reinforced. I study a simple, but wide, family of local realistic models and derive new inequalities almost insensitive to the detection loophole. I argue that quantum mechanics, with some change in the theory of measurement, might be compatible with local realism.

  1. Angular momentum in the Local Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.

    1994-04-01

    We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.

  2. THE LOCAL LIMIT OF GLOBAL GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CANDY J; WALTZ RE; DORLAND W

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Global gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence include physical effects that are not retained in local flux-tube simulations. nevertheless, in the limit of sufficiently small {rho}* (gyroradius compared to system size) it is expected that a local simulation should agree with a global one (at the local simulation radius) since all effects that are dropped in the local simulations are expected to vanish as {rho}* {yields} 0. In this note, global simulations of a well-established test case are indeed shown to recover the flux-tube limit at each radius.

  3. Target localization and real-time tracking using the Calypso 4D localization system in patients with localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A. . E-mail: patrick.kupelian@orhs.org; Pouliot, Jean; Shinohara, Katsuto; Aubin, Michelle; Roach, Mack; Skrumeda, Lisa L.; Balter, James M.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Wei, John T.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The Calypso 4D Localization System is being developed to provide accurate, precise, objective, and continuous target localization during radiotherapy. This study involves the first human use of the system, to evaluate the localization accuracy of this technique compared with radiographic localization and to assess its ability to obtain real-time prostate-motion information. Methods and Materials: Three transponders were implanted in each of 20 patients. Eleven eligible patients of the 20 patients participated in a study arm that compared radiographic triangulated transponder locations to electromagnetically recorded transponder locations. Transponders were tracked for 8-min periods. Results: The implantations were all successful, with no major complications. Intertransponder distances were largely stable. Comparison of the patient localization on the basis of transponder locations as per the Calypso system with the radiographic transponder localization showed an average ({+-}SD) 3D difference of 1.5 {+-} 0.9 mm. Upon tracking during 8 min, 2 of the 11 patients showed significant organ motion (>1 cm), with some motion lasting longer that 1 min. Conclusion: Calypso transponders can be used as magnetic intraprostatic fiducials. Clinical evaluation of this novel 4D nonionizing electromagnetic localization system with transponders indicates a comparable localization accuracy to isocenter (within 2 mm) compared with X-ray localiza0010ti.

  4. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. PMID:22438752

  6. Localization algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: a survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes' mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. PMID:22438752

  7. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  8. Unsupervised Discriminant Analysis Based on the Local and Non-local Mean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Caikou; Shi, Jun; Huang, Pu

    Considering the performance of unsupervised discriminant projections (UDP) is gravely influenced by outliers, especially in small training sample size situation, a novel method called unsupervised discriminant analysis (UDA) based on the local and non-local mean for feature extraction is proposed in this paper, which is robust to outliers. It utilizes the local and non-local mean to construct the local and non-local scatter, to some extent, overcomes the discriminant difficulty caused by outliers. Besides, LUDA is computationally more efficient than UDP. Experimental results on ORL, YALE and AR face image databases show that the proposed UDA is more efficient and effective than UDP.

  9. Local History and Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieseman, Katherine C.; Cadwell, Doni

    2005-01-01

    The combination of students, local history, researching, and problem-based learning creates a powerful opportunity for learning to all involved. This article provides one example of how an elementary teacher and a teacher educator have used local resources and problem-based learning to teach a fourth grade unit about human communities and the…

  10. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  11. Probabilistic Analysis of Localized DNA Hybridization Circuits.

    PubMed

    Dalchau, Neil; Chandran, Harish; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; Phillips, Andrew; Reif, John

    2015-08-21

    Molecular devices made of nucleic acids can perform complex information processing tasks at the nanoscale, with potential applications in biofabrication and smart therapeutics. However, limitations in the speed and scalability of such devices in a well-mixed setting can significantly affect their performance. In this article, we propose designs for localized circuits involving DNA molecules that are arranged on addressable substrates and interact via hybridization reactions. We propose designs for localized elementary logic circuits, which we compose to produce more complex devices, including a circuit for computing the square root of a four bit number. We develop an efficient method for probabilistic model checking of localized circuits, which we implement within the Visual DSD design tool. We use this method to prove the correctness of our circuits with respect to their functional specifications and to analyze their performance over a broad range of local rate parameters. Specifically, we analyze the extent to which our localized designs can overcome the limitations of well-mixed circuits, with respect to speed and scalability. To provide an estimate of local rate parameters, we propose a biophysical model of localized hybridization. Finally, we use our analysis to identify constraints in the rate parameters that enable localized circuits to retain their advantages in the presence of unintended interferences between strands. PMID:26133087

  12. History of Schooling: Politics and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, Carla, Ed.; Westberg, Johannes, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance,…

  13. History of Schooling: Politics and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, Carla, Ed.; Westberg, Johannes, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance,…

  14. Content Locality in Distributed Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viles, Charles L.; French, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces content locality--the degree to which content-similar documents are colocated in a distributed collection--in distributed digital libraries. Proposes two metrics for measurement of content locality, one based on topic signatures and the other based on collection statistics. Provides derivations and analysis of both metrics and uses them…

  15. How to be a local media celebrity.

    PubMed

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Building relationships with the media in your region can turn you into a local "media darling. "As a PR-savvy doctor, there are certain techniques to get you the media attention you desire. This article will offer tips for getting local media on your side and working with media, and ways to mobilize your vendors to garner PR in your region. PMID:19455864

  16. Filtering with state space localized Kalman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, Andreas S.; Karlsen, Hans A.; Nævdal, Geir; Oliver, Dean S.; Skaug, Hans J.

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that particle filters and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are too expensive for high dimensional models; more robust techniques such as low rank versions of the Kalman filter are usually applied in large scale models. Common feature of all the ensemble Kalman type filters is that the model state and parameters are updated using the covariance matrix between the model states and the measurements, often estimated by a finite number of samples. In many nonlinear problems a global linearization of the model may be inadequate to describe the relationship between the observations and the model state and parameters. Hence the Kalman type updates may cause severe bias in the posterior estimates. In this paper we investigate the effect of using a local linearization. Motivated by local Gaussian density estimation we describe ways to estimate the covariance locally in the state space resulting in local ensemble filters. This is not to be confused with covariance localization which often refers to localization in the physical space. The filters are tested on the three dimensional Lorenz model and a three layer petroleum reservoir type model. The results clearly show that using a Kalman update based on local covariances allows resolution of small scale structures in the posterior distribution that cannot be resolved using a global covariance matrix. In particular we show that the new local filters are able to approximate posterior distributions with multiple modes contrary to the ensemble Kalman filter.

  17. Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium at Three Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Geoffrey L.

    2013-12-01

    We present coordinated formulations of local thermodynamical equilibrium conditions at three levels, namely the macroscopic one of classical thermodynamics, the mesoscopic one of hydrodynamical fluctuations and the microscopic one of quantum statistical mechanics. These conditions are all expressed in terms of the hydrodynamical variables of the macroscopic picture, and the quantum statistical ones are shown to imply a local version of the zeroth law.

  18. Universal mechanism for Anderson and weak localization

    PubMed Central

    Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Localization of stationary waves occurs in a large variety of vibrating systems, whether mechanical, acoustical, optical, or quantum. It is induced by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium, a complex geometry, or a quenched disorder. One of its most striking and famous manifestations is Anderson localization, responsible for instance for the metal-insulator transition in disordered alloys. Yet, despite an enormous body of related literature, a clear and unified picture of localization is still to be found, as well as the exact relationship between its many manifestations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both Anderson and weak localizations originate from the same universal mechanism, acting on any type of vibration, in any dimension, and for any domain shape. This mechanism partitions the system into weakly coupled subregions. The boundaries of these subregions correspond to the valleys of a hidden landscape that emerges from the interplay between the wave operator and the system geometry. The height of the landscape along its valleys determines the strength of the coupling between the subregions. The landscape and its impact on localization can be determined rigorously by solving one special boundary problem. This theory allows one to predict the localization properties, the confining regions, and to estimate the energy of the vibrational eigenmodes through the properties of one geometrical object. In particular, Anderson localization can be understood as a special case of weak localization in a very rough landscape. PMID:22927384

  19. Natural geometric representation for electron local observables

    SciTech Connect

    Minogin, V.G.

    2014-03-15

    An existence of the quartic identities for the electron local observables that define orthogonality relations for the 3D quantities quadratic in the electron observables is found. It is shown that the joint solution of the quartic and bilinear identities for the electron observables defines a unique natural representation of the observables. In the natural representation the vector type electron local observables have well-defined fixed positions with respect to a local 3D orthogonal reference frame. It is shown that the natural representation of the electron local observables can be defined in six different forms depending on a choice of the orthogonal unit vectors. The natural representation is used to determine the functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the local observables valid for any shape of the electron wave packet. -- Highlights: •Quartic identities that define the orthogonality relations for the electron local observables are found. •Joint solution of quartic and bilinear identities defines a unique natural representation of the electron local observables. •Functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the electron local observables is determined.

  20. Child Care Services and JOBS: Local Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Jan L.; Lurie, Irene

    As part of a 3-year, 10-state study on the state and local implementation of the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Program, local implementation of child care services was researched. Areas of investigation focused on the availability of child care services, funding and payment mechanisms, parental choice, and information and referral…

  1. The Local Group as an Astrophysical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Brown, Thomas M.

    2011-04-01

    1. History of the Local Group S. van den Bergh; 2. Primordial nucleosynthesis G. Steigman; 3. Galactic structure R. F. G. Wyse; 4. The Large Magellanic Cloud: structure and kinematics R. P. van der Marel; 5. The Local Group as an astrophysical laboratory for massive star feedback M. S. Oey; 6. Hot gas in the Local Group and low-redshift intergalactic medium K. R. Sembach; 7. Stages of satellite accretion M. E. Putman; 8. The star formation history in the Andromeda halo T. M. Brown; 9. Bulge populations in the Local Group R. M. Rich; 10. The Local Group as a laboratory for the chemical evolution of galaxies D. R. Garnett; 11. Massive stars in the Local Group: Star formation and stellar evolution P. Massey; 12. Massive young clusters in the Local Group J. Maíz-Apellániz; 13. Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as probes of stellar evolution and populations L. Stanghellini; 14. The old globular clusters: or, life among the ruins W. E. Harris; 15. Chemical evolution models of Local Group galaxies M. Tosi.

  2. The Local Group as an Astrophysical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Brown, Thomas M.

    2006-05-01

    1. History of the Local Group S. van den Bergh; 2. Primordial nucleosynthesis G. Steigman; 3. Galactic structure R. F. G. Wyse; 4. The Large Magellanic Cloud: structure and kinematics R. P. van der Marel; 5. The Local Group as an astrophysical laboratory for massive star feedback M. S. Oey; 6. Hot gas in the Local Group and low-redshift intergalactic medium K. R. Sembach; 7. Stages of satellite accretion M. E. Putman; 8. The star formation history in the Andromeda halo T. M. Brown; 9. Bulge populations in the Local Group R. M. Rich; 10. The Local Group as a laboratory for the chemical evolution of galaxies D. R. Garnett; 11. Massive stars in the Local Group: Star formation and stellar evolution P. Massey; 12. Massive young clusters in the Local Group J. Maíz-Apellániz; 13. Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as probes of stellar evolution and populations L. Stanghellini; 14. The old globular clusters: or, life among the ruins W. E. Harris; 15. Chemical evolution models of Local Group galaxies M. Tosi.

  3. Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    The practical sides of local or regional anesthesia are explained by two applications of local anesthetics under moderately demanding circumstances. The examples illustrated are surgical repair of the severed lower tendon of the left index finger and the case of pregnant woman involving the delivery of a child in the early stages of cervical…

  4. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  5. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WATER RESOURCES POLICIES AND AUTHORITIES: FLOOD DAMAGE REDUCTION MEASURES IN URBAN AREAS § 238.9 Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and...

  6. Local acriflavine: a new therapy for rhinoscleroma.

    PubMed

    Shaer, M; Rizk, M; Shawaf, I; Ali, M; Hashash, M

    1981-07-01

    Fifty patients with rhinoscleroma have been studied clinically, histopathologically and bacteriologically before, during and after the local application of acriflavin solution, in different concentrations, over an eight-week period. The results have been encouraging. Local acriflavine solution, in a concentration of 2 per cent, has been shown to be an effective and safe remedy for rhinoscleroma. PMID:7252349

  7. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  8. Local Implementation and Land Use Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlasco, Chris; And Others

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Local Implementation. An audio tape is used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but can be adapted to other localities. The material in this unit emphasizes the role of planning and zoning in…

  9. Promoting Creativity in Local Tourist Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perivoliotis-Chryssovergis, Margaret-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an e-learning pilot study focusing on local tourist producers and businesses involved in the production of artefacts, mainly textiles. The project included research into the possibilities of incorporating the strengths of local cultural heritage as a vital starting point for design creativity, innovation, production and…

  10. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  11. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  12. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  13. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  14. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  15. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  16. Obtaining Related Services through Local Interagency Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Kenneth R.

    Designed as a resource for local school administrators, the report describes the experiences of 15 local special education agencies in providing related services at reasonable cost through interagency cooperation. An introductory chapter discusses the role of interagency committees (both policy and direct service types), and provides information…

  17. Recognizing Constraints to Local Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Joan; Meyer, Peter B.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing on Kaufman's distinction between development in the community and development of the community, this paper discusses the constraints on local economic development associated with increased concentration of capital. The likelihood of successfully employing "import substitution" and other localization strategies without confronting issues of…

  18. When local isn't best

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local plant materials are often preferred for the practice of ecological restoration, and this is likely related to the preference for pristine lands for study by the scientific community. While the 'local-is-best' plant material paradigm may be appropriate for pristine lands, it may not be directl...

  19. Education, Urban Development and Local Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Innovative practices in education and local development in Western Europe, Australia, and the United States are described and analyzed in this report. Part One reviews urban problems, their impact on education, and the need for a new approach. Part Two explores how schools and institutes of adult education can provide information about the local…

  20. Engaging Senior Citizens in Local Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    During the past several years, school district personnel have faced an arduous task of convincing a local electorate--including those who are not directly associated with local schools--to increase its own tax rate. Convincing demographic groups that have a vital interest in improving school facilities can be an easier task. Parents who want to…

  1. Nonlinear Localized Waves in a Periodic Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2001-08-20

    We analyze the existence and stability of nonlinear localized waves in a periodic medium described by the Kronig-Penney model with a nonlinear defect. We demonstrate the existence of a novel type of stable nonlinear band-gap localized state, and also reveal a generic physical mechanism of the oscillatory wave instabilities associated with the band-gap resonances.

  2. Local and Global Thinking in Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Ainley, Janet; Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    In this reflective paper, we explore students' local and global thinking about informal statistical inference through our observations of 10- to 11-year-olds, challenged to infer the unknown configuration of a virtual die, but able to use the die to generate as much data as they felt necessary. We report how they tended to focus on local changes…

  3. Promoting Creativity in Local Tourist Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perivoliotis-Chryssovergis, Margaret-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an e-learning pilot study focusing on local tourist producers and businesses involved in the production of artefacts, mainly textiles. The project included research into the possibilities of incorporating the strengths of local cultural heritage as a vital starting point for design creativity, innovation, production and…

  4. Localized surface instabilities of stressed solids

    SciTech Connect

    Colin, J.; Grilhe, J.; Junqua, N.

    1998-12-31

    Localized instabilities formation on the free surface of solids has been studied when sources of non-homogeneous stress such as dislocations or precipitates are present in the bulk. This formalism of localized perturbations has been used to describe the butterfly transformation of cubic precipitates in superalloys and the contraction of rectangular specimens under stress.

  5. Locality and realism in contextual theories

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekzema, D.

    1987-08-01

    Two types of contextual theories are distinguished and shown to be related. For theories of each type a criterion of locality is formulated which is weaker than the classical requirement of separability at spacelike intervals. The relations between the concepts of locality, realism, and ontic chance are discussed.

  6. Violation of local realism versus detection efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano

    2003-12-01

    We put bounds on the minimum detection efficiency necessary to violate local realism in Bell experiments. These bounds depend on simple parameters like the number of measurement settings or the dimensionality of the entangled quantum state. We derive them by constructing explicit local hidden variable models which reproduce the quantum correlations for sufficiently small detectors efficiency.

  7. State Mandating of Local Expenditures. In Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    State mandates--constitutional, statutory, or administrative actions that either limit or place requirements on local governments--are often opposed because they are not reimbursed or because they restrict the decision-making authority of local government officials. This report of the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations examines the…

  8. How State and Local Interagency Partnerships Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, Patricia, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue describes a state-local team partnership model for interagency transition efforts for young adults with deaf-blindness. Excepts from a presentation by Jane M. Everson identify key aspects and characteristics of effective state and local interagency partnerships. These include: (1) strategies for initiating and…

  9. Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    The practical sides of local or regional anesthesia are explained by two applications of local anesthetics under moderately demanding circumstances. The examples illustrated are surgical repair of the severed lower tendon of the left index finger and the case of pregnant woman involving the delivery of a child in the early stages of cervical…

  10. Assessment of local deformation using EBSD: Quantification of local damage at grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2012-04-15

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy was used to assess localization of the local misorientation to grain boundary. In order to quantify the degree of localization, a parameter, which was referred to as the grain boundary local misorientation, was proposed. Through crystal orientation measurements using deformed Type 316 stainless steel, it was shown that the grain boundary local misorientation increased with the applied plastic strain. Particularly, at several grain boundaries, the grain boundary local misorientation was more than 3 times the local misorientation averaged for the whole area. Surface observations revealed that the large local misorientation near the grain boundaries was attributed to the impeded slip steps rather than the number of slip steps observed on the surface. The magnitude of the grain boundary local misorientation had a week correlation with grain boundary length or grain boundary misorientation, and no correlation was found for twin boundaries. Finally, it was shown that the maximum grain boundary local misorientation could be estimated statistically, and the estimated maximum value for the specimen surface with an area of 80 mm{sup 2} was 10.6 times the averaged value. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grain boundary local misorientation was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum grain boundary local misorientation could be estimated statistically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large local misorientation was attributed to the impeded slip steps.

  11. Local-time representation of path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Zatloukal, Václav

    2015-12-01

    We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x -dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x (t ) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x . Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high- and low-temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, are also discussed.

  12. Local initiatives and adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ana V Rojas

    2006-03-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to an increase in the number and strength of natural hazards produced by climatic events. This paper presents some examples of the experiences of community-based organisations (CBOs) and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) of variations in climate, and looks at how they have incorporated their findings into the design and implementation of local adaptation strategies. Local organisations integrate climate change and climatic hazards into the design and development of their projects as a means of adapting to their new climatic situation. Projects designed to boost the resilience of local livelihoods are good examples of local adaptation strategies. To upscale these adaptation initiatives, there is a need to improve information exchange between CBOs, NGOs and academia. Moreover, there is a need to bridge the gap between scientific and local knowledge in order to create projects capable of withstanding stronger natural hazards. PMID:16512866

  13. Local contrast and Pavlovian induction1

    PubMed Central

    Malone, John C.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of number and similarity of stimuli on local contrast. In the first experiment, local contrast effects differed in magnitude as a function of the similarity among stimuli; greater positive local contrast appeared when stimuli were less similar, though this effect sometimes reversed for very dissimilar stimuli. In the second experiment, both positive and negative local contrast appeared transiently during the course of training a discrimination including two quite dissimilar stimuli. When two new stimuli were added, both effects reappeared in several cases. The effects remained when the discrimination was rendered more difficult by substituting a new stimulus very similar to one of the original pair. These and other data suggest that local contrast depends on the same factors that produce Pavlovian induction; in the absence of an alternative account, Pavlov's interpretation may be useful in suggesting further research that will help identify the mechanisms involved in both classical and operant discrimination learning. PMID:16811958

  14. Localized scleroderma: clinical spectrum and therapeutic update*

    PubMed Central

    Careta, Mariana Figueiroa; Romiti, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disease that is manifested by cutaneous sclerosis and variable systemic involvement. Two categories of scleroderma are known: systemic sclerosis, characterized by cutaneous sclerosis and visceral involvement, and localized scleroderma or morphea which classically presents benign and self-limited evolution and is confined to the skin and/or underlying tissues. Localized scleroderma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies show that the localized form may affect internal organs and have variable morbidity. Treatment should be started very early, before complications occur due to the high morbidity of localized scleroderma. In this review, we report the most important aspects and particularities in the treatment of patients diagnosed with localized scleroderma. PMID:25672301

  15. Collaborative Localization and Location Verification in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunyu; Dai, Guoyong; Ying, Kezhen; Chen, Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important technologies in wireless sensor networks. A lightweight distributed node localization scheme is proposed by considering the limited computational capacity of WSNs. The proposed scheme introduces the virtual force model to determine the location by incremental refinement. Aiming at solving the drifting problem and malicious anchor problem, a location verification algorithm based on the virtual force mode is presented. In addition, an anchor promotion algorithm using the localization reliability model is proposed to re-locate the drifted nodes. Extended simulation experiments indicate that the localization algorithm has relatively high precision and the location verification algorithm has relatively high accuracy. The communication overhead of these algorithms is relative low, and the whole set of reliable localization methods is practical as well as comprehensive. PMID:25954948

  16. Clusters and localization of electrons in quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Trambly de Laissardiere, G.; Mayou, D.

    1997-02-01

    We analyze the relationship between the tendency to electron localization, which is observed in many quasicrystals and approximants, and the local atomic order. Starting from the structural models, we consider atomic clusters that are embedded in a metallic medium, and we study their scattering properties within the multiple-scattering formalism. We show that these local environments can lead to virtual bound states for electrons, i.e., resonances of the wave function in clusters of different length scale. That is consistent with the tendency to localization shown by transport measurements or band-structure calculations. In agreement with the Hume-Rothery picture of quasicrystals, this tendency to localization has a small effect on the total energy. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Single Photon Emission Local Tomography (SPELT)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    Local tomography uses truncated projection data to reconstruct a region of interest, and is important in medical imaging and industrial non-destructive evaluation using micro X-ray CT. The popular filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm does not reconstruct a reliable image, which varies with the degree and location of truncation due to its global convolution kernel. A typical local tomography method uses a second derivative local operator to replace the global convolution kernel in the filtered backprojection algorithm (LFBP). By using a local filter, the reconstructed region depends only on the local projections. The singularities (edges) are preserved, but the exact image value cannot be recovered. This paper, using the data consistency conditions, developed a pre-processing technique that uses the FBP algorithm, which outperforms direct FBP and LFBP.

  18. Cooperative local repair in distributed storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Ankit Singh; Mazumdar, Arya; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2015-12-01

    Erasure-correcting codes, which support local repair of codeword symbols, have attracted substantial attention recently for their application in distributed storage systems. This paper investigates a generalization of the usual locally repairable codes. In particular, this paper studies a class of codes with the following property: any small set of codeword symbols can be reconstructed (repaired) from a small number of other symbols. This is referred to as cooperative local repair. The main contribution of this paper is bounds on the trade-off of the minimum distance and the dimension of such codes, as well as explicit constructions of families of codes that enable cooperative local repair. Some other results regarding cooperative local repair are also presented, including an analysis for the well-known Hadamard/Simplex codes.

  19. Educating Local Audiences about Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, H. M.; Satterfield, D.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This talk will focus on best practices for educating local audiences about climate science and the importance of providing the larger climate context during extreme weather events, when audiences are particularly interested in the climate connection. In their role as Station Scientists, local television meteorologists serve an important function in educating viewers about climate change and its' associated impacts. Through its' Climate Matters program, Climate Central works to support local television meteorologists in their outreach efforts. Launched in 2010 with support from the National Science Foundation, the program has grown into a network that includes more than 150 weathercasters from across the country. Climate Matters delivers information on climate at the regional and local level, providing ready-to-use, broadcast quality graphics and analyses that put climate change into a local context.

  20. Localized scleroderma: clinical spectrum and therapeutic update.

    PubMed

    Careta, Mariana Figueiroa; Romiti, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disease that is manifested by cutaneous sclerosis and variable systemic involvement. Two categories of scleroderma are known: systemic sclerosis, characterized by cutaneous sclerosis and visceral involvement, and localized scleroderma or morphea which classically presents benign and self-limited evolution and is confined to the skin and/or underlying tissues. Localized scleroderma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies show that the localized form may affect internal organs and have variable morbidity. Treatment should be started very early, before complications occur due to the high morbidity of localized scleroderma. In this review, we report the most important aspects and particularities in the treatment of patients diagnosed with localized scleroderma. PMID:25672301

  1. Dynamical Localization in Kicked Quantum Rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Andrei; Broege, Douglas; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2015-05-01

    The quantum periodically ?-kicked rotor has been shown to experience localization within angular momentum space, rotational wavepacket amplification or annihilation, and Bloch oscillations, amongst other effects, depending on the choice of time-separation between individual kicks. Localization within rotation state space has been linked to Anderson localization within 1-D chains, and has been extensively studied with calculations. Previous experiments used cold atoms in optical lattices to measure a related localization phenomenon. We utilize a train of eight femtosecond scale pulses and compare the molecular alignment signal of a true quantum linear rotor at room temperature when it is kicked periodically and aperiodically. Our data is the first observation of the much studied dynamical localization phenomenon within the quantum rotor. Supported through the Stanford PULSE Institute at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  2. Subcellular localization of the Schlafen protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, Brent; Zhao Liang; Murphy, Kathleen; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2008-05-23

    Although the first members of the Schlafen gene family were first described almost 10 years ago, the precise molecular/biochemical functions of the proteins they encode still remain largely unknown. Roles in cell growth, haematopoietic cell differentiation, and T cell development/maturation have, with some experimental support, been postulated, but none have been conclusively verified. Here, we have determined the subcellular localization of Schlafens 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9, representing all three of the murine subgroups. We show that the proteins from subgroups I and II localize to the cytoplasm, while the longer forms in subgroup III localize exclusively to the nuclear compartment. We also demonstrate upregulation of Schlafen2 upon differentiation of haematopoietic cells and show this endogenous protein localizes to the cytoplasm. Thus, we propose the different subgroups of Schlafen proteins are likely to have functionally distinct roles, reflecting their differing localizations within the cell.

  3. Scale-locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the scale-locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynolds numbers in the 'inertial-inductive range' of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross-helicity - or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsaesser energies - are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Corresponding spectral transfers are also scale-local when defined using octave wavenumber bands. Flux and transfer of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term also may be dominated by non-local triads but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion non locally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{sup 3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.

  4. Control of cytoplasmic mRNA localization.

    PubMed

    Shahbabian, Karen; Chartrand, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    mRNA localization is a mechanism used by various organisms to control the spatial and temporal production of proteins. This process is a highly regulated event that requires multiple cis- and trans-acting elements that mediate the accurate localization of target mRNAs. The intrinsic nature of localization elements, together with their interaction with different RNA-binding proteins, establishes control mechanisms that can oversee the transcript from its birth in the nucleus to its specific final destination. In this review, we aim to summarize the different mechanisms of mRNA localization, with a particular focus on the various control mechanisms that affect the localization of mRNAs in the cytoplasm. PMID:21984598

  5. Local Anesthetics: A Century of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Yagiela, John A.

    1985-01-01

    One century after the clinical introduction of cocaine, local anesthesia remains the most important method of pain control in dentistry. Many local anesthetics have been marketed since 1884, and it is likely that attempts to produce drugs that enhance anesthetic efficacy, reduce systemic and local toxicity, and increase nociceptive selectivity, will continue. In addition, new methods of drug administration have been and will be developed to achieve these goals. Of fundamental importance to such improvements are investigations into the pharmacology of drugs with local anesthetic activity and anatomical and physiologic studies pertaining to the reasons why local anesthetics sometimes fail to achieve desired results. This paper reviews recent advances in our understanding of these drugs and their clinical use. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:2408504

  6. Protein Localization with Flexible DNA or RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Localization of activity is ubiquitous in life, and also within sub-cellular compartments. Localization provides potential advantages as different proteins involved in the same cellular process may supplement each other on a fast timescale. It might also prevent proteins from being active in other regions of the cell. However localization is at odds with the spreading of unbound molecules by diffusion. We model the cost and gain for specific enzyme activity using localization strategies based on binding to sites of intermediate specificity. While such bindings in themselves decrease the activity of the protein on its target site, they may increase protein activity if stochastic motion allows the acting protein to touch both the intermediate binding site and the specific site simultaneously. We discuss this strategy in view of recent suggestions on long non-coding RNA as a facilitator of localized activity of chromatin modifiers. PMID:22347995

  7. Localized modes in defective multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roshan Entezar, S.; Namdar, A.

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, we investigate the localized surface modes in a defective multilayer structure. We show that the defective multilayer structure can support two different kinds of localized modes, depending on the position and the thickness of the defect layer. In one kind, the modes are localized at the interface between the multilayer structure and a homogeneous medium (the so-called surface modes). While, in the other one, the modes are localized at the defect layer (defect-localized modes). We reveal that in the presence of the defect layer, the dispersion curve of the surface modes are pushed to the lower (upper) edge of the photonic band gap when the homogeneous medium is a left-handed (right-handed) material. Therefore, the existence regions of the surface modes are restricted due to the defect layer. Moreover, the effect of defect on the energy flow velocity of the surface modes is discussed.

  8. Guidelines for Preservation, Conservation, and Restoration of Local History and Local Genealogical Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RQ, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents guidelines adopted by the American Library Association (ALA) relating to the preservation, conservation, and restoration of local history and local genealogical materials. Topics addressed include assessing preservation needs; developing a plan; choosing appropriate techniques, including microduplication, photoduplication, electronic…

  9. Spanish as a World Language: The Interplay of Globalized Localization and Localized Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino-Murcia, Mercedes; Godenzzi, Juan Carlos; Rothman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that two movements in constant interplay operate within the historical trajectory of the Spanish language: the localization that becomes globalized and the globalization that becomes localized. Equally, this article illustrates how, at the same time that Spanish is expanding in the world, new idiosyncratic and localized forms…

  10. Understanding Your Local Economy: Economic Base Analysis and Local Development Strategies. Community Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A.; And Others

    Community decision makers selecting an economic development strategy most appropriate for their local community must begin with an understanding of how their local economy functions, what its economic base is, and how changes in that base may affect local economic structure and performance. The economic base approach emphasizes the roles of…

  11. Local School Finance in North Carolina. A Yardstick for Measuring Local Support of Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public School Forum of North Carolina, Raleigh.

    This document presents the results of a Forum study of local financial support of schools. The primary objective was to devise a yardstick to measure the local effort in a way useful to both citizens and policymakers. Data on property wealth for each of the 140 local school systems in North Carolina were developed. School systems making the…

  12. Spanish as a World Language: The Interplay of Globalized Localization and Localized Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nino-Murcia, Mercedes; Godenzzi, Juan Carlos; Rothman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that two movements in constant interplay operate within the historical trajectory of the Spanish language: the localization that becomes globalized and the globalization that becomes localized. Equally, this article illustrates how, at the same time that Spanish is expanding in the world, new idiosyncratic and localized forms…

  13. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  14. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  15. Magnetocardiographic functional localization using current multipole models.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, J; Katila, T; Leiniö, M; Montonen, J; Mäkijärvi, M; Siltanen, P

    1991-07-01

    High-resolution magnetocardiographic mapping was applied to localize the ventricular preexcitation site in ten patients suffering form Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Three different source models were tested, consisting of the dipole and quadrupole moments in a general multipole expansion. Noninvasive localizations were performed by computations based on measured magnetic maps without a priori assumptions of the source location and without imposing any constraints. In all cases, the computed results were compared with invasive localization results obtained by catheter mapping technique. Preoperative catheterization localizes the atrial end of the accessory pathway, while our method localizes the ventricular preexcitation site. Of the models used, the average three-dimensional difference between the invasive localization results and the HR-MCG results was smallest 2.9 cm for the source model consisting of the magnetic dipole. The preexcitation site was very deep in all cases. The current dipole alone was inaccurate in estimating the source depth, but inclusion of the quadrupole moments improved the results. Two of the patients underwent surgery to interrupt the accessory pathway, which provided further validation for the noninvasive localizations. PMID:1879857

  16. Localization of airborne pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2001-05-01

    Although all pinnipeds communicate acoustically in air, most previous research on sound localization has been done under water. We have recently shown that several pinniped species localize aerial broadband signals as well as some terrestrial carnivores [Holt et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113 (2003)]. However, it is unclear which frequencies are particularly important for localization in these animals. In this study, we tested a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in a hemianechoic chamber at frequencies ranging between 0.8 and 20 kHz. A left/right procedure was used to measure minimum audible angles (MAAs) corresponding to 75%-correct discrimination. MAAs ranged from approximately 4 to 13 deg in both subjects, with the largest MAAs or poorest acuity measured at the intermediate frequencies tested. These results are consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization in that low-frequency sounds appear to be localized on the basis of interaural time differences, while high-frequency sounds appear to be localized on the basis of interaural intensity differences. Testing with a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) will provide further insight on the use of binaural cues and head-size effects with respect to localization in pinnipeds.

  17. Does Levothyroxine Administration Impact Parathyroid Localization?

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Rachell R.; Tobin, Kirby; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Balentine, Courtney; Elfenbein, Dawn; Chen, Herbert; Schneider, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Proper localization is crucial in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Ultrasonography (US) and Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy are common methods used for localization. As the appearance and activity of the thyroid gland may impact parathyroid localization, the purpose of this study was to determine how exogenous use of the thyroid hormone, levothyroxine (LT), affects parathyroid localization. Methods Adult patients with non-familial PHPT who underwent initial parathyroidectomy from 2000 to 2014 were retrospectively identified. Levothyroxine (+LT) and non-levothyroxine (-LT) patients were matched 1:3 based on age, gender, goiter status, and preoperative parathyroid hormone levels. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients previously treated with radioactive iodine and patients undergoing single adenoma resection. Results Of the 1,737 patients that met inclusion criteria, 286 were on LT at the time of their parathyroid localization scan. Use of LT not did impact the percentage of correct MIBI localization scans when compared to −LT patients (p=0.83). Interestingly, use of LT significantly hindered localization by US in comparison to the −LT group (48.4 vs 62.2%, p<0.01). When examining only patients where a single upper gland was removed, the +LT group was less likely to have a correct US compared to the −LT group (50 vs. 72.8%, p<0.01). However, there was no difference in US accuracy for patients who only had a single lower gland removed (p=0.51). Conclusions Exogenous levothyroxine is associated with impaired parathyroid localization with US but not MIBI. Surgeons should be aware of localization efficiency for this subset of patients in the era of personalized medicine and cost effectiveness. PMID:25917998

  18. Local SAR in parallel transmission pulse design.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonsung; Gebhardt, Matthias; Wald, Lawrence L; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2012-06-01

    The management of local and global power deposition in human subjects (specific absorption rate, SAR) is a fundamental constraint to the application of parallel transmission (pTx) systems. Even though the pTx and single channel have to meet the same SAR requirements, the complex behavior of the spatial distribution of local SAR for transmission arrays poses problems that are not encountered in conventional single-channel systems and places additional requirements on pTx radio frequency pulse design. We propose a pTx pulse design method which builds on recent work to capture the spatial distribution of local SAR in numerical tissue models in a compressed parameterization in order to incorporate local SAR constraints within computation times that accommodate pTx pulse design during an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging scan. Additionally, the algorithm yields a protocol-specific ultimate peak in local SAR, which is shown to bound the achievable peak local SAR for a given excitation profile fidelity. The performance of the approach was demonstrated using a numerical human head model and a 7 Tesla eight-channel transmit array. The method reduced peak local 10 g SAR by 14-66% for slice-selective pTx excitations and 2D selective pTx excitations compared to a pTx pulse design constrained only by global SAR. The primary tradeoff incurred for reducing peak local SAR was an increase in global SAR, up to 34% for the evaluated examples, which is favorable in cases where local SAR constraints dominate the pulse applications. PMID:22083594

  19. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Botero, A.

    1995-10-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3.

  20. Many-Body Localization in Dipolar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. Y.; Laumann, C. R.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Knap, M.; Müller, M.; Demler, E. A.; Lukin, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Systems of strongly interacting dipoles offer an attractive platform to study many-body localized phases, owing to their long coherence times and strong interactions. We explore conditions under which such localized phases persist in the presence of power-law interactions and supplement our analytic treatment with numerical evidence of localized states in one dimension. We propose and analyze several experimental systems that can be used to observe and probe such states, including ultracold polar molecules and solid-state magnetic spin impurities.

  1. Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity.

    PubMed

    Carragher, Damian M; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D

    2008-02-01

    Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology. PMID:18243731

  2. Ectopic lymphoid tissues and local immunity

    PubMed Central

    Carragher, Damian M.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Randall, Troy D.

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues develop at sites of inflammation or infection in peripheral, non-lymphoid organs. These tissues are architecturally similar to conventional secondary lymphoid organs, with separated B and T cell areas, specialized populations of dendritic cells, well-differentiated stromal cells and high endothelial venules. Ectopic lymphoid tissues are often associated with the local pathology that results from chronic infection or chronic inflammation. However, there are also examples in which ectopic lymphoid tissues appear to contribute to local protective immune responses. Here we review how ectopic lymphoid structures develop and function in the context of local immunity and pathology. PMID:18243731

  3. Potential fate of local model building

    SciTech Connect

    Luedeling, Christoph; Nilles, Hans Peter; Stephan, Claudia Christine

    2011-04-15

    We analyze local models at the point of E{sub 8} in F-theory grand unified theories and identify exactly two models with potentially realistic properties concerning proton stability and a suitable pattern of quark and lepton masses. To this end, we identify a matter parity at the local point. A globally consistent ultraviolet completion turns out to be problematic for both models. It is impossible to embed the models in a semilocal scheme via the spectral cover approach. This seems to severely limit the predictive power of local model building and to indicate that the full string theory might give us valuable hints for particle physics model building.

  4. Non-locality of experimental qutrit pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, C.; Bessire, B.; Montina, A.; Pfaffhauser, M.; Stefanov, A.; Wolf, S.

    2014-10-01

    The insight due to John Bell that the joint behavior of individually measured entangled quantum systems cannot be explained by shared information remains a mystery to this day. We describe an experiment, and its analysis, displaying non-locality of entangled qutrit pairs. The non-locality of such systems, as compared to qubit pairs, is of particular interest since it potentially opens the door for tests of bipartite non-local behavior independent of probabilistic Bell inequalities, but of deterministic nature. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  5. Requirements for inhibition of localized corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Gunaltun, Y.M.; Chevrot, T.

    1999-11-01

    Localized corrosion is the principal cause of line failure when corrosion is internal. As the inhibition is the most common way to control corrosion in wet gas and oil production lines, the inhibitor should be able to control localized corrosion in all cases where it may occur. Therefore, inhibitor selection philosophy should be based on this approach. Laboratory and field evaluation of corrosion inhibitors showed that some products are almost 100% efficient in preventing localized corrosion if their concentration in the water phase is above a threshold value. The main uncertainty, which then remains, is the inhibitor availability at the pipe surface.

  6. Methods for studying RNA localization in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kannaiah, Shanmugapriya; Amster-Choder, Orna

    2016-04-01

    The subcellular localization of RNA transcripts provides important insights into biological processes. Hence, understanding the mechanisms underlying RNA targeting is a high priority aim of modern cell biology. The advancements in imaging techniques, such as in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, coupled with the evolution in optical microscopy led to the discovery that bacterial RNAs, despite the lack of nucleus, are specifically localized. Here we describe the methods used to study RNA localization in bacteria and their applications and discuss their advantages and limitations. PMID:26707207

  7. [Development of local health systems in Uruguay].

    PubMed

    Noceti, M C; Gherardi, A; Ríos, A M; Ríos, F

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes Uruguay's experience in local health systems development and the elements that have contributed to awareness and dissemination of this concept. In 1988 the Ministry of Public Health assumed responsibility as one of the entities charged with strengthening the country's local health systems. A technical group was created to act at the central level. It has proposed and promoted changes directed toward the deconcentration of resource utilization in accordance with a set of general guidelines and, at the local level, has acted as a catalyst in the understanding of health services delivery management as a systemic concept. PMID:2151169

  8. Many-body localization in dipolar systems.

    PubMed

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gopalakrishnan, S; Knap, M; Müller, M; Demler, E A; Lukin, M D

    2014-12-12

    Systems of strongly interacting dipoles offer an attractive platform to study many-body localized phases, owing to their long coherence times and strong interactions. We explore conditions under which such localized phases persist in the presence of power-law interactions and supplement our analytic treatment with numerical evidence of localized states in one dimension. We propose and analyze several experimental systems that can be used to observe and probe such states, including ultracold polar molecules and solid-state magnetic spin impurities. PMID:25541771

  9. Engaging Students through Mapping Local History

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Katharyne; Elwood, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the integration of local history and geography through collaborative digital mapping can lead to greater interest in civic participation by early adolescent learners. In the study, twenty-nine middle school students were asked to research, represent, and discuss local urban sites of historical significance on an interactive Web platform. As students learned more about local community events, people, and historical forces, they became increasingly engaged with the material and enthusiastic about making connections to larger issues and processes. In the final session, students expressed interest in participating in their own communities through joining nonprofit organizations and educating others about community history and daily life. PMID:25635145

  10. Digitalización de diapositivas del Sol en H ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missio, H.; Montenegro, C.; Montenegro, R.

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido el de obtener imágenes digitalizadas de las diapositivas tomadas del Sol en luz de hidrógeno de la línea correspondiente a H?, y de esta manera llegar a convertir las mismas a un archivo digital para poder ser tratadas luego por computadora y poder contabilizar con exactitud, mediante un programa adecuado para tal fin, las zonas activas del Sol en la imagen digitalizada. En principio, para llegar a esto se pensó en la utilización de medios accesibles, y como detector se utilizó un fototransistor ubicado dentro de un soporte rectangular sobre dos ejes de desplazamiento X e Y. Se han obtenido con este procedimiento imágenes de buena calidad, construídas a partir de tres datos digitalizados en cada barrido que aportan la posición X e Y y la intensidad del pixel en ese punto indicada en 255 tonos de grises.

  11. Local variability in long-term care services: local autonomy, exogenous influences and policy spillovers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, José-Luis; Forder, Julien

    2015-03-01

    In many countries, public responsibility over the funding and provision of long-term care services is held at the local level. In such systems, long-term care provision is often characterised by significant local variability. Using a panel dataset of local authorities over the period 2002-2012, the paper investigates the underlying causes of variation in gross social care expenditure for older people in England. The analysis distinguishes between factors outside the direct control of policy makers, local preferences and local policy spillovers. The results indicate that local demand and supply factors, and to a much lesser extent local political preferences and spatial policy spillovers, explain a large majority of the observed variation in expenditure. PMID:25760589

  12. Evaluation of river restoration by local residents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Today, river corrections aiming at better flood protection must consider ecological aspects such as "naturalness" and biodiversity. Gaining acceptance among local residents for these projects is important, since they impact local infrastructure and alter the familiar landscape. The question addressed in this paper is whether there are differences between local residents regarding the question of whether they think a river restoration project at a section of the Swiss Thur River was reasonable. We also investigate whether there are differences regarding the reasons for this evaluation, such as improved flood protection, higher perceived naturalness, increased biodiversity, and aesthetics. Results show that for farmers flood protection and naturalness are more important factors than for others and that there are differences among the local villages.

  13. Local dynamics of spatially distributed Hutchinson equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashchenko, Ilya

    2011-09-01

    The local dynamics of spatially distributed Hutchinson equation is studied. In critical cases, which all have infinite dimension, systems of parabolic equations are built, which play the role of normal forms.

  14. Mode localization in multi-span beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, S. D.; Friedmann, P. P.; Bendiksen, O. O.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of numerous effects on mode localization in multi-span beams is investigated. Finite-element methods are used to study localization as a function of: Timoshenko beam effects; beam end conditions; span length, mass, and stiffness imperfection; viscous damping; axial force; transverse support and rotational coupling stiffness; and modeling resolution. Three configurations are studied, commencing with two different two-span models, and culminating in a ten-span configuration resembling lattice-type large space structures. Results indicate that, in addition to the ratio of imperfection to coupling stiffness being an important localization parameter, transverse support stiffness and Timoshenko beam effects greatly affect the tendency of a structure to exhibit localized modes.

  15. Localized states in periodically forced systems.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-01-23

    The theory of stationary spatially localized patterns in dissipative systems driven by time-independent forcing is well developed. With time-periodic forcing, related but time-dependent structures may result. These may consist of breathing localized patterns, or states that grow for part of the cycle via nucleation of new wavelengths of the pattern followed by wavelength annihilation during the remainder of the cycle. These two competing processes lead to a complex phase diagram whose structure is a consequence of a series of resonances between the nucleation time and the forcing period. The resulting diagram is computed for the periodically forced quadratic-cubic Swift-Hohenberg equation, and its details are interpreted in terms of the properties of the depinning transition for the fronts bounding the localized state on either side. The results are expected to shed light on localized states in a large variety of periodically driven systems. PMID:25659000

  16. Local Lyapunov exponents computed from observed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarbanel, H. D. I.; Brown, R.; Kennel, M. B.

    1992-09-01

    We develop methods for determining local Lyapunov exponents from observations of a scalar data set. Using average mutual information and the method of false neighbors, we reconstruct a multivariate time series, and then use local polynomial neighborhood-to-neighborhood maps to determine the phase space partial derivatives required to compute Lyapunov exponents. In several examples we demonstrate that the methods allow one to accurately reproduce results determined when the dynamics is known beforehand. We present a new recursive QR decomposition method for finding the eigenvalues of products of matrices when that product is severely ill conditioned, and we give an argument to show that local Lyapunov exponents are ambiguous up to order 1/ L in the number of steps due to the choice of coordinate system. Local Lyapunov exponents are the critical element in determining the practical predictability of a chaotic system, so the results here will be of some general use.

  17. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  18. Localized soft elasticity in liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Taylor H.; Biggins, John S.; Shick, Andreas F.; Warner, Mark; White, Timothy J.

    2016-02-01

    Synthetic approaches to prepare designer materials that localize deformation, by combining rigidity and compliance in a single material, have been widely sought. Bottom-up approaches, such as the self-organization of liquid crystals, offer potential advantages over top-down patterning methods such as photolithographic control of crosslink density, relating to the ease of preparation and fidelity of resolution. Here, we report on the directed self-assembly of materials with spatial and hierarchical variation in mechanical anisotropy. The highly nonlinear mechanical properties of the liquid crystalline elastomers examined here enables strain to be locally reduced >15-fold without introducing compositional variation or other heterogeneities. Each domain (>=0.01 mm2) exhibits anisotropic nonlinear response to load based on the alignment of the molecular orientation with the loading axis. Accordingly, we design monoliths that localize deformation in uniaxial and biaxial tension, shear, bending and crack propagation, and subsequently demonstrate substrates for globally deformable yet locally stiff electronics.

  19. Configuration of the local interstellar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.; Andersson, B.; Berdhyugin, A.; Funsten, H. O.; DeMajistre, R.; Magalhaes, A.; McComas, D.; Piirola, V.; Schwadron, N.; Seriacopi, D.; Slavin, J. D.; Wiktorowicz, S.; IBEX Team

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of the Ribbon of energetic neutral atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provides a new and unexpected diagnostic of the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The IBEX Ribbon forms where the interstellar magnetic field draping over the heliosphere is perpendicular to the sightline. We have shown that the direction of the interstellar magnetic field close to the Sun, obtained from starlight polarized in the interstellar medium (ISM), is consistent with the ISMF direction that is traced by the IBEX Ribbon. In this presentation we show that new optical polarization data indicate that the local ISMF has a smoothly varying component stretching from the first to the third galactic quadrant. Both the ISMF direction and the kinematics of local interstellar gas within tens of parsecs support an interpretation where the local interstellar clouds are a fragment of the expanding Loop I superbubble.

  20. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    SciTech Connect

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-05-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues.

  1. An example of setting up local network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua

    2002-03-01

    From save IP address and safety angle, people tend to set up Local Area Network (LAN). In this article, the author gives a practical example to build LAN under Linux environment and related simple base concepts.

  2. Localization in splitting of matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jääskeläinen, Markku; Stenholm, Stig

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of how matter waves, guided as propagating modes in potential structures, are split under adiabatic conditions. The description is formulated in terms of localized states obtained through a unitary transformation acting on the mode functions. The mathematical framework results in coupled propagation equations that are decoupled in the asymptotic regions as well before as after the split. The resulting states have the advantage of describing propagation in situations, for instance matter-wave interferometers, where local perturbations make the transverse modes of the guiding potential unsuitable as a basis. The different regimes of validity of adiabatic propagation schemes based on localized versus delocalized basis states are also outlined. Nontrivial dynamics for superposition states propagating through split potential structures is investigated through numerical simulations. For superposition states the influence of longitudinal wave-packet extension on the localization is investigated and shown to be accurately described in quantitative terms using the adiabatic formulations presented here.

  3. Logical operator tradeoff for local quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haah, Jeongwan; Preskill, John

    2011-03-01

    We study the structure of logical operators in local D -dimensional quantum codes, considering both subsystem codes with geometrically local gauge generators and codes defined by geometrically local commuting projectors. We show that if the code distance is d , then any logical operator can be supported on a set of specified geometry containing d~ qubits, where d~d 1 / (D - 1) = O (n) and n is the code length. Our results place limitations on partially self-correcting quantum memories, in which at least some logical operators are protected by energy barriers that grow with system size. We also show that two-dimensional codes defined by local commuting projectors admit logical ``string'' operators and are not self correcting. NSF PHY-0803371, DOE DE-FG03-92-ER40701, NSA/ARO W911NF-09-1-0442, and KFAS.

  4. Molecular Motors: Directing Traffic during RNA Localization

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, James A.; Mowry, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    RNA localization, the enrichment of RNA in a specific subcellular region, is a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of cellular polarity in a variety of systems. Ultimately, this results in a universal method for spatially restricting gene expression. While the consequences of RNA localization are well appreciated, many of the mechanisms that are responsible for carrying out polarized transport remain elusive. Several recent studies have illuminated the roles that molecular motor proteins play in the process of RNA localization. These studies have revealed complex mechanisms in which the coordinated action of one or more motor proteins can act at different points in the localization process to direct RNAs to their final destination. In this review, we discuss recent findings from several different systems in an effort to clarify pathways and mechanisms that control the directed movement of RNA. PMID:21476929

  5. Hearing in three dimensions: Sound localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to localize a source of sound in space is a fundamental component of the three dimensional character of the sound of audio. For over a century scientists have been trying to understand the physical and psychological processes and physiological mechanisms that subserve sound localization. This research has shown that important information about sound source position is provided by interaural differences in time of arrival, interaural differences in intensity and direction-dependent filtering provided by the pinnae. Progress has been slow, primarily because experiments on localization are technically demanding. Control of stimulus parameters and quantification of the subjective experience are quite difficult problems. Recent advances, such as the ability to simulate a three dimensional sound field over headphones, seem to offer potential for rapid progress. Research using the new techniques has already produced new information. It now seems that interaural time differences are a much more salient and dominant localization cue than previously believed.

  6. Local density dependent potential for compressible mesoparticles.

    PubMed

    Faure, Gérôme; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2014-03-21

    This work proposes a coarse grained description of molecular systems based on mesoparticles representing several molecules, where interactions between mesoparticles are modelled by an interparticle potential of molecular type. Since strong non-equilibrium situations over a wide range of pressure and density are targeted, the internal compressibility of the mesoparticles has to be considered. This is done by introducing a dependence of the potential on the local environment of the mesoparticles. To define local densities, we resort to a three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation instead of standard local, spherical averages. As an example, a local density dependent potential is fitted to reproduce the Hugoniot curve of a model of nitromethane over a large range of pressures and densities. PMID:24655170

  7. [Preoperative localization of insulinoma is necessary].

    PubMed

    Houlbert, D; Roche, A; Dorf, G; Gardies, A; Roche, D; Segrestaa, J M

    1984-01-01

    Many insulinomas because of their small size are not localized by routine investigations: abdominal ultrasound, angiography, computed tomography, nor at the step of laparotomy. Biological diagnosis is far more encouraging. Percutaneous transhepatic sampling of blood in the portal venous system is very predictable for adenoma localization. Absolute reliability of this method remains to be established, nevertheless the observance of some basic requirements are already known: withdrawal of any drug interfering with insulin release several days before performing the catheterism; need of a steady, preferably low, glucose level during the whole sampling; selective samples in tiny draining veins of the whole gland, and adequate radio-immunoassay. Transhepatic sampling can detect multiple localisations and diffuse hyperplasia but angiography alone is able to show hepatic metastasis and is helpful in giving the surgeon information on local vascularization. Confrontation of both angiography and transhepatic sampling gives the best criteria of localization. In case of discrepancy, transhepatic sampling seems to be more reliable. PMID:6322637

  8. [Value of diagnostic localization of insulinoma].

    PubMed

    Böttger, T; Weber, W; Beyer, J; Junginger, T

    1989-09-15

    The value of diagnostic localization of insulinoma The value of diagnostic localization statements are contradictory. Basing on our own patient material (n = 41) the preoperative localization of an insulinoma was correct with sonography in 57.7%, with computed tomography in 21.4%, with computed tomography with bolus injection of contrast medium in 73.3%, with angiography 63.9% and with percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterisation with selective test of hormones (PTP) in 76.9%. Intraoperative 38 of 41 insulinomas were palpable and twelve of 16 insulinomas were seen during intraoperative sonography. Although we palpate more than 90% of all insulinomas we support a preoperative diagnostic localization for easier intraoperative palpation. PMID:2554101

  9. Globalisation And Local Indigenous Education In Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, Leanne

    2004-11-01

    Globalisation is often viewed as a threat to cultural and linguistic diversity and therefore is a central concern of educational practices and policy. The present study challenges this common view by demonstrating that local communities can use global means to support and enhance their specific practices and policies. An historical exploration of education policy in Mexico reveals that there has been a continuing struggle by indigenous peoples to maintain locally relevant modes of teaching. Indigenous peoples have increasingly used technology to maintain their languages and local cultural practices. Such accentuation of the local in a global context is exemplified by the people of Chiapas: They live in subsistence-type communities, yet their recent education movements and appeals to international solidarity (such as in the Zapatista rebellion) have employed computer-aided technologies.

  10. Gauge field localization on brane worlds

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, Rommel; Rodriguez, R. Omar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson

    2010-04-15

    We consider the effects of spacetime curvature and brane thickness on the localization of gauge fields on a brane via kinetic terms induced by localized fermions. We find that in a warped geometry with an infinitely thin brane, both the infrared and the ultraviolet behavior of the electromagnetic propagator are affected, providing a more stringent bound on the brane's tension than that coming from the requirement of four-dimensional gravity on the brane. On the other hand, for a thick wall in a flat spacetime, where the fermions are localized by means of a Yukawa coupling, we find that four-dimensional electromagnetism is recovered in a region bounded from above by the same critical distance appearing in the thin case, but also from below by a new scale related to the brane's thickness and the electromagnetic couplings. This imposes very stringent bounds on the brane's thickness which seem to invalidate the localization mechanism for this case.

  11. A hybrid localization technique for patient tracking.

    PubMed

    Rodionov, Denis; Kolev, George; Bushminkin, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays numerous technologies are employed for tracking patients and assets in hospitals or nursing homes. Each of them has advantages and drawbacks. For example, WiFi localization has relatively good accuracy but cannot be used in case of power outage or in the areas with poor WiFi coverage. Magnetometer positioning or cellular network does not have such problems but they are not as accurate as localization with WiFi. This paper describes technique that simultaneously employs different localization technologies for enhancing stability and average accuracy of localization. The proposed algorithm is based on fingerprinting method paired with data fusion and prediction algorithms for estimating the object location. The core idea of the algorithm is technology fusion using error estimation methods. For testing accuracy and performance of the algorithm testing simulation environment has been implemented. Significant accuracy improvement was showed in practical scenarios. PMID:24111287

  12. Coulomb branch localization in quiver quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sasai, Yuya

    2016-02-01

    We show how to exactly calculate the refined indices of {N}=4U(1)× U(N) supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics in the Coulomb branch by using the localization technique. The Coulomb branch localization is discussed from the viewpoint of both non-linear and gauged linear sigma models. A classification of fixed points in the Coulomb branch differs from one in the Higgs branch, but the derived indices completely agree with the results which were obtained by the localization in the Higgs branch. In the Coulomb branch localization, the refined indices can be written as a summation over different sets of the Coulomb branch fixed points. We also discuss a space-time picture of the fixed points in the Coulomb branch.

  13. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to time and will be brought to the attention of local residents and persons assigned to duty on the Islands by posting in public places and brought to the attention of tourists by personal notice....

  14. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes’ centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q)?~?q??, localization occurs on the largest hub if ??>?5/2 for ??localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix.

  15. Talking Books and the Local Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamisar, Hylda; Pollet, Dorothy

    1974-01-01

    Under the administration of the Library of Congress, local and regional libraries cooperate in the talking book program by distributing books and magazines, as well as audio equipment, to the visually handicapped. (LS)

  16. Spatial Symmetries of the Local Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Rohozinski, S.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2010-01-01

    Spatial symmetries of the densities appearing in the nuclear Density Functional Theory are discussed. General forms of the local densities are derived by using methods of construction of isotropic tensor fields. The spherical and axial cases are considered.

  17. Pontin is localized in nucleolar fibrillar centers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Pontin is a multifunctional protein having roles in various cellular processes including regulation of gene expression. Here, we addressed Pontin intracellular localization using two different monoclonal antibodies directed against different Pontin epitopes. For the first time, Pontin was directly visualized in nucleoli where it co-localizes with Upstream Binding Factor and RNA polymerase I. Nucleolar localization of Pontin was confirmed by its detection in nucleolar extracts and by electron microscopy, which revealed Pontin accumulation specifically in the nucleolar fibrillar centers. Pontin localization in the nucleolus was dynamic and Pontin accumulated in large nucleolar dots mainly during S-phase. Pontin concentration in the large nucleolar dots correlated with reduced transcriptional activity of nucleoli. In addition, Pontin was found to associate with RNA polymerase I and to interact in a complex with c-Myc with rDNA sequences indicating that Pontin is involved in the c-Myc-dependent regulation of rRNA synthesis. PMID:18548265

  18. Supersonic projectile models for asynchronous shooter localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozick, Richard J.; Whipps, Gene T.; Ash, Joshua N.

    2011-06-01

    In this work we consider the localization of a gunshot using a distributed sensor network measuring time differences of arrival between a firearm's muzzle blast and the shockwave induced by a supersonic bullet. This so-called MB-SW approach is desirable because time synchronization is not required between the sensors, however it suffers from increased computational complexity and requires knowledge of the bullet's velocity at all points along its trajectory. While the actual velocity profile of a particular gunshot is unknown, one may use a parameterized model for the velocity profile and simultaneously fit the model and localize the shooter. In this paper we study efficient solutions for the localization problem and identify deceleration models that trade off localization accuracy and computational complexity. We also develop a statistical analysis that includes bias due to mismatch between the true and actual deceleration models and covariance due to additive noise.

  19. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  20. A Survey of Local Anesthesia Course Directors

    PubMed Central

    Dower, James S.

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to present local anesthesia course directors with detailed information that can be used in assessing and improving their courses. A questionnaire was mailed to the directors of local anesthesia courses in all dental schools in the United States and Puerto Rico. The results indicate that oral surgery/oral and maxillofacial surgery departments are involved in 89% of predoctoral local anesthesia courses and that a typical course has 15 hr of didactic and 5 hr of clinical instruction, with a 1:4 faculty:student ratio during the portion of clinical instruction that involves administering injections to classmates. Although an average course content can be derived from the data, the survey revealed quite a bit of diversity in terms of programs of instruction. The program designs, injections covered, instructional materials used, and protocols followed in the event of ineffective anesthetization all warrant consideration by those interested in the way in which instruction in local anesthesia occurs. PMID:19598720

  1. Distinct types of eigenvector localization in networks.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The spectral properties of the adjacency matrix provide a trove of information about the structure and function of complex networks. In particular, the largest eigenvalue and its associated principal eigenvector are crucial in the understanding of nodes' centrality and the unfolding of dynamical processes. Here we show that two distinct types of localization of the principal eigenvector may occur in heterogeneous networks. For synthetic networks with degree distribution P(q)?~?q(-?), localization occurs on the largest hub if ??>?5/2; for ??localization arises on a mesoscopic subgraph associated with the shell with the largest index in the K-core decomposition. Similar evidence for the existence of distinct localization modes is found in the analysis of real-world networks. Our results open a new perspective on dynamical processes on networks and on a recently proposed alternative measure of node centrality based on the non-backtracking matrix. PMID:26754565

  2. Fiber-connected position localization sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shilong; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Jianbin; Yao, Tingfeng

    2014-11-01

    Position localization has drawn great attention due to its wide applications in radars, sonars, electronic warfare, wireless communications and so on. Photonic approaches to realize position localization can achieve high-resolution, which also provides the possibility to move the signal processing from each sensor node to the central station, thanks to the low loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and broad bandwidth brought by the photonic technologies. In this paper, we present a review on the recent works of position localization based on photonic technologies. A fiber-connected ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor network using optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is proposed to realize high-resolution localization and moving the signal processing to the central station. A 3.9-cm high spatial resolution is achieved. A wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-connected sensor network is also demonstrated to realize location which is independent of the received signal format.

  3. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to time and will be brought to the attention of local residents and persons assigned to duty on the Islands by posting in public places and brought to the attention of tourists by personal notice....

  4. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to time and will be brought to the attention of local residents and persons assigned to duty on the Islands by posting in public places and brought to the attention of tourists by personal notice....

  5. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to time and will be brought to the attention of local residents and persons assigned to duty on the Islands by posting in public places and brought to the attention of tourists by personal notice....

  6. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements. PMID:18989011

  7. Local cloning of two product states

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-09-15

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states.

  8. Coherent multichannel technology in the local loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrujere, A. C.; van Deventer, M. Oskar; Koning, O. J.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper the introduction of coherent multi-channel technology in local loop networks is being discussed. A topology study is given and the possible evolution scenario to introduce coherent technology is discussed. The concept and the realization of a complete coherent multi-channel system, designed for application in the local loop, is presented. The system supports broadband distributive and interactive services over coherent channels, and includes network signalling and network security.

  9. Quantum Bell inequalities from macroscopic locality

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tzyh Haur; Sheridan, Lana; Navascues, Miguel; Scarani, Valerio

    2011-02-15

    We propose a method to generate analytical quantum Bell inequalities based on the principle of macroscopic locality. By imposing locality over binary processings of virtual macroscopic intensities, we establish a correspondence between Bell inequalities and quantum Bell inequalities in bipartite scenarios with dichotomic observables. We discuss how to improve the latter approximation and how to extend our ideas to scenarios with more than two outcomes per setting.

  10. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-23

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  11. PRINCIPLE OF INTERACTION REGION LOCAL CORRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    For hadron storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the machine performance at collision is usually limited by the field quality of the interaction region (IR) magnets. A robust local correction for the IR region is valuable in improving the dynamic aperture with practically achievable magnet field quality. The authors present in this paper the action-angle kick minimization principle on which the local IR correction for both RHIC and the LHC are based.

  12. Lost in localization: a minimal middle way.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2009-10-15

    Commentaries by Derrfuss and Mar (Derrfuss, J., Mar, R., 2009. Lost in localization: the need for a universal coordinate database. Neuroimage.) and Nielsen (Nielsen, F.A., 2009. Lost in localization: a solution with neuroinformatics 2.0? Neuroimage.) outline the need for a universal coordinate database and some possible approaches to creating one. I highlight the issue of minimal or maximal database scope and advocate a bottom-up approach to this problem. PMID:19442743

  13. Two cases of idiopathic localized involutional lipoatrophy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Jung Eun; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Baik Kee

    2010-08-01

    Localized involutional lipoatrophy (LIL) is a rare distinctive idiopathic form of localized lipoatrophy. The characteristic features in histopathology of LIL are diminutive fat lobules composed of small adipocyte resembling fetal fat tissue. LIL is not a well-known disorder, there have been only a few reports on LIL in the English literature. We herein report 2 cases of LIL and review the previously published cases. PMID:20711277

  14. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    ScienceCinema

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-26

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  15. Local gravitomagnetic perturbations of the lunar orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1992-01-01

    Using the metric in the local inertial frame of the Earth, we calculate relativistic effects on the lunar orbit with the synodic month period. It is shown that such perturbations arise entirely from the gravitomagnetic components of the local metric which exist because of the relative motion of the sun with respect to the Earth. In the case of general relativity, the net perturbation has an amplitude of 3 cm for the lunar range.

  16. Self-Localization Method by Integrating Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, T.; Matsumoto, K.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, development of high performance CPU, cameras and other sensors on mobile devices have been used for wide variety of applications. Most of the applications require self-localization of the mobile device. Since the self-localization is based on GPS, gyro sensor, acceleration meter and magnetic field sensor (called as POS) of low accuracy, the applications are limited. On the other hand, self-localization method using images have been developed, and the accuracy of the method is increasing. This paper develops the self-localization method by integrating sensors, such as POS and cameras, on mobile devices simultaneously. The proposed method mainly consists of two parts: one is the accuracy improvement of POS data filtering, and another is development of self-localization method by integrating POS and camera. The POS data filtering combines all POS data by using Kalman filter in order to improve the accuracy of exterior orientation factors. The exterior orientation factors with POS filtering are used as initial value of ones in image-based self-localization method. The image-based self-localization method consists of feature points extraction and tracking, relative orientation, coordinates estimation of the feature points, and orientation factors updates of the mobile device. The proposed method is applied to POS data and images taken in urban area. Through experiments with real data, the accuracy improvement by POS data filtering is confirmed. The proposed self-localization method with POS and camera make the accuracy more sophisticated by comparing with only POS data filtering.

  17. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F.; Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B.

    2011-07-15

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  18. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.

    2011-07-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  19. Cubital tunnel release using local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Huq, Nasim S; Ahmed, Naweed; Razeghi, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses an alternative approach to general anesthesia with the use of local anesthesia in minor operating procedure suites when performing in situ decompression of cubital tunnel syndrome for those patients who have mild to moderately severe symptoms and for those who fail to respond to conservative measures. Anterior transposition can easily be performed in the same setting if indicated all with local anesthesia. PMID:24093652

  20. Benefits of Early Systemic Antibiotics in Localized Aggressive Periodontitis. A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Beliveau, Dennis; Magnusson, Ingvar; Bidwell, John A.; Zapert, Edward F.; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M.; Shaddox, Luciana M.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) may include systemic antibiotics, yet it is unclear at what stage of treatment planning antibiotics are most effective. Aim This retrospective analysis compared immediate vs. delayed antibiotic therapy on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) inflammatory mediators. Material and Methods At baseline, 3 and 6 months after treatment, clinical parameters [probing depth (PD), attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BoP), and plaque] and GCF were collected from LAP participants, who received a 7-day antibiotic regimen immediately (ImA) or 3 months following (DelA) mechanical therapy. Results While both groups presented significant CAL reductions at 6 months, only ImA resulted in a reduction in mean PD at both 3 and 6 months, along with reductions in CAL and BoP at 3 months following therapy. In addition, GCF mediators were higher in DelA group at 3 months post-mechanical treatment, but were significantly reduced 6 months following antibiotic therapy. Conclusions ImA and DelA regimens were both effective in improving CAL by 6 months post-therapy. However, ImA allowed for better improvement in overall clinical parameters early in the course of treatment, concomitant with lower levels of inflammatory mediators within the GCF. PMID:22931240

  1. Temporal Localization of Actions with Actoms.

    PubMed

    Gaidon, Adrien; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia

    2013-03-26

    We address the problem of localizing actions, such as opening a door, in hours of challenging video data. We propose a model based on a sequence of atomic action units, termed "actoms", that are semantically meaningful and characteristic for the action. Our Actom Sequence Model (ASM) represents an action as a sequence of histograms of actom-anchored visual features, which can be seen as a temporally structured extension of the bag-of-features. Training requires the annotation of actoms for action examples. At test time, actoms are localized automatically based on a non-parametric model of the distribution of actoms, which also acts as a prior on an action's temporal structure. We present experimental results on two recent benchmarks for action localization: "Coffee and Cigarettes" and the "DLSBP" dataset. We also adapt our approach to a classification-by-localization set-up and demonstrate its applicability on the challenging "Hollywood 2" dataset. We show that our ASM method outperforms the current state of the art in temporal action localization, as well as baselines that localize actions with a sliding window method. PMID:23546997

  2. Temporal localization of actions with actoms.

    PubMed

    Gaidon, Adrien; Harchaoui, Zaid; Schmid, Cordelia

    2013-11-01

    We address the problem of localizing actions, such as opening a door, in hours of challenging video data. We propose a model based on a sequence of atomic action units, termed "actoms," that are semantically meaningful and characteristic for the action. Our actom sequence model (ASM) represents an action as a sequence of histograms of actom-anchored visual features, which can be seen as a temporally structured extension of the bag-of-features. Training requires the annotation of actoms for action examples. At test time, actoms are localized automatically based on a nonparametric model of the distribution of actoms, which also acts as a prior on an action's temporal structure. We present experimental results on two recent benchmarks for action localization "Coffee and Cigarettes" and the "DLSBP" dataset. We also adapt our approach to a classification-by-localization set-up and demonstrate its applicability on the challenging "Hollywood 2" dataset. We show that our ASM method outperforms the current state of the art in temporal action localization, as well as baselines that localize actions with a sliding window method. PMID:24051735

  3. Localized direct CP violation in B^± ? ? ^0 (? )? ^± ? ? ^+ ? ^-? ^±

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng

    2015-11-01

    We study the localized direct CP violation in the hadronic decays B^± ? ? ^0 (? )? ^± ? ? ^+ ? ^-? ^± including the effect caused by an interesting mechanism involving the charge symmetry violating mixing between ? ^0 and ? . We calculate the localized integrated direct CP violation when the low invariant mass of ? ^+? ^- [m(? ^+? ^-)_{low}] is near ? ^0(770). For the five models of form factors investigated, we find that the localized integrated direct CP violation varies from -0.0752 to -0.0290 in the ranges of parameters in our model when 0.750localized integrated CP asymmetries in the regions 0.470localized integrated CP asymmetry move toward the negative direction, and therefore contributes to the sign change in those two regions. This behavior is also independent of the form factor models. We also calculate the localized integrated direct CP violating asymmetries in the regions 0.470

  4. A local distribution based spatial clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Min; Liu, Qiliang; Li, Guangqiang; Cheng, Tao

    2009-10-01

    Spatial clustering is an important means for spatial data mining and spatial analysis, and it can be used to discover the potential spatial association rules and outliers among the spatial data. Most existing spatial clustering algorithms only utilize the spatial distance or local density to find the spatial clusters in a spatial database, without taking the spatial local distribution characters into account, so that the clustered results are unreasonable in many cases. To overcome such limitations, this paper develops a new indicator (i.e. local median angle) to measure the local distribution at first, and further proposes a new algorithm, called local distribution based spatial clustering algorithm (LDBSC in abbreviation). In the process of spatial clustering, a series of recursive search are implemented for all the entities so that those entities with its local median angle being very close or equal are clustered. In this way, all the spatial entities in the spatial database can be automatically divided into some clusters. Finally, two tests are implemented to demonstrate that the method proposed in this paper is more prominent than DBSCAN, as well as that it is very robust and feasible, and can be used to find the clusters with different shapes.

  5. Local scale effects of disease on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine F; Behrens, Michael D; Sax, Dov F

    2009-06-01

    To date, ecologists and conservation biologists have focused much of their attention on the population and ecosystem effects of disease at regional scales and the role that diseases play in global species extinction. Far less research has been dedicated to identifying the effects that diseases can have on local scale species assemblages. We examined the role of infectious disease in structuring local biodiversity. Our intention was to illustrate how variable outcomes can occur by focusing on three case studies: the influence of chestnut blight on forest communities dominated by chestnut trees, the influence of red-spot disease on urchin barrens and kelp forests, and the influence of sylvatic plague on grassland communities inhabited by prairie dogs. Our findings reveal that at local scales infectious disease seems to play an important, though unpredictable, role in structuring species diversity. Through our case studies, we have shown that diseases can cause drastic population declines or local extirpations in keystone species, ecosystem engineers, and otherwise abundant species. These changes in local diversity may be very important, particularly when considered alongside potentially corresponding changes in community structure and function, and we believe that future efforts to understand the importance of disease to species diversity should have an increased focus on these local scales. PMID:19921487

  6. Modeling Parallel System Workloads with Temporal Locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Tran Ngoc; Wolters, Lex

    In parallel systems, similar jobs tend to arrive within bursty periods. This fact leads to the existence of the locality phenomenon, a persistent similarity between nearby jobs, in real parallel computer workloads. This important phenomenon deserves to be taken into account and used as a characteristic of any workload model. Regrettably, this property has received little if any attention of researchers and synthetic workloads used for performance evaluation to date often do not have locality. With respect to this research trend, Feitelson has suggested a general repetition approach to model locality in synthetic workloads [6]. Using this approach, Li et al. recently introduced a new method for modeling temporal locality in workload attributes such as run time and memory [14]. However, with the assumption that each job in the synthetic workload requires a single processor, the parallelism has not been taken into account in their study. In this paper, we propose a new model for parallel computer workloads based on their result. In our research, we firstly improve their model to control locality of a run time process better and then model the parallelism. The key idea for modeling the parallelism is to control the cross-correlation between the run time and the number of processors. Experimental results show that not only the cross-correlation is controlled well by our model, but also the marginal distribution can be fitted nicely. Furthermore, the locality feature is also obtained in our model.

  7. Global perceptions of local temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Peter D.; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Lee, Tien Ming; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult to detect global warming directly because most people experience changes only in local weather patterns, which are highly variable and may not reflect long-term global climate trends. However, local climate-change experience may play an important role in adaptation and mitigation behaviour and policy support. Previous research indicates that people can perceive and adapt to aspects of climate variability and change based on personal observations. Experience with local weather may also influence global warming beliefs. Here we examine the extent to which respondents in 89 countries detect recent changes in average local temperatures. We demonstrate that public perceptions correspond with patterns of observed temperature change from climate records: individuals who live in places with rising average temperatures are more likely than others to perceive local warming. As global climate change intensifies, changes in local temperatures and weather patterns may be increasingly detected by the global public. These findings also suggest that public opinion of climate change may shift, at least in part, in response to the personal experience of climate change.

  8. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  9. Multivariate localization methods for ensemble Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, S.; Jun, M.; Szunyogh, I.; Genton, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    In ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), the small number of ensemble members that is feasible to use in a practical data assimilation application leads to sampling variability of the estimates of the background error covariances. The standard approach to reducing the effects of this sampling variability, which has also been found to be highly efficient in improving the performance of EnKF, is the localization of the estimates of the covariances. One family of localization techniques is based on taking the Schur (element-wise) product of the ensemble-based sample covariance matrix and a correlation matrix whose entries are obtained by the discretization of a distance-dependent correlation function. While the proper definition of the localization function for a single state variable has been extensively investigated, a rigorous definition of the localization function for multiple state variables that exist at the same locations has been seldom considered. This paper introduces two strategies for the construction of localization functions for multiple state variables. The proposed localization functions are tested by assimilating simulated observations experiments into the bivariate Lorenz 95 model with their help.

  10. Multivariate localization methods for ensemble Kalman filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, S.; Jun, M.; Szunyogh, I.; Genton, M. G.

    2015-05-01

    In ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF), the small number of ensemble members that is feasible to use in a practical data assimilation application leads to sampling variability of the estimates of the background error covariances. The standard approach to reducing the effects of this sampling variability, which has also been found to be highly efficient in improving the performance of EnKF, is the localization of the estimates of the covariances. One family of localization techniques is based on taking the Schur (entry-wise) product of the ensemble-based sample covariance matrix and a correlation matrix whose entries are obtained by the discretization of a distance-dependent correlation function. While the proper definition of the localization function for a single state variable has been extensively investigated, a rigorous definition of the localization function for multiple state variables has been seldom considered. This paper introduces two strategies for the construction of localization functions for multiple state variables. The proposed localization functions are tested by assimilating simulated observations experiments into the bivariate Lorenz 95 model with their help.

  11. A Conserved Mechanism of Synaptogyrin Localization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongjuan; Nonet, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the localization of synaptogyrin family members in vivo. Both native and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Caenorhabditis elegans synaptogyrin (SNG-1) are expressed in neurons and synaptically localized. Deletion and mutational analysis with the use of GFP-tagged SNG-1 has defined a 38 amino acid sequence within the C terminus of SNG-1 and a single arginine in the cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane domain 2 and 3 that are required for SNG-1 localization. These domains may represent components of signals that target synaptogyrin for endocytosis from the plasma membrane and direct synaptogyrin to synaptic vesicles, respectively. In chimeric studies, these regions were sufficient to relocalize cellugyrin, a nonneuronal form of synaptogyrin, from nonsynaptic regions such as the sensory dendrites and the cell body to synaptic vesicles. Furthermore, GFP-tagged rat synaptogyrin is synaptically localized in neurons of C. elegans and in cultured hippocampal neurons. Similarly, the C-terminal domain of rat synaptogyrin is necessary for localization in hippocampal neurons. Our study suggests that the mechanisms for synaptogyrin localization are likely to be conserved from C. elegans to vertebrates. PMID:11514616

  12. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25210926

  13. Optimizing low latency LIGO-Virgo localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Fast and effective localization of gravitational wave (GW) events could play a crucial role in identifying possible electromagnetic counterparts, and thereby help usher in an era of GW multi-messenger astronomy. We discuss an algorithm for accurate and very low latency (<< 1 second) localization of GW sources using only the time of arrival and signal-to-noise ratio at each detector. The algorithm is independent of distances, masses, and waveform templates of the sources to leading order, and applies to all discrete sources detected by ground-based detector networks. For the two detector configuration (LIGO Hanford+Livingston) expected in late 2015 we find a median 50% localization of 150 deg2 for binary neutron stars (for SNR threshold of 12), consistent with previous findings. We explore the improvement in localization resulting from high SNR events, finding that the loudest out of the first four events reduces the median sky localization area by a factor of 1.8. We also discuss some strategies to optimize electromagnetic follow-up of GW events. We specifically explore the case of multi-messenger joint detections coming from independent (and possibly highly uncertain) localizations, such as for short gamma-ray bursts observed by Fermi GBM and neutrinos captured by IceCube.

  14. Self-Localization at Street Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25210926

  15. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the east face of Monte Rosa, for interruption of the access trail to the Rifugio Zamboni by overrid- ing and/or collapse of the lateral moraine, for impacts by ice invading various instal- lations (cable car, restaurant, ski runs, trails) near the moraine hill of Belvedere, and for sudden outbursts of pressurized subglacial water or the newly formed supraglacial lake must be envisaged.

  16. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  17. Determinacion de periodos fundamentales del suelo mediante vibraciones ambientales en el municipio de Humacao, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintron Aponte, Rommel

    La tecnica de Nakamura ha sido utilizada a nivel mundial para determinar periodos fundamentales del suelo. La tecnica consiste en calcular y graficar cocientes espectrales H/V de vibraciones ambientales registradas sobre el suelo. Mediciones de vibraciones ambientales fueron tomadas en 151 lugares dentro del municipio de Humacao, localizado al este de Puerto Rico. Los datos se procesaron utilizando espectros de Fourier y espectros de potencia. La tecnica fue validada al compararla con los resultados de cocientes espectrales H/V de registros de sismos debiles y tambien con una modelacion numerica realizada con datos de un ensayo "downhole". Las graficas de los cocientes espectrales H/V fueron divididas en casos y grupos, los cuales dependen de la facilidad para identificar el periodo fundamental pico y amplitudes en frecuencias menores de 1 Hz, respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos con ambos espectros fueron comparados y se concluye que los mismos se complementan para proveer resultados mas confiables. Se crearon mapas de periodos fundamentales, factores de amplitud, isoperiodos y clasificacion sismica de sitio. Los mapas de isoperiodos fueron realizados en las zonas mas pobladas sobre depositos de suelo. El mapa de periodos fundamentales del suelo mostro buena correlacion con la geologia local. El mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de periodos de sitio fue comparado con el mapa de clasificacion sismica derivado de barrenos geotecnicos. El mapa de clasificacion obtenido de periodos puede sobreestimar un poco algunas clasificaciones del suelo. Sin embargo, este mapa puede proveer un estimado aproximado de la velocidad de onda de corte promedio del suelo hasta una profundidad de 100 pies (30 metros).

  18. Toric K3-fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo divisors for string compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Mayrhofer, Christoph

    2012-02-01

    We analyse several explicit toric examples of compact K3-fibred Calabi-Yau three-folds. These manifolds can be used for the study of string dualities and are crucial ingredients for the construction of LARGE Volume type IIB vacua with promising applications to cosmology and particle phenomenology. In order to build a phenomenologically viable model, on top of the two moduli corresponding to the base and the K3 fibre, we demand also the existence of two additional rigid divisors: the first supporting the non-perturbative effects needed to achieve moduli stabilisation, and the second allowing the presence of chiral matter on wrapped D-branes. We clarify the topology of these rigid divisors by discussing the interplay between a diagonal structure of the Calabi-Yau volume and D-terms. Del Pezzo divisors appearing in the volume form in a completely diagonal way are natural candidates for supporting non-perturbative effects and for quiver constructions, while `non-diagonal' del Pezzo and rigid but not del Pezzo divisors are particularly interesting for model building in the geometric regime. Searching through the existing list of four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 158 examples admitting a Calabi-Yau hypersurface with a K3 fibration and four Kähler moduli where at least one of the toric divisors is a `diagonal' del Pezzo. We work out explicitly the topological details of a few examples showing how, in the case of simplicial polytopes, all the del Pezzo divisors are `diagonal', while `non-diagonal' ones appear only in the case of non-simplicial polytopes. A companion paper will use these results in the study of moduli stabilisation for globally consistent explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with the local presence of chirality.

  19. Azimuthal sound localization in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): III. Comparison of sound localization measures.

    PubMed

    Feinkohl, Arne; Borzeszkowski, Katharina M; Klump, Georg M

    2016-02-01

    Sound localization studies have typically employed two types of tasks: absolute tasks that measured the localization of the angular location of a single sound and relative tasks that measured the localization of the angular location of a sound relative to the angular location of another sound from a different source (e.g., in the Minimum Audible Angle task). The present study investigates the localization of single sounds in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) with a left/right discrimination paradigm. Localization thresholds of 8-12° determined in starlings using this paradigm were much lower than the minimum audible angle thresholds determined in a previous study with the same individuals. The traditional concept of sound localization classifies the present experiment as an absolute localization task. However, we propose that the experiment presenting single sounds measured localization of the angular location of the sound relative to a non-acoustic spatial frame of reference. We discuss how the properties of the setup can determine if presentation of single sounds in a left/right discrimination paradigm comprises an absolute localization task rather than a localization task relative to a non-acoustic reference. Furthermore, the analysis methods employed may lead to quite different threshold estimates for the same data, especially in case of a response bias in left/right discrimination. We propose using an analysis method precluding effects of response bias on the threshold estimate. PMID:25870127

  20. Functional analysis of the novel TBX5 c.1333delC mutation resulting in an extended TBX5 protein

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Johann; Heinritz, Wolfram; Craig, Alexander; Vujic, Mihailo; Ekman-Joelsson, Britt-Marie; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Froster, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is caused by mutations in the TBX5 gene and is characterized by congenital heart and preaxial radial ray upper limb defects. Most of the TBX5 mutations found in patients with HOS cause premature truncation of the primary TBX5 transcript. TBX5 missense mutations alter the three-dimensional structure of the protein and result in failed nuclear localization or reduced binding to target DNA. In this study we present our functional analyses of the novel and unusual c.1333delC mutation found in a patient with classical HOS. Methods The functional impact of this novel mutation was assessed by investigating the intracellular localization of the resulting TBX5 protein and its ability to activate the expression of its downstream target ANF. Results The deletion of the cytosine is the first TBX5 frameshift mutation predicted to result in an elongated TBX5 protein with 74 miscoding amino acids and 62 supernumerary C-terminal amino acids. The c.1333delC mutation affects neither the nuclear localization, nor its colocalization with SALL4, but severely affects the activation of the ANF promoter. Conclusion The mutation c.1333delC does not locate within functional domains, but impairs the activation of the downstream target. This suggests that misfolding of the protein prevents its biological function. PMID:18828908

  1. Measurement theory in local quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Kazuya; Ozawa, Masanao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.

  2. Anderson localization for chemically realistic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terletska, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Disorder which is ubiquitous for most materials can strongly effect their properties. It may change their electronic structures or even cause their localization, known as Anderson localization. Although, substantial progress has been achieved in the description of the Anderson localization, a proper mean-field theory of this phenomenon for more realistic systems remains elusive. Commonly used theoretical methods such as the coherent potential approximation and its cluster extensions fail to describe the Anderson transition, as the average density of states (DOS) employed in such theories is not critical at the transition. However, near the transition, due to the spatial confinement of carriers, the local DOS becomes highly skewed with a log-normal distribution, for which the most probable and the typical values differ noticeably from the average value. Dobrosavljevic et.al., incorporated such ideas in their typical medium theory (TMT), and showed that the typical (not average) DOS is critical at the transition. While the TMT is able to capture the localized states, as a local single site theory it still has several drawbacks. For the disorder Anderson model in three dimension it underestimates the critical disorder strength, and fails to capture the re-entrance behavior of the mobility edge. We have recently developed a cluster extension of the TMT, which addresses these drawbacks by systematically incorporating non-local corrections. This approach converges quickly with cluster size and allows us to incorporate the effect of interactions and realistic electronic structure. As the first steps towards realistic material modeling, we extended our TMDCA formalisms to systems with the off diagonal disorder and multiple bands structures. We also applied our TMDCA scheme to systems with both disorder and interactions and found that correlations effects tend to stabilize the metallic behavior even in two dimensions. This work was supported by DOE SciDAC Grant No. DE-FC02-10ER25916 and BES CMCSN Grant No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  3. PASO DEL NORTE SUMMER OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Paso del Norte Summer Ozone Study was designed to evaluate potential control strategies for their efficacy in reducing ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations in the El Paso-Ciudad Juarez-Sunland Park international airshed of Texas, New Mexico, and Chihuahua. A field study ...

  4. Andrea del Sarto rehabilitated: a psychoanalytic emendation.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Ernest Jones's "The Influence of Andrea del Sarto's Wife on His Art" (1913) is an early example of psychoanalysis applied to the study of a prominent painter. Greatly influenced by Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood, Jones gave excessive credence to Vasari's highly prejudicial account of the life of del Sarto, on which the study relied heavily. Jones attempted to account psychologically for the circumstance that del Sarto, though highly skilled and "faultless," was not the equal of the three preeminent masters of the Italian High Renaissance: Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Jones's uncritical acceptance of the Vasari biography encouraged him to view Sarto's assumed deficiency as the result of excessive attachment to his wife, a pathological uxoriousness. A contemporary psychoanalytic perspective, with its emphasis on the emotive response of the analyst, requires us to pay attention to the evocative nature of the work of the artist, an approach Jones neglected. In an examination of several paintings, the artist's sensitivity to the position of the spectator is explored, as is the interest in involving the viewer spatially and emotionally. An appreciation for the viewer's position is consistent with a capacity for using projected internal objects for creative purposes. The presence of this capacity suggests a revised view of del Sarto's contribution to art and of his relationship with his wife. PMID:12580329

  5. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  6. Near Infrared Photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, A. C.; Carlon, R. L.; Corgan, D. T.; Dykhoff, D. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Shenoy, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    We continued to follow Nova Del 2013 during the period from 31.15 August 2013 UT through 25.18 September 2013 UT using an As:Si bolometer mounted on the 0.76-m infrared telescope of the University of Minnesota's O'Brien Observatory (Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota, USA). Vega (alpha Lyrae) is used as the standard star.

  7. Virtual local target method for avoiding local minimum in potential field based robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xi-Yong; Zhu, Jing

    2003-01-01

    A novel robot navigation algorithm with global path generation capability is presented. Local minimum is a most intractable but is an encountered frequently problem in potential field based robot navigation. Through appointing appropriately some virtual local targets on the journey, it can be solved effectively. The key concept employed in this algorithm are the rules that govern when and how to appoint these virtual local targets. When the robot finds itself in danger of local minimum, a virtual local target is appointed to replace the global goal temporarily according to the rules. After the virtual target is reached, the robot continues on its journey by heading towards the global goal. The algorithm prevents the robot from running into local minima anymore. Simulation results showed that it is very effective in complex obstacle environments. PMID:12765277

  8. Local CQR Smoothing: An Efficient and Safe Alternative to Local Polynomial Regression.

    PubMed

    Kai, Bo; Li, Runze; Zou, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Local polynomial regression is a useful nonparametric regression tool to explore fine data structures and has been widely used in practice. In this paper, we propose a new nonparametric regression technique called local composite-quantile-regression (CQR) smoothing in order to further improve local polynomial regression. Sampling properties of the proposed estimation procedure are studied. We derive the asymptotic bias, variance and normality of the proposed estimate. Asymptotic relative efficiency of the proposed estimate with respect to the local polynomial regression is investigated. It is shown that the proposed estimate can be much more efficient than the local polynomial regression estimate for various non-normal errors, while being almost as efficient as the local polynomial regression estimate for normal errors. Simulation is conducted to examine the performance of the proposed estimates. The simulation results are consistent with our theoretical findings. A real data example is used to illustrate the proposed method. PMID:20975930

  9. Health plan competition in local markets.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, J M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the structure of local health insurance markets and the strategies health plans were using to respond to competitive pressures in local markets in 1996/1997. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Community Tracking Study site visits conducted between May 1996 and April 1997 in 12 U.S. markets selected to be nationally representative. STUDY DESIGN: In each site, 36 to 60 interviews on local health system change were conducted with healthcare industry informants representing health plans, providers, and purchasers. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHOD: Relevant data for this article were abstracted from standardized protocols administered to multiple respondents in each site. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although the competitive threat from national plans was pervasive, local plans in most sites continued to retain strong, often dominant, positions in historically concentrated markets. In all sites, in response to purchaser pressures for stable premiums and provider choice, and the threat of entry and to plans were using three strategies to increase market share and market power: (1) consolidation/geographic expansion, (2) price competition, and (3) product line/segment diversification that focused on broad networks and open-access products. In most markets, in response to the demand for provider choice, the trend was away from ownership and exclusive arrangements with providers. CONCLUSIONS: Although local plans were moving to become full-service regional players, there was uncertainty about the abilities of all plans to sustain growth strategies at the expense of margins and organizational stability, and to effectively manage care with broad networks. PMID:10778822

  10. Sources of Local Time Asymmetries in Magnetodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.; Kane, M.; Sergis, N.; Khurana, K. K.; Jackman, C. M.

    The rapidly rotating magnetospheres at Jupiter and Saturn contain a near-equatorial thin current sheet over most local times known as the magnetodisc, resembling a wrapped-up magnetotail. The Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons spacecraft at Jupiter and Saturn have provided extensive datasets from which to observationally identify local time asymmetries in these magnetodiscs. Imaging in the infrared and ultraviolet from ground- and space-based instruments have also revealed the presence of local time asymmetries in the aurora which therefore must map to local time asymmetries in the magnetosphere. Asymmetries are found in (i) the configuration of the magnetic field and magnetospheric currents, where a thicker disc is found in the noon and dusk sectors; (ii) plasma flows where the plasma flow has local time-dependent radial components; (iii) a thicker plasma sheet in the dusk sector. Many of these features are also reproduced in global MHD simulations. Several models have been developed to interpret these various observations and typically fall into two groups: ones which invoke coupling with the solar wind (via reconnection or viscous processes) and ones which invoke internal rotational processes operating inside an asymmetrical external boundary. In this paper we review these observational in situ findings, review the models which seek to explain them, and highlight open questions and directions for future work.

  11. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Load carrying tasks are recognized as one of the primary occupational factors leading to slip and fall injuries. Nevertheless, the mechanisms associated with load carrying and walking stability remain illusive. The objective of the current study was to apply local dynamic stability measure in walking while carrying a load, and to investigate the possible adaptive gait stability changes. Methods Current study involved 25 young adults in a biomechanics research laboratory. One tri-axial accelerometer was used to measure three-dimensional low back acceleration during continuous treadmill walking. Local dynamic stability was quantified by the maximum Lyapunov exponent (maxLE) from a nonlinear dynamics approach. Results Long term maxLE was found to be significant higher under load condition than no-load condition in all three reference axes, indicating the declined local dynamic stability associated with load carrying. Conclusion Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying. PMID:23515183

  12. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Neil; Bertotti, Bruno

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a generalized Fermi frame is introduced with the aim of describing the relativistic effects due to a third, distant body (such as the sun) upon the motion of an earth satellite. This extends Fermi's construction of a local inertial frame to the case in which there are local gravitating masses. This is done in the slow-motion, weak-field approximation by splitting the metric into an external part and a local part; Fermi's construction of local inertial coordinates defined with respect to the external metric is then used to transform the complete metric. The results show that the main relativistic effects on an earth satellite are due to the nonlinear correction in the earth's own Schwarzschild field. There are much smaller relativistic corrections in the tidal field of the sun, and an earth-sun interaction term. The spatial axes of the local frame also undergo geodetic precession. Particular care must be taken with respect to the definition of the time coordinate in the generalized Fermi frame in order that the unit of time be consistent with readings of reasonable physical clocks on earth's surface. Also discussed more rigorously is the generalized Fermi frame for a system of two bodies revolving in circular orbits around a common barycenter.

  13. Pedestrian Detection Using Gradient Local Binary Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning; Xu, Jiu; Goto, Satoshi

    In recent years, local pattern based features have attracted increasing interest in object detection and recognition systems. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) feature is widely used in texture classification and face detection. But the original definition of LBP is not suitable for human detection. In this paper, we propose a novel feature named gradient local binary patterns (GLBP) for human detection. In this feature, original 256 local binary patterns are reduced to 56 patterns. These 56 patterns named uniform patterns are used for generating a 56-bin histogram. And gradient value of each pixel is set as the weight which is always same in LBP based features in histogram calculation to computing the values in 56 bins for histogram. Experiments are performed on INRIA dataset, which shows the proposal GLBP feature is discriminative than histogram of orientated gradient (HOG), Semantic Local Binary Patterns (S-LBP) and histogram of template (HOT). In our experiments, the window size is fixed. That means the performance can be improved by boosting methods. And the computation of GLBP feature is parallel, which make it easy for hardware acceleration. These factors make GLBP feature possible for real-time pedestrian detection.

  14. Stereo Localization Using Dual PTZ Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio

    In this paper, we present a cooperative stereo system based on two pant-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras that can localize a moving target in a complex environment. Given an approximate target position that can be estimated by a fixed camera with a wide field of view, two PTZ cameras with a large baseline are pointed toward the target in order to estimate precisely its position. The overall method is divided in three parts: offline construction of a look-up-table (LUT) of rectification matrices, use of the LUT in real time for computing the rectification transformations for arbitrary camera positions, and finally 3D target localization. A chain of homographic transformations are used for finding the matching between different pairs of wide baseline stereo images. The proposed stereo localization system has two advantages: improved localization on a partially occluded target and monitoring a large environment using only two PTZ cameras without missing significant information. Finally, through experimental results, we show that the proposed system is able to make required localization of targets with good accuracy.

  15. Local Rank Inference for Varying Coefficient Models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Kai, Bo; Li, Runze

    2009-12-01

    By allowing the regression coefficients to change with certain covariates, the class of varying coefficient models offers a flexible approach to modeling nonlinearity and interactions between covariates. This paper proposes a novel estimation procedure for the varying coefficient models based on local ranks. The new procedure provides a highly efficient and robust alternative to the local linear least squares method, and can be conveniently implemented using existing R software package. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both reveal that the gain of the local rank estimator over the local linear least squares estimator, measured by the asymptotic mean squared error or the asymptotic mean integrated squared error, can be substantial. In the normal error case, the asymptotic relative efficiency for estimating both the coefficient functions and the derivative of the coefficient functions is above 96%; even in the worst case scenarios, the asymptotic relative efficiency has a lower bound 88.96% for estimating the coefficient functions, and a lower bound 89.91% for estimating their derivatives. The new estimator may achieve the nonparametric convergence rate even when the local linear least squares method fails due to infinite random error variance. We establish the large sample theory of the proposed procedure by utilizing results from generalized U-statistics, whose kernel function may depend on the sample size. We also extend a resampling approach, which perturbs the objective function repeatedly, to the generalized U-statistics setting; and demonstrate that it can accurately estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix. PMID:20657760

  16. Localized hyperthermia in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, B.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A new localized treatment modality for malignant brain tumors is hyperthermia. Primary brain tumors are ideally suited to localized therapies because they are initially found in a single area of the brain and local recurrence is the general rule, despite aggressive multimodality treatment. The potential of hyperthermia is based on the rationale that these tumors contain a heterogeneous anaplastic cell population. In contrast to radiation and chemotherapy, hyperthermia is equally effective against both hypoxic and oxygenated cells. Moreover, higher temperatures result in tissues that have an inability to cool themselves through perfusion. The feasibility of localized heating in normal and malignant brain tissue was investigated using external ultrasound and microwave applicators and an interstitial microwave antenna array. The ability to generate uniform temperature distributions using these systems was tested in thermal dosimetry studies. Lesion threshold studies were performed to define the acute and chronic histopathological effects of localized hyperthermia in normal brain tissue. Results demonstrated that these techniques can effectively heat clinically relevant volumes of brain tissue to therapeutic temperatures in an extremely controlled and precise manner. Thresholds for cytological damage have been defined over a range of time/temperature parameters. Various physical and physiological factors within the central nervous system as they relate to temperature exposure have also been defined. These feasibility and toxicity studies have led to the initiation of Phase I clinical trials of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy at several institutions.

  17. Stability of Local Quantum Dissipative Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubitt, Toby S.; Lucia, Angelo; Michalakis, Spyridon; Perez-Garcia, David

    2015-08-01

    Open quantum systems weakly coupled to the environment are modeled by completely positive, trace preserving semigroups of linear maps. The generators of such evolutions are called Lindbladians. In the setting of quantum many-body systems on a lattice it is natural to consider Lindbladians that decompose into a sum of local interactions with decreasing strength with respect to the size of their support. For both practical and theoretical reasons, it is crucial to estimate the impact that perturbations in the generating Lindbladian, arising as noise or errors, can have on the evolution. These local perturbations are potentially unbounded, but constrained to respect the underlying lattice structure. We show that even for polynomially decaying errors in the Lindbladian, local observables and correlation functions are stable if the unperturbed Lindbladian has a unique fixed point and a mixing time that scales logarithmically with the system size. The proof relies on Lieb-Robinson bounds, which describe a finite group velocity for propagation of information in local systems. As a main example, we prove that classical Glauber dynamics is stable under local perturbations, including perturbations in the transition rates, which may not preserve detailed balance.

  18. A reduced basis localized orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulle, Assyr; Henning, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    In this work we combine the framework of the Reduced Basis method (RB) with the framework of the Localized Orthogonal Decomposition (LOD) in order to solve parametrized elliptic multiscale problems. The idea of the LOD is to split a high dimensional Finite Element space into a low dimensional space with comparably good approximation properties and a remainder space with negligible information. The low dimensional space is spanned by locally supported basis functions associated with the node of a coarse mesh obtained by solving decoupled local problems. However, for parameter dependent multiscale problems, the local basis has to be computed repeatedly for each choice of the parameter. To overcome this issue, we propose an RB approach to compute in an "offline" stage LOD for suitable representative parameters. The online solution of the multiscale problems can then be obtained in a coarse space (thanks to the LOD decomposition) and for an arbitrary value of the parameters (thanks to a suitable "interpolation" of the selected RB). The online RB-LOD has a basis with local support and leads to sparse systems. Applications of the strategy to both linear and nonlinear problems are given.

  19. Stable Local Volatility Calibration Using Kernel Splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas F.; Li, Yuying; Wang, Cheng

    2010-09-01

    We propose an optimization formulation using L1 norm to ensure accuracy and stability in calibrating a local volatility function for option pricing. Using a regularization parameter, the proposed objective function balances the calibration accuracy with the model complexity. Motivated by the support vector machine learning, the unknown local volatility function is represented by a kernel function generating splines and the model complexity is controlled by minimizing the 1-norm of the kernel coefficient vector. In the context of the support vector regression for function estimation based on a finite set of observations, this corresponds to minimizing the number of support vectors for predictability. We illustrate the ability of the proposed approach to reconstruct the local volatility function in a synthetic market. In addition, based on S&P 500 market index option data, we demonstrate that the calibrated local volatility surface is simple and resembles the observed implied volatility surface in shape. Stability is illustrated by calibrating local volatility functions using market option data from different dates.

  20. Local structure analysis inab initioliquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Biswajit; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Martelli, Fausto; Car, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$), was unimodal with most water molecules characterized by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P($I$) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies $among$ water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of the experimentally observed low- (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous phases of ice are present in the IPES of ambient liquid water. Analysis of the LSI autocorrelation function uncovered a persistence time of $\\sim$ 4 ps---a finding consistent with the fact that natural thermal fluctuations are responsible for transitions between these distinct yet transient local aqueous environments in ambient liquid water.

  1. Unconscious Local Motion Alters Global Image Speed

    PubMed Central

    Khuu, Sieu K.; Chung, Charles Y. L.; Lord, Stephanie; Pearson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed. PMID:25503603

  2. Yang-Mills localization in warped space

    SciTech Connect

    Batell, Brian; Gherghetta, Tony

    2007-01-15

    We present a mechanism to localize zero mode non-Abelian gauge fields in a slice of AdS{sub 5}. As in the U(1) case, bulk and boundary mass terms allow for a massless mode with an exponential profile that can be localized anywhere in the bulk. However in the non-Abelian extension, the cubic and quartic zero-mode gauge couplings do not match, implying a loss of 4D gauge invariance. We show that the symmetry can be restored at the nonlinear level by considering brane-localized interactions, which are added in a gauge invariant way using boundary kinetic terms. Possible issues related to the scalar sector of the theory, such as strong coupling and ghosts, are also discussed. Our approach is then compared with other localization mechanisms motivated by dilaton gravity and deconstruction. Finally, we show how to localize the scalar component A{sub 5} zero mode anywhere in the bulk which could be relevant in gauge-Higgs unification models.

  3. Sources of Local Time Asymmetries in Magnetodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.; Kane, M.; Sergis, N.; Khurana, K. K.; Jackman, C. M.

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rotating magnetospheres at Jupiter and Saturn contain a near-equatorial thin current sheet over most local times known as the magnetodisc, resembling a wrapped-up magnetotail. The Pioneer, Voyager, Ulysses, Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons spacecraft at Jupiter and Saturn have provided extensive datasets from which to observationally identify local time asymmetries in these magnetodiscs. Imaging in the infrared and ultraviolet from ground- and space-based instruments have also revealed the presence of local time asymmetries in the aurora which therefore must map to local time asymmetries in the magnetosphere. Asymmetries are found in (i) the configuration of the magnetic field and magnetospheric currents, where a thicker disc is found in the noon and dusk sectors; (ii) plasma flows where the plasma flow has local time-dependent radial components; (iii) a thicker plasma sheet in the dusk sector. Many of these features are also reproduced in global MHD simulations. Several models have been developed to interpret these various observations and typically fall into two groups: ones which invoke coupling with the solar wind (via reconnection or viscous processes) and ones which invoke internal rotational processes operating inside an asymmetrical external boundary. In this paper we review these observational in situ findings, review the models which seek to explain them, and highlight open questions and directions for future work.

  4. Improving Localization Accuracy: Successive Measurements Error Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Abu Ali, Najah; Abu-Elkheir, Mervat

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle self-localization is an essential requirement for many of the safety applications envisioned for vehicular networks. The mathematical models used in current vehicular localization schemes focus on modeling the localization error itself, and overlook the potential correlation between successive localization measurement errors. In this paper, we first investigate the existence of correlation between successive positioning measurements, and then incorporate this correlation into the modeling positioning error. We use the Yule Walker equations to determine the degree of correlation between a vehicle’s future position and its past positions, and then propose a p-order Gauss–Markov model to predict the future position of a vehicle from its past p positions. We investigate the existence of correlation for two datasets representing the mobility traces of two vehicles over a period of time. We prove the existence of correlation between successive measurements in the two datasets, and show that the time correlation between measurements can have a value up to four minutes. Through simulations, we validate the robustness of our model and show that it is possible to use the first-order Gauss–Markov model, which has the least complexity, and still maintain an accurate estimation of a vehicle’s future location over time using only its current position. Our model can assist in providing better modeling of positioning errors and can be used as a prediction tool to improve the performance of classical localization algorithms such as the Kalman filter. PMID:26140345

  5. The Mechanics of Localized Fluidization Burrowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos

    2013-11-01

    This presentation will focus on the granular mechanics and critical timescales related to localized fluidization burrowing, a digging method inspired by the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus). The animal uses motions of its valves to locally fail and then fluidize surrounding soil to reduce burrowing energy and drag. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be determined from substrate properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by the coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle of the soil. Calculations using full ranges for these parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1-5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate - characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity - scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat.

  6. [Prostate localization systems for prostate radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Lagrange, J-L; Messai, T; M'Barek, B; Lefkopoulos, D

    2006-11-01

    The development of sophisticated conformal radiation therapy techniques for prostate cancer, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, implies precise and accurate targeting. Inter- and intrafraction prostate motion can be significant and should be characterized, unless the target volume may occasionally be missed. Indeed, bony landmark-based portal imaging does not provide the positional information for soft-tissue targets (prostate and seminal vesicles) or critical organs (rectum and bladder). In this article, we describe various prostate localization systems used before or during the fraction: rectal balloon, intraprostatic fiducials, ultrasound-based localization, integrated CT/linear accelerator system, megavoltage or kilovoltage cone-beam CT, Calypso 4D localization system tomotherapy, Cyberknife and Exactrac X-Ray 6D. The clinical benefit in using such prostate localization tools is not proven by randomized studies and the feasibility has just been established for some of these techniques. Nevertheless, these systems should improve local control by a more accurate delivery of an increased prescribed dose in a reduced planning target volume. PMID:17035061

  7. Locally critical resistivities from umklapp scattering.

    PubMed

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Hofman, Diego M

    2012-06-15

    Efficient momentum relaxation through umklapp scattering, leading to a power law in temperature dc resistivity, requires a significant low energy spectral weight at finite momentum. One way to achieve this is via a Fermi surface structure, leading to the well-known relaxation rate ??T2. We observe that local criticality, in which energies scale but momenta do not, provides a distinct route to efficient umklapp scattering. We show that umklapp scattering by an ionic lattice in a locally critical theory leads to ??T(2?(k(L))). Here ?(k(L))?0 is the dimension of the (irrelevant or marginal) charge density operator J(t)(?,k(L)) in the locally critical theory, at the lattice momentum k(L). We illustrate this result with an explicit computation in locally critical theories described holographically via Einstein-Maxwell theory in Anti-de Sitter spacetime. We furthermore show that scattering by random impurities in these locally critical theories gives a universal ??(log(1/T))(-1). PMID:23004258

  8. Local Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second commonest cancer in Taiwan. The national surveillance program can detect HCC in its early stages, and various curative modalities (including surgical resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, and local ablation) are employed for the treatment of small HCC. Local ablation therapies are currently advocated for early-stage HCC that is unresectable because of co-morbidities, the need to preserve liver function, or refusal of resection. Among the various local ablation therapies, the most commonly used modalities include percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA); percutaneous acetic acid injection and microwave ablation are used less often. RFA is more commonly employed than other local ablative modalities in Taiwan because the technique is highly effective, minimally invasive, and requires fewer sessions. RFA is therefore advocated in Taiwan as the first-line curative therapy for unresectable HCC or even for resectable HCC. However, current RFA procedures are less effective against tumors that are in high-risk or difficult-to-ablate locations, are poorly visualized on ultrasonography (US), or are large. Recent advancements in RFA in Taiwan can resolve these issues by the creation of artificial ascites or pleural effusion, application of real-time virtual US assistance, use of combination therapy before RFA, or use of switching RF controllers with multiple electrodes. This review article provides updates on the clinical outcomes and advances in local ablative modalities (mostly RFA) for HCC in Taiwan. PMID:24159599

  9. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de los efectos NLTE.

  10. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  11. Explicit Local Integrals of Motion for the Many-Body Localized State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademaker, Louk; Ortuño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the many-body localized phase can be characterized by local integrals of motion. Here we introduce a Hilbert-space-preserving renormalization scheme that iteratively finds such integrals of motion exactly. Our method is based on the consecutive action of a similarity transformation using displacement operators. We show, as a proof of principle, localization and the delocalization transition in interacting fermion chains with random on-site potentials. Our scheme of consecutive displacement transformations can be used to study many-body localization in any dimension, as well as disorder-free Hamiltonians.

  12. Unusual magneto-optical behavior induced by local dielectric variations under localized surface plasmon excitations.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Juan B; García-Martín, Antonio; Reig, Gaspar Armelles

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of global and local dielectric variations on the polarization conversion rps response of ordered nickel nanowires embedded in an alumina matrix. When considering local changes, we observe a non-monotonous behavior of the rps, its intensity unusually modified far beyond to what it is expected for a monotonous change of the whole refractive index of the embedding medium. This is related to the local redistribution of the electromagnetic field when a localized surface plasmon is excited. This finding may be employed to develop and improve new biosensing magnetoplasmonic devices. PMID:21711939

  13. Constructing local integrals of motion in the many-body localized phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Anushya; Kim, Isaac H.; Vidal, Guifre; Abanin, Dmitry A.

    2015-02-01

    Many-body localization provides a generic mechanism of ergodicity breaking in quantum systems. In contrast to conventional ergodic systems, many-body-localized (MBL) systems are characterized by extensively many local integrals of motion (LIOM), which underlie the absence of transport and thermalization in these systems. Here we report a physically motivated construction of local integrals of motion in the MBL phase. We show that any local operator (e.g., a local particle number or a spin-flip operator), evolved with the system's Hamiltonian and averaged over time, becomes a LIOM in the MBL phase. Such operators have a clear physical meaning, describing the response of the MBL system to a local perturbation. In particular, when a local operator represents a density of some globally conserved quantity, the corresponding LIOM describes how this conserved quantity propagates through the MBL phase. Being uniquely defined and experimentally measurable, these LIOMs provide a natural tool for characterizing the properties of the MBL phase, in both experiments and numerical simulations. We demonstrate the latter by numerically constructing an extensive set of LIOMs in the MBL phase of a disordered spin-chain model. We show that the resulting LIOMs are quasilocal and use their decay to extract the localization length and establish the location of the transition between the MBL and ergodic phases.

  14. Local and non-local correlations for critical heat flux at low and medium pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Jafri, T.; Dougherty, T.J.; Yang, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    The local and non-local correlations developed based on more than 10,000 Critical Heat Flux (CHF) data points are reviewed and the effects of the pressure and Peclet number are examined under low and medium pressure conditions (up to 110 bar). Examination of CHF data from many sources covering a wide range of operating conditions, reveals that both local and non-local CHF data exist with different dependencies on operating conditions, and different correlations are required to represent these data. These two distinct types of correlations imply the existence of at least two distinct mechanisms for CHF.

  15. Towards an emerging understanding of non-locality phenomena and non-local transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, K.; Shi, Z.; Sun, H. J.; Inagaki, S.; Kamiya, K.; Rice, J. E.; Tamura, N.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zou, X. L.; Itoh, K.; Sugita, S.; Gürcan, O. D.; Estrada, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Hahm, T. S.; Field, A.; Ding, X. T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Oldenbürger, S.; Yoshinuma, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Jiang, M.; Hahn, S. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hong, S. H.; Kosuga, Y.; Dong, J.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress on experimental analysis and theoretical models for non-local transport (non-Fickian fluxes in real space) is reviewed. The non-locality in the heat and momentum transport observed in the plasma, the departures from linear flux-gradient proportionality, and externally triggered non-local transport phenomena are described in both L-mode and improved-mode plasmas. Ongoing evaluation of ‘fast front’ and ‘intrinsically non-local’ models, and their success in comparisons with experimental data, are discussed

  16. Long-acting local anesthetics in dentistry.

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    Long-acting local anesthetics have proved to be effective for the suppression of both intraoperative and postoperative pain. They are useful for lengthy dental treatments and for prevention of severe pain following many types of surgical procedures. Although the currently available long-acting local anesthetics for dentistry have minimal side effects in the doses usually employed, there are potential problems. Bupivacaine, for example, can cause significant cardiac depressant and dysrhythmogenic responses. Etidocaine has less pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system, but its use may be associated with inadequate control of intraoperative bleeding. A new long-acting local anesthetic, ropivacaine, appears to offer advantages over either of the currently used long-acting agents. PMID:1308373

  17. Local Government Health Services in Interwar England:

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article provides a critical discussion of recent work on local government health care and health services in interwar England. A literature review examines case study approaches and comparative quantitative surveys, highlighting conventional and revisionist interpretations. Noting the differing selection criteria evident in some works, it argues that studies based upon a limited number of personal health services provide an insufficient basis for assessing local health activity and policy. There follows a regional study demonstrating various discrepancies between health financing data in local sources and those in nationally collated returns. These in turn give rise to various problems of assessment and interpretation in works relying on the latter, particularly with respect to services for schoolchildren and long-stay patients. The case study points to the importance of integrating poor law medical services in evaluations, and of learning more about the role of government subsidy in supporting expanding services. PMID:22080797

  18. Local unambiguous discrimination with remaining entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangjia; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng

    2010-09-15

    A bipartite state, which is secretly chosen from a finite set of known entangled pure states, cannot immediately be useful in standard quantum information processing tasks. To effectively make use of the entanglement contained in this unknown state, we introduce a way to locally manipulate the original quantum system: either identify the state successfully or distill some pure entanglement. Remarkably, if many copies are available, we show that any finite set of entangled pure states, whether orthogonal or not, can be locally distinguished in this way, which further implies that pure entanglement can be deterministically extracted from unknown entanglement. These results make it clear why a large class of entangled bipartite quantum operations including unitary operations and measurements that are globally distinguishable can also be locally distinguishable: They can generate pure entanglement consistently.

  19. Localized and Itinerant States in Actinide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.J.; Durakiewicz, T.; Graham, K.S.; Olson, C.G.; Moore, D.P.; Morales, L.A.

    2007-07-01

    The electronic structure of single crystal UO{sub 2} and polycrystalline delta-Pu is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. These two actinide materials exhibit properties consistent with the 5f electrons at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. The results for delta-Pu may be viewed as the 5f electrons exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons. For UO{sub 2} where angle-resolved photoemission is available, one observes dispersion in the 5f features indicative of the 5f electrons being influenced by the periodic potential of the lattice rather than purely influenced by the site to which the 5f electrons are generally localized. (authors)

  20. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Sousa, L. J. S.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a localized state to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changed allowing the existence of massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.